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Complex Variables and Applications
Seventh Edition
Selected Solutions to Exercises in Chapters 17
by
James Ward Brown
Professor of Mathematics The University of Michigan Dearborn
Late Professor of Mathematics The University of Michigan
Ruel V. Churchill
iii Higher Education
Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogotl1 Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 1 22 35 53 75 94 118
1
"COMPLEX VARlABLES AND APPLICATIONS" (7/e) by Brown and Churchill
Chapter 1
SECTION 2 1. (a) (fi i) i(l..fii)
(b)
=..fi  i i ..[2 =2i;
(2,3)(2,1)
= (4
+ 3,6 + 2) = (1,8);
(c)
(3,1)(3,1)(!,.!.) = (1O,0)(!,..!..) 5 10 5 10
= (2,1).
= Y = +Im z;
2.
(a) (b)
Re(iz) = Re[i(x+ iy)]
Im(iz)
= Re(y+
ix)
= Im[i(x + iy)] = Im( Y + ix) = x = Rez.
3.
(1 + Z)2
= (1 + z)(l + z) = (1+ z) ,I+ (1+ z)z = 1·(1 + z) + z(I + z)
4.
If z dl ± i, then Z2  2z + 2 = (1 ± i)2  2(1 ± i) + 2 = ± 2i  2 =1= 2i + 2 = O.
5.
To prove that multiplication is commutative, write
ZI'2
= (xl'
YI)(X2, Y2)
= (xtXZ
 YtYz' YtX2 + xIYz)
= (x2xt  Y2Yl' Y2Xt + X2Yl)
= (X2'Y2)(X 'Yl)
1
= Z2Z1'
6.
(a) To verify the associative law for addition,
write
(z, + zz) + Z3
= [(Xl'YI)
+ (X2'Y2)] + (X3'Y3)
= (Xl + x2' Yl + Y2) + (X 'Y3)
3
= «Xl + x2) + Xl' (YI + Y2) + Y3) = (Xl + (x2 + x3), YI + (Y2 + Yl»
= (Xl'YI) + (X2 + Xl' Yz + Y3) = (xl'Y) +[(X2'Y2)
+ (Xl'Y3)]
= Zl + (Zz + Z3)'
2 (b) To verify the distributive law. 2xy+ y) = (0.yZ) = ZZI + ZZ2· YYz. If Y = 0. or Y = ±J3/2. 5i 5+10i + 510i 25 1 25 =5".y) Since (X2 it follows that X2 by writing + (x. Hence 2x + 1 = 0. =0 l +x+l and 2xy+y=0. the first equation becomes X2 + x + 1=0.Y)(X. 2.YXz +xyZ) 10. (a) (l)z=z since z+(l)z=z[1+(I)]=z·O=O.Y)(X2.YYz. SECTION 3 ± ~) 1. yXl + XYt + YXz + XY2) =('xxlYYl'YXl = (X.Y)(Xt + XZ'YI + YZ) = ('xxI +.YYI+'xx2 . which has no real roots (according to the quadratic formula). 2 5i (b) (1i)(2i)(3i) (e) (1i)4 = (13i)(3i) =10. l + x+l.Y)(Xl'Yl) +XY1)+('xx2 + (X. .y)=( . Yt) + (Xz. In that case.)(5i) 34i 5i (34i)(3+40 (5i)(5i) 5.xxZ . write Z(Zt + Zz) = (X. = mooor = (2i) 2 =4. The problem here is to solve the equation Z2 + Z + 1 = 0 for z = (x.YYz. Thus z=(X. yXI + yX2 + XYI + xyZ) = ('xxI .0).~.Yz)] = (X.y) (X. (a) 1+2i + 2i = (1+2i)(3+4i) + (2. Y)[(Xt. or x = l/2. (b) =_·_==z 1/ z ZI Z lIz z 1 (z¢O). the first equation reveals that l = 3/4.0) = (0.0).YYt .y) + (1. we see that either 2x + 1= 0 or y = O. By writing the second of these equations as (2x + l)y = 0.=2".
..l).. (a) Zl = 2i. SECTION 4 1. 7.'_" 3 6. ~=(. 3 y x (b) zl=(./3.. Z2=1 2./3.O) y x .
. we rewrite it in the following ways: . 4.4 (e) Zl = (3. 21xII yl + lyl2 ~ 0. Sec. .4) x y x 2. are Rez S IRezl S lzl and Im z S IImzl S Izl. These are obvious if we write them as 3. ~ 2 + 21xllyl Ixl ~ 0. Z2 = (1.fi~x2 2(x2 + i) Ixl2  +l ~ + Iyl.. (lxllyl)2 This last form of the inequality to be verified is obviously true since the lefthand side is a perfect square.filzl ~ IRezl + lIm zl. Inequalities (3). Ixl + lyl2. In order to verify the inequality .1).
o 5. (b) iz = iz = iz. (c) (2+ii =(2+it =(2i)2 =44i+i2 =44il=34i.i with radius 1.(i)1 to see that this is the locus of all points z such that the distance from z to 1 is always the same as the distance to i. (a) Rewrite Re(z  i) = 2 as Re[x + i( y 1)] = 2. It is shown below. (b) Write Iz lI=lz + il as lz 11 =Iz . (d) 1(2z + 5)(fi . This is the vertical line through the point z = 2.5 4.4il+lz + 4il= 10 as lz .(1. The curve is. then. (a) Rewrite lz 1 + il= 1 as ~ .4il+lz . SECTION 5 1.J312z + 51. Such a curve is an ellipse with foci ±4i. This is the circle centered at 1.i)1=12z + 511fi . or x = 2. shown below. the perpendicular bisector of the line segment from 1 to i.il=12z + 5 h/2 + 1 = .4i is a constant. (a) z+3i=z+3i=z3i.i)1= 1. 2. y o 2 x .(4i)l= 10 to see that this is the locus of all points z such that the sum of the distances from z to 4i and . (a) Write lz .
YIY2) + i(YIX2 + XIY2) = (XIXZ .(x2 + iY2) = (Xl . 12+ Z + z31 S 2+lzl +lz31 = 2+lzl+lzI3::. or Iz~ I= 2.Y2) = (Xl . 2 + 1+ 1= 4..Z2 and ZlZ2 = (Xl + iYI)(X2 + iY2) = (XIX2 .~ 1=4.YIYZ) .iY2) = ZIZz' (b) Z4 = Z2Z2 = Z2 ZZ = zzzz = (zz)(zz) = zzzz = Z 4• 6.Yz) = (Xl .iYI) .i(YI .. . Zl .s!_=~ Z2Z3 IZzZ31 IZ211z31 8.il= 4 as 21z. we shall use the inequalities (see Sec. .6 (b) Rewrite 12z.iY2) = Zl ..x2) + i(YI .Xz) . (a) (b) l=. In this problem.(xz . when Izl::. 1 IRe(2 + Z + l)l::..Zz = (Xl + iYI) . 4) Specifically. This is the circle centered at ~ with radius 2. shown below.i(ylxZ + XIY2) = (Xl  iYI )(xz .
to 12. when Izl = 2. (b) Prove that Z is either real or pure imaginary ~ (<=) Suppose that Z2 =Z2. (=» Suppose that z is real. If z is pure imaginary. then Z2 = x2 = Z2. 11. so that z = iy. (a) We shall use mathematical induction show that (n = 2.. so that x . But this can be only if either x = 0 or y = 0. First write Z4  4l + 3 = (l1)(z2 . Then Z = x .iO = x + iO = z. This means that i2 y = 0. Consequently.7 10. so that z = x.. (<=) Suppose that Z = z. then Z2 = ( _iy)2 = (iyi = Z2..iy = x Thus Z x + iO x. or possibly x = y = O. so that z = x + iO. when z lies on the circle Izl= 2. = = + iy. 5)..3). or i4xy=0.+ z. Z2 = Z2. Thus z is either real or pure imaginary.3•. Then (X_iy)2 = (x + iy)2.). + Zm+l = (Zl + Z2 + = (Zl + Z2 + + zm) + Zm+l + zm) + Zm+l = Zl + Z2+"'+Zm) + Zm+l = Zl + Z2+"'+Zm + Zm+l' . or y = O. This is known when n = 2 (Sec. Then observe that when Izl= 2. (=» Suppose that z is either real or pure imaginary. or z is real. Assuming now that it is true when n = m. and Thus. we may write Zl + Z2 +. If z is real. (a) Prove that z is real ~ Z = z.
).2i).3. 5) zZ =lzl2 and Rez = z + Z enable us to write lz . Consequently.) is rc. the principal value is 2 4 4 5n 3n 2n or .zol= R as 2 15. Z and y = z ~i Z. The identities (Sec. we can show that (n = 2.. the hyperbola x2 l = 1 can be written in the following (z.(. .arg( 2 . 5). or 5rc. we write ZlZ2 ···zmzm+1 = (ZlZ2 ···Zm)Zm+1 = (ZlZ2 ···zm) Zm+1 = (frZ 2 ••• Zm)Zm+1 = ZlZz ••• ZmZm+1· 14. (a) Since arg( 22z i .. 4 · 4 .8 (b) In the same way.izJ =1.ZJ (z. = one value of arg( 22l i .) argi . ASsuming that it is true when n = m. This is true when n = 2 (Sec.3n). Since ways: x = z. + 4 Z2 + 2zZ + Z2 Z2  2zZ + Z2 =1 4 SECTION 7 1.
cos' 9 + 3cos2 9(isin 8) +3cos 8(isin 9)2 + (isin 9)3 = cos38 + isin38.9 (b) Since arg(. y x 5. We know from de Moivre's formula that (cos 9 +isin 9)3 or = cos39 +isin39.sin? 9) = cos38 + isin38. Also. z" [1 r (l)m r ei(m9) _ e i(m9) ....J3 i). (cos" 8 .2. we arrive at the desired trigonometric identities: 8. See the figure below.e i(_B)]m _ we see that (zmr1 = (zl)m. or n....fj _i)6 = 6arg(.fj . m = n = 1. rm Z" 1 = (z r Thus the definition = (zl)m can also be written as m1 • . .2.. Here z = reiB is any nonzero complex number and n a negative integer (n = 1..:).3cos 9sin2 9) + i(3cos2 9 sin 9 .). 4. By equating real parts and then imaginary parts here. By writing (Z m )1 _(  m imB)l _ 1 re e rm i(mB) and _ ( Z l)m . or no So the principal value is n + 2n.i)6 is 6(. The solution 9 = n of the equation leiB 11= 2 in the interval 0 S 9 < 2n is geometrically evident if we recall that eiB lies on the circle I zl = 1 and that I eiB 11 is the distance between the points eiB and 1. That is. one value of arg(.
That is. given two nonzero complex numbers Zl and zz.. provided z::t: 1. S . We may write If we introduce the numbers we find that and That is.+1..+1 Iz (z::t: I)... that we know only that Iz11=lz21. Hence S = Iz.. l+z+z 2 +·+z" 1z =_. Putting z = ei9 (0 < 8 < 2n) in this identity.. +z"+1) = 1 z .__ .10 9..(z + z 2 + z 3+: .. +") z . Suppose. we have . First of all.zS = (1+ Z + z 2 +. suppose that there are complex numbers C1 and C2 such that Zl = C1C2 and Zz = C1C2. on the other hand.+l Iz . Since it follows that Iz11=lz21...
(2n+1)8 Ism 2 .' .(2n+1)8] 2 . ·+cosn8.11 Now the real part of the lefthand side here is evidently 1+ cos8+ cos28+ .8 2 sm2 The real part of this is clearly . to find the real part of the righthand side.1l = exp (.vJ _j~l) '2' . and.:.8) 12'  exp (... 8 (2n+1)8 2 2isin2 .::L.8 2 _+ 2 1 sm 2 and we arrive at Lagrange's trigonometric identity: .. (2n+1)8 2 sm. lexp(i8) . . which becomes COSlsmcos 2 2 8 ..exp[i(n + 1)8] .8) '2' . we write that side in the form 1.8) .. or . (2n+1)8 1 sin 2 2sin 1+cos8+cos28+··+cosn8=+ 29 2 (0 < 8 < 21t').exp'[.8) exp ( 12' exp (. I .
the desired roots are (k = 0.J3 fi' and the other root is c1 = ( "V ze These roots are shown below.J3i = 2exp[{ . ... y (b) Observe that 1.12 SECTION 9 1. The principal root is ="V~e ia« C o M ="V~ M2(COSISln. ).1).M = v se irr/4 .i J2 x .. Hence (k = 0.i .1). ).±1.. (a) Since 2i = 2ex{{ ~ + 2k1r)] (k = 0.1r) =v~ 1r . y M2 irrI6) e irr = co =  . .±1.J3 6 6 2 2 i) = __ . That is.J3 . M2(. 1r) ~ 1 = vM2(cos '4 + Ism '4 = vM2(J2 + J2 = 1+ I.±2. ~ i) and Co being the principal root These are sketched below. 1r .±2... + 2k1r)] (k = 0. Co .
(a) Since 16 = 16exp[i(n+ 2kn)] (k I4 = O.2.±2. The other three roots are and C3 = (2ei1l:14 )ei311:12 = Co (i) = fi (1+ i)( i) = fi (1.13 2.2.. Then (k = 0. The four roots are shown below.1.. Co = 2e i1l:14 = 2( COS4'+ISIn4' n .3).1. ). ..±1.±I.. The principal root is .3). the needed roots are + (16i The principal root is = 2exp[{: ~)J (k = 0. .) = 'V~ +z.i). y (b) FirstWrite88~i=16exp[{_23n +2kn)] (k=O. n) = 2( fi + 1 fi i) M2(1 . )..±2.
14 The others are
C2
C3
= (2 eitr/6) e itr = co =  (h3 V:>
)ei3tr/2
I,
.)
= (2eitr/6
=
Co (i)
= (1 + fji).
These roots are all shown below.
y
3.
(a) Bywriting
1 lexp[i(1r+ 2k1r)] (k=0,±1,±2,
_ 2k1r)] (  1)1/3 exp [.(1r 1+3 3
=
... ),weseethat
(k
= 0,1,2).
