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1) General principles (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Nature of flammable materials gas grouping basic principles of area classification temperature codes ingress protection
Standards, Certification and Marking Flameproof Ex d & EEx d Increased Safety Ex e & EEx e Type ‘n’ protection Pressurisation EEx p Intrinsic Safety EEx i Other methods of protection, EEx o, EEx q, EEx m & EEx s Combined (Hybrid) methods of protection Wiring Systems Inspection & Maintenance to BS EN60079-17 Sources of ignition Induction to Competence Validation Testing Permit to Work System and Safe Isolation
Appendix 1 BS5345:
Data for flammable materials for use with electrical equipment, ref Part 1: General recommendations.
Appendix 2 Appendix 3
Self assessment project and apparatus label reading. Supplementary notes for the selection of flameproof cable glands.
National training and certification of personnel for work on electrical apparatus for use in potentially hazardous atmospheres
This package has been compiled with information gathered from current standards and the authors will not be held responsible for any inaccuracies found therein.
The production of this document would not have been possible without the much appreciated assistance from the following authorities and, therefore, the authors of the document wish to thank and gratefully acknowledge all those who provided material and advice for the production of the package, particularly the following: The British Standards Institute JCE (Aberdeen) Ltd, Aberdeen, Scotland James Scott Ltd, Aberdeen, Scotland Weidmuller (Klippon Products) Ltd., Sheerness, Kent Hawke Cable Glands Ltd., Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire Hexagon Technology Ltd., Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire Measurement Technology Ltd., Luton, Bedfordshire Brook Hansen, Huddersfield, West Yorkshire The Design and Presentation Team of Aberdeen College, including all staff involved at the Altens Centre The BASEEFA Crown mark shown in this document is the property of the Health and Safety Executive and should not be interpreted to convey certification. The marks have been reproduced with the kind permission of the EECS (HSE).
Copyright of document:
No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means. i.e. electronic, electrostatic, magnetic media, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the absolute permission in writing of the appointed representatives of Aberdeen College.
3rd Edition, January 2000
About the ‘Ex’ facility
Ex training courses have been run in Aberdeen College since 1990 and have developed to the level of sophistication we have today. In it’s present form the CompEx course has been in operation since August 1994 and has been designed and constructed specifically for the National Training of personnel who work with electrical installations and plant in hazardous and/or potentially explosive environments. The facility includes both classroom and simulated work areas, these being designed to give as realistic site conditions as is possible to achieve. The practical work you will be required to carry out will take place in these simulated areas and this is intended to make you feel that you are working under site conditions. Approximately half of your time will be spent in the classroom where the ‘job knowledge’ elements of the course will be delivered by means of presentations incorporating lectures, demonstrations, and photographic slides of good and bad practice on apparatus. The remaining time will be spent on Competence Validation Testing in the simulated hazardous areas. The tests are nationally set for Ex training.
The objective of the training is to introduce you to operating procedures and techniques and to give you and your employers confidence that you are competent to work on electrical apparatus in hazardous or potentially explosive environments. The competence certificates gained by you will provide evidence that you have achieved the standards of competence laid down nationally by industry and through this will help make your industry a safer one.
About the programme
The need for training in this areas of work is self evident in that the safe operation of electrical equipment in hazardous areas is paramount. It is extremely important for all personnel who operate in these conditions to be competent in the correct techniques and operational procedures. This can best be achieved by means of training by skilled staff in an environment as close to the ‘real thing’ as possible. In addition to this, the job knowledge developed through the course must be put into operation in the actual working situation so that the levels of expertise are increased through experience.
The design of the programme
The program is divided into two halves, namely: (a) (b) Job Knowledge; Competence Validation Testing (CVT)
The ‘job knowledge’ component takes place during the first half of the week and provides the information and experience you need to tackle the CVT’s.
Selection, Installation, and Maintenance of Electrical Apparatus for use in Hazardous Locations.
1) General principles (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Nature of flammable materials gas grouping basic principles of area classification temperature codes ingress protection
Standards, Certification and Marking Flameproof Ex d & EEx d Increased Safety Ex e & EEx e Type ‘n’ protection Pressurisation EEx p Intrinsic Safety EEx i Other methods of protection, EEx o, EEx q, EEx m & EEx s Combined (Hybrid) methods of protection Wiring Systems Inspection & Maintenance to BS EN60079-17 Sources of ignition Induction to Competence Validation Testing Permit to Work System and Safe Isolation
Data for flammable materials for use with electrical equipment, ref BS5345: Part 1: General recommendations. Self assessment project and apparatus label reading. Supplementary notes for the selection of flameproof cable glands.
Appendix 2 Appendix 3
Unit 1: General principles EX01 & EX02 EX03 & EX04 Unit 4: Increased Safety EEx e EX01 & EX02 Unit 2: Standards. Certification and Marking EX01 & EX02 EX03 & EX04 Unit 5: Type ‘n’ protection EX01 & EX02 Unit 3: Flameproof EEx d EX01 & EX02 Unit 6: Pressurisation EEx p EX01 & EX02 (Written Assessment) Unit 9: Combined (Hybrid) protection methods EX01 & EX02 Unit 12: Sources of ignition Unit 7: Intrinsic Safety EEx i EX03 & EX04 Unit 10: Wiring Systems Unit 8: Other methods of protection (Written Assessment) Unit 11: Inspection & Maintenance to BS EN60079-17 EX01 & EX02 EX03 & EX04 Unit 14: Permit to Work and Safe Isolation EX01 & EX02 EX03 & EX04 EX01 & EX02 EX03 & EX04 Unit 13: Induction to Competence Validation Testing EX01 & EX02 EX03 & EX04 EX01 & EX02 EX03 & EX04 . Ex e. Ex e. Ex n and Ex p Systems EX02 Inspection & Maintenance of Ex d.Course outline The training scheme The training scheme is arranged to prepare candidates for the assessment programme which comprises four discreet Competence Validation Tests (CVT’s) offered as complimentary pairs. The four CVT’s are as follows: EX01 Preparation & Installation of Ex d. Ex n and Ex p Systems EX03 Preparation & Installation of Ex i Systems EX04 Inspection & Maintenance of Ex i Systems Job knowledge The classroom (job knowledge) part of the training scheme consists of 12 Units which apply to the four CVT’s as illustrated below.
This exercise will enable you to determine your prior knowledge of the subject.The CVT’s are a series of practical tests which you will undertake within the simulated work areas during the second half of the programme. The staff who are involved in monitoring the various assessments are present only as observers and not to prompt or offer technical assistance. you will find assessment material which you should complete during the course. On successful completion of these tests you will be awarded a Certificate of Core Competence which will indicate the areas the awarding body. During the final half-day of the programme you are required to sit written assessments in the form of multi-choice papers which are related to the practical CVT assessments. especially in the area of interpretation of apparatus labelling. has deemed you are competent. . Joint Training Ltd. Their observations of your work is recorded on Nationally written checklists which are processed outwith the Centre and your results cannot be determined until this process is complete. Self-assessment project At the rear of this manual. (JTL).
Day Programme Monday Presente r 8. e & n apparatus d.00 Unit 10: Wiring systems and cable glanding Break Break Break Unit 11: Inspection & maintenance Unit 14: Permit to work to and safe IEC 79-17 isolation 17.EX02 JK type ‘i’ apparatus EX03 JK .00 Unit 8: Other methods EX03 CVT EX02 CVT EX01 CVT Preparation & Inspection & Preparation & installation of maintenance installation of type ‘i’ of d. e & n apparatus Candidates 7-12 EX01 CVT Preparation & installation of d.30 Break 13.Programme: Electrical Apparatus in Potentially Hazardous Areas 5 . e & n apparatus Candidates 1-6 EX03 CVT EX04 CVT Inspection & Preparation & maintenance installation of of type ‘i’ type ‘i’ apparatus apparatus Candidates 7-12 Candidates 1-6 Unit 6: Pressurisation Unit 5: Ex p 12.30 Course induction Unit 1: General principles Unit 3: Flameproof Ex d Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Unit 13: Induction to Competence Validation Testing Unit 4: Increased Safety EEx e Type ‘n’ protection Break Unit 2: Standards certification and marking Unit 7: Intrinsic Safety EEx i EX02 CVT Inspection & maintenance of d.EX04 JK Candidates 7-12 of protection Unit 9: Hybrid methods of protection . e & n apparatus apparatus Candidates Candidates 1-6 Candidates 1-6 7-12 EX04 CVT Job knowledge Inspection & assessment maintenance of EX01 JK .
the levels of ‘ingress protection’. ‘ignition temperature’. the Grouping of gases according to ‘minimum ignition energy’ (MIE) and ‘maximum experimental safe gap’ (MESG). the effect of ‘oxygen enrichment’ and ‘relative density’. ‘general principles’. the basic principles of area classification. ‘flashpoint’. appropriate T-ratings for apparatus relative to the ignition temperature of a given flammable material.Unit 1: General principles Objectives: On completion of this unit. b) c) d) e) -1- . you should know: a) the nature of flammable materials with regard to ‘explosive limits’ (LEL/UEL).
Combustion will take place if all three elements. are present. These techniques are addressed in the various sections of this manual. or allow an explosion to take place and contain it within a robust enclosure. spark. Each point of the triangle represents one of the essential elements which are: (1) (2) (3) Fuel: Oxygen: Source of ignition: This can be in the form of a gas. -2- . in one form or another. the gas/air mixture is within certain limits and the source of ignition has sufficient energy. vapour.General principles Nature of flammable materials Fire triangle The fire triangle represents the three elements which must be present before combustion can take place. This can be an arc. mist or dust. Plentiful supply since there is approximately 21% by volume in air. These are two techniques used in explosion protected equipment. The removal of one element is sufficient to prevent combustion as is the isolation or separation of the source of ignition from the gas/air mixture. naked flame or hot surface. Other protection techniques allow the three elements to co-exist and either ensure that the energy of the source of ignition is maintained below specific values.
An every day example of this is the carburettor of a petrol engine.e.5 34 75.7 1 UEL % by Volume 9. is below this limit the mixture is too weak to burn. is above this limit the mixture is too rich to burn. insufficient air and/or too much fuel. When the percentage of gas.7 4 1. and air are within certain limits. which must be tuned to a particular point between these limits in order that the engine may function efficiently.e. by volume. Lower Explosive Limit: When the percentage of gas. Material Propane Ethylene Hydrogen Acetylene Diethyl Ether Paraffin Carbon Disulphide LEL % by Volume 2 2.Flammable (Explosive) Limits Combustion will only occur if the flammable mixture comprising fuel. insufficient fuel and/or too much air.7 0.5 1. and between these limits is known as the flammable range. i. in the form of a gas or vapour. i. These limits are the ‘lower explosive limit’ (LEL).6 100 36 5 60 -3- . Upper Explosive Limit: The flammable limits of some materials are given below. by volume. and the ‘upper explosive limit’ (UEL).
Flammable (Explosive) Limits (continued) Different gases or vapours have different flammable limits. exhausts of combustion engines. hot surfaces. only exists between these limits. the more dangerous the material. An explosive (flammable) atmosphere. The source of ignition as far as this text is concerned is primarily electrical equipment. batteries. therefore. static discharges. sodium exposed to water pyrophoric reaction. but is not a practical proposition. chemical reactions. known as the flammable range. frictional sparks. and the greater the difference between the LEL and the UEL. It is more practical to operate below the LEL. lightning strikes. -4- . Operational safety with flammable mixtures above the UEL is possible. Sources of ignition Sources of ignition are many and varied and include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) electrical arcs/sparks. welding activities cigarettes. thermite action.
which vary from well below to well above 0°C. its flashpoint may be reduced. B55345: Part 1 (see Appendix 1) reveals that different materials have different flashpoints. Reference to the tables of flammable materials from the UK Code of Practice. to form a flammable mixture with air that can be ignited by an arc. Materials with high flashpoints should not be overlooked as a potential hazard since exposure to hot surfaces can allow a flammable mixture to form locally. Typical values are given below Material Propane Ethylene Hydrogen Acetylene Diethyl Ether Paraffin Carbon Disulphide Flashpoint °C -104 -120 -256 -82 -45 38 -95 The flashpoint of a material gives an indication of how readily that material will ignite in normal ambient temperatures.Flashpoint By definition flashpoint is: ‘the lowest temperature at which sufficient vapour is given off a liquid. spark or naked flame’. if a flammable material is discharged under pressure from a jet. Amount of vapour released dependant on temperature -5- . Furthermore.
Flashpoint (continued) Kerosene: flashpoint 38 oC -6- .
Ignition temperature.Ignition temperature Ignition temperature is defined as: ‘the minimum temperature at which a flammable material will spontaneously ignite’. indicated by the T-rating. Typical values of ignition temperature are: Material Ignition Temperature o C 470 425 560 305 170 210 102 Propane Ethylene Hydrogen Acetylene Diethyl Ether Paraffin Carbon Disulphide -7- . Careful selection of electrical equipment will ensure that the surface temperatures produced by the equipment. will not exceed the ignition temperature of the flammable atmosphere which may be present around the equipment. formerly known as auto-ignition temperature. is an important parameter since many industrial processes generate heat.
oxygen enrichment significantly raises the upper explosive limit (UEL) of the majority of gases and vapours. therefore.7 UEL % 79 55 94 Methane Propane Hydrogen Thirdly. Air Material LEL % 5 2. the safety of such equipment in an oxygen enriched atmosphere cannot be assured because of the modified nature of the flammable mixture. This is illustrated in the following table.95%. hospitals.Oxygen enrichment The normal oxygen content in the atmosphere is around 20. Air Material Ignition temperature °C 260 305 512 Increased Oxygen Ignition temperature °C 220 296 506 Hydrogen sulphide Acetylene Ethane Secondly.2 4 UE % 15 9. and where oxy-acetylene equipment is used. it can lower the ignition temperature of flammable materials as shown in the table below. First of all.3 4. thereby widening their flammable range. Explosion protected equipment will have been tested in normal atmospheric conditions and.5 75 Increased oxygen LEL % 5. and if a given location has a value which exceeds this it is deemed to be oxygen enriched. -8- . Oxygen enrichment has three distinct disadvantages. oxygen enrichment of a flammable atmosphere can allow it to be ignited with much lower values of electrical energy. Typical examples of where oxygen enrichment may occur are gas manufacturing plants.2 2.
Knowledge of where a flammable material will collect ensures that gas detectors when fitted will be located at the correct level and ventilation is directed accordingly.5 2. or may collect in locations lower than ground level without ever dispersing. it is important to know whether the material will rise or fall in the atmosphere. Therefore. and those greater than unity will fall in the atmosphere. its relative density will be 2. Materials which rise in the atmosphere can collect in roof spaces. Such locations should be well ventilated in order to avoid ignition due to a stray spark or a discarded cigarette.9 2. Material Air Propane Ethylene Hydrogen Acetylene Diethyl Ether Paraffin Carbon Disulphide Relative vapour density 1 1. Since air is the reference.56 0.64 -9- . its relative density is 1 so that for a material twice as heavy as air. such as butane or propane. The different flammable materials are compared with air and allocated a number to denote their relative density with air. can drift along at ground level and possibly into a non-hazardous location.Density If a flammable material is released. materials with a relative density less than unity will rise in the atmosphere.07 0.97 0.55 4. and those which fall.
therefore. are as follows: Zone 0 - In this Zone. Part 10.10 - . Hazardous areas are. Zoning will have a bearing on. In this Zone.l000 hours over 1000 hours . for the different Zones is as follows. and simplify the selection of. as defined in BS EN60079-l0: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres. or a number of gas releases. if it does occur. an explosive gas atmosphere is continuously present. installation and use of apparatus. an explosive gas atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation and. is likely to do so only infrequently and will exist for a short period only. an explosive gas atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation. In this Zone. divided into three Zones which represent this risk in terms of the probability. it is generally accepted in the industry that the duration of a gas release. Classification of hazardous areas. frequency and duration of a release. Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 0 - 0- l0 hours 10 . Zone 1 - Zone 2 - Although not specified in the standards. in quantities such as to require special precautions for the construction.Area classification An hazardous area is defined as: an area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is present. the type of explosion protected equipment which may be used. on an annual basis (one year comprises circa 8760 hours). The three Zones. installation and use of apparatus. A non-hazardous area is defined as: an area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is not expected to be present in quantities such as to require special precautions for the construction. or present for long periods. or may be expected to be present. Zones Zoning is a means of representing the frequency of the occurrence and duration of an explosive gas atmosphere based on the identification and consideration of each and every source of release in the given areas of an installation.
diagram representation of .11 - .Area classification (continued) Zones .
Area classification (continued) Fixed roof storage tank .12 - .
Area classification (continued) Sources of release .13 - .
Area classification (continued) Platform hazardous areas .14 - .
Gas Group Representative Gas Methane (Firedamp) Propane Ethylene Hydrogen & Acetylene MESG (mm) Maximum Working Gap (mm) 0.4 0. Apparatus marked IIXXXXX: XXXXX represents the chemical formula or name of a flammable material. The maximum dimension between the flanges. In the table below it can be seen that for Group II. which prevented ignition of the gas/air mixture. Both halves of the sphere had 25 mm flanges and a mechanism enabled the gap dimension between the flanges to be varied.15 - . is known as the ‘maximum experimental safe gap’ (MESG). During tests. .5 Note: Apparatus other than flameproof or intrinsic safety. the area inside and outside the sphere was occupied with a gas in its most explosive concentration in air and. One method involved determining the minimum ignition energy which would ignite the representative gases. The more dangerous a gas.5 0. and Group II which is subdivided into IIC. IIB and IIA for surface industries using. B or C) after the group II mark. hydrogen and acetylene present the most risk and propane the least risk in terms of ‘minimum ignition energy’ and ‘MESG’. and apparatus marked in this way may only be used in that hazard.e. The other method involved tests using.97 0.1 Minimum Ignition Energy (µJ) 280 260 95 20 I IIA IIB IIC 1.2 0. and the values for the representative gases are shown in the table below. the tighter the gap at the flanges has to be. Two methods have been used to ‘group’ these flammable materials according to the degree of risk they represent when ignited. which has no sub-division letter (A. The table also shows that these flammable materials fall into the same order for both tests. in a relative context. i.71 0. Group I is reserved for the mining industry. a special flameproof enclosure in the form of an 8 litre sphere which was situated inside a gas-tight enclosure. hydrogen and acetylene are the most easily ignited and propane the least easily ignited. the gas inside the sphere was ignited. the Group allocation for surface and underground (mining) industries are separate. may be used in all hazards. by means of a spark-plug.Gas / apparatus grouping In the IEC system. The representative gases for the sub-groups are shown in the table below. for example.17 0.
Gas / apparatus grouping The group sub-division marking is one of the important considerations during the selection process of explosion protected apparatus. .E. For example.S. apparatus marked IIA can only be used in IIA hazards such as propane. Apparatus for determination of M. Apparatus marked IIB can be used in IIB and IIA hazards but not IIC hazards. Apparatus marked IIC can be used in all hazards. it can not be used in IIB or IIC hazards.16 - .G.
17 - . This means that electrical apparatus.Gas / apparatus grouping Comparison of BS 229 and IEC BS 229 is an old British Standard which is obsolescent. BS 229 I II IIIa IIIb IV Representative Gas Methane Propane Ethylene IEC I IIA IIB Coal Gas Hydrogen & Acetylene IIC . is still made to this standard. although very few.
This is demonstrated on page 18. Material Methane Ethylene Cyclohexane Diethyl Ether Carbon Disulphide Ignition temperature 595 °C 425 °C 259 °C 170 °C 102 °C T-rating T1 (450 °C) T2 (300 °C) T3 (200 °C) T4 (135 °C) T5 (100 °C) T6 ( 85 °C) . A further consideration is that apparatus for use in hotter climates. In order to avoid infringement of the apparatus certification. the T-rating temperature is below the ignition temperature of the flammable material. Apparatus will usually be marked with one of the temperature codes shown in the table below.18 - . will usually require ambient ratings greater than 40 °C. For example. Temperature codes Temperature code T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Maximum surface temperature 450°C 300°C 200°C 135°C 100°C 85°C In the table below. it will be observed that for each material. apparatus classified T5. and the temperature rise not exceeded. based on a 40 °C ambient rating will have a maximum permitted temperature rise of 60 °C. Moreover. the T-rating temperatures are based on a maximum ambient rating of 40 °C as far as the UK is concerned. the ambient rating must be compatible with environmental ambient temperatures.Temperature Classification Approved electrical equipment must be selected with due regard to the ignition temperature of the flammable gas or vapour which may be present in the hazardous location. typically found in Middle and Far Eastern countries.