The principal root is
Co
=e
itr/3
= COS+ISIn332
1r..
1r
=
1+ fji
.
The other two roots are
and
c2 =e
i5tr/3
=e
i2tr inl3
e
=COSISID= 332
1r..
1r
1 J3i
.
All three roots are shown below.
x
15
(b) Since 8
= 8exp[i(0 + 2kn)]
(k
= O,±l,±2,
... ), the desired roots of 8 are
(k = 0,1,2,3,4,5),
the principal one being
Co
=fi.
The others are
C4
= ( VM2 in/3) e in = C1 = ze
l+.../3i {i'
and
Cs
= (VM ·2 ke'
13 • n )e'1r
.../3i = CZ = 1fi
All six roots are shown below.
y
4.
The three cube roots of the number Zo = 4fi + 4fii = 8exp
(i
3:)
are evidently
(k = 0,1,2).
In particular,
Co
=
2eXP(i;) = {i(1 + i).
16 id ai 0f
With the
the num b er
_ _
(03
= 1 + .../3i ' we 0btai the 0th er two roots: 2 tam
c1

cO(OJ

"1/~
r;;2(1
+ I.)(I+../3i)_
2

(.../3 +1)+(..../3 1)i r;;
"1/2
,
5.
(a)
Let a denote any fixed real number, exponential form, we write A=la+il Since =..Ja2+1 a +i
In order to find the two square roots of a + i in
and
a=Arg(a+i).
= Aexp[i(a
+ 2k11')]
(k
= 0,±1,±2, ... ),
(k = 0,1).
we see that (a
+ i)1/2 = fA exp[{
~
+ k11' )]
That is, the desired square roots are
(b)
Since a + i lies above the real axis, we know that 0 tells us that cos( ~ )
< a < 11'. Thus 0 <
€X
2
< 11', and this 2
> 0 and sin( ~ ) > O. Since cos a = :' it follows that
and
Consequently,
±..fAe"'l2 = ±..fA(
cos ~ + isin ~) = ±..fA(
+i.JAa).
~
+ i~)
=± ~(.JA+a
1+z+z we find that 1+e+e 2 2 +'+z III 1. . 0 find those roots.c1)(z .3). Observe first that (z IIm)l = [me exp i(8+2kn)]1 vr m = mcexp 1 i(82kn) vr m 1 i(8) = mcexpexp VT i(2kn) m m . 7). The four roots of the equation Z4 + 4 = are the four fourth roots of the number 4.i][(z + 1) + i]· [(z 1) . To be specific. Sec. This enables us to write Z4 +4 = (z co)(z .) = 1I.±2. 0 ===.2. we write 4 = 4exp[i(n + 2kn)] (k = 0.±1. .c3)] = [(z + 1).)(I . lc lc 9. With the aid of the identity (see Exercise 10.Z" = lz (z ¢ 1).17 6. Let e be any nth root of unity other than unity itself... c3 = coe nen = (1+ I.1. ).c2)(z c3) = [(z .en 11. +"'+c III 1.i][(z 1) + i] = [(z+ 1)2 + l]·[(z _1)2 + 1] = (Z2 +2Z+2)(Z2 7.c2)]· [(z .co)(z .c1)(z. Then To (k = 0. 2z+2).
.(  1 ~)I > 2 to see that the set in question consists of all points exterior to the circle with center at .2..1. SECTION 10 1. we find that (zllmr1 = (zl)lIm.ml).3/2 and radius 2.i)I:51 to see that this is the set of points inside and on the circle centered at the point 2 . .(2 . . .2. (a) Write Iz ... It is not a domain.. m where k = 0...1.i with radius 1. It is a domain.. .18 and ( z l)l/m = exp r * i(O+ 2kn) m 1 i(O) = mcexpexp vr m i(2kn) . y o x (b) Write 12z + 31> 4 as z .2 + il:51 as lz .....1. m but in reverse order..ml) is the same as the set exp i(2kn) (k = 0.. m (k = 0.2. Since the set i(2kn) exp~.m 1. .
which reduces to x2 x ~ 2. which is indicated below. y=l o x (e) The set 0 ~ argz ~ ~ (z:¢: 0) is indicated below.4)2 + l ~ + y2. It is not a domain. y o if) x The set lz . This set. It is not a domain. is not a domain. x . It is a domain.41~lzl can be written in the form (x .19 (c) Write Imz > 1 as y > 1 to see that this is the half plane consisting of all points lying above the horizontal line y = 1. The set is also geometrically evident since it consists of all points z such that the distance between z and 4 is greater than or equal to the distance between z and the origin. o x (d) The set Imz = 1 is simply the horizontal line y y = 1.
which describes the circle. l > 0. (a) The closure of the set n < argz < 1& (z * 0) is the entire plane. Hence the closure of the set IRezl< Izl is the as Ixl< ~X2 + l. we arrive at the inequality O. together with its exterior.20 4. or x2 < x2 + l. 2 (x _1)2 + l ~.1 or < Since =::=2 =2 e z zz Izl x +y z 2 x +y 2 2 (x . (b) We first write the set IRezl<lzl inequality is the same as entire plane.2x) + l ~ Finally. wntten as 2x 2. that is centered 1 at z = 1 with radius 1. The closure of this set is itself. z z . by completing the square. 1 xiy 2' the set Re (1)<. But this last (c) . or Iyl > o.1 can b.
21<1. as shown below. . since z. That is. the set Re(zz) > 0 can be written as l <xz. The closure of this set consists of the lines y = ±x together with the shaded region shown below. The fact that Zo is a boundary point means that every neighborhood of Zo contains at least one point in S. But this contradicts the fact that Zo is not in S. We may conclude.21 (d) Since Z2=(x+iyi =x2l+i2xy. s. S is closed. it 8. or lyl<lxl. The problem here is to show that S must be closed. is not in S. The set S consists of all points z such that lzlc I or lz . x Since every polygonal line joining is clear that S is not connected. that each boundary point Zo must be in S. Zl and Zz must contain at least one point that is not in S. Thus Zo is an accumulation point of S. We are given that a set S contains each of its accumulation points. we see that every deleted neighborhood of S must contain at least one point in S. We let z. and it follows that Zo is a point in S. and. be a boundary point of S and suppose that it is not a point in S. We do this by contradiction. then.
3. is defined throughout the entire finite plane except for the (b) The function fez) = Arg(. This is because the equation (d) The function z+z is defined everywhere in the finite plane except for the z +z = 0 is the same as x = 0. an y = U' wnte 2xy) 4 2 fez) = X2 l2y+i(2x _ (Z+Z)2 + (ZZ)2 + I'(Z . Observe that if f(z)=(X+~0)2 XIO fez) =(0+ =1. .. = x + iy.y).22 Chapter 2 SECTION 11 1.O). Consider the function f(z) where Z =(:)2 =(X+~y)2 Z XIY z = (x. and if z OIY ~)2 = 1. fez) = 1 2 is defined everywhere in the finite plane except on the llzl circle Izl= 1._~''_)+ _) (z+z)(zz) 4 2 2 Z =++ Z 2 2 2' z IZ+=Z Z 2 2 22 2 + 2' IZ.. (a) The function fez) = points + z +1 Z2 is defined everywhere in the finite plane except at the z = ±i.) point z = O. SECTION 17 5.. then (z *0). Z+Z d zz .. Usmg x = 2 . = (O. where + 1 = O. (c) The function fez) =~ imaginary axis.where llzl2 = 0.Z I'(Z + Z .
z (b) To establish the limit lim ~+1 (z 1) 1 3 = 00. and write lim t+O (1 ) 1 4(~)'. Thus the limit of fez) as z tends to 0 cannot exist.Z)2 4. 10. we apply statement (3). In this problem. 16.. and write ~+. = o.. we refer to statement (1).z 2 = O. f(Z)=(X+~)2 XIX 23 =(1+~)2 11 =1. Sec. This shows that fez) has value 1 at all nonzero points on the real and imaginary axes but value 1 at all nonzero points on the line y = x. (c) To verify that lim Z2 + 1 = 00. 16.. 16.. 0). (a) Suppose that c = O.+1 2:)2 = lim z . Z'O 1+ z z 11.X). we use statement (2). (a) To show that lim z. Sec.But if z = (X. = lim 4 t'O = (1. z1 1 1 lim ( Z'O 2 1 .1 = O. and write lim / 1 3 = lim (z _1)3 ~+1 1 (z 1) ~. (z 1) 4l 2 = 4. HO a + bz a . lim T(z) = 00 since T(l/z) = lim c + dz = E. tells us that lim _1_ z+O z. we consider the function T(z) = az+b cz+d (ad  be :p. Statement (3). 16. Sec. Sec.
Statement (2).4Z2)2(8z) = 24z(1dz 4Z2)2.!!:. T(z) t+d/c az + b SECTION 19 1. Sec. then . + bz c Z %+0 C Also.4z2) = 3(1. Sec. then 2 ¢ (2z + 1)(z I'(z) dz (1+ 2)4 d 1) .4Z2)2.:. (z ¢ 0).(2z+1)2' (d) If f(z) = z .(1. (c) IT f(z) = z1 2z+1 (z . reveals that lim T(z) =!!:. since z+C lim %+0 T(. that z+d/c lim T(z) = 00 since t+d/c lim _1_= lim cz+d =0.!. then 2z+4) d =3z dz 2 d I'(z) = (3z2 dz d d 2z +4 = 3(2z)2(1)+0 dz dz = 6z 2. 16. (a) If f(z) = 3z 2  2z + 4. we know from statement (1). 16.(z 1)(2z dz (2z+1? d + 1) (2z + 1)(1) (z 1)2 _ (2z+1)2 3 .24 (b) Suppose that c ¢ O.).!.) = lim a + dz = !!_. f'(z) = 3(1.
1t+o L\w Az 4.f(7.. the CauchyRiemann fez) anywhere.±I. Since these are two different sets of values of y.25 3. Here u=2x..I' Imf'(z ).= z+L\z z lim . = v" => 0 = 2.g(zo) = lim g(z) . (n=0. . Since u. = lim fez) t+Zo z . !'(Zo) Similarly. Thus the CauchyRiemann equations do f(z)= e"ei" =eJf(cosyisiny)=excosyiexsiny. then L\w = j(z+Az) fez) = _I __. (a) iy.= v" => 0 = _y2 => Y = 0. Ux = v" => 2 = 2xy => xy = 1.1t+o Az (z+L\z)z z Hence . where g'(zo) According to the definition of derivative. So U = x.. (z + Az)z 1 1 =2'" We are given that f(zo) g(zo) 0 and that !'(zo) and g'(zo) exist. the CauchyRiemann equations are not satisfied anywhere.±I. ). So u=excosy. (d) f(z)=2x+ixl. ). v 2y. .Zo Thus lim fez) t+Zo = lim fez) Z+Zo g(z) I ez .. the CauchyRiemann equations cannot be satisfied anywhere. v=xl. Substituting y = 0 into xy = 1. = 'i = x  equations are not satisfied (b) So U 0. If fez) = lJz (z *" 0). SECTION 22 1..z = (x +iy)(xiy) = 0+i2y. we have 0 = 1.±2.zo) g(z) I (z . = = (c) not hold anywhere. Thus y=2'+nn u" = Vx => _ex siny = e" siny => 2e%siny = 0 => siny = O.!. = v" => eX cosy = e" cosy => 2e cosy = 0 => cosy =0. x u. Z+Zo Z .o) = lim fez) . v = yo Inasmuch as UJf = v" => 1= 1.zo) = fez) I (z . = = # O. (n = 0.±2.zo) t+zo !~~ = !'(Zo) g'(Zo) . . Hence y = nx 'K v=exsiny.Zo Zo .Zo g'(zo) = lim g(z) . fez) = z. t+Zo z t+to Z . U.zo) lim g(z) I (z .
In fact. = l.x2+l' 2xy =v Since u.x) = 2x +iO = 2x.O)+ ivx(O. lIz (a) f(z)==·== z z z z IZl2 x +l 2 x . f'(0) = ux(O.' v U8 = . and uy We observe that = Vy => Y = 2y=> Y =0 = vx => x=o. Hence f'(z) exists only when z = 0. Hence u =x2 and v = l. u.. and we find that f'(x +ix) = ux(x. (c) fez) = z Im z = (x + iy)y = xy+il. Now and uy = v x ux = vy => 2x = 2y => y = x => 0 = 0 ' So f'(z) exists only when y = x. 4. + iv.26 3. So v y . Moreover.i2xy l 2 2 2 +t 2 2 2 =2 22 (x + y ) (x + y ) (x + y ) (b) fez) = x2 +il. when z:t.. Here u = xy and v = l.x2 • 2xy x2 .:O.:0. = lx2 2 2 2 = Vy and (x +y ) u= y (x 2 +l)2 x f'(z) exists when z:t.~ sin48 = rv" r .y +z 2 x +l and . (a) fez) = z14 = (:4 COs48) 'v' u +{  :4 Sin48) and (z:t.:0).x) + ivx(x. f'(z) = u.0) = O+iO = O. Since '.
27 f is analytic in its domain of definition. Since and U9= _e9 cos(lnr) ru. 1 ..) = ei9( .e = 2[iei9/2 = 2f(z) . f'() z .. Also.6 r» f is analytic in its domain of definition. Since ru =cos=v9 r 2 2 . z S. When fez) = x3 + i(l y)3.0 < 6 < 2n). fez) = e9 cos(lnr)+ie9 'v' u 1 1 (c) sin(lnr) 'v' v (r> 0. Moreover. = _e9 sin(lnr) = V9 = rvr.cos(lnr)] 9 r ~ cos(lnr) + ie8 sin(lnr)] = i f(z). z f'() . sin 46) = _~eigei49 rS 4 4 (b) f(z) = fiei912 = W cos 6 + iW sin 8 2 'v' u 'v' v 2 (r > 0. a < 6 < a + 2 n).~ cos46+i = ~ei9(cos46isin46) rS . we have U= x3 and v = (1. csm i9 e. e.sin(lnr) r 9 +1'' .y)3./r 6 and U9 =sm=rv 2 2 W. f'(z) = ei9(ur +fv. Observe that . fis analytic in its domain of definition.) = e i9(Ur+IVr = e i9[ = ~[e9 e. Furthermore. 6) CCOS+l.( cos ~ + isin ~) = 21 2 2vr 2 i9 i912 e. +IVr = ei9( = 21 2vr 1 6 .) = ei9(u.
Equations (2).l3x2y 'v' v x +y 2 2 when z:¢: 0.0) x 1' Ar ..O) y 4y.(O.Im. and the following calculations show that u.lim . Im °0 oAx • v (0.. then. 0. in which case we see that f' (i) = 0. x Ar .O+L\y)u(O. 0) .m y 4y"'0 L\y  }' lffi.lim v(O. the CauchyRiemann equations are satisfied only when x That is.. 2 = ° and y = 1.28 Evidently. u"rsin fJ + uyrcos fJ =u O' . lffi o v(O+Ax.O) Ax  I' Ar .O): u(o+ Ax. 4y..(O. oAx Ii u(O....0 4y"'0 L\y 0_ .O) . when z=O. 0 I' Ay AYl ... v (0 . O) .0) and u.O)v(O.I' Ax_I u (0 . are u"cos fJ +uy sin fJ = u.O) = v.O+Ay)v(O. Sec.u(O. 0). 22.. Now fez)  _ x3 3xl X 2 +y 2 +I . they hold only when z = i.O) . 0 Ay 7.O) = v...(O.Im.. Hence the expression is valid only when z = 6.... f'(z) u"+ iv" 3x + iO 3x2 i. = = = Here u and v denote the real and imaginary components of the function of the equations f defined by means fez) = {~2 ° " when z:t. o Ax Ar .O) u (0. (0..
sin 8 r and uy =u. . cos8 r Vy . (a) Write f{z)=u(r.cos8u8=V8+v. which enables us to rewrite the expression (Sec. 22) iv. cos8 sin uy =ursm8+u6=v8v. cos 8 =v. ru.8)+iv{r.) U6 +IV6 . u. cos 8 sin 8 cos8.sm8=v.COS8V8=v".cosOu8Likewise. =u.sm8+v8=vy. = Ve' Ue = rvr of the CauchyRiemann equations. + IV.smO+u8· .) Zo f'() = e i8( U. r . = V8' are satisfied at ZOo U8 = rv" It follows that . Thenrecallthepolarform ru. r r r sin 8) v.29 Solving these simultaneous linear equations for u" and uY' we find that u" = u.sm8+v8' r Assume now that the CauchyRiemann equations in polar form.8 r r ( 9.) = Zo i( .8). f'{) r U8 r i) ='e re' i (U 6 +IV6 . for the derivative of f at a point Zo = (r 0' 1 = eie( Ve (0) in the following way: z.cos8=.
10.sin 8 r With u(r.y) + iv(x. in part (a) tells us that f'(z) = i(_ z sin 8 i COS8)= _.(dF +idF).u y = v x are satisfied.)+ dF( _ _!_)=.30 (b) Consider now the function f() Z 1 1 ==u. (a) We consider a function F(x.y). 8 cos 8 )=1.(cos8isin8) r r Z r when z#:O.!. . dx 2 dy 2i 2 dx dy (b) Now define the operator ~=. and formally apply it to a function fez) = u(x. r sin 8 r .!.=e 1 Z re r i8 = 1( r cos 8 +rsin .8)=.!.y): If the CauchyRiemann equations ux = vy .!. this tells us that dj/dZ=O.(}_+i~) dZ 2 dx dy' suggested by part (a)..8)=the final expression for f'(zo) cos8 r and v(r. where x=2 z+z and y=U· zz Formal application of the chain rule for multivariable functions yields dF at = dF dx + dF ay = dxaz ayiJZ dF(.
±2.±I. .isiny) = ~~ cosy +i( e" e" u siny).31 SECTION 24 1. => y = 1 and uY = v x => x = 0 . f is constant in D.. 23. ). fez) = a.y) is analytic and realvalued in a domain is realvalued. The CauchyRiemann equations u. and cosnx = (It anywhere. where a is a (real) constant.. (See the proof of the theorem in Sec. and h is entire since uJt = e" cosy = vy.1) = i. (a) fez) = 3x + y + i(3y . More precisely. ~ u v is entire since and uy = sinxsinhy = vJt' uJt = cosxcoshy = Vy (e) fez) = e" sinx = (Z2 .I v (d) fez)  2)e" eiy is entire since it is the product of the entire functions and h(z) g(z) = Z2 .2 = e"eiy = e"(cosy . which means that the CauchyRiemann equations hold only at the point z = (0. (a) # O. then.y) = a.. .x) "v' ~ u v is entire since = 3 = vY and uy = 1 = v". iy is nowhere analytic since xy + u v ux = v. and U = =e"" siny = v x: 2. That is....y) + iv(x. v The function g is entire since it is a polynomial.. = v" u.. uy = 0. U" (b) fez) = sin x cosh y + icosxsinhy __________. = 0. it has the form fez) = u(x. Consequently... the roots of the equation sinx = 0 are nn (n = 0.) Evidently.ie" cosx = e? sinx+ i(eY cosx) is entire since ~ u '. = v" thus become u. fez) (e) = eYe ix = eY(cosx + isinx) = ~Ycosx+ ie' sin x is nowhere analytic since e 'vJ and Uy U " = vY => e' sin x = e' sinx u v => 2e' sin x = 0 => sin x = 0 = v" => e' cosx = e' cosx => 2eY cosx = 0 => cosx = O. Since fez) Suppose that a function fez) = u(x.y) + iO. and this means that u(x. (a) fez) = . the CauchyRiemann equations are not satisfied D.. 7...
To find a It is straightforward to show that u.t/>'(x) => t/>'(x) = 0 => t/>(x) = c.y) = 2x(1 y). :::) 6xy = 6xy  t/>'(x) :::) t/>'(x) = 0:::) t/>(x) = c. If. we start with ux(x. fez) Since fez) is analytic and never zero in D.y) = 2 .3x2y (c) + l + c. . => sinhxcosy = sinhxcosy . Then Uy = v .y) = coshxsiny. or _ c2 f(z)=. harmonic conjugate v(x. :::) .. v(x. we see that fez) = 0 throughout D.y). Consequently. 24 then tells us that fez) must be constant in D.y) = 2y l + t/>(x).2x = (/J'(x):::) t/>'(x) = 2x :::) t/>(x) = x2 + C.y) = coshxcosy + c. Then Uy = v... (a) It is straightforward to show that un + uyy =0 when u(x. y) = 2x .y) = 2 . c #: 0.2y. Now U.y) = coshxcosy + t/>(x). Consequently.3x2 + 3l. v(x.y)=sinhxsiny. = Vy :::) Vy = cosh x sin y :::) v(x.y).x3 + 3xl.y) = 2y . on the other hand. SECTION 25 1. If C = 0. Example 3 in Sec. To find a harmonic conjugate v(x. Then Uy = v..a +uyy =0 when u(x.32 (b) Suppose that a function f is analytic in a domain D and that its modulus If(z)1 is constant there. Now Ux = Vy => Vy =2 2y => v(x. the conjugate fez) must be analytic in D.a + uyy = 0 when u(x. To find a u. we start with ux (x. v(x. where C is a (real) constant. we start with ux(x. Write If(z)1 = c. Now harmonic conjugate v(x. write f(z)f(z) = c'. +2y+ Consequently.y).y) =2yl (b) It is straightforward to show that +(x:Z +c) =x2 l c.
V(x.. and Vx = uy' Vy = Ux' = O. = 0 => <p(x) = c. = V 8r .y) and v(x. That is..y) c. 5. then. v(x. The CauchyRiemann equations in polar coordinates are ru. = Vy' uy = Vx' Hence w(x.y) = x x +y 2 2 + <p(x). x = x 2 +y 2 +c. = v% => (x 2 + y)2 2 = (x 2 + y 2 ) 2 v(x. 23). It follows readily from these equations that u.. = 0. This means that 2. => <p(x) .. Then ux = vy' uy = v. Suppose that u and v are harmonic conjugates of each other in a domain D.y). 3.y) must be constant throughout D (compare the proof of the theorem in Sec. u. = vy' If w = v. Suppose that v and V are harmonic conjugates u. of u in a domain D. = vx and u.y) . Vy Consequently. y) ( = (x2 + l)2' 2xy Now 2xy (x +y ) Then uy 2 22 => v(x. z. we start with u. = V8 Now and U8 = rv.. where c is a (real) constant 23). = v8 => ru" + u. ru.y) x2 l x2 _ y2 <p(x) . = (compare the proof of the theorem in Sec. u(x.33 (d) It is straightforward harmonic conjugate to show that Uxx +uyy =0 when u(x.y) = c.y) = 2y x +y 2' To find a v(x.V. Consequently. uy = 0 and v%= 0.
6. 0) = 0 + c is a harmonic conjugate of u(r. The other CauchyRiemann equation Us = rv. = VB and the derivative u. If u(r.!. 0 < 8 < 27r.8) = lnr. since v6r = V. =.34 and Thus and. l/J'(r) = 0. To show that v satisfies the same equation.s· then. then becomes 0 = rl/J'(r). 8) = 8 + l/J(r). then This tells us that the function u = In r is harmonic in the domain r > 0. thus v(r. r that VB = 1.8) = In r. UrS' = V8 ~ V88 = ru. where c is an arbitrary (real) constant. Now it follows from the CauchyRiemann equation ru. Hence v(r. and we see that l/J(r) = c. we observe that and Since U6r = ru. where l/J(r) is at present an arbitrary differentiable function of r. .8' we have which is the polar form of Laplace's equation. That is.
since exp ni =1.35 Chapter 3 SECTION 28 1. But there is no value of y satisfying conclude that.ie" sin y.y) = +e" siny. where U(x. = v. (a) exp(2 ± 3ni) = e2exp(±3ni) = =e". This tells us that exp(z) = u(x. Suppose that the CauchyRiemann equations u.y) + iv(x. We may to be satisfied anywhere.2xexp(x2 l)sin(2xy) = Vy = 2yexp(x2 l)cos(2xy) = v x' . where z = x + iy. The function exp] Z2) is entire since it is a composition of the entire functions Z2 and exp z: and the chain rule for derivatives tells us that Alternatively. (c) exp(z + ni) = (expz)(exp ni) = +expz. First write expel) = exp(x .y2)cos(2xy) +iexp(x2 .y) = e" cosy and v(x. one can show that exp(z2) is entire by writing exp(z2) = exp[{x +iyt] = exp(x2 u  y2)exp{i2XY) = exp(x2 . = 2xexp(x2 l)cos(2xy) and uy . the 4. 3. these equations become this pair of equations. and point z = x + iy.y). u. since the CauchyRiemann equations fail function exp(z) is not analytic anywhere.iy) = e" e iy = e" cos y . for the functions u and cos y = 0 and sin y = O.y2)sin(2xy) v and using the CauchyRiemann equations. uy = Vx are satisfied at some v here. It is easy to see that.2yexp(x2 l)sin(2xy) . since exp(±3ni) =1. To be specific.
Since x2 l S x2 + l. It is then clear that the statement to be proved is the same as exp( 2x) < 1 <=> x > 0. it is clear that exp(x2 l) the above that Hence it follows from lexp(i)1 S exptlzl").36 Furthermore. First write lexp(z2)1= lexp[(x+ iy)2]1 lexp(x2 l)+i2xyl = and exji(lzl") = exp(x2 l) = exp(x2 + l). since lexp(2z + i) + exp(iz2)1S lexp(2z + i)1+ lexp(iz2)1 ' it follows that 6.!!_exp(z2) = u. which is obvious from the graph of the exponential function in calculus. write lexp(2z)1 = lexp(2x . S exp(x2 + l). + ivx = 2(x + iy)[exp(x2 l)cos(2xy)+ dz iexp(x2 l)sin(2xy)] = 2zexp(z2). To prove that lexp(2z)1 < 1 <=> Re z > 0. 7.i2y)1 = exp( 2x). We first write lexp(2z + i)1 = lexp[2x + i(2y + 1)]1 = e2x and Then. S. . .
.±2.. x= 1 2 and y=nn (n = O. z = In 2 +( 2n + Write exp(2z 1) = 1 as e2J:l 2z 1 i2y e ~)m (n = O. Write e% = 1+ f3 i as e" eiy = 2ei(tr/3) e" = 2 . e" = 2 and x=ln2 Hence z = In2 + (2n + 1)1ti (b) (n = O.±2. Evidently.±2.±1.. )... . .. x=In2 Consequently..±1.. and y=(2n+~)n (n = O. then. and (n = O.±1.±1. and y =+2nn That is.37 8.. ). z=+nm 2 (n = O.±I.. ..±1.±1. . and this means that 1 . . ).±2. . y = n + 2nn y=(2n+l)n (n = O.±2.. ).. ). ).±2. ).±1. .. This problem is actually to find all roots of the equation exp(iz) = exp(iz). from which we see that n 3 (n = O. ... 9.±I. (a) Write e' = 2 as eZeiy = 2eitr• This tells us that That is.±2... (c) e = leio and note how it follows that =1 and 2y = + 2nn ° (n = O.±2. ).±2. . )..
38
To do this, set z = x + iy and rewrite the equation as
Now, according to the statement in italics at the beginning of Sec.8 in the text,
e? = eY
and
x = x + 2nn,
where n may have anyone of the values n = 0,±1,±2, .... Thus
y= O
and x= nx
(n = 0,±1,±2, ... ).
The roots of the original equation are, therefore,
z =nn
(n
= 0,±1,±2,
... ).
10. (a) Suppose that eZ is real. Since et = e" cos y + ie' sin y, this means that e' sin y = 0. Moreover, since e" is never zero, siny = 0. Consequently, y = nn (n = 0,±1,±2, ... ); that is, Im z = nst (n = 0,±1,±2, ... ).