Temperature Classification (continued) .19 - .
e. Zero (0) indicates no protection and 6 indicates the apparatus is dust-tight.0 mm Dust-protected Dust-tight Second Numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Water Level of Protection No protection Protection against drops of water falling vertically Protection against drops of water when tilted up to 15° Protection against sprayed water up to 60° Protection against splashed water from any direction Protection against jets of water from any direction Protection against heavy seas . 0 indicates that no protection is afforded.6. IP56. indicates the degree of protection against solid bodies.deck watertight Protection against immersion in water 1m in depth and for a specified time Protection against indefinite immersion in water at a specified depth 8 . The first number. and the higher the number the smaller the solid object that is prevented from entering the enclosure. identifies the level of protection against water entering the enclosure. consists of the letters IP followed by two numbers.5 mm Protection against objects greater than 1.20 - .g. which is not always marked on apparatus. in the range 0 . i.Ingress Protection Enclosures of electrical equipment are classified according to their ability to resist the ingress of solid objects and water by means of a system of numbers known as the ‘International Protection (IP) Code’. The second number. An abridged version of the full table is shown below.8. This Code.e. and 8 that the apparatus can withstand continuous immersion in water at a specified pressure. ranging from 0 . Solid Objects First Numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Level of Protection No protection Protection against objects greater than 50 mm Protection against objects greater than 12 mm Protection against objects greater than 2.
the certification process for explosion protected apparatus. ‘Standards.Unit 2: Standards. certification and marking Objectives: On completion of this unit. b) c) -1- . European and International Standards and also relevant older British Standards and Codes of Practice. Certification and Marking’. the methods of marking explosion protected apparatus. you should know: a) current British.
Although BS 5345 has been superseded. Since the early 1920’s. The safe use of electrical energy in the hazardous locations of these industries can only be achieved if tried and tested methods of explosion protection are implemented and to this end. often prompted by incidents such as the Senghennydd colliery disaster in 1913 in which 439 miners lost their lives. once again due to the electrical ignition of methane gas. The acronym. Guidance in this respect has been provided for many years by the UK Code of Practice BS 5345. EECS also publishes standards for special applications. These five documents cover. which has been closely associated with explosion protected apparatus for may years.Standards. gas terminals and offshore installations. as do other/nations internationally. -2- . Some of these are introduced in the following text. (2) classification of hazardous areas. and these include chemical plants. (1) installation of apparatus. has been retained by EECS for certification marking purposes. was thought to have been due to an electrical spark igniting methane (firedamp) present in the atmosphere. certification and marking Introduction There are many industries involved in the process of hazardous materials. Equipment designs are evaluated and prototypes tested by independent organisations. The other European nations have. manufacturing and testing standards are published by an organisation known as the British Standards Institute (BSI). and more recently Piper Alpha in the North Sea in which 167 men lost their lives. oil refineries. the organisation which publishes harmonised standards for it’s member nations is the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation (CENELEC) and. In the United Kingdom. with a view to global harmonisation the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) publishes standards for this purpose. The cause at that time was not fully understood but after investigation. but the integrity of such apparatus will only be preserved if such apparatus is selected. the authorities involved in the writing of standards. Explosion protected apparatus may be constructed in accordance with relevant standards. but this document has been superseded by a new series of five separate harmonised standards based on the IEC79 series of International standards. one of which was formerly known as ‘British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres (BASEEFA). (4) repair of explosion protected apparatus and (5) data for flammable gases. lighting. it nevertheless remains current until it is completely withdrawn at sometime in the future. (3) inspection and maintenance. testing and certification of equipment have a very important role to play. These industries rely heavily on electrical energy to power. for example. EECS is part of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). BASEEFA. heating and rotating electrical machines. their own organisations which publish manufacturing and testing standards. Flixborough. Construction of apparatus to relevant standards coupled with testing by an independent expert test authority will ensure that the apparatus is suitable for its intended purpose. With regard to Europe. Other disasters include Abbeystead Water Pumping Station in which 14 people lost their lives. installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. many standards have evolved as a result of careful research. but is now known as ‘Electrical Equipment Certification Service (EECS)’. These new standards are a further stage in the process to harmonise standards globally. and also testing and certification services.
Reasons for Product Certification 1) To demonstrate product quality with regard to the ability of the apparatus to function safely in an hazardous environment. -3- . for example. the equipment will be issued with a ‘certificate of conformity’ which allows the manufacturer to display. and to ensure that quality is maintained to acceptable standards. operation and maintenance of approved/certified products.shown later in this text . The manufacturers facilities will also be inspected including quality control procedures and if satisfactory the manufacturer will be allocated a three year licence to manufacture the product. the authority will request a prototype of the equipment in order that tests. if all requirements are satisfied. can be carried out. To enhance market acceptability by inspiring confidence in those involved in the selection. which are normally detailed in the standards. If the drawings are in compliance with the relevant standards. To improve quality and safety control procedures in manufacturing and construction. the manufacturer’s facilities will be regularly inspected to ensure that the production of equipment is consistent with the original certified design. purchase. A detailed certification report is compiled and retained on file by the test authority and. 2) 3) Certification process The certification process will generally involve submission of drawings of the proposed equipment design to the certification authority. installation. During this three year term. the EECS ‘crown’ symbol and the European Community symbol .on the label of the equipment and associated documentation.
Evolution of BS .British Standards SMRE: BASEEFA: Safety in Mines Research Establishment British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres -4- .
European test authorities -5- .
Comparison of IEC, European (CENELEC) and British Standards
Prior to the closer ties between the UK and Europe, electrical equipment, such as flameproof or increased safety etc., was manufactured in accordance with the British Standard BS 4683. Equipment built and certified to this standard was entitled to display the mark Ex on its label, which indicated that the apparatus was explosion protected. This term should not be confused with term explosion-proof as they are entirely different. In addition to the ‘Ex’ mark, the label was also marked with a ‘crown’ symbol, which is the distinctive mark for the UK test house BASEEFA, or EECS as they are now known. Various American and European symbols are shown in Page 8. Because of the differences in standards, equipment manufactured in the UK could not be used in the other European countries and vice-versa, and hence, equipment made to BS 4683 could only be used in the UK, or certain other countries outwith Europe. Co-operation between the standards writing bodies in the UK and Europe resulted in the development of ‘Harmonised’ standards, also known as ‘Euronorms’ of which the English version was published as BS 5501 comprising nine separate parts and shown in the middle column below. The Euronorm equivalents, written in French, are shown in the first column. Column four shows the new numbers for the revised standards which will replace BS 5501. Note: The draft European (CENELEC) standard, EN50 021 for type of protection ‘n’, which had been under consideration for many years, was finally approved on 1 August 1998 and issued as BS EN50 021 in April 1999. As a consequence, the UK standard BS 6941 may eventually be withdrawn.
CENELEC EURONORM (EN) NUMBER EN 50 014 EN 50 015 EN 50 016 EN 50 017 EN 50 018 EN 50 019 EN 50 020 EN 50 028 EN 50 039 EN 50 021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IEC 79-0: Pt.0 IEC 79-6: Pt.6 IEC 79-2: Pt.2 IEC 79-2: Pt.5 IEC 79-1: Pt.1 IEC 79-7: Pt.7 IEC 79-11: Pt.11 IEC 79-18: Pt.18
BRITISH STANDARD (BS) NUMBER BS 5501: Pt. 1 BS 5501: Pt. 2 BS 5501: Pt. 3 BS 5501: Pt. 4 BS 5501: Pt. 5 BS 5501: Pt. 6 BS 5501: Pt. 7 BS 5501: Pt. 8 BS 5501: Pt. 9
REVISED STANDARD (BS EN) NUMBER BS EN50 014 BS EN50 015 BS EN50 016 BS EN50 017 BS EN50 018 BS EN50 019 BS EN50 020 BS EN50 028 BS EN50 039 BS EN50 021
TYPE OF PROTECTION
General Requirements Oil Immersion ‘o’ Pressurised Apparatus ‘p’ Powder Filling ‘q’ Flameproof Enclosure ‘d’ Increased Safety ‘e’ Intrinsic Safety ‘i’ Encapsulation ‘m’ Intrinsic Safety Systems ‘i’ Type of Protection ‘n’ Type of Protection ‘n’
IEC 79-15: Pt.15 BS 6941
Other (older) British Standards
The standards listed below are those which preceded the harmonised European standards listed in the previous table. These standards, and in particular BS 4683, are not entirely obsolete, and older designs of equipment may still be manufactured to these standards. It is, therefore, important that reference to the correct standard is made before maintenance is carried out on such apparatus. BS 5345 is included because it is from this document that the table of data for flammable materials see Appendix 1 - is taken.
BS 229 BS 889 BS 1259 BS 4683: Part 1 BS 4683: Part 2 BS 4683: Part 3 BS 4683: Part 4 BS 4683: Part 15 BS 4683: Part 16 BS 5345
Flameproof enclosure of electrical apparatus (Obsolescent) Flameproof electric light fittings (Withdrawn) Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits for use in explosive atmospheres (Obsolescent) Classification of maximum surface temperature The construction and testing of flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus. Type of protection ‘N’. Type of protection ‘e’. Machines with type of protection ‘e’. Type ‘N’ electric motors UK Code of practice for the selection, installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres.
Standards for Selection, Installation and Maintenance
As previously stated, the UK Code of Practice BS 5345, which has for many years provided recommendations for the selection, installation and maintenance of explosion protected apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (other than mining applications or explosives processing and manufacture), has been superseded but remains current until completely withdrawn. The table below illustrates its component parts.
UK CODE OF PRACTICE BS 5345: Part 1 BS 5345: Part 2
TYPE OF PROTECTION General Recommendations Classification of Hazardous Areas Installation and maintenance requirements for electrical apparatus with type of protection:
BS 5345: Part 3 BS 5345: Part 4 BS 5345: Part 5 BS 5345: Part 6 BS 5345: Part 7 BS 5345: Part 8 BS 5345: Part 9
‘d’ Flameproof enclosure ‘i’ Intrinsically safe apparatus and systems ‘p’ Pressurisation, continuous dilution and pressurised rooms ‘e’ Increased safety ‘N’ (Non - incendive) ‘s’ Special protection ‘o’ Oil immersion ‘q’ Powder filling
The standards which supersede the Code of Practice BS 5345 are illustrated in the table below
BS EN / IEC Nos. BS EN60079-10: 1996 (IEC 60079-10: 1995) BS EN60079-14: 1997 (IEC 60079-14: 1996) BS EN60079-17: 1997 (IEC 60079-17: 1996) BS EN60079-19: 1997 (IEC 60079-19: 1996) BS EN60079-20: (IEC 60079-20:)
Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres: Part 10: Classification of hazardous areas Part 14: Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Part 17: Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Part 19: Repair and overhaul for apparatus used in explosive atmospheres (other than mines or explosives) Data for flammable gases
The following symbols are used to identify apparatus approved/certified by recognised European and American authorities.
Equipment marked with this symbol may only be used for underground (mining) applications in the UK.
This is the EECS (BASEEFA) symbol and used to identify equipment for surface industry use only.
Equipment marked with this symbol, the European Community mark, in addition to the above symbol (2), indicates that the apparatus has been constructed and tested in accordance with the CENELEC/EURONORM standards.
The symbol used by the German certification authority PTB.
The most common UL listing mark.
i. e. and The T-rating. however. Such apparatus would be marked with the EECS certification authority symbol (2) as well as the European Community mark (3). IEC 79-1 in example (a) below. Such equipment would also be marked with the EECS certification authority symbol (2) on the previous page. (a) (b) (c) (d) The symbols Ex or EEx. e. and it should be noted that the construction standard to which the equipment has been manufactured to. Examples: i) ii) iii) Ex d IIB T3 EEx d IIC T4 EEx e II T6 In example (i). is used in other countries outwith the European Community. equipment marked thus (Ex). Apparatus constructed to this standard. For apparatus marked EEx as in examples (ii) and (iii). and The type of protection used. e.g. T1. T2 etc. IIB or IIC.g. (a) BS 4683: Pt.1 & 5 (EN50 014 & EN50 018) . the additional letter ’E’ indicates that the apparatus has been constructed to a harmonised European standard. which is not a harmonised European standard. For BS 4683 equipment.e.g.2 (IEC79-1) (b) BS 5501: Pt. BS 4683: Part 2.e. ‘e’. ‘N’. the IEC equivalent standard. as far as Europe is concerned. ‘d’. and The gas group. is usually included. can only be used in the UK because it has been constructed to the British Standard BS 4683. Sample labels are shown below. IIA. i.10 - .Apparatus marking Apparatus approved/certified as providing a method of protection for use in hazardous locations are required to display the following markings. BS 5501: Parts 1 & 5 and EN50 014 & EN50 018 are also given on the labels.
11 - .Certification marking .
Certificate number .12 - .
explosion protected equipment must comply with. . These requirements are wide ranging and beyond the scope of this section but. installation and maintenance of explosion protected apparatus.13 - . for example. The marking required by the EU Directive 94/9/EC is illustrated below and is additional to the marking requirements already discussed. This will be the most obvious difference to those involved in the selection. The categories are defined overleaf.ATEX ATEX represents the European Union’s Directive 94/9/EC which specifies the new requirements which manufacturers of. what is important is the influence the directive will have on the marking of explosion protected apparatus.
e. High level of protection.e. Equipment with this category of protection may be used where an explosive atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation. Zone 1 or Zone 21. Equipment with this category of protection may be used where an explosive atmosphere is unlikely to occur or be of short duration. Zone 2 or Zone 22. Equipment to be de-energised in the presence of an explosive atmosphere.e.14 - . Very high level of protection. Normal level of protection.Category definitions Group II Category 1: Very high level of protection. Equipment can be operated in the presence of an explosive atmosphere. i. Category 2: Category 3: Group I Category Ml: Category M2: . i. i. Zone 0 or Zone 20. High level of protection. Equipment with this category of protection may be used where an explosive atmosphere is present continuously or for long periods.
obstruction of flamepaths and additional weatherproofing methods in accordance with BS EN60079-14. the installation requirements with regard to thread engagement of cable entries and stopping devices.Unit 3: Flameproof Ex d & EEx d Objectives: On completion of this unit. d) . you should know: a) b) c) the principle of operation and causes of pressure piling. the inspection requirements with regard to BS EN60079-17. circuit protection. ‘flameproof Ex d & EEx d’ apparatus. the general constructional requirements including types of joints.
This explosion. . Flameproof apparatus. is from the German word ‘druckfeste’ (kapselung). Flameproof is the only one of the nine different methods of explosion protection in which an explosion is permitted. must be contained by the robustly constructed flameproof enclosure. contactors and relays etc. electric motors etc. however. enables components such as switches. The letter ‘d’. typically junction boxes. which roughly translated means ‘pressure tight’ (enclosure). lighting fittings. to be safely used in hazardous areas.Flameproof EEx d or Ex d Flameproof is one of the original methods of explosion protection developed for use in the mining industry. which symbolises this type of protection. It has a wide range of applications. when properly installed in the intended location.
Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 14. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part17. Definition The construction standard BS EN50 018 defines flameproof as: ‘A type of protection in which the parts which can ignite an explosive atmosphere are placed in an enclosure which can withstand the pressure developed during an internal explosion of an explosive mixture and which prevents the transmission of the explosion to the explosive atmosphere surrounding the enclosure’. The construction and testing of flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus (Ex d). Part 1: 1971 BS EN60079-14: Part 14 BS EN60079-17: Part 17 BS 5345: Part 3 Flameproof enclosure ‘d’. Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines).Standards BS EN50 018 BS 5501: Part 5: 1977 BS 4683: Part 2: 1971 BS 229: 1957 IEC 79-1. Flameproof enclosure ‘d’. Zone of Use: 1&2 Ambient conditions Flameproof enclosures are normally designed for use in ambient temperatures in the range -20°C to +40°C unless otherwise marked . Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines). Flameproof enclosures of electrical apparatus Construction and Test of Flameproof Enclosures of Electrical Apparatus (Ex d). Installation and Maintenance of flameproof apparatus. Code of Practice for the Selection.
and the resulting explosion pressure can reach a peak value of around 150 p.3 µm. and where corrosion resistance is required. Typical materials used for the construction of flameproof apparatus include cast iron. and cause ignition of a flammable atmosphere which may exist outwith the enclosure. therefore.i. Both standards specify that ‘THERE SHALL BE NO INTENTIONAL GAP AT THE COVER JOINTS’ and that the average roughness Ra of the flamepath surfaces must not exceed 6. ignition of the gas or vapour may occur.Principle of operation Flameproof enclosures are not gas tight and a gas or vapour will enter the enclosure where. aluminium alloys. The enclosure must. . Plastic materials are also used but the free internal volume must not exceed 10 cm3. for example. joints or cable entries exist. and the gaps at the joints and threads of cable entries must be long and narrow to cool the flames/hot gases before they reach.s. Since these enclosures are designed to contain components which are an ignition source. be strong enough to contain this explosion pressure. gun metal bronze. phosphor bronze and stainless steel may be used.
but must not be in excess of the dimensions specified in the tables of the relevant standards for a given hazard. the gas group. . the type of joint. gaps will normally exist due to manufacturing methods. the internal volume of the enclosure.Gap dimensions Although the standards specify that there shall be no intentional gap at the joints of flameproof equipment. Factors which influence the dimension of the gap are: (a) (b) (c) (d) the width of the joint. tolerances and economics.
In a flanged joint. Spigot joints will be used at junction box covers and motor endshields. cable gland and conduit entries. This standard does not permit the use of flanged joints when a IIC gas such as acetylene is the hazard. junction boxes. (a) Flanged joint (b) Spigot joint (c) Screwed joint . Flanged joints may be used for other IIC gases or vapours but the enclosure volume must not exceed 500 cm3. Threaded joints are used for cover joints.Flamepath joints The diagrams below show three types of joints specified in the British standard BS EN50 018 for use in flameproof apparatus. for example. This type of joint will be used at the covers of. An adequate flamepath length is normally achieved with a thread engagement of five full threads. the machined surface on the cover makes face-to-face contact with the corresponding surface on the base to give a gap dimension normally less than that specified in the tables when the cover is properly bolted down.
Flamepath joints types (rotating machines) (d) Cylindrical (shaft gland) joint (e) Labyrinth joint for shafts .
or where a cable gland or conduit enters an enclosure. an actuator spindle passes through the wall of an enclosure. Examples are shown below. Push-button spindle Cable (gland) entry .Flamepath joints (other examples) Flamepaths other than those at cover joints are also necessary where. for example.
Only threaded entries are permitted for all cable glands or conduit entering flameproof enclosures . IIB and IIC.Entry by cable or conduit The thread engagement requirements for cable and conduit entries are specified in BS EN50 018 and apply to the three sub-groups IIA. Volume ≤ 100 cm3 Thread engagement ≥ 5 full threads Axial length ≥ 5 mm > 100 cm3 Thread engagement ≥ 5 full threads Axial length ≥ 8 mm .clearance entries are not permitted.
plastic stoppers are unacceptable .which are fully engaged by 5 full threads. These must be ‘component certified’ metal stoppers .Unused cable or conduit entries It is important that unused cable/conduit entries in flameproof enclosures are closed using appropriate stoppers as specified in the standards or supplied by the manufacturer. The construction standard specifies suitable types. examples of which are illustrated below. .
Flamepath gap dimensions .BS EN50 018 Table 1 .