(b) On the other hand, suppose that
eZ is pure imaginary. It follows that cos y = 0, or that
y= ~ +nn(n=0,±1,±2,
... ). Thatis, Imz= ~ +nn(n=0,±1,±2, ... ).
12. We start by writing 1Z ~ = Z£ 
Id = x2
Z
x  iy x . y + l = x2 + l + l x2 + /.
Because Re(eZ) = e" cos y, it follows that
Re(ellZ) = exp(
X
2
x
+y
2 Jcos(
X
2 y
+y
2
J = exp(
x +y
2
x
2
Jcos(
2 Y 2 J. x +y
Since ellz is analytic in every domain that does not contain the origin, Theorem 1 in Sec. 25 ensures that Re(ellZ) is harmonic in such a domain. 13. If fez) = u(x,y) + iv(x,y) is analytic in some domain D, then
ef(z)
= eU(x,y) cosv(x,y) + ieu(x,y) sin v(x,y).
Since ef(Z) is a composition of functions that are analytic in D, it follows from Theorem 1 in Sec. 25 that its component functions
U(x,y)
=
eW("'y)
cosv(x,y),
V(x,y)
=
U e ("'])
sinv(x,y)
39
are harmonic in D. Moreover, by Theorem 2 in Sec. 25, V(x,y) is a harmonic conjugate of
U(x,y).
14. The problem here is to establish the identity (expz)" = exp(nz)
(a) To show that it is true when n = 0,1.2 •...• we use mathematical (n = 0,±1,±2, ... ).
obviously true when n = O. nonnegative integer. Then
induction. It is Suppose that it is true when n = m, where m is any
(expz)"?' = (expz)" (exp z)
(b) Suppose now thatn view of part (a),
= exp(mz)expz = exp(mz+z) = exp[(m+ l)z]. is a negative integer (n = 1,2, ... ), and write m = n = 1.2, ....
In
(exp z)
1I(IJm1 1 1 = expz = (expz)" = exp(mz) = exp(nz) = exp(nz).
SECTION 30 1. (a) Log( ei) = lnleil+iArg( ei) (b) Log(l i)
= lne i)
~i
= 11r i
~ i.
= lnll
il+iArg(l
= In..fi
424
= .!.ln2 
1r i.
2.
(a) loge
= Ine+i(0+2n1r)
= 1+2mri (n=0.±1.±2 •... ).
(b) 10gi=lnl+i(~
+ 2n1r) = (2n+ ~)1ti (n=0,±I,±2,oo.).
+ 2nn) = In2+ 2( n+~)1ti (n = 0,±1,±2, ... ).
(c)
10g(1+.J3i) = ln2+{2;
3.
(a)
Observe that Log(l + and 2Log(1 +i) = 2(
ii = Log(2i) = In 2 + n i 2
In..fi +i :)
= ln2 + ; i.
Thus
Log(l + i)2
= 2Log(1 + i).
40 (b) On the other hand,
Log( 1 + i)2 = Log( 2i) = In 2 _ n i and 2Log(1 +i) = 2 (In Hence Log(1 +02
2
Ji +i 3;)
= In2+ 3; i.
* 2Log(1
+i).
4.
(a) Consider the branch
logz = Inr+iB
Since
log(i2) = 10g(I)
= ln l + in = ni
and
210gi = 2(lnl + i ~) =
ni,
we find that log(i2) = 210gi when this branch of log z is taken.
(b) Now consider the branch
10gz=lnr+iB Here 10g(e)=log(1)=lnl+in=ni and 5 210gi=2(lnl+i ;)=5m.
Hence, for this particular branch, log(i2)
* 210gi.
Observe that
5.
(a)
The two values of il12 are
e
i1C14
and
eiS1C14.
log(e
and
ilr/4
)
= Inl+{;
+ 2nn) = (2n+
!)ni
en = 0,±1,±2,
... )
(n = O,±I,±2, ... ).
Combining these two sets of values, we find that
log(iIl2)
= (n +
!)m
(n = O,±I,±2, ... ).
41 On the other hand,
(n = O,±I,±2, ... ).
Thus the set of values of 10g(i1l2)is the same as the set of values of .!.logi, and we 2 may write 10g(i"2) = .!.logi. 2
(b) Note that
10g(i2) = 10g(I) = Inl+ (n+ 2nn)i = (2n + l)m but that 210gi=2[lnl+{; +2nn )]=(4n+l)m
(n = O,±I,±2, ... )
(n = O,±l,±2, ... ).
Evidently, then, the set of values of log(e) is not the same as the set of values of 210gi. That is, 10g(i2) ¢ 2logi.
7.
To solve the equation logz = in 12, write exptlogz)
= exp(in
12), or z
= eitr12
= i.
10. Since In(x2 + l) is the real component of any (analytic) branch of 21ogz, it is harmonic in every domain that does not contain the origin. This can be verified directly by writing u(x,y) In(x2 + y2) and showing that u.u(x,y)+ uyy(x,y) = O.
=
\SECTION31
)\
1. Suppose that ReZ1 > 0 and Rez2 > O. Then
where
42
The fact that n < 01 + O2 < n enables us to write
3.
We are asked to show in two different ways that
(a) One way is to refer to the relation arg( ~ ) = arg Zt  arg Z, in Sec. 7 and write
(b) Another way is to first show that 10g(;)
= logz
(z ee0). To do this, we write z
= re"
and then
10g(~)
= 10g(;eiB
)
= In(~ )+i<O+
2nn)
= [lnr+i(O
2nn)]
= logz,
where n = 0,±1,±2, .... This enables us to use the relation
and write
43
s.
The problem here is to verify that
z 1/" "" exp (11)ogz ;;
(n "" 1,2, ... ),
given that it is valid when n ""1,2,.... To do this, we put m n, where n is a negative integer. Then, since m is a positive integer, we may use the relations Zl = 1/ z and 1/ et e" to write
=
=
SECTION 32 1.
In each part below,
n = O,±I,±2, .... In.,;z +{:
(a) (I + i)'
= exp[ilog(1 +ill = expH
+ 2m,)]}
Since n takes on all integral values, the term 2mc here can be replaced by +2mr. Thus
(b)
(li
/1r
= exp
[!
loge1)]
= exp
{!
[In 1+ i(1& + 2n1&]}
= exp[(2n + l)iJ.
= exp(2n2 )exp(i3n) ""exp(2n2).
fi) 3. On the other hand. if n is odd. .j3i = 2e2tri/3. we may write (1 +..V.. ). ensures that i is multiplevalued even when b 0./3i)312 = eXP[%IOg(1 +. According to Sec. C = .±1.fi.0] = exp[ 4{ In.. ) . = exp[ Thus + 2nn)]} (n b(..J2 = etr[cos( 41n. Observe that if n is even. .. where n 0. ..fi . (n = 0.i)4i = exp[4iLog(l. +2nn )+ia(.. Specifically. that value is zl/n is rifT.±2.±1. = S. . the principal value of according to Sec..±2. where +n < 90 :S x. and this means that exp[(3n + I)Jti] = 1. Since 1 +.exp(i ~o ).fi)] = etr[cos(2In2) + isin(21n2)]. (1./3i)3/2 arise..i :)] = etre i4lD ..±2..C can be written as r = expfclog i) = exp{<a+bi{ Inl+{. 3n+ I is even. or c is real. So only two distinct values of (1 + . and so exp[(3n + I)Jti] = 1..44 (c) P. = exp[ln(2312)+ (3n + l)ni] + 2nn)]} = 2. and.±1.±1... and it is clear that lici is multiplevalued unless b = 0. +2nn)] = 0.. Note that the restriction c '# 0./3i)] = exp{ ~ [ln2+{2.. 8.. These two expressions are evidently the same. the power . 7.. Observe that when c = a + bi is any fixed complex number.J2exp[(3n + l)ml. (1 +.. We consider here any nonzero complex number Zo in the exponential form Zo = To exp i90. .±2.. . + isin(4ln . where c '# 0... 32..±1.±2. then 3n + 1 is odd../3i)3/2 = ±2..
4. Sec. +~)sin(Zl Z2)' Addition of corresponding sides of these two equations now yields 2(sinZl cosz.. .) = 2sin(Zl +~).45 SECTION 33 1. we have 2cosZ1sinZ2 =sintz. From the expressions and we see that COSz= eiz + eit 2 3. 33 is 2sinZl cosz2 = sin(Zl + z2)+sin(zl . Sec.~). The desired derivatives can be found by writing d. coszz + coszI sin~.1 (d it e it) e 2i dz dz 1 (. +cosz.) eit +eiz = 2i ie" + te Il = 2 = cos Z and 2. sin z._ d dz dz (e _eit it )_ 2i d . or sin(Zl + zz) = sinz. with respect to Zl' we have . Equation (4). smz. 33. Interchanging Zland Z2 here and using the fact that sin Z is an odd function. Differentiating each side of equation (5). _.
z cosh" Y + cos" x sinh 2 y = sin! x(l + sinh 2 y) + (1. . The expression cos on the other hand. sin" z cos' z 1 +=sin? z sin? z sin! z' or l+coez=csc2z. or lsin zl ~Isinxl x. lcoszl' = cos' x + sinh! y. 10. In this problem we shall use the identities Isin zf = sin2 x + sinlr' y. (a) From the identity sin2z+cos2z=1. we have or z z 2 COS Z + 2cos z 1 = 2' cos z 1+ tan 2 z = sec 2 z. From the expression sin z = sinxcoshy+ we find that Isin Zl2 = sin2 icosxsinhy. tells us that Icoszf = cos' z = cos x cosh y + i sin x sinh y. sin" 2cos (b) Also. Since sinh" y is never negative.46 7.cos2 x) sinh 2 y = cos' + sinh? y. 11. it follows from Exercise 9 that (a) and that (b) lcoszf ~ cos2 Isinzl2~sin2 x. or lcoszl ~ Icosxl. x cosh 2 y + sin 2 x sinh 2 y X = cos' x(1 + sinh" y) + (1.sin" x)sinh2 y = sin' x +sinh" y. 9.
47 (a) Observe that and lsinzf Thus = sin? x + (COSh2 1) = COSh2 Y y = cosh" Y . then.sin? x) cosh? y.(1.y). and v(x..±2. there is no neighborhood of any point throughout whichf is analytic.sin? x ~ cosh! y. since sinx is nonzero for each of these values n (n = O±1. y) + iv(x. it is easy to see that and sinxsinhy cosxcoshy =0 Since cosh y is never zero.iy) = cosx cosh Y + i sin x sinh y can be written as z z fez) = u(x. (b) On the other hand. If the CauchyRiemann equations = vy' uy = v. . 13. Furthermore. By writing fez) where = sinz = sin (x  iy) fez) u(x. = u(x. and lcoszf = cos' Hence sinh? y ~lcoszl2 ~ COSh2 . Thus the CauchyRiemann equations hold only at the points z=+nn 2 x = n + nx (n = 0 ± 1.y)+iv(x.. ). y).cos' X~ (1.y) = cosxcoshy and v(x. the second equation tells us that sinhy = 0. . y or lsinhji s lcoszls.y) we have = sinxcoshy U. or y = O. and we may conclude that sin is not analytic anywhere. Evidently. where U(x.. 2 of x.y) = sinxcoshy .y) = sinxsinhy.cos" x) Y = cosh? Y ..r are to hold. it follows from the first of these equations that cos x = 0. that is.r = cosxsinhy. coshy. = O.±2. The function fez) = cos = cos (x . . ).icosxsinhy. X + (COSh2 1) = cosh" y .
Consequently.. Since cosnx ¢ 0. ... Since cosn~ = (lr ¢ 0. ).. the first of these equations tells us that siny = O. or y = O. the CauchyRiemann equations hold only when z=nst So there is no neighborhood throughout which nowhere analytic. then sinxcoshy = 0 and cos x sinh y = O. Sec.±2.. = v" hold. Evidently. (a) Use expression (12). we see that we need to solve the pair of equations sin x cosh y = cosh4. u. or x = nt: (n = 0. it follows that sinhy = 0. cosysinhx = O.±2 •. then. Rewriting the equation sin z = cosh 4 as sin x cosh y + i cos x sinh y = cosh 4. (b) Use expression (11). f is analytic. the equation sin(iz) = sin(iz) is equivalent to the pair of equations sinycoshx = O. 33..±1. So we may conclude that sin(iz) = sin(iz) if and only if z = 0 + inm = nni (n = 0. cosxsinhy =0 . The first of these equations tells us that sinx = 0.. . to write cos(iz) = cos(y+ix) = cosycoshx isinysinhx and cos(iz) = cos(y + ix) = cos ycoshx  isinysinhx. y = nn (n = 0. Consequently.±1.±1. ). . Since coshx is never zero.±2. This shows that cos(iz) = cos(iz) for all z..).. to write sin(iz) and sin(iz) = sine y + ix) = sinycoshx = sin(y + ix) = sinycoshx+ .48 If the CauchyRiemann equations u" = vy. 17. Sec. (n = 0±1. ). the second equation tells us that sinh x = 0.icosysinhx icosysinhx. 33. and this means that cosf is 16.±2. or that x = O.