Flamepath gap dimensions .BS EN50 018 Table 2 .
which may be a large component or a number of components. which prevents the natural development of an explosion. This will ensure that pressure piling is kept under control. guided by relevant construction standards.25% of the total cross-section) around any potential obstruction.Pressure piling If a flammable mixture is compressed prior to ignition. must ensure that. An explosion at one side of an obstacle pre-compresses the flammable mixture at the other side. Manufacturers. . there is adequate free space (typically 20 . resulting in a secondary explosion which can reach an explosion pressure around three times that of the first or normal explosion pressure. Pressure piling can materialise as a result of sub-division of the interior of a flameproof enclosure. in any crosssection within an enclosure. the resulting explosion will be considerably higher than if the same mixture was ignited at normal atmospheric pressure.
and causing ignition of the flammable mixture in section ‘2’ which will have been pressurised by the initial explosion. In the illustration of a flameproof machine in the diagram below. also acts as a flamepath. therefore. sections with appreciable free volume normally exist at each end within the main frame of the machine. .Pressure piling in flameproof motors In rotating electrical machines. These sections are linked by the airgap between the stator and rotor cores. an explosion in section ‘1’ must be prevented from migrating to. The airgap.
reduce the efficiency of the flamepath to the extent that ignition of the external gas or vapour could occur. in the event of an internal explosion. conduit. brackets. particularly those with flanged joints. as specified in BS EN60079-14 and BS 5345: Part 3 are: Group IIA IIB IIC Distance 10 mm 30 mm 40 mm . The minimum distances between the flamepath opening and an obstruction.. in close proximity to the opening at the joint can. This recommendation is also given in BS EN60079-14: Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines). A solid obstruction such as a wall.Obstruction of Flamepaths The UK Code of Practice BS 5345 Part 3 recommended that obstruction of flameproof enclosures. should be avoided. steelwork. weatherguards or other electrical apparatus etc.
must be removed prior to re-assembly. Silicone based greases require careful consideration in order to avoid possible damage to the elements of gas detectors. seals or gaskets to prevent the ingress of water and/or dust. These measures are specified in BS EN60079-14. (c) (d) Non-hardening tape must not be used on group IIC equipment installed in locations containing group IIC gases or vapours. as part of their approved design. An enclosure may be painted after assembly even if paint is likely to enter the flamepath gap. in addition to providing an additional level of ingress protection. The machined surfaces of flanged joints must not be painted. With regard to the use of non-hardening tape on group IIB apparatus. it also inhibits the formation of rust on these surfaces. For flameproof equipment. PD60079-14: 2000 permits it’s use providing the flamepath gap does not exceed 0. The Code of Practice BS 5345: Part 3 (now superseded but still current) recommended that expert advice be sought when considering the use of nonhardening tape on group IIB or IIC equipment installed in locations containing group IIB gases or vapours. consideration of additional measures may be necessary if this is permissible after consultation with relevant standards. This would also apply to IIC enclosures used in IIB hazards. (a) (b) Non-hardening tape may be applied around the flamepath of apparatus allocated to group IIA using a short overlap. or the manufacturer or other authority. a supplementary document PD60079-14: 2000: Guide to the application of BS EN60079-14 was published to clarify issues not addressed in the latter standard. Where environmental conditions are extreme. BS EN60079-14. Equipment should have. The use of non-setting grease on the machined surfaces of flamepaths has two advantages since. and non-setting grease or compounds. the Standard which gives recommendations for the installation of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.1mm regardless of the length of flamepath. the limitations for the use of non-hardening tape are specified as follows. did not maintain this recommendation but. Paint on the machined surfaces of flamepaths. however. .Weatherproofing Flameproof equipment must have a level of ingress protection to suit the environmental conditions in which the equipment is installed. This document specifies the limitations of use for non-hardening grease bearing textile tape (typically Denso tape) as detailed below. The replacement document.
The gaskets etc. Typical examples for outdoor use are illustrated below.e. . must be an integral part of the original design.Ingress protection methods The diagrams below illustrate the location of gaskets or rubber ‘O’ rings for ensuring a high level of ingress protection. they cannot be added at a later date to an enclosure manufactured without gaskets. i.
examples of which are shown below. relays or contactors may be installed. Direct entry Indirect entry . one of which is the method of entry into the apparatus. There are two entry methods.Direct / indirect entry The selection of cable glands for flameproof apparatus is influenced by several factors. Direct entry comprises a single flameproof chamber within which components such as switches. one of which contains only terminals for connection of the conductors of incoming cables or conduit. namely direct and indirect. Flameproof apparatus with indirect entry has two separate chambers. Connection to the arcing components in the second compartment is made via these flameproof terminals which pass through the flameproof interface between the two compartments.
are utilised. .Electrical protection Flameproof enclosures are tested for their ability to withstand internal gas explosions only. e. In order to avoid invalidation of the certification. it is important that properly rated/calibrated electrical protection.g. fuses and/or circuit breakers. they are not capable of withstanding the energy which may be released as a result of an internal short-circuit.
Pressure piling is a possibility if a larger component is fitted. The testing procedure will take into consideration the free internal volume after all the components have been fitted. The certification. For example. the following points should be observed. “seals” the design of the apparatus so that any unauthorised modifications will effectively invalidate the approval/certification. Modifications will modify the original test results recorded by the test/certification authority and. (a) Replacement components should always be exactly the same as the original specified components in order to avoid infringement of the certification. and the rise in pressure as a result of an internal explosion using a gas/air mixture in its most explosive proportions. a component larger or smaller than the original will affect the internal geometry of the enclosure. Note: illustrations are for demonstration only and must not be carried out Original arrangement Replacement of ‘A’ with a larger item Replacement of ‘A’ with a smaller item . creepage and clearance distances.Modification of flameproof enclosures Flameproof enclosures are normally supplied complete with all internal components fined and certified as a single entity by a recognised test authority. consequently. the temperature rise (determined by the maximum power dissipation). and increased volume will result if a smaller component is fitted. therefore.
prior to certification.(b) adding components is also forbidden because of the possibility of increased explosion pressure as a result of pressure piling. Addition of component ‘C’ (c) The removal of components should also be avoided since an increase in the free internal volume will result. would be compromised as a result of a modification such as this. Removal of component ‘B’ Note: Illustrations are for demonstration only and must not be carried out . The original test results.
they must not be added retrospectively if not included as part of the original design. Correct alignment of the threaded entry is also important since the flamepath length at one side will be reduced if the cable gland or conduit is not fitted perpendicular to the face of the enclosure. The strength of a flameproof enclosure may be impaired if the number and size of entries exceeds that permitted in the original design certified by the test authority.(d) Drilling and tapping of cable gland/conduit entries should only be carried out by the manufacturer of the enclosure. The threads of the entries are required to be compatible with those of cable glands or conduit in terms of type of thread. The use of unauthorised sealants should also be avoided when it is required to maintain or improve the IP rating. (e) Gaskets can only be replaced. size and location of entries to ensure the enclosure will contain an internal explosion. Compliance with the original design is paramount with regard to number. or his approved agent. thread pitch and clearance tolerance since flamepaths exist at these points. .
V = Visual) . C = Close.BS EN 60079-17: Table 1: Inspection Schedule for Ex‘d’. Ex‘e’. and Ex‘n’ Installations (D = Detailed.
the methods for estimating terminal content of enclosures. you should know: a) b) c) d) e) the principle of operation. the inspection requirements according to BS EN 60079-17. the principle design features. the installation requirements according to BS EN 60079-14. -1- .Unit 4: Increased Safety Ex e & EEx e Objectives: On completion of this unit. ‘Increased Safety Ex e & EEx e’ apparatus.
has probably been viewed with a little trepidation.Increased Safety Ex e or EEx e The explosion protection concept Increased Safety was invented in Germany where it has been widely used for many years. Typical applications are induction motors. Standards BS EN50 019 BS 5501: Part 6 BS 4683: Part 4 IEC 79-7 BS EN60079-14 Increased Safety enclosure ‘e’ Increased Safety enclosure ‘e’ Type of protection ‘e’ Construction and Test of Electrical Apparatus. which roughly translated means ‘increased security’. It is has become popular in the UK mainly because it has a number of advantages for certain applications over the traditional flameproof method of explosion protection. This method of protection has a good safety record and comparable with the other methods of protection. America has traditionally relied on the use of explosion-proof enclosures in hazardous locations. The letter ‘e’ which symbolises this method of protection is taken from the German phrase Erhohte Sicherheit. Type of Protection “e” Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 14 Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 17 Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) BS EN60079-17 -2- . and the prospect of using an Increased Safety enclosure. lighting fittings and junction boxes. which is not designed to withstand an internal explosion. as an alternative.
Zones of use: 1&2 Ambient temperatures Increased Safety enclosures are normally designed for use in ambient temperatures in the range -20 °C to +40 °C unless otherwise marked. ARCS or SPARKS occurring on internal or external parts of the apparatus in normal operation’.Definition ‘A protection method in which increased measures are taken to prevent the possibility of excessive HEAT. -3- .
tested to 4 or 7 joules impact energy depending on application. The shortest distance between two conductors along the surface of an insulator. Close excess current circuit protection. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Increased Safety Terminals The terminals installed in an Increased Safety enclosure must be ‘component certified’ terminals. arcs or sparks. incorporated in the apparatus by the manufacturer and are as follows.e. which might otherwise be produced by internal or external parts of the apparatus.. 100 drops of electrolyte (usually ammonium chloride solution in distilled water) without tracking. have been subjected to a ‘Comparative Tracking Index (CTI)’ test to determine their resistance to tracking. Polyamide and. excessive surface temperatures. Ceramic. therefore. Tracking: Comparative Tracking Index: -4- . or live terminals and earth. Specified creepage and clearances incorporated in design of terminals. Terminal population of enclosure limited by circuit design. Terminals manufactured from high quality insulation material. The leakage current which passes across the contaminated surface of an insulator between live terminals. These materials.g. Terminal locking devices to ensure conductors remain secure in service.at least IP 54. Certified de-rating of terminals. i. They will be manufactured from good quality materials such as Melamine. Ingress protection against solid objects and water . in volts at which an insulation material withstands e. for special applications. The numerical value of maximum voltage. which have good thermal stability.Principle The safe operation of Increased Safety apparatus is dependent on the prevention of any source of ignition. The following definitions are relevant: Clearance distance: Creepage distance: The shortest distance through air between two conductors. Special design features are. 1) Mechanically strong enclosure resistant to impact .
I. ‘b’.T. ensures that Increased Safety terminals have a greater resistance to tracking to prevent arcing or sparking. and the highest voltage applied across the electrodes from the variable voltage source. the combination of high quality materials and good design.Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) The Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) test criteria are given in the table below. Each material must withstand the specified number of drops of the electrolyte at the specified voltage for it to be acceptable. the highest quality material being ‘a’ which is subjected to the greatest number of drops of electrolyte falling between the test electrodes.Increased safety terminals Test criteria . ‘c’ and ‘d’ are considered. Four grades of materials ‘a’. Grade of material a b c d C. which incorporates specified creepage and clearance distances. 500 380 175 Test voltage 600 500 380 175 Number of drops > 100 > 50 > 50 > 50 Creepage and Clearance Distances -5- . Thus.
Increased safety terminals Creepage and Clearance Distances -6- .
along with other considerations. Terminal type SAK 2. ensures that internal and external surface temperatures are kept within prescribed limits.5 SAK 4 SAK 6 SAK 10 SAK 16 SAK 35 SAK 70 Conductor size 2.5 4 6 10 16 35 70 Increased Safety maximum current (amps) 15 21 26 37 47 75 114 Industrial maximum current (amps) 27 36 47 65 87 145 220 -7- .Increased safety terminals Creepage distances relative to voltage and grade of insulation The following table shows the creepage distances relative to the grade of material and applied voltage. Minimum creepage (mm) Rated Voltage (V) a 33 66 275 418 550 726 1100 3 3 6 8 10 12 20 Insulation Grade to IEC 112 b 3 4 8 10 12 16 25 c 3 5 10 12 15 20 30 d 3 6 12 15 18 25 36 3 5 6 8 10 14 Minimum Clearance (mm) Increased Safety terminal types and ratings The terminals are de-rated so that the maximum current for Increased Safety applications is nearly half that for standard industrial applications as illustrated in the following table for enclosures manufactured to BS 5501 Part 6. The table below also shows the maximum conductor size for each terminal type. This de-rating.
-8- . The illustration below shows how this is achieved.Increased safety terminals Terminal locking device It is essential that conductors are securely connected in the terminals to prevent sparks occurring as a result of loose connections.
This involves the use of tables which are provided by the manufacturer. Kelvin rating: Normally used for high current applications and apparatus manufactured to BS 4683 Part 4 and BS 5501 Part 6. enclosures and terminals are assigned a temperature rating. Load limit: Similar to ‘enclosure factor’ but used only on apparatus manufactured to BS 5501 Part 6. but the rating of the terminals is determined by use of a unique table (provided by the manufacturer) for the enclosure. it is divided into the ‘K’ rating for the enclosure to give the number of terminals of one type which may be installed. and the size of enclosure in which they are installed. These are: Enclosure factor: A method used in apparatus manufactured to BS 4683 Part 4 in which the terminal content is assessed by dividing the ‘enclosure factor’ by the certified current rating of a given terminal. The terminal content is determined by dividing the ‘watts dissipation’ value for the terminal into that for the enclosure. but the temperature for the terminals will be dependent on their type. size of associated conductor.Estimation of terminal population The number of terminals which can be installed in a given size of enclosure is limited. In this method. Once the terminal ‘K’ rating has been established. In this method. rated current. enclosures are assigned a ‘watts dissipation’ rating. Max dissipated power: This is a method which will replace the current ‘load limit’ method and applies to apparatus manufactured to BS 5501 Part 6 and BS EN50 019. Enclosures will normally be limited to a temperature rise of 40K for a T6 temperature rating. This table provides the ‘watts dissipation’ of the terminal through consideration of conductor size and load current. -9- . Several methods have been developed by manufacturers for this purpose.
it may be possible to base the terminal population on the circuit current provided it will not exceed the assigned value.Sample calculation using ‘Load limit’ The ‘Load Limit’ will be specified on the certification label of an Increased Safety enclosure.5 terminals = = = 600 10 A Load Limit Circuit current 600 10 60 SAK 2.5 Ex e terminal rating Number of SAK 2. Enclosure Load Limit Circuit current Number of SAK 2.10 - .5 terminals = = . Thus. and represents the sum of all the circuit currents the enclosure is able to carry without exceeding the temperature classification.5 terminals Where the circuit current is below the certified current rating of the terminals. the number of terminals of one type which can be installed in a given enclosure is simply the ‘Load Limit’ divided by the Increased Safety current rating of the terminal type to be used as demonstrated in the following calculation. as illustrated below.5 terminals = = = 600 15 A S/No D779 Load Limit SAK 2. Assuming a circuit current of 10 A.5 terminal rating = = 600 15 40 SAK 2. TYPE TB11 EEx e II T6 BASEEFA CERT No Ex 84B3299X BS 5501 Pt 6 (EN50 019) LOAD LIMIT 600 Enclosure Load Limit SAK 2. the calculation is as follows.
3. End plate.Terminal Assemblies Component approved terminal group 1. Distance sleeve.11 - . 10. Zinc plated screw. 6. 4. 5. .certified components. 2. Copper cross-connection. 8. Copper cross-connection. Copper cross-connection. Mounting rail. Partition. Terminals . End bracket. 9. 7.
Terminal Assemblies .12 - .
7. 2. 12. 16. An additional single conductor. Partitions should be fitted at either side of terminal linking assemblies. . used and unused.Installation. The individual earth continuity plates within plastic enclosures must be bonded together and locknuts used to secure glands to the continuity plates. There must be adequate clearance between adjacent enclosures to allow proper installation of cables and glands. may be connected within the same terminal way when an insulated comb is used. For clearance holes. 14. 6. 15. The following list specifies the main points. Enclosure content should not be modified without consulting the manufacturer. The insulation of cables shall be suitable for use at least 80°C for a T5 temperature class.0 mm2. 11. All lid and gland plate bolts must be fully tightened after installation. 10. 9. When Intrinsic and Increased Safety circuits occupy the same enclosure the two types of circuit must have at least 50 mm clearance between them. 1. 8.13 - . 13. All terminal screws. Only components specifically approved should be fitted in the enclosure. Conductor insulation should extend to within 1 mm from the metal throat of the terminal. 4. Cable glands or conduit entries must maintain the minimum ingress protection of IP 54. All unused cable entries should be closed using suitable plugs. min 1. 5. Only the conductors from each cable entry shall be loomed together. inspection and maintenance It is essential that Increased Safety enclosures are installed and maintained in accordance with the relevant Standards and Codes of Practice in order to comply with the Certification. Only one conductor should be fitted to each terminal side. should be tightened down. 3. The schedule of the appropriate certificate should be consulted before cable entry holes are drilled. serrated metal washers must be used between locknuts and the glandplate.
If the rotor locks as a result of a fault. the motor must trip within the tE time specified on the motor data plate. and hence. Temperature rise 10 °C lower than normal. i. the rotor surface temperature will normally increase faster than that of the stator windings.Increased safety EEx e motors These motors are similar in appearance to standard industrial motors and inspection of the certification/rating plate is usually necessary to identify them. Minimum ingress protection to IP54. T2 or T3 surface temperature limitation. The time taken to reach ‘C’ from ‘B’ is known as the tE time. Impact testing of motor frame.14 - . Under fault conditions. sparks and excessive surface temperatures occurring both internally and externally. In the graph shown. tE time Defined as: ‘the time taken to reach the limiting temperature from the temperature reached in normal service when carrying the starting current IA at maximum ambient temperature. These motors are not designed to withstand an internal explosion and hence have special design features to prevent arcs. Special terminal block with specific creepage/clearance distances and locking devices on terminals. they are unsuitable for applications which require frequent stopping and starting and/or long run-up times. The principal design features are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Special attention to airgap concentricity and clearance of all rotating parts. the T rating applies to both internal and external surface temperatures. and during fault conditions the thermal overload device in the motor starter must trip out the motor within this time. Compliance with tE characteristic. ‘OA’ represents the maximum ambient temperature and ‘OB’ the temperature reached at maximum rated current.e. which is less than the T rating of the motor. 7) Under stall (locked rotor) conditions. the temperature will rise rapidly towards ‘C’ as shown in part 2 of the graph. . Increased safety motors are intended for continuous duty only.
temperature rise during locked rotor test.15 - . limiting temperature. maximum temperature at rated current. time from maximum temperature (B) at rated current to limiting temperature (C). temperature. temperature rise at rated current. .Determination of tE time Limiting Temperature Temperature limited either by selected T-Rating or Limit for Class of Winding Insulating Material A B C θ (1) (2) tE = = = = = = = maximum ambient temperature.
IN IA = = rated current of motor.5 and tE time = 8 secs For these values the tripping time is 10 secs. which is outwith the tE time assigned to the motor. .16 - . therefore an overload device with this characteristic would not be suitable for the values specified. which is within the tE time and therefore acceptable. locked rotor current of motor. Example2: IA/IN = 4. Example 1: IA/IN = 5 and tE time = 10 secs The above characteristic would trip the motor after 8 secs.Tripping characteristic of thermal overload The thermal overload will be selected for suitability according to its tripping characteristic. The tE time and IA/IN current ratio are influential in the selection of the device and are marked on the motor nameplate.
C = Close.17 - . V = Visual) .BS EN 60079-17: Table 1: Inspection Schedule for Ex‘d’. Ex‘e’. and Ex‘n’ Installations (D = Detailed.
.18 - .
. the protection methods applied to arcing/sparking components to enable their use in enclosures etc. the inspection requirements according to BS EN 60079-17. d) e) -1- . ‘Type ‘n’ apparatus’.Unit 5: Type n apparatus Objectives: On completion of this unit. you should know: a) b) c) the principle of operation. the principle design features. the installation requirements according to BS EN 60079-14.
Prior to acceptance of this standard by CENELEC. has been under consideration for some time by the European standards organisation CENELEC who have recently accepted the draft standard EN50 021. was only acceptable for use in the UK. this type of protection was symbolised by the (upper case) letter ‘N’ and. a UK innovation. Standards BS EN50 021 BS 6941: 1988 BS 4683: Part 3: 1972 BS EN60079-14 Type of protection “n” Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres with type of protection N Type of protection ‘N’ Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 14. Now that EN50 021 has been approved. as far as Europe is concerned. Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) BS EN60079-17 Definition The definition for Electrical apparatus with type of protection “n” as given in the CENELEC Standard BS EN50 021 and also BS 6941 states: ‘A type of protection applied to electrical apparatus such that.Type ‘n’ protection Since the presence of a flammable gas or vapour is less likely in Zone 2. which is basically similar to increased safety type “e” apparatus except that there is a relaxation in the constructional requirements. Type ‘n’ protection. the constructional requirements for electrical equipment used in these hazardous locations are not as strict as those for equipment used in Zone 1. Zone of use: Zone 2 -2- . in normal operation. this type of apparatus will be symbolised by the (lower case) letter ‘n’ and will also display the European Community mark thus enabling wider use of this type of protection in the EC. A method of protection which falls into this category is type ‘n’ apparatus. it is not capable of igniting a surrounding explosive atmosphere and a fault capable of causing ignition is not likely to occur’. Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 17.
As previously stated. These additional methods are described later in this unit.Ambient conditions Type ‘n’ apparatus is normally designed for use in ambient temperatures in the range -20 °C to + 40 °C unless otherwise marked. Since the design requirements are not as strict as those for increased safety type ‘e’ protection. it is possible for the manufacturer to install within type ‘n’ apparatus. sources of ignition in the form of excessive surface temperatures.e. or if it is present it’s duration will be for a short time only. Specified creepage and clearance distances incorporated into the design of the terminals. The design features for this type of protection ensure that. where exposed to high risk of mechanical damage. i. to have resistance to impact of 3. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Enclosures and motor fan guards. in normal operation.5J. components which produce hot surfaces. the presence of a flammable gas or vapour is not likely to be present. Terminals manufactured form high quality insulation material. providing these components have incorporated in them additional methods of protection. -3- . non-incendive or type ‘n’ protection. arcs or sparks. Principle In Zone 2 hazardous locations. Terminal locking devices to ensure conductors remain secure in service. type ‘n’ protection is similar in concept to increased safety type ‘e’ protection. Minimum ingress protection IP54 where an enclosure has exposed live parts internally. This fact allows the use of less expensive methods of protection. Use of certified terminals. The principal design features for type ‘n’ apparatus are as follows. arcs or sparks are prevented from occurring either internally or externally.
which has been assessed as a single entity (external circuit conditions not considered). This information will include the maximum values of voltage. the apparatus must be marked ‘Apparatus for connection to energy-limited circuits’. and deemed suitable for use in an hazardous area. These are explained below. and external cable inductance and capacitance. which contains normally sparking contacts. These installation conditions will be specified in the documentation to enable safe installation of the apparatus. Methods employed to limit voltage and current in this type of apparatus will include the use of zener diodes and series resistors etc. Energy limited circuits: If the assessment for this type of apparatus. an upward tolerance of 10% must be assumed unless alternative measures allow dispensation of this requirement. Where the supply to the apparatus is mains voltage via a transformer. components which produce arcs/sparks or hot surfaces may be installed in type ‘n’ apparatus provided additional protection measures are provided. inductance. current. capacitance. for example. Energy limited apparatus: Apparatus of this type containing normally sparking contacts. considers partly or wholly external influences such as inductance or capacitance of. Energy limited apparatus and circuits Energy limited apparatus and circuits achieve safety by ensuring voltages and currents are maintained at safe levels. -4- .Additional protection measures As previously mentioned. cables or connected apparatus. is required to be marked ‘Apparatus containing energy-limited circuits’. which is synonymous with IS protection. The apparatus will be marked with the symbol ‘X’ to indicate that ‘special installation conditions’ apply.
Enclosed break device This technique is used in. e. soldering. The example below shows a typical lamp holder in which there are two sets of contacts. One set of contacts is enclosed in what is effectively a flameproof enclosure in which the free internal volume must not exceed 20 cm3. the lamp holders of type ‘n’ apparatus. This enclosure is designed to withstand an internal explosion and the voltage and current limitations are 600 V and 15 A respectively. or the fusion of glass to metal. -5- . welding. The example of hermetic sealing shown below is a reed switch which comprises a set of contacts hermetically sealed within a glass envelope.g. Hermetically sealed device A device which prevents an external gas or vapour gaining access to the interior by sealing of joints by fusion. for example. brazing.
Sub-division of Type ‘n’ apparatus Type ‘n’ apparatus variations Restricted breathing enclosures Energy limited apparatus Simplified pressurised enclosure Contacts of sparking apparatus protected by methods other than R.Sealed device A device containing normally sparking components or hot surfaces constructed in such a way that opening is prevented in normal operation and in which the sealing effectively prevents access by a flammable gas or vapour. This type of protection is suitable for use in Zone 2 only. The free internal volume must be less than 100 m3. typically ‘epoxy resin’. -6- . to prevent entry of a flammable gas or vapour. L or P Non-sparking apparatus CENELEC/IEC marking R L P C A The above table shows the marking on Type ‘n’ apparatus to indicate the method applied to either eliminate or control spark energy and/or hot surfaces. Restricted breathing A technique mainly used in type ‘n’ lighting fittings whereby entry to the interior of a flammable gas or vapour is restricted by virtue of good sealing at all joints and cable entries. Encapsulated device The device in this instance will be totally sealed by an encapsulating material.
and Ex‘n’ Installations (D = Detailed. V = Visual) -7- .BS EN 60079-17: Table 1: Inspection Schedule for Ex‘d’. Ex‘e’. C = Close.
you should know: a) b) c) d) e) f) the principle of operation and the importance of purging. variations of pressurisation methods. the inspection requirements according to BS EN 60079-17.Unit 6: Pressurisation Ex p & EEx p Objectives: On completion of this unit. control measures required to ensure the safe operation of apparatus and systems. action on loss of overpressure. -1- . ‘Pressurised Ex p & EEx p’ apparatus. the installation requirements according to BS EN 60079-14.
Pressurisation is a simple technique for providing explosion protection. If the interior of an enclosure is at a pressure above that externally, any flammable gases around the enclosure will be prevented from entering the enclosure. Components which are a source of ignition, i.e. they produce arcs/sparks or hot surfaces, are permitted within the enclosure and, clearly, safety is dependent on the maintenance of the safe gas. The safe gas is the medium which ‘segregates’ the flammable gas from the source of ignition, and its continued presence will be confirmed by an approved/certified ‘failsafe’ control/monitoring system. A slight over-pressure is usually adequate to maintain safe operation.
BS EN50 016 BS 5501: Part 3 IEC 79-2 BS EN60079-14
Pressurised Apparatus ‘p’ Pressurised Apparatus ‘p’ Pressurised enclosures ‘p’ Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 14. Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 17. Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines)
Pressurisation is defined as: ‘The technique of guarding against the ingress of the external atmosphere, which may be explosive, into an enclosure by maintaining a protective gas therein at a pressure above that of the external atmosphere’.
Zones of use:
Pressurisation has a wide range of applications, i.e. it can provide explosion protection for a diverse range of instrument or electrical apparatus, there being no limit to size, within reason, which can be accommodated. Typical examples are transformer/rectifier cabinets, oil drilling control consoles, visual display units (VDU’s), gas analysis equipment, control rooms, switch rooms and workshops. With regard to flameproof apparatus, and in particular rotating machines, there is a maximum practical limit above which handling becomes difficult and manufacturers may overcome this difficulty by the use of a pressurised enclosure. A pressurised machine would be significantly lighter than a flameproof machine of the same rating.
The basic principle of operation involves raising and maintaining the internal pressure of the enclosure to a level slightly above the atmospheric pressure outwith the enclosure. This ensures that any flammable gases or vapours outwith the enclosure cannot enter the enclosure. The minimum overpressure specified in the standards is 0.5 mBar or 50 Pa. The safe gas used to provide the overpressure will normally be air but an inert gas such as nitrogen may also be used in certain instances.
When a pressurised system has not been in use for some time it is important that electrical apparatus inside the enclosure is not energised prior to what is known as the ‘purge’ cycle. Purging, which must occur automatically, involves passing a quantity of the safe gas through the enclosure for a specified time in order to remove any flammable gases which may have entered the enclosure. The standards specify that the minimum quantity of the safe gas required to achieve adequate purging is equivalent to 5 times the internal volume of the enclosure and associated ducting. The purge duration will be controlled by a timer in association with a flow-rate sensor in the control circuit. Manufacturers may, however, recommend a greater number of air changes. Very large systems, which are installed on site, will require on-site tests to establish the purge duration necessary for safe operation. If loss of pressure occurs during operation, the control system must automatically purge the enclosure again.
The European and IEC standards require a minimum level of ingress protection for pressurised enclosures to IP 4X but, not all enclosures are suitable for pressurisation. An enclosure may have ingress protection to IP54 but, it’s lid seal, for example, is designed to prevent entry of contaminants and not to maintain an over-pressure within the enclosure. Enclosures must, therefore, be appropriately designed, i.e. be strong enough to withstand impact tests and the internal over-pressure with regard to the strength of the walls, and have effective and correctly orientated door seals. The enclosure and its associated ducts must be capable of withstanding, in normal operation, an overpressure equivalent to 1.5 times the maximum working over-pressure declared by the manufacturer. Alternatively, the enclosure must be capable of withstanding the maximum over-pressure obtained when all outlet ducts are closed. In either instance the minimum overpressure will be 2 mBar (200 Pa).
The protective gas, which is normally air except for certain applications, may be an inert gas such as nitrogen or another suitable gas. When air is the protective gas, it may be provided by either a motor driven fan, a compressor, or from storage cylinders. The protective gas must be non-toxic and free from contaminants such as moisture, oil, dust, fibres and chemicals, and other contaminants which could jeopardise the safe operation of the system. Normally, the temperature of the safe gas entering the inlet duct should not exceed 40 °C. Where temperatures above or below this value are required, the pressurised enclosure will be marked with this temperature. When air is used as the safe gas its oxygen content must not be greater than that normally present in the atmosphere, i.e. 20.9%. A duplicate supply of the protective gas is also desirable when, on loss of pressure, it would be more dangerous to de-energise the electrical apparatus within the enclosure. When an inert gas such as nitrogen is used as the protective gas and personnel can gain access to enclosures, it is essential that doors/covers are fitted with warning labels since there is a danger of asphyxiation. Doors should also be fitted with suitable locks.
Where the interior of a pressurised enclosure can be accessed via doors/covers without the use of tools or keys, an interlock is required to automatically de-energise the electrical supply when the door/cover is opened, and restore the electrical supply only when the doors/covers are closed. When a pressurised enclosure contains components which have hot surfaces, or are capable of storing energy, e.g. capacitors, doors/covers should be fitted with a warning notice which states the time delay after isolation of the electrical supply to the components before opening the doors/covers.
2) protective gas flow-rate monitoring device. -6- . 4) pressure relief valve: setting 75% of maximum declared safe over-pressure When the safe gas is provided from compressed-air cylinders. and to overcome this risk it is recommended that a pressure relief valve is installed. The exact point must be specified either on the enclosure or on the certificate. e. 3) pressure gauge. the internal circulation fan in a pressurised machine. 1) Over-pressure monitoring device.Control circuit/safety devices The level of overpressure will be monitored by an overpressure sensor or switch and located at a point in the enclosure which has been found by test or experience to be the most difficult to maintain the overpressure. failure of the regulator could result in distortion of the pressurised enclosure due to excessive overpressure. The rate of flow through the enclosure will be monitored by a flow-rate sensor or switch. The setting of the relief valve is required to be 75% of the maximum safe overpressure declared by the manufacturer. A pressure gauge is also desirable and should be located where it can be easily read.g.
apparatus which does not produce ignition-capable sparks or particles in normal operation. It is essential that both the inlet and outlet ducts are arranged in such a way that they cannot be obstructed causing restriction of the flow of the protective gas. should have its outlet situated in a nonhazardous location in which there are no sources of ignition. Spark particle barriers: conditions which require use of Zone in which exhaust duct is located Zone 2 Zone I A: B: Type of apparatus within enclosure A Required Required * B Not required Required * apparatus which may produce ignition-capable sparks or particles in normal operation. ideally.Ducts The entry of the inlet duct must be positioned in a non-hazardous location (except where cylinders provide the protective gas) and this location must be periodically reviewed in case plant modifications have altered its classification. but may be located in a hazardous location if a spark/particle arrestor is fitted. The ducts should also have adequate mechanical strength. Where inlet or outlet ducts pass through hazardous areas. * A device to prevent rapid entry of a flammable gas into the enclosure upon loss of pressure should be fitted if the surface temperature of apparatus within the enclosure is likely to be a source of ignition. The exhaust duct. they are required to be free of leakage if there is a possibility that the pressure of the protective gas is below the minimum requirement specified in the standards or that specified by the manufacturer. be located where accidental damage is unlikely and have adequate protection against corrosion. The table below offers guidance in this respect. -7- .
If the safe gas is lighter than the flammable gas the positions of the ducts will be reversed.Ducts (continued) Duct arrangements The density of the safe gas relative to the flammable gas has an influence on the position of the inlet and outlet ducts on the enclosure. 1) When the safe gas is more dense than the flammable gas: (2) When the safe gas is less dense than the flammable gas: -8- . If the safe gas is heavier than the flammable gas the inlet duct will be positioned at the bottom of the enclosure and the exhaust duct at the top. This will speed up the rate of displacement of the flammable gas and so ensure efficient purging of the system.
b) Pressurisation with continuous flow In this variant the internal over-pressure is maintained as a result of continual flow of the safe gas through the enclosure. a) Static pressurisation This form of pressurisation has limited applications and. thereby ensuring that the pressurised enclosure operates within it’s T-rating. The safe gas in this instance has a dual purpose. In addition to maintaining the over-pressure. Pressurisation with continuous flow. The rate of flow of the safe gas is set at a level which will prevent the temperature of the hot parts exceeding their temperature limit. Pressurisation with leakage compensation. not widely used. it may also be used to cool hot parts within the enclosure such as thyristors. or the windings of a pressurised rotating machine. Clearly the seals of the enclosure must be very good to minimise leakage once the source of the safe gas is disconnected.Types of pressurisation Several variations of pressurised systems are available. The technique involves pressurising and sealing the enclosure in a non-hazardous area prior to transportation into a hazardous area. therefore. Pressurisation with continuous dilution. These are: a) b) c) d) Static pressurisation. -9- .
e. the rate of flow of the safe gas will be adjusted to ensure that the concentration of the gas/air mixture within the enclosure is well below the lower explosive limit (LEL). 25% LEL. The system is purged in the usual manner with the damper at the exhaust duct open but.g. In addition to maintaining over-pressure during and after the initial purge. will be expelled into the interior of the pressurised enclosure. for example. on completion. The safe gas therefore has two functions.c) Pressurisation with leakage compensation This method of pressurisation is used when enclosures are poorly sealed at their joints. Gas detectors may be installed to verify that the atmosphere within the enclosure remains non-hazardous. an offshore platform may take place in pressurised enclosures.10 - . the damper is closed and the flow of protective gas reduced to a level sufficient to compensate for leakages occurring at the seals/joints of the enclosure. . A sample of gas will be drawn into a gas analyser and. Purging may be disregarded in Zone 2 if the concentration of the flammable gas released within the enclosure is considerably below the lower-explosive limit. after analysis. d) Continuous dilution The analysis of flammable gases on.
11 - . The recommendations are as follows. 2) Abnormal release A release of flammable gas or vapour which is limited to a value which can be diluted to well below the lower explosive limit (LEL). 1) Normal release None Limited No release of flammable gas or vapour. A release of flammable gas or vapour which is limited to a value which can be diluted to well below the lower explosive limit (LEL). Limited Unlimited .d) Continuous dilution (continued) Types and magnitude of internal release The recommended action when loss of pressure occurs in pressurised apparatus using continuous dilution is more comprehensively addressed in IEC79-2 than in BS EN60079-14. A release of flammable gas or vapour which is not limited to a value which can be diluted to well below the lower explosive limit (LEL).
Loss of over-pressure or rate of flow will activate either an alarm or shutdown of the internal electrical components.12 - . limited abnormal release No normal release. Area classification Enclosure contains ignition-capable apparatus Enclosure contains apparatus which does not produce a source of ignition in normal operation Alarm Internal pressurisation not required Zone 1 Zone 2 Alarm and switch off Alarm .Combination of release Combination 1 Combination 2 Combination 3 Combination 4 No normal release. the action taken being dependent on: a) b) The Zone in which the system is located. and a flow-rate switch/sensor. unlimited abnormal release The above combinations of release are applied in the table on page 12 which specifies the action necessary on loss of pressure within an enclosure using the technique of continuous dilution. is used to monitor the rate of flow of the safe gas through the enclosure. Action on loss of pressure 1) No internal source of release The over-pressure within the enclosure is monitored by a pressure switch/sensor. unlimited abnormal release Limited normal release. located at the exhaust duct. The type of apparatus/components within the enclosure. limited abnormal release Limited normal release. BS EN60079-14 specifies the action to be taken on loss of pressure as follows. For a system which does not have an internal source of release and contains electrical equipment.
over-pressure and flow-rate sensors may use IS protection. Alarms. Emergency lighting will normally be installed in pressurised control rooms. hence. thereby preventing the formation of moisture in the windings. Apparatus energised during absence of overpressure An anti-condensation heater may be used in an rotating electrical machine to prevent the internal surfaces and atmosphere becoming cold. typically EEx e. and energised when there is loss of over-pressure. It is preferable that the motor and its starter are located in a non-hazardous area. these fittings must also be explosion protected. unless they are situated in a non-hazardous area. of the fan which provides the flow of air. . Solenoids for fire dampers will be EEx d protected. EEx e or Ex N methods of protection.Action on loss of pressure (continued) 2) With internal source of release Internal release Combination Normal Abnormal Area classification Zone 1 Ignition-capable Apparatus with no apparatus sources of ignition Alarm and switch off Alarm Alarm and switch off Alarm Alarm and switch off Alarm and switch off Alarm No protective measures required Alarm No protective measures required Alarm 1 None Limited Zone 2 or nonhazardous Zone 1 2 None Unlimited 3 Limited Limited 4 Limited Unlimited Zone 2 or nonhazardous Zone 1 or Zone 2 Zone 1 or Zone2 Alarm Externally mounted electrical apparatus Electrical apparatus mounted on the exterior of a pressurised enclosure must be explosion protected in accordance with the Zone in which the enclosure is situated. and its starter. cabins etc. it is essential that it is explosion protected. EEx d enclosures will be used for control panels. Typical examples are pressure/flow rate sensors or switches which may use EEx i apparatus. Because the heater will be energised when the machine is without over-pressure. This requirement also applies to the motor.13 - . junction boxes may use EEx d.
14 - ..
the protective gas (when a gas other than air is used). In order to ensure adequate purging of the system the user must increase the volume of the safe gas to compensate for the additional volume of the ducts. When the surface temperature of apparatus within the enclosure exceeds the T rating of the system. a) The joints of the enclosure and its ducts are capable of preventing the ingress of a flammable gas coming into contact with the hot surfaces before they have cooled to below the T rating. the test station certificate number. b) c) Marking The apparatus marking must be visible and contain the following information: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) Note: the manufacturers name. A typical example is a flameproof anticondensation heater inside a pressurised machine. the symbol EEx p. or the maximum surface temperature. a) b) The external surface temperature of the enclosure. The surface temperature of apparatus within the enclosure remaining energised when the enclosure is without over-pressure. the manufacturers serial number. the name or acronym of the testing station. the internal free volume excluding the ducts. the temperature class. or 200 °C (T3).Temperature classification The temperature classification of pressurised apparatus is determined by consideration of one of the following methods. the minimum permissible over-pressure. the manufacturers type number. T3. By encapsulating the hot surfaces or enclosing them in gas-tight containers. the minimum quantity of the safe gas necessary to purge the enclosure.15 - . By the introduction of a secondary ventilation system. the minimum flow of protective gas. or both. e. the gas group symbol II. . the following methods may be used to overcome this difficulty.g. or 200 °C.
BS EN60079-17: Table 3: Inspection Schedule for Ex ‘p’ Installations (pressurised or continuous dilution) .16 - .
the installation requirements according to BS EN 60079-14. the importance of zener and galvanic interfaces. -1- . the inspection requirements according to BS EN 60079-17.Unit 7: Intrinsic Safety Ex i & EEx i Objectives: On completion of this unit. ‘Intrinsic Safety Ex i & EEx i’ apparatus. you should know: a) b) c) d) e) the principle of operation. the difference between ‘ib’ and ‘ia’ categories of IS.
Standards BS 1259: 1958 BS 5501: Part 7. and typical examples are control and instrumentation circuits.Intrinsic safety Ex i or EEx i Intrinsic Safety is a widely used method of explosion protection. Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Code of Practice for the selection. It is used for very low power applications only. BS EN60079-17 BS 5345: Part 4 1977 (superseded but remains current) -2- . 1977 (EN50 020) BS 5501: Part 9 1982 (EN50 039) BS EN50 020 BS EN50 039 BS EN60079-14 Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits for use in explosive atmospheres Intrinsic safety ‘i’ Intrinsically safe electrical systems ‘i’ intrinsic safety ‘i’ Intrinsically safe electrical systems ‘i’ Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 14. Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 17. installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus with a type of protection ‘i’.