Finally. ). 1 or y = In(2 ± J3). we begin with y = cosh12... and. .[3 )=In(2+. . We start by writing that. which cannot be satisfied by any x since sin.. If y = O. This tells us that e' + e? = 4.. We note that y ¢ 0 since cos x = 2 if y = O. ).isinxsinhy = 2. So y ¢ O.J3).J3)] 2+J3 =In( 2+.±2 .. The problem here is to find all roots of the equation cosz = 2. we may apply the quadratic formula to obtain e'! the observation that = 2 ± J3. with In(2. Thus n x = +nn (n = 0 ± I.. . But this means that coshy 2. Finally.. 2 Since = Sin(~ + nx) = (1)" • the first equation then becomes (1)" cosh y = cosh 4. .±2. or y = cosh 1 2.49 for x and y.±2.. and the second equation requires that cos x O. in a different way.4(e'!) + 1= O.J3) =In[(2J3)(2+.±2. or that x = nx (n = O± I. . n must be even.. the roots of the given equation are = z = 2nn + icosh12 (n = O± I. ). then. If n is even..±2.. sin x sinh y = 0 for x and y. Consequently. the roots of sinz = cosh 4 are z = (~ + 2nn) ± 4i (n = O± 1. the first equation becomes sin x = cosh 4. ). 18. rewriting this as (e'!)2 ..f3) (n = O± I. it follows that y = ±4. Thus we need to solve the pair of equations cosx cosh y = 2. we arrive at this alternative form of the roots: z = 2nn ± i In(2 + . That is.. which cannot hold when n is odd. equation as cosxcoshy . ). and... which has two values.r S 1 and cosh 4 > 1. So the second in the pair of equations to be solved tells us that sin x = 0.±2 •. since coshy is always positive. and that is impossible. To express cosh12. The first equation then tells us that (It coshy = 2. ). x = 2nn (n = 0 ± 1. or coshy = 2..
lcoshzf ~ cosh" x. is sin? z + cos! Z = 1. or lcoshzls. The same identities that were used just above then lead to cosh (z. we obtain the desired inequalities. sinZz. = 6. 33. Sec. coshx in two different ways. Sec. Identity (7). cosz. and this tells us that sinh2x~lcoshzI2. Consequently.elslcosh zls. Replacing z by iz here and recalling that cosiz = coshz and iz = y + ix. To fmd the derivatives of sinhz and coshz. tells us that Isinhyl~lcoszlS coshy. Sec. we write and 3.orlsinhxISlcoshzl. is lcosh zl' = sinh" X + cos' y. we know that lcoshzl" =cosh? x ~ O. Replacing Zl by iZI and + Z2 by iZ2 here. since cosh? x sin2 y. we have cOS[i(ZI + Z2)] = cos(izl)cos(iz2) .sin(iz1)sin(iz2). is COS(ZI Zz) cosz. Replacing z by iz here and using the identities sin(iz) = isinhz and cos(iz) = coshz. +sinz. coshx. lcoshzf = (COSh2 xl)+cos2 Y = cosh? X . or cosh 2 z . Sec. (a) Identity (12).sinh 2 z = 1. We wish to show that lsinh.50 SECTION 34 1. 33. Thus lcoshzl' +sinh" X~ 0. + Z2) = cosh Zlcosh Zz + sinh Zlsinh Zz. 33. . Identity (6). (b) Exercise ll(b). 34. we find that i2 sinh 2 z + cosh 2z = 1.(Icos2 y) = On the other hand.
9. Rewriting cos h z = 1 as cos hx cos y + I.i: 0.±2. The second then becomes (1)" coshx = 1. But there is no nonzero value of x satisfying this equation. since sinhz=i can be written as sinhxcosy+icoshxsiny=i. or b ~ I. and so y = rc + 2nrc 2 (n = 0..±1.. x sm 1 .. . The zeros of the hyperbolic tangent function sinhz tanh z=coshz are the same as the zeros of sinh z. and we have no additional roots of sinh z = i. to solve the pair of equations sinhxcosy = 0. which are z = nm (n = 0. (n = 0.. . we find that tan h( z+m . the first equation requires that cosy = 0. I 2 sinhxsiny=O. 15.  eZ + e" 2 = =coshz... (a) Observe that. we need If x = 0. )..51 (b) Also.±2. The singularities of tanhz are the zeros of coshz.sm hxsi y = 2' we see th at x and y must sans fy 2' the pair of equations coshxcosy=.±1. ). (c) From parts (a) and (b).±2. rc y = +nrc 2 (n = 0. .±l. ).1 •• .) = sinh(z+m) +sinh z sinhz = == cosh(z + m) +coshz coshz tanh z .±2. the second of these equations becomes sin y = 1.±1.. ). Hence (n = 0. . If x. .. .±2.. ). + n1t).±1. or z = (. coshxsiny = 1.
Recalling from the·solution of Exercise 18. or y = nn (n = 0. ).. 2 z = COShl + (2n + l)ni 2 If x = 0.. ). and this means that (n = 0. . ).±1.±1.52 If x = 0.±1. we find from the second equation that siny = 0. ). The first then becomes (It cosh x = ~. . sinhxsiny = 0. . Since there is no y satisfying this equation. no roots of cosh z = 2 arise. are obtained.±2. But this (n = 0.!. Thus no additional roots of cosh z = . 2 16. .±1. the second equation is satisfied and the first reduces to cos y = 2... = COSI! = ± n + 2nn 2 3 (n = 0. But this equation in x has no solution since coshx ~ 1 for all x. ).c 0..±2. that COShl = ±In(2 + J3).±1. in which case x = COSh1 . Consequently. equation can hold only when n is odd.±2.. . The problem is evidently to = 2. we note that 2 these roots can also be written as z = ±In(2 + J3) + (2n + l)ni (n = 0. Let us rewrite cosh z = 2 as coshxcosy +isinhxsiny solve the pair of equations coshxcosy = 2. If x ¢ 0... ..±1.±2. If x..±2. Sec 33..±2. the second equation tells us that y = nn (n = 0. .!. Since cosnt: = (1)\ it follows from the first equation that (It coshx = 2.. the second equation is satisfied and the first equation becomes 2 Thus y cos y =. )..
I becomes 21C 1= IdB=2n. 4. The problem here is to verify that 21C Io eUnS e inS dB = {O dB = when m"l: n. li 2 2 . we write I= and observe that when m"l: n. o and the verification is complete. 21t' when 271: m=n. i(mn) i(mn) When m = n.. First of all. To do this. It 2 3 +isinn 1 2 1 (b) 1CjI6ei2ldt=[ei2/]71:16 ="!"[cosn o 2i 0 2i 3 _1]=. 1C(l+i)z dx = [/l+i). 1C 1C I e(1+i)z dx = I eZ cosxdx 000 1C + i I eZ sinxdx. But also. I=[ 21C I o eUnS e inS I 0 ei(mn)9 se ei(mn)S ] 21C= 0 1 i(mn) __1_=0. _1__i = __ I_+_e_1C i _1 _e_7I: ++.L 4' 3. (a) I i It 2 (1 )2 dt=I 2( 2"1 It 1) 2 dt dt2iI=2iln2=iln4.53 Chapter 4 SECTION 37 2.J3 4 +.Z]1C e Io 1+1 0 = e1Cei1C1 = _e71: 1 l+i l+i .
2.. 4 4 4 4 4 4 7.. . Thus J w(t)dt = J u(t)dt +i J v(t)dt =2 f u(t)dt + 2i I v(t)dt 4 4 4 4 4 0 0 = 2[j u(t)dt + i V(t)dt] = 2 w(t)dt. Since it follows that .54 Equating the real parts and then the imaginary parts of these two expressions. it is clear that there is no number c in the interval 0 < t < 2n such that 2n o J w(t)dt =w(c )(2n .1. 2n .0)1 =leicl2n = 2n for every real number c. +e e n 0 n 2 Consider the function wet) = eit and observe that 2n is]2n 1 J w(t)dt = J e'tdt = s: =::1= O.J(x+ iv'lx2 cos e) 1 n· n no de (n = 0. e x cosx dx = . Consider the functions Pn(x) =. (a) Suppose that wet) is even. and so J w(t)dt = J u(t)dt+i J v(t)dt = O+iO =0. 4 4 4 6. we fmd that J 5.0). 0 [ o 1 0 1 1 Since Iw(c)(21t'. smx dx = . 000 j j (b) Suppose. where 1 s x s 1. that wet) is odd. on the other hand. ). It is straightforward to show that u(t) and vet) must be even. It follows that u(t) and vCt)are odd.+e o 2 n 1 n an d 1 J".
b b The substitution 4 'C = t in each of these two integrals on the right then yields I That is.55 SECTION 38 1. {ja So the equation of that line is t. The slope of the line through the points (a. b a b (b) Start with 1= w(t)dt 4 J b = u(t)dt+iJ a a J b b v(t)dt and then make the substitution is t= (j)( r) in each of the integrals on the right. The result 1= u[ </1( 'C)] </1'( 1:)d1: + i v[ <p( 1:)]<P'( 'C)d'C a a J /J J fJ = J w[ <P(r)]<P'( 'C)d'C. J b 4 w(t)dt =J w[ <P('C)]<P'( 'C)d'C.a ba = (1:{ja a).b) in the 'Ct plane is ba m=. (a) Start by writing 4 I= J 4 w( t)dt = u( t)dt b f 4 +i J v( t)dt.J u( 1:)d'C b i v( 'C)d'C b J 4 = J u( r)d'C + i J v( 1:)d1: = f w( 'C)d'C. a fJ 3. = . . fJ a That is.a) and ({j. b b b 4 4 a 4 J w( t)dt = Jw( 1:)d'C.
+v"y. we have + iv[x(t).y). Hence Z'( 1")= ~x[ d1" f/J( 1")]+ i~Y[f/J( d1" 1")] = x'[ f/J( 1")]f/J'( 1")+ iy'[f/J( 1")]f/J'( 1") = {x'[ 4'( 1")]+ iy'[ f/J( 1")]}f/J'( 1") = z'[ 4'( 1")]f/J' ( 1"). If Z( 1") = zl f/J( 1")].y) + iv(x.ba . where z(t) = x(t) + iy(t) and t Z( 1") x[ = f/J( 1"). = v" and u" = v"' then. then = f/J( 1")]+ iy[ f/J( 1")]. one can rewrite it as t=1"+ b+a afJba fJa fJa .y(t)].y(t)] + iv_. then.= u x' + dt x du U Y y' and dv =v"X dt .y(t)]}[x'(t) + iy'(t)] = f'[z(t)]z'(t) when t = to' .56 Solving this equation for t. Since t = f/J( 1"). and so In view of the CauchyRiemann equations u. 'f' At( ) _ b . That is.[x(t).a 1" . .y(t)] z(t) = x(t) + iy(t). s. If wet) = f[z(t)] and fez) = u(x. wet) = u[x(t). w'(t) = {uJx(t). fJa 4. The chain rule tells us that .1"+ fJa afJ.
In this case. (a) Let Cbe the semicircle z = 2ei8 (0 ~ 8 ~ n). (b) Now let C be the semicircle z = 2ei8 2 y (n ~ 8 ~ 2n) just below. [ '8 ]2" r C denote the entire circle z = 2ei8 (0 ~ 8 ~ 2n). shown below. Je z z+2 dz=4m ' the value here being the sum of the values of the integrals in parts (a) and (b). let dz=2i e. (a) The arc is C: z = 1+ eiS (n ~ 8 ~ 2n). 2 x This is the same as part (a). 2. Then . y Then =2i [ is 7+ 8 ]" 0 =2i(i+n+i)=4+2m. except for the limits of integration.57 SECTION 40 1. +8 " =2i(i+2nin)=4+2m. Thus Ie z:2 (c) Finally.
IC nellZdz I =n I etrxdx = ell 1. 1 1 Ie nellZdz = nf elL'[(1xli1(_1)dx = 1CelL'etr"dx = etr1. Ic. and C4 that are shown below.58 (b) Here C: z = x (0 s x S 2). (i) Since C1 is z = x (0 S x S 1). 1) dz = I2(x 1) dx = [2]2x ~o 2 = O.dz = ni ell I 2 (li Ylidy = etr. Then I/z 3. netrldz Finally. since = nf etr(ly)i (i)dy = ni f eitrYdy = 2. the path C is the sum of the paths C1• Cz. 0 In this problem. then.ti f ei1l:Ydy = 2e1l:. 0 1 0 (iii) Since C3 is z = (1.y)(O S Y S 1). C3. o 1 (ii) Since Cz is z = 1 + iy (0 S y S 1).x) + i (0 S x S 1). y C3 ~ 1+i C4 r 0 . o 0 1 1 we find that . Ie nell'1. f 3 o 0 (iv) Since C4is z = i(l.C2 • C1 1 x The function to be integrated around the closed path C is f(z) = ne": We observe that C = C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 and find the values of the integrals along the individual legs of the square C.
write (Izl> 0.z(a) = Z2. that m e n. Sec.Zl· 6. and let m and n be integers. Then = representation Iezmz"dz = 27r I (ei9r(ei8)" ii6d8 o = i I ei(m+I)8irr6 e d8. 0 21r But we know from Exercise 3. fe f(z)dz =lei f(z)dz +fez f(z)dz = I 1(1+ i3x2)dx + I 4x3 (1 + i3x2)dx I 0 1 1 = I dx + 3i I x2 dx + 4 I Xl dx + 12i I XS dx 1 I 0 0 001 =[X]~l +i[x3e1 +[X4]~ +2i[X6]~ =1+i+l+2i=2+3i. where z(a) = Zl and z(b) = Zz. . The contour C has some parametric representation z = z(t)(a S t S b). o 7. with parametric z ei6 (0 S 9 S 2n). S. 0 < arg z < 2n) Ie ZI+i dz = Ie e(l+i)logZ dz = I 21r e(I+i)(lnl+i6) iei6se = i I ei66 ei8d9 0 27r = i I e6 d9 = i(l0 27r e27r).59 4. Let C be the positively oriented circle Izl= 1. f(z) = 1 on C1 and f(z) we have = 4y = 4x o 3 on Cz. To integrate the branch Zl+i = e(l+i)logZ around the circle C: z = ei6 (0 S 9 S 2n). 37. Then fedz = I z'(t)dt 4 b = [z(t)]: = z(b) . The path C is the sum of the paths c1:z =X+ix3 Using (IS x SO) and Cz: z= x+ix3 (0 Sx S 1). m=n.