This is achieved by limiting the voltage and current supplied to the apparatus in the hazardous area. current. or even fault conditions. junction boxes and field (hazardous) area apparatus. and the application of appropriate safety factors. must also be designed in such a way as to guard against the possibility of particular faults occurring. inductance and capacitance are factors which have to be considered in the design of an IS circuit. In contrast to other methods of explosion protection. resistance. intrinsic safety is a system concept which applies to the whole -3- . Zones of use: 0. cables. 1 & 2 (Exi‘a’ & Eexi‘a’) 1 & 2 (Exi‘b’ & Eexi‘b’) Basic principles of IS Intrinsically Safe circuits achieve safety by maintaining very low energy levels such that hot surfaces will not be produced. will ensure that safe values are established for these parameters during the design stage. To maintain safety. i. and reproduced in this section.e. An IS system. Consultation with the characteristic ignition curves given in the construction standard. which usually comprises a safe to hazardous area interface.Definition BS EN50 020 defines an intrinsically safe circuit as: ‘A circuit in which no spark or any thermal effect produced in the test conditions prescribed in this standard (which include normal operation and specified fault conditions) is capable of causing ignition of a given explosive atmosphere’. will have insufficient energy to ignite the most easily ignitable concentration of a flammable mixture. The circuit parameters. voltage. if they occur. it is of paramount importance that these levels of voltage and current are not exceeded under normal. and electrical sparks.
g. the system may be covered by an overall system certificate. Infallibility will be satisfied by the use of a -4- . A simple zener barrier has three principal components. (1) a resistor. which is connected between the safe area and hazardous area apparatus. all of which must have infallible properties.certified enclosures not required and ordinary wiring may be used. with regard to the current limiting resistor. The Zener barrier The faults which can jeopardise the security of IS systems are either overvoltage or overcurrent. but may be located in the hazardous area if installed in a flameproof enclosure. In addition. The maximum operating voltage for safe area apparatus is 250 Vrms.system and not to any one item only. Apparatus in the safe area connected directly to apparatus in the hazardous area is known as ‘associated apparatus’. Clearly. Associated apparatus may be used in the hazardous area if installation is within another method of explosion protection. and protection against these conditions is afforded by the use of an interface. which is contrary to the concept of this type of protection. flameproof. the construction of which will be considered in terms of its individual components. typically a Zener barrier. e. cost effective . (2) a zener diode. and (3) a fuse.low voltage not harmful to personnel. failure to a lower resistance value or short-circuit would allow more current to flow in the IS circuit. Safe . means that in the event of it failing. is normally located in the safe area and situated as close as possible to the boundary with the hazardous area. and each item making up the system will have a Certificate of Conformity. The interface. Advantages of IS are: (a) (b) (c) (d) live maintenance is possible. Infallibility. failure will be to a higher resistance value or open-circuit. can be used in Zone 0.
therefore. should not exceed 2/3 of its maximum quoted rating for a specified ambient rating. must also be operated at only 2/3 of its maximum stated rating. a fuse. the zener diode is required to fail to a short-circuit. For infallibility to be satisfied. as a single item. and its operating power. The zener diode. the series resistor in the zener barrier will limit the short-circuit current to a safe level so that the integrity of the system is maintained. prevented from reaching the apparatus in the hazardous area. or across the IS wiring. the purpose of which is to limit the voltage available to the apparatus in the hazardous area. and the resulting fault current will be shunted to earth. The next component for consideration is the zener diode. Infallibility of the fuse is assured by the use of a sand-filled ceramic type capable of operating properly even when exposed to a prospective fault-current of up to 4000 A. is not considered to be an infallible component. -5- . Failure to a higher resistance or opencircuit could allow voltage levels beyond safe limits to “invade” the hazardous area. is located at the input (safe) end of the zener barrier. If a voltage greater than the normal maximum voltage of the IS system invades the circuit at the input terminals of the zener barrier. The excessive voltage is. and not to protect against. for example. namely vapourisation which can allow the fuse to continue to conduct. Diodes can only be considered infallible when two or more are connected in parallel as discussed later. this will trigger the zener diode. the fuse is encapsulated along with the other components of the barrier to deter replacement. As required by the standards. but there can be no guarantee of this. Zener barrier operation In the event of a short-circuit developing in the apparatus in the hazardous area. The third component. as required in the standards. Note: Tests by manufacturers have shown that diodes virtually always fail to a short-circuit state. its purpose being to protect the zener diodes. The repair of Zener barriers is not permissible. even by the manufacturer. A fuse of this type avoids the problem which can occur with other types of fuses when they rupture.quality wire-wound or metal film resistor. a short-circuit in the field apparatus.
The first category. ‘ia’.Categories of IS Two categories of intrinsic safety are available. The second category. connected in parallel with the first. is required to maintain safety should two simultaneous faults occur. will satisfy the requirements of category ‘ib’ intrinsic safety in which safety is assured with one fault. ‘ia’ and ‘ib’. A third zener diode connected in parallel with the other two will satisfy the conditions for category ‘ia’ intrinsic safety in which safety is assured with two faults. of safety provided by each being dependent on the number of component faults which are considered. Clearly. will maintain safety in the event of one fault occurring. the level. -6- . ‘ib’. additional zener diodes are necessary since they are the components most likely to fail. for the zener barrier (interface) to maintain safety with one or two faults. Therefore. the addition of a second zener diode.
Pages 10 and 11 also illustrate the curves for determining the maximum circuit inductance and capacitance respectively. 300 Ω zener barrier will be used. which enables selection of the correct interface. if the voltage is known. 2/3 of 140 mA is equal to 93. Minimum ignition current curves Since it is necessary to limit the voltage and current in an IS circuit to ensure operational safety. Resistive circuits For a purely resistive circuit. 28V/93.e.1 x 28 V = 30. which is then located on the horizontal (voltage) axis of the graph.5 must be applied to this value. -7- . 1 and 2. and category ‘ia’ intrinsic safety is permitted in Zones 0. gives a safe current of 140 mA. i. but not Zone 0. Thus. Applying the safety factor of 10% (1. By applying ohm’s law. Moving vertically from this point towards the IIC curve. the maximum circuit current can be determined from the graph. the same resistance as the zener barrier.33 mA.Category ‘ib’ intrinsic safety may be used in Zones 1 and 2. the design of the circuit will be based on the minimum ignition current curves given in the construction standard and reproduced on page 7.8 V) produces a value of 30. A safety factor of 1.33 mA = 300 Ω. for a purely resistive circuit for operation in a IIC hazard. 300 Ω interface is suitable for maintaining the integrity of the IS circuit in a IIC hazard. it is intended that a 28 V.8 V. A safety factor of 10% must be applied to the voltage of this device since a rise in its temperature may raise the triggering voltage of the zener diodes. it has been verified that the 28 V. and then moving horizontally from the point of intersection with the curve towards the vertical (current) axis.
Minimum ignition current curves resistive circuits -8- .
-9- . for example. Since simple apparatus is not required to be certified. justification for it’s use must be included in the system documentation.Simple apparatus The spark energy of an IS circuit. Energy storage Energy storing devices such as inductors and capacitors have the potential to upset the security of an IS system. Measures must. capacitors and inductors having well defined parameters. potentiometer and simple semiconductor devices. but junction boxes and switches may be rated T6 because they do not contain heat dissipating components. will be insufficient to cause ignition of a surrounding hazard. Energy will be stored under normal operating conditions. but environmental conditions may require a higher rating. Energy can be stored in these devices over a period of time and then released in a surge of greater amplitude at. they have some internal inductance and capacitance. will not alter the situation. Enclosures The minimum ingress protection for enclosures of IS circuits is IP20. Simple apparatus may also include sources of stored energy. Such passive devices include switches. and in fact. This could occur regardless of the design constraints on voltage and current. the values of which must be considered during the design stage of an IS installation. the capacitance will be predominant.e. which in normal operation produces sparks and does not dissipate power. during normal or fault conditions. The voltage will influence which parameter is predominant. therefore. may also be described as simple apparatus providing they do not generate more than 1. any device which is resistive by nature and non-energy storing may be added to the circuit without jeopardising the integrity of intrinsic safety. i. Field apparatus which have energy storing capability. are termed ‘non-simple’ and are required to be certified. terminals. The introduction of a switch. and cause ignition of a surrounding flammable gas. but at 28 V. for a voltage of around 5 V. a break in the IS cables due to a fault or live disconnection at terminals. will have appreciable inductance and capacitance which must be taken into consideration at the design stage. Cables. Sources of generated energy.e. especially long runs between the interface and the apparatus in the hazardous area. typically thermocouples and photocells. 100 mA and 25 mW. be applied to counteract this problem at the design stage. the inductance will be predominant. Any capacitance or inductance in these devices must also be considered during the design stage of an installation Simple apparatus is normally allocated a T4 temperature classification. but will be greater under fault conditions.5 V. Devices such as these are referred to as simple apparatus and not required to be certified. i. for example. junction boxes.
is found to be 0. i. the inductance and capacitance present will be due to the cables only.Where ‘simple apparatus’ only is used in the field. Inductance. it is important that the combined inductance and capacitance of the field apparatus and cables does not exceed the values specified by the manufacturer of the interface. Assuming an interface with a maximum output of 28 V and 300 Ω resistance. The parameters for typical instrument cables with twisted or adjacent cores rarely exceed the following values. Comparison of the above values with the data provided by the cable manufacturer will establish if the interconnecting cable run is satisfactory.5 is applied to the zener barrier voltage of 28 V. is found to be approximately 4. the procedure is exactly the same.08 µF approximately. assuming that connection is to ‘simple apparatus’ in the hazardous area. (C) Inductance/resistance ratio (LIR) 1 µH/m 110 pF/m 30 µH/Ω Where field apparatus has both appreciable inductance and capacitance. This value is found by projecting vertically from 140 mA on the current axis.5 x 93. the maximum safe capacitance for the interconnecting cables.0 mH. the maximum safe inductance for the interconnecting cables. and if the cable runs are short these parameters will be negligible. 1. Capacitance For capacitive circuits. Evaluation of cable parameters Inductance The maximum inductance of the interconnecting cables can be established from the inductive circuit curves after first of all evaluating the maximum source current. A safety factor of 1.5: 1. . assuming connection to ‘simple apparatus’ in the hazardous area. and then horizontally towards the inductance axis from the point of intersection on the IIC curve.10 - .33 mA = 140 mA From the graph. (L) Capacitance.e.5 x 28 V = 42 V Using the IIC curve in the graph. the maximum source current is: 28 V/300 Ω = 93.33 mA Applying a safety factor of 1.
11 - .Inductive circuit curves .
Capacitive circuit curves .12 - .
Earthing A dedicated high-integrity earth is a vital factor in maintaining the security of IS circuits. The IS circuit in the hazardous area must be able to withstand a 500 V insulation resistance test to earth. each secured at separate points at either end.13 - . Two cables. The earth conductors must have a rating capable of carrying the maximum fault current and have an appropriate cross-sectional area (csa) by means of: (a) (b) Note: at least two separate 1. but earthing may be used for interference suppression.1 Ω is not unrealistic. Galvanic barriers. The earth cable must be insulated.5 mm2 (minimum) copper conductors. are normally used to connect the barrier earth bar to the main earth point to facilitate earth resistance tests which must be periodically carried out. along it’s entire length so that contact with the plant metalwork is avoided: Where the risk of damage is high. The earth bars on which zener barriers are mounted are insulated from the surrounding metalwork and connected directly to the main earth point via separate earthing conductors. particularly when zener barriers are used. however. The resistance between the barrier earth bar and the main earth point should not be greater than 1 Ω. . A value of 0. operate on a different principle (discussed later in this section) which does not require a high-integrity earth. or at least one 4 mm2 (minimum) copper conductor. and the insulation undamaged. mechanical protection for the cables should be provided.
14 - .Earthing and Bonding .
15 - .Earthing and Bonding .
Light (or infrared) emitted from the LED when it is forward biased falls onto the phototransistor which is shielded from external light. and continue to be. Relay/transformer isolation In the example below. hazardous area apparatus must withstand a 500 V insulation resistance test to earth. they have particular limitations which are: (a) (b) (c) a dedicated high-integrity earth is necessary to divert fault currents away from the hazardous area. isolation between the hazardous and safe areas is achieved by means of an high integrity component approved transformer and component approved relay. opto isolators and transformers. Opto-coupler/transformer isolation This method comprises a component certified opto-isolator and a component approved transformer. Devices which overcome these difficulties are isolation interfaces typically relays. The design of these devices ensures that high voltage invasion of the IS circuit will be prevented from reaching the hazardous area apparatus. widely used in industry. a direct connection exists between the hazardous and safe area circuits and earth.16 - .Galvanic isolation Although zener barriers have been. . which tends to apply constraints on the rest of the system.
the use of core-end ferrules. Where IS cables and the cables of other circuits share the same duct. and this includes the individual strands of finely stranded cables. Installation requirements for cables The conductors of IS cables are required to be insulated with elastomeric or thermoplastic insulation which has a minimum thickness of 0. field apparatus.65 0. the colour for IS cables (and terminals) is blue. The armouring of cables should be securely bonded to the plant earth.3 mm.17 - .e. both types of circuit must be segregated by means of an insulated or earthed metal partition. and to ensure the circuit parameters in terms of inductance and capacitance are not exceeded.1 mm. bundle or tray. The following table specifies the maximum current and minimum cross-sectional area for copper conductors for temperature classifications within the range T1 . to prevent contact with the cables of other circuits. Alternatively.3 0. for example.Installation of IS apparatus The apparatus which make up an IS installation. Maximum Current (A) Minimum csa (mm2) 1. i.03 3. i. are required to be certified items which have been manufactured in accordance with relevant standards (see page 1).017 1.6 0. mineral insulated cable may be used. The conductors of cables in the hazardous area.19 6. Though not a mandatory requirement.T4. as a result of damage. .0 0. Separation of the individual strands of cables must be prevented by. associated apparatus and interface units. including interconnecting cables. must not have a diameter less than 0. Such apparatus.44 Mechanical protection The interconnecting cables of an IS circuit are required to have an overall sheath in order to maintain the integrity of the system. must be installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and with regard to the recommendations in BS EN60079-14.28 8. Separation is not necessary if either the IS cables or the cables of the other circuit are armoured.0 0.09 5. screened or metal sheathed.e. Minimum conductor sizes Cables must operate within the temperature class established for the IS system when carrying maximum current during fault conditions. Armouring or screening of cables for mechanical protection is not required except for IS circuits with multi-core cables in Zone 0. or earth.3 0.
where the risk of damage is high. i. or overhead power lines. Where a multi-core cable.e. an insulation resistance (IR. Adequate segregation between the different circuits will overcome this difficulty as will the use of screens and/or twisted cores. or the cores of each IS circuit are within a screen which is insulated and earthed as previously discussed. . (b) (c) (d) (e) Unused cable cores Unused cable cores should be connected to the IS earth at the interface. additional protection is provided. usually the barrier earth bar. The test readings should not be less than 1 MΩ/km when measured at 500 V at 20 °C for 1 minute.18 - . and insulated elsewhere by means of connection to terminals which are identified in the documentation. and each IS circuit uses adjacent cores in the cable throughout it’s length.Cable screens Where the interconnecting cables of IS circuits have overall screens. Induced voltage Generally. or groups of conductors with individual screens. An exemption to this requirement applies if: (a) the risk of mechanical damage to the cable is minimal or. cable tray etc. Overall screens are required to be insulated from the external metalwork. The individual screens must be insulated from one another and. induced voltage in IS interconnecting cables is not likely but may occur if the IS cables are placed parallel to and in close proximity to single-core cables carrying heavy current. and none of the IS circuits can operate during normal or fault conditions at more than 60 V peak. and the cables are firmly secured along their length. Multi-core cables IS circuits and other types of circuits must not be run in the same multi-core cable. it is essential that no combination of faults between the IS circuits within the cable will cause an unsafe condition. has more than one IS circuit. prior to connection of the screens to the barrier earth bar.) test should be carried out between each pair of screens. the screens are required to be earthed at one point only. which is located in Zone 0.
19 - . for example measurement and control cabinets. Segregation also applies to the cables of the two types of circuit.Clearance distances Peak voltage (V) 0-90 90-375 Minimum clearance in air between terminals of separate circuits (mm) 6 6 Minimum clearance in air between terminals and earth (mm) 4 6 Where IS circuits and non-IS circuits share the same enclosure. . This can be achieved by means of a partition or a 50 mm gap. adequate segregation must exist between the two sets of terminals.
BS EN60079-17: Table 2: Inspection Schedule for Ex ‘i’ Installations .20 - .
.21 - .
.22 - .
Instrument Loop Drawing Numbers Correctly labelled No damage Box and Lid Weather sealing OK Clean and dry inside Unused holes plugged Securing cable OK Correctly labelled Cable No damage Screens correctly connected No unspecified cables Correctly labelled Connected to correct terminals Crimped OK and tight in terminal blocks No damage Creepage and clearance OK Cable gland Cable cores Terminal blocks Date Inspector’s Initials Comments: . Junction Box Connection Drawing No. C Junction Boxes in Hazardous Area Location Junction Box No.23 - .IS Inspection Record No.
IS Inspection Record No. Instrument Loop Drawing No. Junction Box Connection Box Drawing No. Correctly labelled Apparatus (External) Apparatus (Internal) Cable gland Securely mounted No damage Weather sealing OK Clean and dry inside Securing cable OK Correctly labelled Cable No damage Screen insulated from earth Correctly labelled Connected to correct terminals Crimped OK and tight in terminal blocks No damage Creepage and clearance OK Cable Cores Terminal blocks Date Inspector’s Initials Comments: .24 - . Tag No. D Hazardous Area Apparatus Location Junction Box No.
g. Check that the IS earth bars are firmly supported. Check that the IS earth bars are connected together in accordance with the approved drawing.25 - .Inspection of IS Earth System IS Inspection Record No. supporting rack or cubicle). 1 2 3 Check that the IS earth bars are correctly mounted on insulating blocks. Check that the IS earth bars are protected against accidental connection to any non-IS earth (e. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Date Inspector’s Initials Comments: . These cables should be inspected along their entire route. Check that the cables connecting IS earth bars have the correct conductor size ( refer to drawing ) and an insulating sheath which is undamaged. Check that the IS earth bars are labelled ‘IS EARTH’. Check that the main IS earth bar is connected back to the sub-station or switchroom earth bar in accordance with the approved drawing. Check that the cable connections to the IS earth bars are clean and tight. Check that cable connections to the main IS earth bar and the substation or switchroom earth bar are clean and tight. Check that the cables ( there should be two ) connecting the main IS earth bar to the sub-station or switchroom earth bar have the correct conductor size ( refer to drawing ) and an insulating sheath which is undamaged along its full length and not in contact with unarmoured cables.
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typical applications for each type of protection. ‘Other methods of protection EEx o. EEx q. EEx m & Ex s’ apparatus. -1- .Unit 8: Other methods of protection EEx o. EEx m & Ex s Objectives: On completion of this unit. EEx q. you should know: a) b) the principle of operation of each type of protection.
which may be above the oil or outside the enclosure. -2- . cannot be ignited’.Other methods of protection Oil-immersion Ex o or EEx o Oil-immersion is not a popular method of explosion protection but is typically used for heavy duty transformers and switchgear. Standards BS EN50 015 BS 5501: Part 2 IEC 79-6: Part 6 BS 5345: Part 9 Oil immersion ‘o’ Oil immersion ‘o’ Oil-immersed apparatus Installation and maintenance requirements for electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘o’ oilimmersed apparatus Definition The definition for this type of protection is: ‘A type of protection in which the electrical apparatus or parts of the electrical apparatus are immersed in oil in such a way that an explosive atmosphere.