.a!:n. = ~4 l. =.zo ). we have C: z = ~4 8. where a is any real number other than zero. ..Zo ). Jc (z . m+l=n. to be used here. 11: J 11: (b) When n = ±1.sinIeI)] = 4{. the same steps as in Exercise lOeb). .±2.( . yield the result n r (z . . In this case. on C. Let Co be the circle z = z. m+l.1 dz = i 2R Jc a o a sin(a1C). 0 n n 11. 2R . Note that C is the righthand half of the circle x2 + l = 4. 10. =i y 2 2 2 J 2+4_ Y2 dy = 4i J ~ 4 l 2 ~ 4 l dy = 4i [(sin 1 y 2 )J2 2 = 4i[sinI(I) . x suggests the parametric representation With that representation. .. So..1 dz = (Rei9 o 11: J 11: r 1 Riei9 d8 = iR" ei. + Rei9 (1C ~ 8 ~ 1C).60 Consequently..9 d8 II: J 11: R" e .(in1l: e inll:) =1smn1C=. with a instead of n..) ] = 4m. d 1 _z_ = JRe ~ cozzo 11: _1I: (a) Riei9 d8 = i d8 = 2m. This l + iy (2 ~ y ~ 2).
y 2i o 2 x Without evaluating the integral. 38. the identity obtained in part (a) remains valid. a a (b) Suppose that C is any contour and that fez) is piecewise continuous on c. Since C can be broken up into a finite chain of smooth arcs on which fez) is continuous. SECTION 41 1. 1 To do this. 11<z 2dz I.61 12. let us find an upper bound for note that if z is a point on C. Exercise l(b). Sec 38. But expression (14). and so J f[z(t)]z'(t)dt =J f[Z( b P r)]Z'( r)dr. a J fJ where a Z( r) = zl </>(r)] (a s rS: {3).3· . Let Cbe the arc of the circle Izl= 2 shown below. tells us that z'[</>( r)]</>'( r) = Z'( r). enables us to write Jf[z(t)]z'(t)dt b = f[Z( r)]z'[</>(r)]</>'( r)dr. Sec. we Thus 1 Z2 1 _1 1= 1 <! Iz2 11. which has a parametric representation z = z(t) (a s: t s: b). (a) The function fez) is continuous on a smooth arc C.
z)dzl. the length of C is _!_ ( 4 n) = n. we let z be a point on C and observe that . we find that 3 3 1 1~I~ML=n. y 4 To find an upper bound for Ifc(e~. Izl ~ . The midpoint of C is clearly the closest point on C to the origin. 2 the length of C .J2.J2. we have 1~1=4~4.J2.! and L = n. The distance of that midpoint from the origin is clearly being . taking M 4 =. The contour C is the closed triangular path shown below. by taking M = 4 and L =. y o x Hence if z is any point on C. 2 This means that. 3. The path C is as shown in the figure below. Is ML = 4. So. 1 C Z2 2.62 Also. for such a point Consequently.[i. z lzl lie:.J2.
by writing M = 5 and L = 12. s.(R 2 when Izl= R (R> 2). Here CR is the positively oriented circle Izl= R (R > 1). If z is a point on CR. Thus I e' . 4. The length of C is evidently 12. Note that if Izl= R (R> 2). we have lIe (e z)dzl Z  s ML = 60. . Hence. Consequently.63 But e1C :s: 1 since x:S: 0. by taking M = n+ InR R2 and L = 2nR. Since the length of CR is 1&R. then and Thus I Z4 2Z2 1 +SZ2 +4 1= 12z 11 < 2R2 + 1 4 2 2 1)(R2 4) Iz +5z +41 . and it is clear that the value of the integral tends to zero as R tends to infinity. and the distance ~ x2 + y2 of the point z from the origin is always less than or equal to 4. of course.ZI :s: 5 when z is on C. then Logz Z2 I 1= IlnR+ R2 iel < InR+lel < 1r+InR R2 R2 ' since n < e:s: n: The length of CR is. then. 2nR.
. p To do this.. there is a nonnegative constant M such that If(z)IS M for each point z in that disk. it follows that p. f. 1 it follows that Lo~z dz z = o. and we note that. lim n+lnR R li R!!!. = lim R4 11 R =0.  L:~Z Cit dZI~ ML = 2n (n+RlnR). Let Cp be the positively oriented circle Izl= p (0 < p < 1). y We let Z1I2 represent any particular branch of the power function here. Since R. . we I Zll2 fez) I= I I Zll2 IfCz)1 S {p.64 we see that IIc.. inasmuch as M is independent of p.. shown in the figure below. o lim f. Since the length of the path Cp is 2np. and suppose that fez) is analytic in the disk Izl S 1. 6. We are asked to find an upper bound for observe that if z is a point on Cp' IIc z1/2f(Z)dzl. since fez) is continuous on the closed bounded disk Izi S 1. Z1/2f(z)dz Cp = O. we may conclude that Note that.
n+l 1 = I . %2 n+l ]%2 n+l zndz= Jzndz=Z_ =~~= C n+l %.2. 1 (z . 42. Consequently.(i + ..1. r'dz = 0 Co for any closed contour Co that does not pass through Zo.±2. ) always has an antiderivative in any domain that does not contain the point Z = Zo. lies above the real axis. 1 __ (Z. . except for its end points. Let C denote any contour from z 1 to Z = 1 that. 1r < Arg z < 1r)..+ e e 1 = e + . The function zn (n = 0.+l _zn+l). . This exercise asks us to evaluate the integral = where Zi denotes the principal branch i = exp(i Logz) (lzl > 0..) has the antiderivative n+l n+l zn+l I (n + 1) everywhere in the finite plane.Zo)nl (n = ±1. by the theorem in Sec..z. for any contour C from a point Zl to a point Z2' f 2. . So. 5.)  e 1 Ie = .65 SECTION 43 1. e 3. Note the function (z . n+l %.
we can now write I =~ I i+1 ] 1 +1 1 = . The contours C1 and Cz are as shown in the figure below. the singularities of the integrand lie outside CI or inside C2. Jc. and so the integrand is analytic on the contours and between them.66 An antiderivative of this branch cannot be used since the branch is not even defined at z = 1. Consequently.i rr (Ii). [ /i+1) _ I +1 log1 _ e(l+l)IOg<l)] = _1_[e(i+1)(ln1+iO) i+l = l+e2 n _ e(i+1)(ID1+ilr)] = _1_(1_ eIreilr) = 1+ ei+l l+i Ir • 1. But the integrand can be replaced by the branch Zi = exp(ilogz) n 3n) ( lzl > 0. r f(z)dz = Jcz r f(z)dz. Using an antiderivative of this new branch. . y 4 x In each of the cases below.2" < arg z <"2 since it agrees with the integrand along C. . SECTION 46 2.[ I 1 +1 (l)i+1 _ 1 (li+1] = _.
±2.67 (a) When f(z) = 21 .. y a+bi a+bi a o . ). (b) When z+2 f (z ) = sin(z 12)' (c) When f(z) =~.. . I" e singu annes are at z = 2nn (n = 0. . (a) In order to derive the integration formula in question. le 4. ~ +1 v3 th . ). we integrate the function etZ around the closed rectangular path shown below.±1. the singularities are the points z = ± ~ i. the integral of e..±1. the singularities are at z = 2nm (n = 0. o Since the righthand vertical leg is represented by z = a + iy (0 S y S b)..±2. o .along the upper leg is = J a tJ eex+bi)l dx = _eb1 J etJ x1 e i2bx dx = _eb1 J ea a x1 cos2bxdx +ieb1 J ea a x1 sin2bxdx. the integral of e _:2 along it is J b eea+i)')Z idy = ieaZ J b 0 e y1 ei2ay dy.. a Since the opposite direction of the upper horizontal leg has parametric representation t1 z x + bi (a S x S a). a x Since the lower horizontal leg is represented by z =x (a S x S a). the integral of e _t along that leg is 1 J etJ x1 dx = 2J ea 0 x1 dx. a or simply _2e b1 JetJ x1 cos2bxdx.
We let C denote the entire boundary of the semicircular region appearing below.. the integral of et along that vertical leg is f b e(a+iy)1 idy = _iea1 fe b 0 y1 eiZa. keeping in mind the known f. fo e cos2bxdx 1 =e 2 . o The result is .68 Finally. dy.{ii _b1 (b » 0). then.. It is made up of the leg C1 from the origin to the point z = 1.. o (b) We now let a 7 00 integration formula in the final equation in part (a). 6.e o and the fact that 11 e(a +b ) x1dx_  +i 2 f b e y1 sin2aydy s e(a1+b1) fe b 0 y1 dy 7 0 as a 7 00.. and the leg C3 from z = 1 to the origin. o According to the CauchyGoursat theorem. and this reduces to a fexl cos 2bx dx = eb1 a fexl 0 dx + b 1 y1 e(a1+b ) f e 0 sin2aydy. since the opposite direction of the lefthand vertical leg has the representation 1 Z = a + iy (0 ~ y ~ b).._. the semicircular arc Cz that is shown. Thus C = C1 + Cz + C3• x .
~ 2 Ir 0 2. c . .tr/2(I)dr=ijwdr=i o 1. we let C denote the square contour shown in the figure below. C1: z = re" (0 s r s 1). 2 x . 2 3 The desired result is ic f(z)dz=i C1 f(z)dz+ JC2 r f(z)dz+ Jc] r f(z)dz=~ 3 3 3 The CauchyGoursat theorem does not apply since f(z) is not analytic at the origin. 1 0 [2]1 3 2(I+i)+~i=0.. and C3 and then write a parametric representation for the path (or a the integral along the particular path. In this problem.69 We also let f(z) be a continuous function that is defmed on this closed semicircular by writing f(O) = 0 and using the branch region f(z) = Wei612 of the multiplevalued function Z1l2. SECTION 48 1. Then i f(z)dz=jW. In each case. around C by evaluating the integrals adding the results.1dr= 0 1 [2]1 _r 3 3/2 0 C1 =.) '2 2 The problem here is to evaluate the integral of f(z) along the individual paths Cl' C2. Then r f(z)dz=J f(z)dz=jwe. _r312 0 =i. C. (0 s r s I). y ~ 2. we related one) and then use it to evaluate (i) ( 1& 31l' r>O < 8<. or even defined on the negative imaginary axis. 3 2 (iii) C3: z = re" Je.
2i dZ=2m(1) z + 2i :=2.70 (a) 1 z .iC(z2i)2(Z+2i)2  i 11 (z + 2i)2 dzT! 2m [ dz (z+2i)2 _ d (z2iY+1 1 C ] :=2.eZdz12) =2m[e(m C C C t ] .xoi 1 (z . y (a) The Cauchy integral formula enables us to write 1 ~=1 4 Z2 + C dz =111(z+2i) c (z .zl2 (112) C C = :=0 2m(!) 8 = m. we have dz dz iC(z2+4)2 .12 =2m(i)= 21C. shown below. . (d) 1 coshz dz = 1 (zcoshz dz = 2m [ddz .0)3+1 31 C Z4 C 3 COSh] Z :=0 = 1ti (0) 3 =0 . 4i 2 (b) Applying the extended form of the Cauchy integral formula. (b) 1 z(icosz 8) dz = 1 (cosz)z I. = 2m(_!_) = 1C. (e) 1 C tan(z 12) dz = (z . 4 (c) dZ=2m[~J 2 :=112 3 =2m(_!)=_1ti 4 2.xoi+ C tan(z 12) dz = 1 2m [~tan(~)J I! liz 2 :='>:0 2.il= 2. Let C denote the positively oriented circle lz.(Z2 + 8) dz = 2m[ Z2 + 8] cosz + 0 zdz 1 2z + 1 =1 z .2i)(z + 2i) C Z . t=tr.
5. Let C be the positively oriented circle Izl= 3. z. 7.!: 3).. w x x We observe that g(2)=1 c 2iz2dz=2m[2z2_z_2] z2 z=2 =2m(4)=8m.Zo Thus = 2mf'(zo) and 1(zf{z)dz 1C {zf{z)dz c . when Iwl > 3.ZO)2 C The CauchyGoursat theorem tells us that this last equation is also valid when Z'c is exterior to C. Suppose that a function f is analytic inside and on a simple closed contour C and that not on C. and consider the function g(w)=1 c We wish to find g(w) when w 2Z2_Z2dz zw Iwl (I wi.zo)l+l 2m f'{ 11 Zo ). each side of the equation being O.Zo CCz . 1 f'{z)dz = 1 f{z)dz. then Zo is 1c f'(z)dz z . If Zo is inside C. Let C be the unit circle z = ei8 (1r ~ Cauchy integral formula reveals that e ~ 1r). the CauchyGoursat theorem tells us that g{w) = O. On the other hand. = 2 and when y > 3 (see the figure below). The .71 3. and let a denote any real constant.Zo)2 .
and.72 On the other hand.... . since the integrand here is even. (S2 1)" ds C(SZ)"+1 (n = 0. We note that the highest power of z appearing under the derivative is Z2"...1... . and differentiating it n times brings it down to z". So P" (z) is a polynomial of degree n. ).2k(_1)k .. o 8. Hence the polynomials P" (z) in part (a) can be written Pit (z) = 2"+1 m Ie (s _ Z). we see that I tr tr edcos 9 cos(asin B)dB = 2n. (b) We let C denote any positively oriented simple closed contour surrounding a fized point z.. (a) The binomial formula enables us to write P ( ) = _1_!!:. I tr edCOS 9 cos(asin B)dB = n. I tr J.c ~dz.2. ). the stated parametric representation for C gives us = i e4cos6 11: I 11: ei4sin8 dB = i e4COS8[ os(asin B) + isin(asin c I 11: B)]dB = I tr 11: edcos 8 sin(asin B)dB + i edco•9 cos(asin B)dB.1. n!2" dz" ~ ~(n) z k 2.+l ds 1 (i It (n = 0. . z we have Then.2. at J tr Equating these two different expressions for the integral I tr tr edcos 9 sin(asin B)dB + i e" cos 9 cos(asin 8)dB = 2m. The Cauchy integral formula for derivatives tells us that d" (2 1)" n! dz" z = 2m J. by equating the imaginary parts on each side of this last equation..( "z n!2" dz" z 2 _1)" = _1_!!:.