Askarels or silicone liquids tested to IEC 588-2 and IEC 836 respectively. enables hot-spots to be dispersed. should not be less than 25 mm. The standard specifies unused mineral oil which complies with IEC 296 for the protective liquid. and thereby preventing the build-up of these gases in the space above the oil. It is also a requirement that the apparatus is fitted with a gauge which can display the highest and lowest levels of oil. A particular advantage of this method of protection is that circulation of the oil.g. The free surface temperature of the protective liquid is required to be 25 K less than the specified minimum flashpoint for the protective liquid. by convection. a by-product of this process is the production of hydrogen and acetylene. and that the apparatus is installed in such a way that the gauge can be easily read while the apparatus is in service. even at it’s lowest point. In the event of breakage of the gauge. e. This condition was considered to be undesirable for apparatus intended for use in hazardous locations. contamination of the oil. whilst simultaneously preventing the ingress of dust or moisture. Construction The construction standard requires a breather to be fitted to the apparatus to allow release of the flammable gases produced during arc quenching. which may explain why. after leakage of oil at this point. its use was limited to Zone 2 in the UK. One function of the oil is to quench arcs occurring at the contacts and. The trip mechanism may only be manually reset. The revised standards.Zones of Use: Principle 1&2 The oil level is used to completely cover the components within the apparatus which arc/spark or produce hot surfaces during normal operation. have stricter specifications and this type of protection is now permitted in Zone 1. The enclosure ingress protection will be IP66. Sealed enclosures are required to be fitted with a pressure-relief device. where mineral oil is used. until recently. and non-sealed enclosures with an expansion device which incorporates a mechanism for automatic tripping of the electrical supply on detection of gas evolution from the protective liquid as a result of a fault within the enclosure. however. -3- . and hence. the minimum depth of oil remaining above the arc/heat producing components. but other types may be used. thereby effectively establishing a barrier between the components below the oil and any flammable gases which may be present above the oil or outside the enclosure.
in the intended conditions of service. any arc occurring within the enclosure of an electrical apparatus will not ignite the surrounding atmosphere. for example. and telecommunications equipment in some European countries. capacitors in Increased Safety EEx ‘edq’ lighting fittings. -4- .Powder filling Ex q or EEx q The explosion protection concept powder filling is not widely used and typical applications are. Standards BS EN50 017 BS 5501: Part 4 IEC 79-5: Part 5 BS 5345: Part 9 Powder filling ‘q’ Powder filling ‘q’ Sand-filled apparatus Installation and maintenance requirements for electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘q’ sand filled apparatus Definition The definition for this type of protection is: ‘A type of protection in which the enclosure of electrical apparatus is filled with a material in a finely granulated state so that. No ignition shall be caused either by flame or by excessive temperature of the surfaces of the enclosure’.
an overpressure of 0. It is inevitable that a flammable gas or vapour may permeate the granules and reach the parts producing arcs/sparks or hot surfaces. this method of protection is unsuitable where moving parts are involved since the filling material must be free of voids.Zone of Use: Principle 1&2 The filling. Construction The enclosure. is required to withstand. The relative weight of water which can permeate the filling material must not be in excess of 0. achieves safety by what is known as “suppression of flame propagation”.1%.5 mBar (0.6 mm. or another material which complies with the requirements of relevant standards. The quantity of gas or vapour. which may be quartz. This method of protection is suitable for use in all group II gases or vapours. for one minute. must be within the range 250 µm 1. usually quartz. Clearly. -5- . The depth of granules is influenced by the level and duration of the of the arc current produced by the components within the filling material. and maintain a minimum level of ingress protection to IP54.05 kPa) without permanent deflection of the walls in any direction by more than 0. The size of granules for the filling material. which holds the filling material. will be too small to support an explosion within the inert powder. and tests specified in the construction standard enable a safe correlation between these two parameters to be established.5 mm. however.
Standards BS EN50 028 BS 5501: Part 8 IEC 79-18: Part 18 Encapsulation ‘m’ Encapsulation ‘m’ Encapsulated apparatus Definition The definition for this type of protection is: ‘A type of protection in which the parts which could ignite an explosive atmosphere by either sparking or heating are enclosed in a compound in such a way that this explosive atmosphere cannot be ignited’. encapsulation.Encapsulation Ex m or EEx m The method of protection. -6- . is used mainly for smaller items of equipment such as solenoid coils and electronic components.
The minimum depth of encapsulant above the components of. or the apparatus may only have “component certification” indicated by a suffix ‘U’ at the end of the certification number on the apparatus. may be protected by encapsulation. establishes a complete barrier between any surrounding flammable gas or vapour and the source of ignition within the compound. a reed relay. the encapsulant. The encapsulant depth may be reduced to 1 mm for very small apparatus where the free surface area is not in excess of 2 cm2. by installing the apparatus in an Increased Safety type ‘e’ enclosure which meets the impact test requirements.Zone of Use: Principle 1&2 With this type of protection. This difficulty may be overcome. and must be able to withstand a 7 J impact test. for example. therefore. a printed circuit board is 3 mm. e. say. this method of protection is unsuitable where components have exposed moving parts. but this relaxation requires the use of additional protection since the apparatus will be unlikely to withstand the 7 J impact test. typically a thermo-setting compound. Construction The construction standards state that the encapsulant must be free of voids and. Very small components which have enclosed moving parts. Such encapsulated apparatus may be subject to “special installation conditions” indicated by a suffix ‘X’ at the end of the certification number.g. -7- .
Special protection Ex s Apparatus which has not quite met the requirements of a particular construction standard will have been additionally certified under the BASEEFA Standard ‘Special Protection Ex s’ provided it had been established that. its holder and the glass cover are unlikely. Thorough testing will have established that the construction is robust enough to withstand a specified impact without causing. in terms of test and acceptance criteria. were intended to be unspecific in order to allow a broad range of designs to be considered for certification. it was capable of operating safely in the hazard for which it was designed. for example. Special Protection is not included in the BS EN50 series of harmonised construction standards. i. the experience of test-house staff plays an important part in contriving appropriate tests and acceptance criteria. after close scrutiny of the design and testing of the apparatus. inspection and maintenance series of standards. BS EN60079-14 and BS EN60079. Because apparatus may be of unorthodox design. and breakage of the bulb. to replace the battery. is only possible with the aid of a special tool. Another known example of apparatus certified under Special Protection Ex s is a 6. nor is this type of protection inferior to other more popular methods of explosion protection. or in the installation. Indeed the tests on apparatus presented for certification under Special Protection are likely to be more onerous than the tests for other types of explosion protection. Special protection is not an easy option for obtaining certification for apparatus not quite meeting the requirements of a given standard. a short-circuit of the battery. A further requirement is that opening of the torch.e.6 kV poly-phase cage induction pump motor in which the method of explosion protection is basically dependent on -8- . which is required to be kept in a non-hazardous area. A hand torch is a typical example of apparatus certified under Special Protection.17 respectively. 1 & 2 The constructional requirements of this standard. Standards SFA 3009 BS 5345: Part 8 Special protection Installation and maintenance requirements for electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘s’ special protection Zones of Use: Principle 0.
it is imperative that the interior of the motor remains completely full of water at all times. Clearly. is intended for use in Zone 1 . and this is ensured by a header tank to compensate for expansion due to thermo-cycling.the interior of the motor being completely filled with water. Any free space within the motor is occupied by water. -9- . which drives a pump. and hence. the entry of a flammable gas is prevented. The motor.
.10 - .
you should know: a) b) c) the advantages of combining two or more methods of protection in apparatus. -1- . ‘Combined (hybrid) methods of protection’. the inspection requirements according to BS EN 60079-17. the installation requirements according to BS EN 60079-14.Unit 9: Combined (hybrid) methods of protection Objectives: On completion of this unit.
glanding arrangements are simplified. A traditional push-button station for use in an hazardous location comprises a flameproof EEx d enclosure. An alternative to this arrangement is an Increased Safety EEx e enclosure with a small flameproof EEx d component certified switch fitted inside. Such an approach combines the best features of each type of protection into one piece of equipment for both economic and practical purposes. in which a standard industrial switch is fitted. minimum ingress protection IP54 but may be as high as IP66. -2- . Equipment of this type has combined methods of protection but may also be known as a hybrid. The advantages of the hybrid arrangement discussed over the traditional flameproof method are: (a) (b) (c) lower cost and weight. clearly it has to be flameproof to comply with the Increased Safety concept of protection. Because the switch produces sparks in normal operation. Such equipment will be marked EEx ed or EEx de.Combined (hybrid) methods of protection Electrical equipment may be manufactured with more than one method of explosion protection.
Hybrid apparatus may be constructed using any combination of the various methods of explosion protection and, therefore, the apparatus will be marked with the symbolic letters and construction standard numbers relative to the types of explosion protection used. Probably the most commonly used combination involves ‘d’ and ‘e’ type apparatus, and so the table below shows these standards only. The full list of standards can be found in Unit 2. Hybrid apparatus must also be installed and maintained in accordance with relevant standards.
BS EN50 018 BS 5501: Part 5: 1977 BS EN50 019 BS 5501: Part 6: BS EN60079-14
Flameproof enclosure ‘d’ Flameproof enclosure ‘d’ Increased safety enclosure ‘e’ Increased safety enclosure ‘e’ Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 14. Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 17. Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines)
Motors - EEx de
Motors - EEx de
Manufacturers also produce electric motors in which there are combined methods of protection. The main body of the motor will be flameproof EEx d and the terminal box increased safety EEx e. An alternative terminal plate is fitted to a motor of this type to accommodate special terminals which are screwed into the terminal plate. These are hybrid terminals, i.e. they employ both flameproof EEx d and increased safety EEx e concepts in their construction.
EEx de motor terminal box
To achieve the required level of ingress protection, gaskets are fitted between the terminal box and it’s cover, between the terminal plate and box, and between the gland plate and terminal box. On no account, however, should a gasket be fitted between the terminal plate and the frame of the motor as this joint is a flamepath. It must be emphasised that, on some motors, the increased safety terminal box looks very much like a flameproof box in terms of it’s construction. This likeness means that there is a possibility that the gaskets may be removed by personnel unaware of this concept and, therefore, it is important that certification labels are studied before any work is carried out. Removal of the gaskets in attempt to return the box to it’s assumed status, i.e. flameproof, would be an unauthorised modification which would invalidate the certification.
EEx de - sample certification label
Lighting fittings - EEx edq
The lighting fitting illustrated below employs three protection concepts, i.e. increased safety type ‘e’, flameproof type ‘d’ and powder filling type ‘q’. This type of fitting is widely used in the petro-chemical industry.
The constructional features are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) flameproof lampholders; increased safety choke designed not to overheat if lamp fails; temperature rating based on internal and external surface temperatures; enclosure sealing providing high ingress protection; increased safety enclosure including glands designed to withstand specified impact.
In this lighting fitting, the circuits include capacitors which are protected by a method of protection, powder filling type ‘q’. Switches will be of flameproof type ‘d’ construction and terminals will be increased safety type ‘e’.
Terminals would be increased safety type ‘e’. type ‘i’.EEx e m ib An enclosure may have an encapsulated component inside. most of the internal circuits would be intrinsically safe. A typical example is a telephone for use in a hazardous location. The casing of the telephone would use increased safety type ‘e’ protection. Eex ‘e’ Enclosure -7- . but part of the circuitry would operate at a higher voltage and therefore encapsulation type ‘m’ would be used to protect that part of the circuit.
for example.. junction boxes. pressurisation type ‘p’.g. pressure sensors etc. a pressurised enclosure as illustrated below. e. -8- . Apparatus outwith the machine. notices warning of this danger should be displayed. A typical example is an anti-condensation heater within a pressurised machine which will be energised when the machine is idle. may have internal apparatus which have to remain energised in the absence of overpressure.EEx pde Enclosures which employ the protection concept. EEx pi The part(s) of an IS system which are marked to indicate that they should be installed in a non-hazardous area may be used in an hazardous area if installed in. will also have to be protected in accordance with the Zone. Such apparatus must be protected in accordance with the Zone in which the enclosure is located. Note: Since anti-condensation heaters are normally ‘live’ when a machine is idle.
‘volume’.Unit 10: Wiring systems Objectives: On completion of this unit. recognised practices for terminating single and multiple pair cables with or without screens. earthing requirements in hazardous areas. ‘cable construction’ and’ ‘internal components’ of flameproof enclosures. the inspection requirements according to BS EN 60079-17. the installation requirements according to BS EN 60079-14. you should know: a) b) appropriate cable types for use with explosion protected apparatus. the selection procedure for cable glands by consideration of ‘Zone’. ‘method of entry’. c) d) e) f) g) h) -1- . ‘Gas Group’. ‘Wiring systems’. the correct assembly techniques for various types of cable glands. recognised practices for maintaining ingress protection. earth continuity and termination of unused conductor cores and screens.
installation and inspection of cable glands used in electrical installations. The use of cable is generally predominant and one reason is it’s ease of installation compared to conduit.Wiring Systems Electrical equipment in hazardous areas may be wired using cable having metallic or non-metallic sheath. Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines). is it’s susceptibility to corrosion as a result of exposure to seaspray. -2- . This is undesirable particularly where conduit is the method of entry to a flameproof enclosure because of the possible inability of the conduit to contain an internal explosion in the run of conduit between the enclosure and the sealing device. Standards BS EN60079-14 BS 6121: Part 5 BS 5345 (superseded but remains current) Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 14. as a consequence. Code of practice for the selection. one of it’s disadvantages. particularly on offshore installations. Deterioration due to corrosion can occur relatively quickly and. can reduce the strength of the conduit. With regard to conduit. corroded conduit may not meet the impact resistance requirements essential for use with Increased Safety apparatus. Code of practice for selection. or conduit. Furthermore. installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres.
Elastomeric chlorosulphonated polyethylene cross-linked polyethylene ethylene propylene rubber ethylene vinyl acetate natural rubber polychloroprene silicone rubber Thermoplastic polyethylene polypropoline polyvinyl chloride CSP XPLE EPR EVA NR PCP SR PE PP PVC Portable and transportable apparatus Cables for portable and transportable electrical apparatus may be wired using: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ordinary tough rubber sheathed flexible cables. -3- . thermosetting. heavy tough rubber sheathed flexible cables. ordinary polychloroprene sheathed flexible cables. heavy polychloroprene sheath.Cables BS EN60079-14.a. elastomeric or mineral insulated insulating materials may be used in fixed wiring installations.s. but it’s aluminium variation requires careful consideration before use. specifies the following requirements for cables in Zones 1 and 2. Aluminium conductors must only be connected to suitable terminals and have a cross-sectional area (c. Fixed apparatus Cables manufactured from thermoplastic. plastic insulated cables of equally robust construction to heavy tough rubber sheathed flexible cables. Cables commonly used in the industry are of the EPR/CSP type. the replacement for the Code of Practice BS 5345. Mineral insulated metal sheathed (MIMS) cable is also suitable for use in hazardous areas. Examples of the various cable insulation types are given in the table below.) not less than 16 mm2.
-4- . so that smoke and acid emission are minimised in the event of a fire.90 °C. which are heat and oil resistant and flame retardant (HOFR).Cables (continued) Elastomeric cables Elastomeric cables comprising EPR insulated conductors. Cable specified as ‘low smoke and fume’ (LSF) has insulation which does not contain halogens. CSP sheath. Operating temperature range 30 °C .
electrically and environmentally appropriate. Soldering is permissible if the conductors being connected are held together by suitable mechanical means and then soldered. to ensure containment of an internal explosion in flameproof apparatus. to maintain the ingress protection of the apparatus. IEC 332 (Flame retardant): Cold flow Certain materials used in the manufacture of cables are susceptible to a condition commonly known as ‘cold flow’. ideally. or by epoxy or compound filled devices. The requirements for cable glands include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) to firmly secure the cable entering the apparatus. and two standards are relevant in this respect. the joints must be mechanically. which could have a detrimental effect on the type of explosion protection concerned. Whichever method is used. to maintain the integrity of ‘restricted breathing’ apparatus. Jointing of cables In hazardous areas. This condition can occur at ambient temperature.Cables (continued) Cables may also be selected with consideration to their fire resistant and/or flame retardant properties. to maintain earth continuity between the apparatus and any armouring in the cable. secured screw connectors. the effects of ‘cold flow’ by the use of seals which apply less pressure on the cable insulation but still maintain the integrity of the type of explosion protection in apparatus. is caused by entry devices which have compression seals and results in an indentation on that part of the cable acted on by the seal. Requirements for cables and glands Cable glands must be selected with due regard to the methods of explosion protection employed and also environmental conditions. IEC 331 (Fire resistant): A cable manufactured in compliance with this standard will continue to operate in a fire without disruption of essential circuits and emergency circuits. if not eliminate. be continuous and without interruption where possible. Joints may only be made using appropriate methods. or heat shrink sleeving in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Conductor connections are required to be made by either compression connectors. welding or brazing. A cable manufactured in compliance with this standard is self-extinguishing and will not propagate the fire. for example. -5- . cable runs should. Recent developments by cable gland manufacturers have resulted in new designs of cable glands which can reduce. in an enclosure having a type of explosion protection suitable for the Zone.
may be used as a means of entry to Increased Safety apparatus providing an alternative EEx e seal is used. This seal is specially constructed to comply with the requirements for Increased Safety apparatus as illustrated by the diagrams below. This gland. and may be overcome by the use of hard plastic washers manufactured for this purpose. -6- . however. Difficulty may be experienced in achieving the desired level of ingress protection with MICC/MIMS cable glands due to the very small shoulder on the gland body.Glands for mineral insulated cables Glands for use with MICC (Mineral Insulated Copper Cable) or MIMS (Mineral Insulated Metal Sheath) cable for use in hazardous areas will be marked EEx d. The Component Certificate for this seal will contain a ‘schedule for conditions of use’ which must be observed. Seal assemblies EEx d type seal EEx e type seal The EEx e seal assembly must only be used with doublebond non-metallic black epoxy putty 1536.
which results in increased corrosion and premature degradation of glands and cable entries. Flameproof apparatus. Direct entry method (flameproof EEx d) (a) -7- . introduces other considerations which are as follows. Zone in which the apparatus is installed. Does the enclosure contain a source of ignition. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Is the enclosure direct or indirect entry. These considerations are addressed in the flowchart on page 8.Selection of cable glands The correct selection of cables and glands. is very important since there are a number of factors which can jeopardise the integrity of this type apparatus. particularly for flameproof apparatus. An additional consideration is electrolytic action caused by contact between dissimilar metals. Internal volume of the enclosure. Gas group of the apparatus. however. ingress protection. earth continuity and secureness of the cable entering the apparatus must be maintained. As previously discussed the cable construction.
for example. Where the enclosure wall or gland plate has a thickness greater than 6 mm and the cable gland is installed via a threaded entry. the cable gland must maintain the minimum ingress protection IP54 and. where the enclosure wall or gland plate has a thickness less than 6 mm. the use of a sealing washer or thread sealant is not deemed necessary to maintain IP54 unless a greater ingress protection level is required.Indirect entry methods (b) Flameproof EEx d (c) Flameproof I Increased Safety EEx de Maintenance of ingress protection at cable gland entries The cable gland selected as the means of entry to an enclosure must suit the cable used and also maintain the ingress protection (IP) rating of the enclosure. type ‘e’ or type ‘n’ enclosures. -8- . a sealing washer (or thread sealant) will be required between the gland and the enclosure to maintain this level of ingress protection. With regard to.
-9- .Cable gland selection for flameproof apparatus Cable glands may be selected by following the procedure recommended in BS EN60079-14 and replicated in the flowchart below.
i. Where positive or negative pressures are likely. the conduit in the run between the enclosure wall and the conduit sealing device must also be able to withstand the force of an explosion within the enclosure so that the flames/hot gases are prevented from reaching the external atmosphere. Appropriate installation practices must. Where two flameproof enclosures are connected by means of conduit. solid drawn or seam welded conduit manufactured in accordance with IEC 614-2-1. which contain taps. at all enclosures entered by conduit of 50 mm diameter or greater.e. to an acceptable level.Conduit The use of conduit in hazardous areas requires particular care. Sealing of conduit Conduit seals are required to be fitted: (a) (b) (c) where conduit leaves or enters a hazardous area. be observed and this requires observation of the manufacturer’s installation specification and the recommendations given in BS EN60079-14. seals must be fitted to avoid pressure piling occurring during an internal explosion. of heavy or very heavy mechanical strength classification manufactured in accordance with IEC 614-2-5. splices. appropriate measures must be implemented. joints or terminals. Although not entirely gas-tight. therefore. the quantity of gas which will pass at normal atmospheric pressure. . Conduit entering flameproof enclosures is required to be engaged by 5 full threads.the integrity of the enclosure must be maintained. they will limit. especially when used with flameproof enclosures. or flexible conduit of metal or composite material construction.this applies to all types of protection . within a distance of 450 mm from the wall of any enclosure which contains a source of ignition in normal operation. Sealing devices are also used to prevent the migration of gases from one hazardous location to another.10 - . Selection of conduit Conduit used with explosion protected apparatus will be that recommended by the manufacturer and selected from either: (a) (b) screwed heavy duty steel. In addition to maintaining the ingress protection (IP) rating of an enclosure . for example metal conduit with a plastic or elastomer jacket.
IS cable requirements The requirements for IS cables will be specified in the system documentation. Cables need not be mechanically protected since the energy in an IS circuit is below that which is necessary to ignite a flammable mixture. . even if a spark is produced at a break in the cables.11 - .
12 - . SWA or braid (optional) . Individual insulated conductors. .normally earthed at each end.normally earthed at one point only. Screen (optional) . and at any intervening junction boxes through the cable glands.IS cable requirements 1) 2) 3) 4) Insulation between screen and SWA or braid. which is usually the barrier earth.
or b) a single copper conductor 4 mm2 minimum (BS 5345 Part 4 & BS EN60079-14) Note: Longer runs may require conductors of larger cross-sectional area. Barrier mounting rail/earth bar. e.13 - .g. Dedicated earth conductors connected to main earth point using either: a) two separate 1. SWA/braid connected (earthed) to enclosure via gland. 6mm2 or 10 mm2 .IS cable requirements 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Zener safety barrier. Screen connected to barrier mounting rail/earth bar.5 mm2 minimum conductors (BS EN60079-14).
Screen through connected. Screen terminated but not isolated at field apparatus. Cable glands.IS cable requirements 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Junction box.14 - . Junction box bonded locally to structure. .
15 - ..
.16 - .
17 - ..
.18 - .
.19 - .
to enable protection devices to operate correctly so that the duration of fault currents are kept to a minimum. enclosures. items B6 and B7 and table 3. table 2.20 - . In hazardous areas. motor frames and transformer tanks. item B3). Electrical bonding Conductors installed to establish continuity between adjoining metal work and the armouring of separate cables to ensure that. all metal work and cable armouring are maintained at the same potential.7 states: ‘Care shall be taken to ensure that the earthing and potential equalisation bonding provisions in hazardous areas are maintained in good condition’ (see inspection schedules table 1. Exposed conductive parts Exposed conductive parts include the metal work of switchboards. Electrical faults. BS EN60079-17 clause 4. to prevent electrostatic charge of process plant due to fluid movement. for example pipe work which can be touched at the same time as a metal switch board cover or motor frame. Normally the CPC is connected directly to any associated metal work of the equipment. Extraneous conductive parts My metal work associated with the plant. Explanation of terms Electrical earthing or circuit protective conductors (CPC) Conductors installed to provide a low impedance path for the current which flows under fault conditions to the general mass of earth. can develop to a point where excessive surface temperatures and/or arcs/sparks are produced. the elimination of sources of ignition is very important and effective earthing and bonding will play an important role here. under fault conditions. will be deemed extraneous conductive parts. item B6. to equalise the voltage potential of normally non-current carrying metalwork.Earthing and bonding The principal reasons for earthing and bonding in electrical installations are: 1) 2) 3) 4) to eliminate the possibility of electric shock to personnel. if allowed to persist. .
Types of systems (a) (b) TN-S TT The system has separate neutral and protective conductors throughout. (c) (d) (e) TN-C TN-C-S IT Classification of systems A system comprises an electrical supply to which an electrical installation is connected. The first letter indicates the supply earthing arrangements where: 1) 2) T represents a system having one or more points of the supply directly connected to earth. I represents a system in which the supply is not earthed. The second letter indicates the installation earthing arrangements where: 3) 4) T represents the exposed conductive parts of the installation connected directly to earth. A system in which one point of the source of energy is directly earthed but which is electrically independent of the electrodes used to earth the exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation. A system in which a single conductor serves as both neutral and protective conductor in part of the system. A system in which a single conductor serves as both neutral and protective conductor throughout the system. .21 - . but may be earthed through a faultlimiting impedance. N represents the exposed conductive parts of the installation which are connected directly to the earthed point of the supply. The third letter indicates the earthed supply conductor where: 5) 6) S represents separate neutral and protective conductors. C represents neutral and protective conductors combined in a single conductor. A system in which there is no direct connection between live parts and earth but exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation are earthed.
System earthing configurations
(a) TN-S Generally, this method will be used when the electrical supply is provided via underground cables having metal sheaths and armour. The consumer’s earth terminal will be connected to the supply authorities protective conductor, that is the metal sheath and armour of the underground cable, thereby establishing a continuous path back to the supply transformer star-point which is earthed.
TT Generally, this method will be used when the electrical supply is provided via overhead cables but with no earth terminal provided by the supply authority. The consumer may have to provide an earth electrode for connection of the circuit protective conductors. With this system, it is recommended that consumers use residual current devices because of the difficulty in obtaining an effective earth connection.
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TN-C In this system the same conductor, perhaps the outer conductor of a concentric cable, is used for both the neutral and circuit protective conductor (PEN conductor) throughout the system. It is typically used where the electrical supply is provided by a privately owned transformer or converter, i.e. where there is no electrical connection between the consumer and the supply authority, or where the supply is provided by a private generator.
TN-C-S The supply authorities installation will use a TN-C system where both the neutral and circuit protective conductor are served by a single (PEN) conductor. If the consumers installation, which is connected to the TN-C supply system, employs a TN-S system where the neutral and circuit protective conductors are separate, then the overall system is known as a TN-C-S system. The majority of new installations use this arrangement which is termed a PME system by the supply authorities.
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IT In this arrangement the system may have no connection to earth, or be connected to earth via a relatively high impedance, the ohmic value of which will depend on the level at which fault currents will be limited. Protection in this method is afforded by a relay which monitors any earth-leakage current as a result of an earth-fault. This will activate an audio or visual alarm, or disconnect the electrical supply.
Regulations and standards
The requirements for earthing practice within the UK may be found in the following documents.
BS EN60079-14 BS 5345 BS 7671 (1991)
Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 14 Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines) Code of practice for: Selection, installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (other than mining applications or explosive processing and manufacture) IEE Wiring Regulations IEE Recommendations for the Electrical and Electronic Equipment of Mobile and Fixed Offshore Installations Electricity Supply Regulations 1988 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
BS 7430 BS 6651 BS 5958
Code of Practice for Earthing Protection of Structures against Lightning Control of Undesirable Static Electricity
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Earthing systems in hazardous areas
BS EN60079-14 specifies the conditions for the following earthing systems in hazardous areas.
Type TN systems
If a type TN earthing system is used, it shall be type TN-S (with separate neutral N and protective conductor PE) in the hazardous area, i.e. the neutral and the protective conductor shall not be connected together, or combined in a single conductor, in the hazardous area. At any point of the transition from type TN-C to type TN-S, the protective conductor shall be connected to the equipotential bonding system in the non-hazardous area. The monitoring of leakage between the neutral and PE conductors in the hazardous area is also recommended in the standard.
Type TT system
If a type TT earthing system (separate earth’s for power system and exposed conductive parts) is used in zone 1, then it shall be protected by a residual current device. This system may not be acceptable where the earth resistivity is high.
Type IT system
If a type IT earthing system (neutral isolated from earth or earthed through an impedance) is used, an insulation monitoring device shall be provided to indicate the first earth fault. With this system, there may be a requirement for local bonding which is also known as supplementary equipotential bonding. Further information may be obtained by reference to IEC 364-4-41.
In order to prevent different voltage potentials occurring in the metal work of plant in hazardous areas, potential equalisation will be necessary. This applies to TN, TT and IT systems where all exposed and extraneous conductive parts are required to be connected to the equipotential bonding system. The bonding system may comprise protective conductors, metal conduits, metal cable sheaths, steel wire armouring and metallic parts of structures, but not neutral conductors. The security of connections must be assured by non-loosening devices.
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& 54F in the I.E.Maximum Disconnection Times for TN Systems Table 41A U0 (volts) 120 220 to 277 400 greater than 400 Where U0 = Nominal voltage t (seconds) 0.1 Earthing conductor cross-sectional area Calculation of csa The cross-sectional area of earthing conductors may be calculated using the following formula from the 16th Edition of the I.E. operating time of protective device when clearing the fault-current I.E. temperature coefficient and heat capacity of conductor material. factor which takes into account resistivity.2 0. .26 - . Wiring Regulations. A further consideration is the increase in resistance of the conductors as a result of the temperature rise during clearance of the fault.E. (A) t k = = (secs) Values for k are given in tables 54B. BS7671. 54D.8 0. and the appropriate initial and final temperatures. 54C. Wiring Regulations.4 0. 54E. S= I2t k mm2 Where: S I = = nominal cross-sectional area of earthing conductor fault-current for a negligible impedance fault that will flow through the associated protective device (the current-limiting effect of circuit impedance’s and limiting capacity (I2t) of protective device will be taken into account.
CSA of CPC in relation to phase conductor Alternatively. 54C.27 - . may be determined by consideration of table 54G shown below. Table 54G Minimum CSA of protective conductor in relation to the CSA of associated phase conductor. 54E or 54F as applicable. the minimum cross-sectional area of the protective conductor. BS 7671 as follows where: k1 k2 is the value of k for the phase conductor. is the value of k for the protective conductor. selected from table 43A in Chapter 43 according to the materials of both conductor and insulation. selected from Tables 54B. 54D. in relation to the cross-sectional area of the associated phase conductor. Minimum CSA of corresponding protective conductor (Sp) CSA of phase conductor If the protective conductor is of the same material as the phase conductor If the protective conductor is not the same material as the phase conductor mm2 mm2 S ≤ 16 S 16 ≤ S ≤ 35 16 S > 35 S 2 k1S k2 k116 k2 k1S k22 mm2 Note: The values of ‘k’ in the above table are given in the IEE Wiring Regulations. .
the resistance of the fault path .the earth-loop impedance . fuses and connecting cable.Main equipotential bonding conductors The IEE Wiring Regulations.E. the cross-sectional area which provides equivalent conductance will apply. The speed at which a fuse ruptures is dependent not only on the type of fuse. If a copper bonding conductor is used. The fuses are necessary to provide protection against short-circuits which may occur between phases or between phase and earth.g. With regard to a PME system. Table 54H Copper equivalent cross-sectional area of the supply neutral conductor 35 mm2 or less over 35 mm2 up to 50 mm2 over 50 mm2 up to 95 mm2 over 95 mm2 up to 150 mm2 over 150 mm2 Minimum copper equivalent cross-sectional area of the main equipotential bonding conductor 10 mm2 16 mm2 25 mm2 35 mm2 50 mm2 Practical example with and without earth bonding The diagram on page 29 shows a simple installation comprising a motor. Table 54H below details the requirements for the main equipotential bonding conductor in relation to the neutral conductor of the supply. the higher the fault-current will be and the faster the fuse will rupture. where other metals are used. the cross-sectional need not be greater than 25 mm2 or. is required to have a cross-sectional area not less than half the crosssectional area specified for the installation earthing conductor and not less than 6 mm2. and so an earthing bond is required between the motor frame and the star-point of the transformer secondary winding.E. other than a PME system. but also the circuit parameters. specify that the main equipotential bonding conductor in an installation. but this alone will not provide a low enough earth-loop impedance. distribution transformer. Regulations specifies the requirements for earth-loop impedance. Normally the star-point of the distribution transformer secondary winding is connected to an earth mat buried in the soil. Let us now investigate the situation with and without the bonding conductor between the . The 16th edition of the I. The lower the earth-loop impedance. more importantly. e. BS 7671.28 - . to prevent injury to personnel.and the fault current magnitude. Electrical faults such as these must be disconnected as quickly as possible to prevent further damage to equipment and.
the earth-loop impedance should be significantly lower than 0. For simplicity only resistive values are used. It will also be assumed that the motor is bolted securely to the bedplate but. rust or paint.01 + 1 V= V = 208 V Thus. which can be very high but usually of short duration. the resistance of one phase of the motor the resistance between the motor feet and bedplate. Case 2: Earth connection between main earth conductor and motor frame. . Voltage across motor frame and bedplate. the phase voltage. the resistance of 1 Ω between the motor feet and bedplate is shunted and the effective resistance at this point is significantly reduced.05 + 0. The above situation is avoided with appropriate earthing and bonding. Consider the circuit on page 29 which comprises a motor.1 Ω.main earth conductor and the motor frame when a fault occurs between one phase and earth within the motor. until they are interrupted by the electrical protection. Similarly. It is. the resistance between the feet of the motor and the bedplate is l Ω. It has been demonstrated that a contact resistance of 1 Ω can result in the presence of dangerous voltage levels. anyone standing next to the motor and touching it’s frame would receive a severe shock particularly if the deck was wet. essential that earth conductors have sufficient cross-sectional area (csa) to carry prospective fault-currents. due to dirt. therefore. Case 1: No earth connection between main earth conductor and motor frame.29 - . a bonding conductor connected between the motor feet and bedplate would achieve a similar result. transformer and inter-connecting cable. V = R x Vph Rg + Rm + R 1 x 240 0. In order to avoid this difficulty. If the bonding conductor is connected between the motor frame and the main earth. Rg Rm R Vph = = = = the resistance of one phase of the generator.
Practical example with and without earth bonding (continued) No earth bond connected between motor frame and main earth conductor Earth bond connected between motor frame and main earth conductor .30 - .
etc. are solidly bonded together and bonded to the main earth. The passage of oil. tanks..Static electricity Static electricity is more than capable of igniting flammable materials and its presence in the petro-chemical industry represents a very high risk which must be countered by the application of appropriate measures. the use of pipes manufactured from materials with high carbon content. .31 - . Static electrical charges can be reduced in many instances by: 1) 2) 3) slowing the flow rate of fluids through pipes. Recommendations for the control of static electricity may be found in the British Standard BS 5958: Code of Practice for the control of undesirable static electricity. which emerge on the exterior of the pipes and tanks to establish potentials the magnitude of which can be many thousands of volts. adding compounds to liquids. gases or dusts through process pipework and containment vessels causes an internal build-up of static charges. This is unacceptable in hazardous locations and can be eliminated by ensuring that all pipes. Bonding across pipe flanges and joints can also reduce the problem of corrosion caused by static charges.
10MΩ . 1 & 2 1MΩ . Metal plant with some non-conducting elements: Rotating shafts.Static electricity (continued) BS 5958 recommendations for earthing resistances Type of installation Area classification Comments Recommended maximum resistance to earth (Ω) Earthing normally inherent 10 Ωl in the structure. Special earthing connections may be required across joints if there is doubt that the 10 Ω criterion will be satisfied. 1 & 2 Metal pipelines.g.32 - . stirrers etc. Special earthing connections 10 Ω are normally required. The general electrostatic ignition risk and the fire hazard normally preclude the use of such non-conducting materials unless it can be shown that significant charge accumulation will not occur. 1 & 2 Higher resistivity non-conducting items with or without isolated metal components: e. Occasionally items may be mounted on non-conducting supports and special earthing connections may then be required. Reaction vessels + powder silos etc. 1 & 2 Zones 0. Zones 0. Zones 0. earthing is not required in Zone 2 areas Main metal plant structure. but in general if 1MΩ criterion cannot be satisfied a special earthing connection should be used to obtain a resistance of less than 10 Ω to earth. 1 & 2 10 Ω Items fabricated from conductive or antistatic materials Zones 0. 10 Ω In special cases a limit of 100/ 1Ω may be acceptable. In the absence of charge accumulation. Earthing normally inherent 10 Ω in the structure. 1 & 2 Zones 0. Earthing normally inherent 10 Ω in the structure. 1 & 2 Transportable metal items: drums tanks etc. Large fixed metal plant items. Zones 0. bolts in a plastic pipeline Zones 0.
the requirements of types of inspection ‘initial’.Unit 11: Inspection & Maintenance to BS EN 60079-17 Objectives: On completion of this unit ‘Inspection & Maintenance’. ‘close’ and ‘detailed’ grades of inspection. how to apply inspection schedules. ‘periodic’ and ‘sample’. 2 & 3 from BS EN60079-17 for ‘visual’.. Tables 1. -1- . you should know: a) b) c) the importance of appropriate and regular inspection and maintenance.
Inspection of equipment should be carried out on a regular basis to enable detection of potential faults early enough to prevent major breakdowns occurring. Standards BS EN60079-17 Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres: Part 17. will have an influence on whether the apparatus will be safe for use in an hazardous area and/or remain certified. the consequences of a broken foot on a flameproof motor. All this effort will have been in vain if the technician in the field does not have the necessary knowledge to install and/or maintain apparatus in accordance with the manufacturers requirements. there is also the risk that degradation of the apparatus. Increased Safety apparatus may have ‘special conditions of use’ and failure to observe these will -2- . the way the apparatus is subsequently handled. This is very important because. and thereafter. A maintenance programme based on the results of inspection surveys can then be implemented which will allow continued reliability and safe operation of the equipment. Personnel operating in this field must. installed and maintained. could affect the integrity of the apparatus and allow ignition of any flammable gas or vapour in an hazardous area. installation practices and regulations. regular refresher training. Apparatus will only remain approved/certified if it is maintained in accordance with the recommendations provided by manufacturers and relevant standards. due to environmental conditions and other factors. installation. selected. and the general principles of area classification. Apparatus may be explosion protected at the time of leaving the manufacturers premises but. have appropriate training. and also possible injury to personnel. Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines). relevant standards and Codes of Practice. for example.Inspection and Maintenance Introduction This unit is concerned with the inspection and maintenance of electrical apparatus used in hazardous locations in accordance with relevant standards. Code of practice for the selection. in addition to the risk of mechanical damage to apparatus. therefore. Manufacturers have gone to great lengths to design and build apparatus in accordance with relevant standards and have it tested and certified by a third party test house to ensure the apparatus is safe for use in hazardous areas. Personnel need to be aware of. inspection and maintenance of explosion protected apparatus in hazardous areas have a clear understanding of the various protection concepts. minimise downtime and loss of production. installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres BS 5345 (superseded but remains current) Qualifications of Personnel It is essential that personnel involved in the selection.
Exposure to undue vibration. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Susceptibility to corrosion. With regard to the EU. -3- . explosion protected apparatus is normally constructed in accordance with national and harmonised standards. Likelihood of inappropriate maintenance. Exposure to excessive ambient temperatures. for example not in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. Risk of mechanical damage. Attempts were implemented to remedy this situation by the various committees within IEC to effect a complete revision of their Standards. have been published since the late nineteen-sixties. There is also more cooperation between IEC and CENELEC so that eventually their respective Standards will fall into line with one another. These Standards. IEC Standards The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards relative to explosion protected apparatus. Exposure to chemicals or solvents. To fuel this change there have been instances where manufacturers have been requested by larger users of explosion protected apparatus to have such apparatus constructed and certified to the IEC Standards. flameproof apparatus will affect the integrity of such apparatus. Likelihood of water ingress. in one instance. because of the trend towards global harmonisation of standards. numerically referenced in the series 79-xx. had tended to lag behind the National and European Standards. The certification of such apparatus has created difficulties for the manufacturers and. for example. in which the IEC has an important role. however.reduce margins of safety and invalidate the certification. this situation is set to change. Training and experience of personnel. Likelihood of accumulation of dust or dirt. Furthermore. Likelihood of unauthorised modifications or adjustments. These factors are listed below. Principal causes of apparatus deterioration Table 4 of IEC 79-17 lists major factors which have a significant effect on the deterioration of equipment in hazardous locations. had not kept pace with the advances in technology and. the incorrect selection of cable glands with regard to. as a consequence. has led to the manufacturer issuing a ‘self declaration’ for apparatus they have manufactured to a particular IEC Standard. IEC standards. however. have tended not to be used for this purpose but.
clarification of any ‘Special Installation Conditions’ may be verified at a later date. Close: An inspection which encompasses those aspects covered by a Visual Inspection and. Documentation Prior to the implementation of an inspection / maintenance programme it is essential that all necessary documentation is available. and tools. therefore. Table 2 and Table 3 are schedules for the inspection of IS apparatus and Pressurised Ex p apparatus respectively. identifies those defects. tools and test equipment. vibration etc. where necessary. ambient temperature. ‘close’ and ‘detailed’ and defined as follows: Visual: An inspection which identifies. The maintenance of comprehensive records is thus an essential requirement for the safe operation of electrical equipment in hazardous areas. three grades of inspection are specified which are ‘visual’. This Standard comprises a series of Tables for the inspection of the various methods of explosion protection. has occurred in hazardous area installations without these actions being recorded in the relevant documentation. e. Ex e and Ex N. It is also vitally important that the Certification Documents for each item of explosion protected apparatus are available so that. in addition. which will only be apparent by opening the enclosure. which will be apparent only by the use of access equipment. BS EN60079-l7.An IEC Standard which has become more widely accepted is IEC 79-17 . and/or using. -4- . e. Table 1 is an inspection schedule which lists the areas to be inspected for the types of apparatus Ex d.g.g. and also the installation of additional hazardous area equipment.g. Inspection schedules are. a means by which electrical installations may be systematically assessed for correct installation and also the effects of environmental conditions such as water. For each type of explosion protection. step ladders ( where necessary). and a complete inventory of all hazardous area equipment installed in the plant including their location in the plant and up-todate Records of all previous Inspections and Maintenance tasks carried out. without the use of access equipment or tools. those defects. Experience has shown that modifications to existing hazardous area equipment. for example. Close inspections do not normally require the enclosure to be opened. in addition.g.it is now a British Standard. These will include hazardous area drawings of the plant. e. missing bolts. loose termination’s. loose bolts. or the equipment to be de-energised. which will be apparent to the eye. e. identifies those defects. Detailed: An inspection which encompasses those aspects covered by a Close Inspection and. These Tables are illustrated at the end of this section.