1 1 (s 1)" ds .+lm C(S+I).. 1 1 9..1. 1 = _!_11 (s + I)" ds 2" 2m c s 1 = _!_ .f' (z) Il.Z)3 I(s)ds. = lf[ 2ni C (sz~zi 1 (SZ)2 1] I(s)ds ~ = 1f 2ni C 2(s .1) .+1 c (s _1)"+1 m Also. (s .1 ( 2)" .1. (a) In view of the expression for f' (z + Il..2" 2ni c s+1 ..+l ..+1 = (sl)"(s+lY (SI)._ 2" 2 1 (n = 0...2" (n= ..z I' (z) in the lemma. ).z __ 1 Jf(s)ds ni c(SZ)3 =_I_J[ 2(sz)~ 21&i (sz~zi(SZ)2 C 21&i (sZ_~Z)2(SZ)3 c _ 2 ]f(S)ds (SZ)3 = _1J 3(s . we have P (1) = 1 (i I)" ds " 2. .Z)2 Then f'(z+~z)f'(z) Il.z)~ .2(~)2 J(s)ds... .2.z) ~ J(s)ds.z .~Z)2(S . We are asked to show that 1"(z)=~J 1Cl c (s . .+1 = (s + 1)" 81 Referring to the final result in part (b)..z) .73 (c) Note that (S2 I)" (Sl). then..2.+1 = (s + 1y+l = s + 1 ' we have 1 (S2 I)" ds . since (S2 1)" (s I)" (s + I)" (s I)" (s + 1)..( 1)" 02 ) PIt (.
74 (b) We must show that Now D. d. The triangle inequality tells us that 13(s .zll6z1 + 21&12:::. 31s . . together with the result in part (a).o 2 n'i Jc (s .z .2(6z)21:::.&1 ~ d 1&1> 0.&)2 (s  r 3(s . and L are as in the statement of the exercise in the text.3D1&1 + 21&12 .z .z)& . (e) If we let &: tend to 0 in the inequality obtained in part (b) we find that lim _1_ 4t_. M.z)&: .2(6z)2 f(s)ds Z)3 = O. Also. and this means that f' (z) in the lemma that This gives the desired inequality. we know from the verification of the expression for Is . This. yields the desided expression for f"(z).
. Observe that if z"=2+i(~" n (n=I.+ . That is. 3. then T" =lz"l= ~4+ n14 72. We are asked to show in two ways that the sequence z =2+1" .2. Another way is to observe that Iz....). Suppose that lim z" = z. .2. since (n = 1. where no is any positive integer such that no ~ Je.. there is a positive integer 11+" no such that lz. lim Iz"I=lzl. ) converges to .2..2 and 0... n Thusforeach £>0.2. ) does not converge. respectively.2. ). .2..75 Chapter 5 SECTION 52 1..zl< e whenever n > no' In view of the inequality (see Sec..(2)1=~. the sequence 9" (n = 1. . 51. and then to apply the theorem in Sec. ) of real numbers converge to .. 2..(It n2 (n = 1.. 4) it follows that IIz"Ilzll< e whenever n > no. One way is to note that the two sequences x =2 " and y = (It "n2 (n = 1... But. That is. for each e > 0.
r. and the righthand side takes the form r/9 1..=1 z = 1.76 4.r 12rcos9+r 6 2 2 and ~ LJr smnu = 11".=1 rcos .Lr"ein9 = ..=1 S.1 00 _ 00 00 sinn6. 6. . .) = L[x" +i(y.Lz" = L(x" iy. 52..Lr" "". H we put z = re".=1  Then.= lr(ei9re"+ei9)+r2 = rcos 9 . = .Lz" = S. 52 can be written ~" LJZ ..=1 . The summation formula found in the example in Sec. S = X + iY and 11=1  appeal to the theorem in Sec..1 II' II rsin6 12rcos9+r 2' where 0 < r < 1.=1 ~" ll' ~ '" II r cos 9 . where 0 < r < I..r2 + irsin i8 . since L(Y. 'lrere.)] = XiY= .=1 . + iy".r2 . To show that ..r2 12rcos9+r 2 + I . r sin 9 12rcos9+r 2' Equating the real parts on each side here and then the imaginary parts.. First of all.i9 lre 12rcos6+r2 Thus i8 9 LJr cosnu + I LJr smnu = .Lr" cosn9+i... Suppose that LZ" 11=1  = S. These formulas clearly hold when r = 0 too...=1 ""..) 11=1 00 00 = Y. we arrive at the summation formulas ee "'" II LJr11 cosnu= .1 .1  =X and LY1l =Y...Z when lzlc 1... the lefthand side becomes . it follows that 00 _ .=1 .L(rei6)" = . we write z. we note that LX" 11".
2" (Izl< 00) to get coshiz") = I.(Z" +w. LV" . and I. .[(x" +u.=1 . .=1 = v.=1 = U._z11=0 .0 LZ(2n)! .+U. Now 00 00 _ 00 77 S= X +iY and w" = Un+iv"..=1 .....=0 (2n)! . T= U +iV.[(X" + iy..=1 z" =x" +iy". multiplying through this last equation by z...=1 Since = x.8..=1 =Y and LUn .. In order to use the theorem in Sec. LYII .=1 . LX" .)] = X + iY + (U + iV).)+i(YII +v.. Z411+1 (lzlc 00). Replace z by Z2 in the known series coshz= . . we have the desired result: zcoshtz") = I.... L(X.)=Y+V...... .. it follows that I..=1 . Suppose that LZ" = S and L w" = T.=1  SECTION 54 1.) + (U"+ N.+v. we write . or I.... Then.)=S+T..(y. I.... That is. 52. 411 (2n)! (Izl< 00)..)=X+U .. .. 11=1 .)] = X + U +i(Y + V). .
. (b) Replacing z by z 1 in the known expansion eZ=L~n! .=0 n! (lzlc 00). to get (lzlc ... as well as its condition of validity. we first replace z by _(Z4 19) in the known expansion 1  _~ .+1 (2n + I)! (lzI< 00). = et1e = e L ( z. Replacing z by Z2 in the representation (lzlc .z (lzlc 1)..1)11 r.. sinz= LCI)". Z4.+2 (2n + I)! (lzlc 00)..j3)....t (lzl< 00)... we have the desired expansion: 9 I( z ) = ~ o (ItZ 411+1 f:' 32. Then. £. 3. So eZ .j3). if we multiply through this last equation by ~.=0 . II (lzl« 00)..Jz n=O II 1. 11=0 we have ez1 = (z It 11=0 n! . we have sin(z2) = L(I)". We want to find the Maclaurin series for the function To do this.=0  Z2..78 2.+2 6.
2.79 Since the coefficient of z" in the Maclaurin series for a function fez) is i">(o)! n!..1.(z . if we replace z by z  = sinh(z .z .i) This suggests that we replace z by (z .i)! (1. 9 The identity sinh(z + ni) = +sinhz and the periodicity of sinh z... . we start by writing 1 1 = 1. representation Z2.i) !(1.1.=0 (2n + I)! (lzlc 00) .. (1... tell us that sinhz = sinh(z + ni) So. with period 2ni. So the Taylor series about z = i is valid when lz lz .:0 1 .il <..z . as indicated in the figure below.(z .i 1.i) .i) 1 1 =. this shows that (n = 0.it < . m in the known .. )..fi. (Izl< 1) and then multiply through by ~. 7.+1 sinhz=L .i)in the known expansion =Lz" 1.ni). x To fmd the series. The function _1_ has a singularity at z = 1.. (zi)" (lz . The desired Taylor series is then obtained: 11 1 lz = ~(Ii)"+l .fi).
. Suppose that 1 <lzl'< 1) Z2 . (1)" = ~ (2n+l)!' 1 Z411 = 1+ ~ . and we can use the known expansion (Izl< 1). Z" 11+2' 4 SECTION 56 1.z =_·_z =L . 211+1 sinz = L(I)"Z_11=0 (2n + I)! to see that when 0< Izi < 00.._ 4z 4 4z 4 4z Zlll Zlll 11=0 11=0 11=1 11". 1 . we find that sinh z = . We may use the expansion . =Lz" 1. Suppose that 0 < Izl < 4. 2 • ( (lzlc 00) z sin 3. 11=0 13. when 0 < Izl < 4... (1)" ='=L ( .!.=0 (1 <lzlc 00).z ..z 11=0 1 . To be specific..=L1+ z Z 1+.=0 1 . z .nil< 00). (lzlc 1).. 1)" . 1 ~2 4z .. This enables us to write 1 11 1 . Then 0 < Iz I 41 < 1...r=+ L... 1 . (z L~":""'_(2n + I)! ni)211+1 (Iz .. (1)" (2n+l)!' 1 Z411 • 00 and recall the Maclaurin series representation =Lz" 1. Z 11=0 ZIl+1 Z Replacing n by n ..=L..r=+ L 4 4 4z 1.0 1 1 1" (z)" .1 in this last series and then noting that .80 and then multiply through by I.
...0 (Izl< 1) and write f () z 11 1 ~" ~ . recall that _1_ = tz" lz "".z Z 11=0 11=0 Z Z . 4. note that 111 zl < 1 and write f(z)·  1 1 1 .... 11=1 .. =LZ"+1...I 1 (1 dzlc 00)...=0 . (a) The Maclaurin series for the function z + 1 the Maclaurin series representation z1 is valid when lzlc 1. .. LZ" .we arrive at the desired expansion: 81 .=1 . (see the To find the series when 0 < lzlc 1.=0 Z Z As for the domain 1 < Izl< 00.=_Z3 1.. 1 =.=2 ... Hence 00 there are Laurent series in powers of z for the domains 0 <lzlc 1 and 1 <Izl< figure below).LZ" =12Lz" .2 ~" 11 =2"'=2" LiZ =LiZ =2"++ LiZ = LiZ ++2"' z 1.2 1 1 ~ . The singularities of the function f(z) = z (1. To find it.. lz .(11z) Z3~ z ~ Z"+3  . S..z) 2 1 are at the points z = 0 and z = 1.. we recall (lzlc 1) for _1_ and write lz +1 1 _z=(z+l)=(zl)Lz" zl . (I)" . (1)"+1 =L~1+ Z Z" "".=0 =Lz" . 1 ~ z"...=0 (lzl« 1).
.=1 Z L L L Z2 In this second expansion. Since lz ( I.+1 1+. 1 =1+. we recall the Maclaurin series for _1_ that was used in part (a).z .+ L. we may write z 1 z+1 1+=t= z 1 1_ z 1) 1 1+. =_!_.=0 ... (It+1 fez) Z3 1 Z3 Z2 2.(1)" _ .+1. when 1 < Izlc 00 . I < 1 here... On the other hand. ( _ _!_)"_ .82 (b) To find the Laurent series for the same function when 1 <lzlc 00.. we have (lzlc 1).... as indicated in the figure below._1_=_!_ . which is exterior to the circle Izl= 1.. .1 . we have used the fact that (_1)"1 = (_1)"1 (_1)2 = (_1). 7.=0 For the domain 0 <lzlc 1.t z Z Z n=O n=O n=O (1 <lzlc 00)..L Z = L. The function fez) = z(1+ z ) 1 2 has isolated singularities at z = 0 and z = ±i.. To find each of these Laurent series. Hence there is a Laurent series representation for the domain 0 clzlc 1 and also one for the domain 1 <lzlc 00.!.+3 2.=0 Z .1 z 1_ z ( 1)(1)" . we recall the Maclaurin series representation 1=Iz" 1.
(b) Putting z = ei9 on each side of the fmal result in part (a).... S 1C) in the w has the one singularity w = 0 in the w plane. acos 9 a 2 2 1.".= i9 e a a (cos9a)+isin9 (cos9a)isin9 (cos9a)isin9 = acos9a2 iasin9 12acos9+a2 and I.11". (a) Let z be any fixed complex number and C the unit circle w = ei.... That singularity is. . 11=1 n=1 .. The function q. (a) Let a denote a real number.2a cos 9 + a and i' £. . as shown in the figure below. interior to C. za z oc a a 1 l(al =~z) ~ Zll+l' . an+1 = za a I... where 1 < a < 1.. of course. II ~ 9 £.. (1C S plane.a en . in9 = La"cosn9iLa"sinn9. we have a i' II in9 i9 = £..1 .z n"'O 1 ...Ja cosn = 11 1 . Recalling that =Lz" 1. e a 11=1 But a .. (lzlc 1) enables us to write =. a" z (lal<lzl< co)... 11=1 Consequently.Ja 11=1 II' smn 9 = a sin 9 12acos9+ a 2 when 1 < a < 1.. .Ja e ..83 8. 10.
ie'.i sin (nf/J .±2.e i. That is... then. let us rewrite exp [z (i.. ... J" (z) = _1_ fir [cos(nf/J 21r Ir zsin f/J) . e 1 Ir • J..84 w plane Now the function few) has a Laurent series representation in the domain According to expression (5). exp[~(w_!_)J= 2 w where the coefficients ]" (z) are tJ.±1. ). J. .zsin f/J)dq. 2m Ir e 2m Ir f Ir f l1I . Using the parametric representation w = this expression for J. 55.. .+I).df/J.. df/J = .)] ..(z) = ..(z)w" ° <IwI< 00.(z)in part (a) can be written as (n = O.±2.(z) =_1 ] exp[i(nf/Jzsinf/J)]df/J 21r Ir (b) The last expression for J. (n = O. 2 i(. . (1r S f/J S 1r) for C. .)dq. 0 .±1.zsin q..=_.zsin f/J)]df/J = _1_ ] cos(nf/J . _ flf sin(nq. . ).(z) as follows: I i. (O<lwl< co).±2... exp[izsin f/J]e. .±1. ).. Sec. 21r If 21r_1f L • = 2 1 21r f cos(nq. ._'_0 21r If (n = O.zsin f/J)dq.
.z sin ¢)d¢ 1ro J (n = 0.2.±1. __ 2m If ei. Substituting these values of an and b" into the series.=1_ j f(e.2.(n+l) 21r (n = 0.) Ie i'd¢ _ 1 Jlff( e. .. 11. and the unit circle C: z = e . ). ).. as shown below. z ..1. y x For each point z in the annular domain..)d¢+_l 21£". . we then have ((' f(z) = 21 n_ j f(ei. ) tr and (n = 1.)" + (ei.d¢ ...±2.85 That is. (1r ~ ¢ ~ 1r) is contained in that domain.J"]d¢... there is a Laurent series representation where a_ If I 2m i f(z)dz c Z"+I i _ 1 JIf f(e . (a) The function f(z) i is analytic in some annular domain centered at the origin. 1 If I" (z) = .) e in..)[( i 1f 1C e ~.cos(n¢ .
. 2... d = Lnz. .z) on each side of the Maclaurin series representation (Exercise 1) 1 0 .=0 (lzlc 1). then. (lzlc I). Another differentiation gives 2 dO.=0 =Lzn 11=0 dz . +...=0 . (lzlc 1). d" dz = Ln(n+ I)Z.. equating the real parts on each side of this last equation yields 1% u(9) = 21C f u(q. Replace z by 11 (1.z) 2 . = L(n + l)z" .86 (b) Put z =e i9 in the final result in part (a) to get oc If u( 9) = Re f(ei9)..z) = Lzn d .=0 ... n=O 1.z) dz 11=0 = L(n+l)zn .)]dq.=2 1) (zlt (1<lzll< 00).z (lzlc 1).. This yields the Laurent series representation _!_ = Z2 f (lr(n .I = L(n + I)z" 11=1 11=0 . dz . (1.=1 ... ..1 = L(n+l)(n+2)z" . as well as in its condition of validity. (1.)cos[n(9 q.)dq.. SECTION 60 1.. Differentiating each side of the representation =Lz we find that 1 =2 1 II .L 1% _% 1C 11=1_11: f u(q.. =3 =L(n+l)zn (1..
.=0 (2)" 2 (lz 21< 2). Consider the function defined by the equations eZl fez) = 1 { z when z '¢: 0.(1)" n (z .+1(n + 1)(z _ 2)" £.2) 12 in the known expansion (lzlc 1).1 = i.=0 (Z2)]" 2 (lz21< 2)..+l 11=1 i.J 2"+1 Z .. 4.J 2._z 2+(z2) 2 1+(z2)/2 to see that it can be obtained by replacing z by (z . . Since the function fez) = 11 z has a singular point at z = 0.=0 (lz21< 2)..(_1). Differentiating this series term by term.(It (Z 2)" £.= i.2)._ z 4. as indicated in the figure below.£:. whenz=O. Specifically.=0 (lz21< 2)... we have . 87 = 2 is x To fmd that series.21<2.. write 1 1 1 = 1 =. Thus 1 2' = 1" L(I)"(n+ 1) .. its Taylor series about valid in the open disk Iz .!. !=!i[or z 2.3.J 2"+2 . y z.. ._!_2 = Z £..
Let C be a contour lying in the open disk Iw 11< I in the w plane that extends from the point w = 1 to a point w = z. this result becomes Logz= . it is actually valid for all z.. L (1)"+1(zI)" 11=1 n (lzll< 1).since (_1)"1 =(_1).1[( 1++++··· )] z I! 2! 3! 1 Z Z2 = 1+++···. and. Thus But i dw = f Cw 1 Zdw W = [Logw]: = Logz . Hence f is entire..88 When z ¢ 0. 6. 59. fez) has the power series representation Z Z2 Z3 f(z)=. we can integrate the Taylor series representation (Iw 11< 1) term by term along the contour C. 2! 3! Since this representation clearly holds when z = 0 too. as shown in the figure below. o w plane According to Theorem 1 in Sec.1(_1)2 =(_1)"+1.Logl = Log z and i (wl)" C = ]eW_l)"dw=[(WIY+lJZ 1 n+l = (zI)"+l 1 n+l Hence Logz = i (_I)" 11=0 (ZI)"+1 n +1 = i 11=1 (_1)"1 (z 1)" n (lzll< 1). .
... shown below.!: z 5 6 2 eZ 1 I ~=+lzz z(l +1) z 2 +.. Multiplying these last two series term by term. y x We begin by recalling the Maclaurin series representations eZ =1++++ and I z i Z3 I! 2! 3! 3 ..... Z2 +1 2 6 which is valid when lzlc 1. The singularities of the function fez) = z(z + 1) are atz = 0. (lzlc 00) =I+z+z lz which enable us to write 2 +z + . and 124 =Iz Z2 +1 2 6 (Izl< 00) +z z 6 + . The desired Laurent series is then obtained by multiplying each side of the above representation by . ~ : The problem here is to find the Laurent series for fthat is valid in the punctured disk 0 <lzlc 1. (lzI< 1). (lzI< 1). (0 <lzlc 1). ± i. we have the Maclaurin series representation e' 1 1 = 1+z+z 2 +z 3 +.89 SECTION 61 1. .. t 12 I 3 e =1+z+z +z +.
..90 4. 61. then.!. We know the Laurent series representation 1 1 11 7 ::=. in this series can be written z b =_1 1 2m J. 3 The problem here is to use mathematical induction to verify the differentiation formula [f(z)g(z)](") = t(n)f(k) k=O k (Z)l"k) (z) (n = 1. for the coefficients bPI in a Laurent series tells us that the coefficient b. Expression (3). of . We now assume that the formula is true when n = m and show how..c z2sliz = 27ri(. c Z2 sinhz ' dz where C is the circle lzl = 1.. = _ m. as a consequence.. Since bi = 7.) inhz 6 6.!.. The formula is clearly true when n = 1 since in that case it becomes [f(z)g(z)]' = f(z)g'(z) + f'(z)g(z). Sec. 55.}(m) = [f(z)g'(z) + f'(z)g(z)](m) = [f(z)g' = i(m)f(k) k=O k (z)](m) + [f' (z)g(z)](rn) (z)g<mk+l) (z) + i (m) k=O k fk+I) (z)g(mk) (z) . Sec. ). it is true when n = m + 1. · Z2 sinhz Z3 6 z 360 (0 <lzlc n) from Example 2. taken counterclockwise. We start by writing [f(z)g(z)](m+l) = ([f(z)g(z)].·+z+.2. J.
1 k lk) (z)g<m+lk)(z) + lm+l) (z)g(z). + ~)Z3 +. . = z + 2~Z2 + 2(a.. L ikl (z)g(m+lk) (z). It is straightforward to show that g'(z) = f'[f(z)]f'(z). We are given that fez) is an entire function represented by a series of the form (Izl< 00). (a) Write g(z) = f[f(z)] and observe that (Izl< 00). = f'''[f(z)][f'(z)f + 2f'(z)f"(z)f"[f(z)] + f"[f(z)]f'(z)f"(z) + f'[f(z)]f"'(z). g"(O) = 4~.91 But m) (m ) ( k + kl and so [f(z)g(z) or ](m+l) f(z)g(m+l) (z) + = k!(mk)! + (kl)!(mk+I)! m! m! = k!(m+Ik)! (m+1)! = (m+I) k.. g'(O) = 1. 1. g"(z) = f"[f(z)][f'(Z)]2 and g"'(z) + f'[f(z)]f"(z). Thus g(O) and so f[f(z)] = 0. [f(z)g(z)j<m+l) = m+l(m+l) k"O k The desired verification is now complete. (lzlc 00). + ~). and g"'(O) = I2(a.. = L (m+I) m k.
92 (b) Proceeding formally.. )3 +... (c) Since (Izl< 00).. with llz = 0 and a3 = ... (lzlc 00) into 1. 3 (lzlc 00).. .. = ( Z + llzZ 2 + ~Z 3+.. . ).. To find the series...1.. that is.2.±1. smz sm (sin z) 1 =zz 3 +. ) + a2 ( Z + llzZ 2 + ~Z 3+.)2 + ~ ( Z + llzZ 2 + ~Z 3+. E2n+1 (n = 0. 8..z cosh z n=O n! 1 This representation is valid in the stated disk since the zeros of cosh z are the numbers z = (~ + mc} (n = 0. We need to find the first four nonzero coefficients in the Maclaurin series representation  _ ~ En n ". . we have f[f(z)] = fez) + a2[f(z)]2 + ~[f(Z)]3 +. The result is 1 =Iz 1 cosh z 2 or 2 5 61 +z 4 z 24 6 720 +: .. the result in part (a).±2. we divide the series Z2 ll 12 14 1 coshz= 1++++··=I+z+z +z 2! 4! 6! 2 24 720 6 =0 +..!.. The series contains only even powers of z since cosh z is an even function.. ).. tells us that 6 . the ones nearest to the origin being z = ± ~ i..
E4 = 5._ E4 E6 O+Z2 +Z 4 +Z 6+. . +z z +. 2 4 6 coshz 2! 4! 6! Since 1 = coshz E E.1 1 5 61 =1. 2! 4! 6! this tells us that Eo =1. E2 =1.... and E6 =61..
(0 <lzlc 1).!. .)=!I+ZZ2 z z + . (a) Let us write _1_2 =!.. is now seen to be _.+ 3! 5! 6 l 120 . is clearly 1..!. (b) We may use the expansion to write cosz=I++··· 2! 4! Z2 Z4 l 6! (lzlc 00) (0 <lzlc 00)....+....... z (d) Write and recall that cosz =1+··· 2! and .. The residue at z = 0.._I_=!(I_Z+Z2 Z+Z Z l+z z l+ . which is the coefficient of . = z .!.94 Chapter 6 SECTION 64 1. Since the coefficient of . z 2 (c) Observe that (0 <lzlc 00). (lzlc 00).. Z3 Z2 Z4 4! = 1+··· 24 2 Z3 Z5 Z2 Z4 (lzlc 00) smz = z . in this Laurent series is 0. The residue at z = 0.. or coefficient of !. the residue at z = 0 is O.
6 7 =z+z 3 + ..... ).. we first multiply the Maclaurin series for sinhz 1 and r: lz =z+z +z Z 3 1 6 3 1s + .. .. Note that the condition of validity for this series is due to the fact that sin z = 0 when z = nn (n = 0. we find that =+ .. 6 (0 <lzl< 1).±2. z 45 (e) Recall that s1Ohz=z+++'" 3! 5! and • Z3 ZS (lzlc 00) =l+z+z I 2 lz + .. 2 lz that is valid for 0 clzlc 1. Thus sin z z cos z 1Z Z3 3 45 (0 dzlc n). To find it._!_..95 Dividing the series for sinz into the one for cosz. 120 1S +z +. (Izl< 00). (0 <lzlc n). It is now evident that CO!Z has residue . There is a Laurent series for the function z lz 4{ 2)= 4' z sinhz 1 [sinhz)(1) .. ..±1. at z = O.
) 11 21 Z2 31 Z3 41 Z4 2I 3I z 4I Z2 . .!. =.. we need the residue of the integrand at z = O. exp The Laurent series Zl (!)z = Z2 (1 + _!_.... to evaluate the integral Ie integrand at Zl exp(~)dZ.96 We then see that (0 clzlc 1)..!.!..+.. From z the Laurent series exp( z) = ..!..+_.!... we must find the residue of the z = O.. Thus r exp(z) dz = 2m(I) = 2m. _ _!_. .+..(1. dz=2m (1) .!Z +. .. 6 Hence r Jez 2 exp . we see that the required residue is 1. ' Z 11111 =z 2 +++. In each part. ) Z2 I! z 2! 3! (0 dzlc 00). Thi sows th at th e resiidue 0 f IS h z lz 4( sinhz 2) at z = O·IS .. tells us that the needed residue is ..+.!.~ + Z2 _ l Z2 1I 2I 3I £+ . .!._+ 1I which is valid for 0 dzlc 00.. (a) To evaluate Je r exp~z) dz...!.!. 7 6 2. Z2 Je (c) Likewise.!.. . . _ ~+. C denotes the positively oriented circle Izl= 3.(1) '6 m =3' .!...+.
(a) If fez) = lz 3 ZS ' then when 0 <I zl < 1.!.2 .2) = z . In each part of this problem. 2 Finally. This tells us that Jc r f(z)dz = 2mRes ~ ~=O z f(.!. and note that the coefficient of _1_ z2 is!.97 (d) As for the integral r . then.21< 2. + 1 dz. 1+ (z . we write 1 1(1 3) 1 z+1 (z2)+3 z(z .. 1(zl1 2) 1 1)(1 1) which is valid when 0 <Izl< 2.2) = 2 + z . 3. 2 + (z . C is the positively oriented circle Izl= 2.!. we need the two residues of Jc z 2z z+l z+1 = Z2.2) . The residue at z =0 can be found by writing z(z2) z + 1 = (zz+ 1)(z2 ) = ('2 +~.2z z(z .) z = 2m(I) = 2m. in z this last _. 2 To obtain the residue at z = 2. one at z =0 and one at z = 2.. ='!'(1+_3 )[12 z2 z2 2 + (Z2)2 22 J' in this product which is valid when 0 <tz .2) I 2 . and observing that the coefficient of product is .2 .. . by the residue theorem.
2.) z =1. n=on C Z .98 (b) When fez) = 2' we have l+z (0 <lzlc 1).k = 1. taken counterclockwise. 1. 1 or k = n + 1. (Izl < 00) enables nl n=O .... Now the theorem.'k=~rz k1. 1 Thus i f(z)dz C = 2niRes :=0 ~ Z f(1. z it follows that ~ z f(1. then. n us to write (b) Referring to the Maclaurin n series for et once again. The final result in part (a) thus reduces to 1exp (z+1)dz = 2niL. . z ~ Z Evidently.. . (e) If fez) =1. ). Z 4. i f(z)dz C = 2niRes t=O f(.1.l(n1+ I)! ... Let C denote the circle Izl= 1. z n~ k=O k=0 nk (n = 0.) Z = 2ni(0) = O.!.1. by the residue i zn exp('!')dZ z C = 2ni (n+1)1 (n = 0.. (a) The Maclaurin series et = L£. ). in z this series occurs when n. So. k.2. let us write Z exp  ( z 1) 11~ =z~.) = 2ni(1) = 2ni.
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