Note: * I. the interval between ‘periodic inspections’ does not exceed three years. Factors having an influence on the frequency and grade of ‘periodic inspections’ are: a) b) c) d) e) type of apparatus. for example.C. ‘periodic inspections’ should be implemented to verify that the installation is being maintained in an appropriate condition for continued use in the hazardous area. Experience gained in similar situations with regard to apparatus. 2 and 3 of BS EN60079-17.C. ‘close’ or ‘detailed’. sample inspection.Inspections types Three types of inspection are specified in BS EN60079-17. The flowchart overleaf illustrates how a typical maintenance programme may be established and how the various grades of inspection. Inspection Schedules The inspection schedules illustrated in Tables 1. ‘periodic’ or ‘sample’. environmental conditions. ‘i’ and ‘p’ respectively. plants and environments may be used to establish the inspection programme. I. including its systems and apparatus. resistors which may produce excessive surface temperatures. which produce ignition capable arcs or sparks at their contacts.e. Consideration is also given to frequency of periodic inspections.e. These are: a) b) c) initial inspection. Thereafter. relays etc. may be applied during the various types of inspection. Interim ‘sample inspections’ may be implemented to either support or modify the frequency of ‘periodic inspections’ and may be of a grade ‘Visual’ or ‘Close’. ‘e’. Zone of use. contactors. and their method of installation are suitable. i. i. it may be necessary to carry out a further ‘detailed inspection’. results of previous inspections It is recommended that. and. appearing in the flowchart below infers that electrical equipment contains components which are ignition capable in normal operation. The grade of inspection shall be ‘detailed’ in accordance with Tables 1. Depending on the outcome of a ‘visual/close inspection’. the frequency of which will be influenced by the environmental conditions. manufacturers recommendations. ‘n’. should be subjected to an ‘initial inspection’ before being brought into service to establish that the types of protection selected. ‘visual’. An installation. 2 and 3 relate to the methods of protection types ‘d’. however. periodic inspection. ‘initial’. The grade of inspection for ‘periodic inspections’ may be ‘visual’ or ‘close’ and should be carried out at regular intervals. -5- . Typical components are switches.
Typical inspection procedure for periodic inspections -6- .
and Ex‘n’ Installations (D = Detailed.BS EN60079-17: Table 1: Inspection Schedule for Ex‘d’. Ex‘e’. C = Close. V = Visual) -7- .
BS EN60079-17: Table 3: Inspection Schedule for Ex ‘p’ Installations (pressurised or continuous dilution) -8- .
BS EN60079-17: Table 2: Inspection Schedule for Ex ‘i’ Installations -9- .
10 - ..
Unit 12: Sources of ignition Objectives: On completion of this unit. ‘Sources of ignition’. you should know: a) b) typical everyday sources of ignition in the workplace. lesser known sources of ignition. -1- .
a flameproof enclosure. under the control of a work permit and tests to ensure gas free conditions.1 mS duration in a circuit carrying 20 mA at 10 V. The voltage level has an influence on how incendive a spark will be. There is also the added complication that during charging of lead-acid batteries. the energy produced as a result of a break of 0.e. are a potential source of electrical sparks.Sources of ignition Electrical sparks Electrical sparks are caused primarily by the opening and closing of contacts. the surface temperature of the motor may well exceed it’s T-rating. and light bulbs. Batteries Batteries whatever their size are a potential source of ignition as they will produce incendive sparks if their terminals are short-circuited. typically voltmeters and insulation resistance testers etc. hydrogen and oxygen are released. or collapse of a bearing due to lack of lubrication. Other sources of heat are process pipes and machinery. From this perspective. for example. and is basically why IS circuits are seldom designed for use above 30 V. Current of the order 1000 A can be generated if the terminals of automotive batteries are short-circuited. This requires well ventilated battery rooms. Replacement of batteries must only be carried out in a non-hazardous area. electrical switches. The use of electrical test instruments. These instruments should only be used under controlled circumstances. the windings of an electric motor invariably produces heat which will raise the surface temperature of the motor. Overheating can also be caused by blockage of the cooling fan intake. High-power batteries must not be used unless permitted by the manufacturer. Flammable gases and vapours are more readily ignited at high voltages than low voltages. i. damaged cooling fan. To ignite a flammable mixture consisting of hydrogen and air requires only 20 µJ. Hot surfaces The flow of current through. The certification of portable instruments may only allow their use in hazardous areas if powered by low-power batteries. it is clear that for devices such as these to operate safely in an hazardous area requires them to be installed in. contactors and relays. If the motor is excessively overloaded and the thermal overload device in the starter is incorrectly set.. -2- . for example. combustion engine manifolds and exhaust pipes. for example. The latter can dramatically raise the surface temperature locally to a ‘blue heat’ state which equates to a temperature around 430 °C which is more than capable of igniting a flammable gas or vapour.
must not be used in hazardous areas. so that the material which loses electrons becomes positively charged. and there are instances on record of this occurring. The use of aluminium paint in hazardous areas also requires caution. or between clouds and earth. Air between clouds. This condition may remain for some time because the materials are insulators and do not offer a conductive return path for the electrons. known as thermite action. and the other material which gains electrons becomes negatively charged. Lightning strikes will be readily discharged to earth by the normal metal construction of an installation. but flammable gases or vapours can be ignited by lightning. and hot surfaces locally at the point of contact by the abrasive wheel. Plastic explosion protected enclosures normally carry the warning that they should be cleaned using a damp cloth to avoid generation of static electricity. aluminium and impact between the two is a likely source of ignition. 10000 V or more can be generated at the nozzle of high-pressure steam cleaning equipment. of course. Lightning Lightning is a type of static electricity caused by the movement of clouds. breakdown of the air occurs and the energy is released suddenly in the form of a lighting strike. Nylon clothing removed from the body can generate enough static electricity to ignite a flammable gas or vapour. Static electricity Static electricity is normally caused by two insulating materials rubbing together. which can produce sparks capable of igniting a flammable gas or vapour. Bonding and earthing of aircraft during refuelling prevents the build up of electrostatic charges which might otherwise cause the aviation fuel vapour to ignite. and up to 5000 V can be generated at the nozzle of an aerosol canister. The use of aluminium ladders in hazardous areas should therefore be avoided. The loosely held electrons in the atoms of one material are detached and transferred to the other material. Once the voltage reaches a critical point. The movement of fluids can also generate electrostatic charges. Power tools.Friction The abrasive wheels of portable grinding machines are more than capable of producing incendive sparks. Impact The combination of rusty iron or steel. because they are themselves sources of ignition. Similarly. Drilling using portable tools can also generate heat between the drill bit and the workpiece. and the result is that very high voltages are generated. unless used under strictly controlled conditions. -3- . acts as an insulator allowing the charges to build up.
Radio frequency The increase in the use of mobile telephones. or other sulphide compounds passing through iron pipes. has caused some concern. reacts with the iron of the pipe to produce iron sulphide. could be picked up by metalwork in the area which. Other sources of radio frequency are of course radio and television transmitters and radar installations. With regard to radar installations. which operate at high frequencies. Vibration Vibration is undesirable since it causes premature deterioration of equipment if allowed to persist. Vibration has also been known to cause metal fatigue of the copper sheath and conductors of MICC cable due to work hardening. -4- . Typical examples are increased wear in bearings. Petrol stations have Zone 1 areas around the pumps due to the presence of petrol vapour. acting as an aerial. if used in these areas.Pyrophoric reaction Hydrogen sulphide (H2S). etc. and the energy transmitted by a mobile phone. Fergus Gas Terminal in the North East of Scotland by radar transmissions from the nearby radar installation at Crimond. could produce a spark of sufficient energy to ignite the petrol vapour. Iron sulphide when exposed to air very quickly oxidises and will reach temperatures capable of igniting a flammable gas or vapour. This phenomenon is known as pyrophoric reaction and can be prevented by soaking the iron sulphide with water or prevent its contact with air. loosening of electrical connections. Such concern was expressed by a major oil company in 1993 about the risk of using mobile telephones in petrol stations. concern was expressed about the possible ignition of flammable gases at the St.
b) c) d) -1- . the procedures and competence standards for EX02: the Inspection & Maintenance of Ex d. Ex e and Ex N apparatus. the procedures and competence standards for EX04: the Inspection & Maintenance of an Ex i system and associated apparatus. Ex e and Ex N apparatus. you should know: a) the procedures and competence standards for EX01: the Preparation and Installation of Ex d. the procedures and competence standards for EX03: the Preparation and Installation of an Ex i system and associated apparatus.Unit 13: Induction to Competence Validation Testing Objectives: On completion of this unit ‘Induction to Competence Validation Testing’.
apparatus.Induction to competence validation testing You are required to achieve the following competencies for each Unit of Assessment Competence Validation Tests EX01. Carry out appropriate electrical (instrument) tests after ensuring appropriate safeguards are implemented. EX02. Fit apparatus covers and live-test installation. with reference to Assessment Workpacks. Install appropriate cables and glands in a manner which will maintain the integrity of the pre-fixed apparatus. Inspection and Maintenance relative to Units EX01. Complete relevant section of permit-to-work in accordance with procedures detailed in Unit 14. Safe working practices to be adhered to at all times and include the mandatory use of Personal Protective Equipment in the designated areas. Implement. EX02. all on-site procedures to achieve the competence standard required for Installation. cables and glands. EX03 and EX04 Off-site preparation Implement. Permit-to-work and safe electrical isolation On-site preparation EX01 Preparation and Installation of EEx d. with reference to Assessment Workpacks. c) d) -2- . EX03 and EX04. Ex e and Ex N apparatus a) b) Inspect suitability of pre-fixed apparatus. e & N Apparatus Section A Preparation and Safe Isolation of the electrical circuit Correctly locate electrical supply source and safely isolate installation under the control of a permit-to-work system Section B Installation comprising Ex d. all off-site procedures to include selection of materials. equipment and tools.
Carry out appropriate electrical (instrument) tests after ensuring appropriate safeguards are implemented. locate and correct each of the specified faults to restore integrity of apparatus to operational condition. Section D Safe Isolation of the electrical circuit. e & N Apparatus Sections A. Identify and record five Detailed faults. Identify and record five Close faults. (Prior to Sections C & E) Correctly locate electrical supply source and safely isolate installation under the control of a permit-to-work system.EX02 Inspection & Maintenance of EEx d. d) -3- . b) EX03 Preparation and Installation of EEx i Apparatus Section A Installation comprising Ex i apparatus a) b) c) Inspect suitability of pre-fixed apparatus. B & C Inspection of apparatus and environment With reference to Table 1 of BS EN60079-17: a) b) c) d) Identify and record five Visual faults. Compile a report of actions carried out. cables and glands. glands and safety interfaces in a manner which will maintain apparatus integrity. Fit apparatus covers and live-test installation. Section E Maintenance of apparatus a) From a list of fifteen faults. Install appropriate cables. Compile a report of the faults found and specify the remedial action necessary to return the installation to specification.
Compile a report of actions carried out. Section E Maintenance of apparatus a) From a list of twelve faults.EX04 Inspection & Maintenance of EEx i Apparatus Sections A. Compile a report of the faults found and specify the remedial action necessary to return the installation to specification. (Prior to Sections C & E) Correctly locate electrical supply source and safely isolate installation under the control of a permit-to-work system. locate and correct each of the specified faults to restore integrity of apparatus to operational condition. Section D Safe Isolation of the electrical circuit. B & C Inspection of apparatus and environment With reference to Table 2 of BS EN60079-17: a) b) c) d) Identify and record five Visual faults. Identify and record five Close faults. b) -4- . Identify and record five Detailed faults.
Ex‘e’. and Ex‘n’ Installations (D = Detailed.BS EN60079-17: Table 1: Inspection Schedule for Ex‘d’. C = Close. V = Visual) -5- .
BS EN60079-17: Table 2: Inspection Schedule for Ex ‘i’ Installations -6- .
the location of protection and control devices for tests EX01. EX02. ‘Permit to Work and Safe Isolation’. you should know: a) b) the procedure to complete a ‘permit to work’ to enable safe completion of tests EX01. EX02. EX03 and EX04. EX03 and EX04. the procedures to identify. the procedure to safely isolate and secure isolation of electrical circuits and apparatus for tests EX01. EX02. EX03 and EX04.Unit 14: Permit to Work System and Safe Isolation Objectives: On completion of this unit. from drawings. c) -1- .
In association with the work permit. EX03 & EX04 Isolation Candidates are required to: a) b) Request a ‘work permit’. a particular action is likely to produce a source of ignition. Procedures for CVT’s EX01. candidates must demonstrate their ability to work safely by ensuring that all precautions are taken to prevent ignition of a flammable gas which. Work permit In order to ensure that safety is maintained. EX02. carry out ‘zero voltage test’ and confirm result on part 3 of ‘work permit’. and apparatus ID for ‘zero voltage testing’. Complete parts 1. -2- . Step ‘d’ does not apply to EX03 since isolation is achieved by switching off and removal of keys in the fire and gas panel.which must be requested from the Assessor/Authorised Person. (Note: instrument must be proved before and after use) d) e) f) g) Note: Obtain approval to proceed with work (part 4 of work permit). for example. During these assessments. Select appropriate test instrument. Note: c) PPE in the designated areas is mandatory Identify the ‘point of isolation’ plant reference No. Such situations occur when electrical test instruments and/or portable electric tools are used. a gas-free certificate must be endorsed by the Assessor/Authorised Person at all instances when. Request ‘gas-free certificate’. Isolate the electrical circuit and secure using two locks (candidate + assessor’s locks) and warning label.Permit-to-work and safe isolation Candidates attending the 5-day CompEx course are required to carry out four practical assessments in the simulated hazardous areas.a sample is shown overleaf . it is assumed may be present at any time. candidates must operate within the control of a work permit . for the purpose of the assessments. 2 and 3 of the ‘Work Permit’ and obtain ‘Authorisation to Isolate’ the electrical circuit for the respective workbay.
Obtain cancellation of work permit (part 7 of work permit). Confirm de-isolation is complete (part 6 of work permit). i) De-isolation j) k) l) Obtain authorisation to de-isolate (part 6 of work permit).Final instrument testing h) Request endorsement of ‘gas-free certificate’ prior to final instrument testing (part 5 of work permit). -3- . Prepare installation for live testing and clear worksite (part 6 of work permit).
(Tick items) Coveralls Hard hat Footwear Gloves Eye protection 3. Authorisation / acceptance I hereby authorise _________________ to proceed with work ___________________ (candidate) (Authorised person) I understand and accept responsibility for the work ___________________ (Candidate) 5. Cancellation All work detailed above is completed and ‘Permit-to-Work’ is cancelled________________ (Authorised person) .Permit To Work 1. __________________________________________ and checked for zero voltage at __________________________________________ Isolation complete & zero voltage confirmed by candidate _________________________________ (Candidate) 4. Safety requirements . Work details EX01 EX02 EX03 EX04 Date: Job description _______________________________________________________________ 2. Final instrument testing (EX01 & EX03 only) Gas free test required Gas free certificate endorsed Yes Yes No 6. Clearance / de-isolation ■ ■ ■ I hereby declare the above work has been completed and work site cleared I hereby authorise de-isolation De-isolation complete ______________________ (Candidate) _______________________(Authorised person) _______________________ (Candidate) 7. Isolation Gas free test required Gas free certificate endorsed ■ ■ ■ ■ Authorisation to isolate Yes Yes No ___________________________ (Authorised person) Equipment has been isolated at.Personal Protective Equipment .
Work details EX01 (tick box) EX02 EX03 EX04 Location Workbay No.Gas Test Certificate ■ This certificate confirms that the workbay nominated below in the Ex Training Facility has been tested and deemed to be free of flammable gases for only the specific task(s) authorised below. Authorised by _____________________ (signed) Date __________ Action to be authorised Zero voltage test (isolation) Use of portable heat gun Authorised person (signed) Final ‘instrument’ circuit testing .
Appendix 1: Data for flammable materials -1- .
Data for flammable materials BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989 Section five -2- .
Data for flammable materials (continued) BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989 Section five -3- .
Data for flammable materials (continued) BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989 Section five -4- .
Data for flammable materials (continued) BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989 Section five -5- .
Data for flammable materials (continued) BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989 Section five -6- .
Data for flammable materials (continued) BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989 Section five -7- .
Data for flammable materials (continued) BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989 Section five -8- .
Appendix 2: Self assessment project -1- .
True False d) -2- .Self assessment project 1) Complete the following table: Flammable material Butane Hydrogen Methane Propane Ignition Temperature °C Temperature Class Apparatus Group 2) The external surface temperature of an Ex d enclosure is 260 °C based on an ambient temperature of 40 °C. Consider the statements in the table below and indicate by answering ‘true’ or ‘false’ when a barrier gland is or is not required. contains a source of ignition and is installed in Zone 1. A barrier gland is always required when a IIC gas is the hazard. What T-rating will be marked on the enclosure and will it be suitable for use in Cyclohexane? 3) BS EN60079-14 specifies conditions which require the use of a barrier gland. A barrier gland is always required when enclosures are installed in Zone 1. A barrier gland is always required when an enclosure has a volume greater than 2 litres. Situation a) b) c) A barrier gland is always required when an enclosure contains a source of ignition.
familiarise yourself with the types of faults that should be eliminated for Apparatus. Table 2: Inspection Schedule for Ex i apparatus.4) With reference to BS EN60079-17. 5) With reference to BS EN60079-17. Installation and Environment. Installation and Environment. Summarise your findings. -3- . Summarise your findings. Ex e and Ex n apparatus. study the types of faults to be eliminated for Apparatus. Table 1: Inspection Schedule for Ex d.
90415/94 Max.12.mm = 5 A Amperes per pole .5 A State what each of the above represent.6) A terminal box has a certification label with the following information: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) EEx e EN50019 II T6 Certificate No. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) -4- . 82289X BASEEFA Serial No. current density amperes per sq.
2859 Terminal rating: Type MK 6/6 Qty 1. A31. a) b) c) d) e) f) EEx d Zone 1 & Zone 2 II BS 550l Part 5 EN50018 Ex 83A1216U IP65 The above information represents: a) b) c) d) e) f) 8) A junction box has the following information on its certification plate. a) b) c) d) e) f) BS 4683 Part 3 Ex N II T6 Ex 83053X Max. No.7) The following information was specified on the certification of an item of electrical apparatus. 440 Max. Max. volts 600 VAC Ser. V What does the above information represent? a) b) c) d) e) f) -5- .
circuit voltage: 415 at 400 A The above information represents: a) b) c) d) e) f) 10) A junction box certification label has the following information. a) b) c) d) EEx e II T6 Cert. a) b) c) d) e) f) Type TB10 BS 4683 Part 4 Ex e II T6 BASEEFA Ex 77160/B Enclosure factor: 416 Max. No. 84B3299X BS 5501 Part 6 Load limit 600 A The above information represents: a) b) c) d) -6- .9) The certification label of a terminal box has the following information.
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) BASEEFA No.Tl0-01059 INIEX 90C 103.P Mercury Type VL 14/70 IP67 What does the above information represent? a) b) c) d) e f) g) h) -7- . BS 4533-2-1 Restricted breathing 240 Volts. Ex 76084/B Ex N II T5 Ta 40 °C Max. 50 Hz 70 W H.834 EEx d IIB T6 EN50018 IP66 What does the above information represent? a) b) c) d) e) 12) A mercury vapour bulkhead luminaire has the following information on its certification label. a) b) c) d) e) EJB.11) The following information was marked on a junction box.
a) b) c) d) e) PTB EEx edq II T4 EN50019 (VDE 0l70/0171) No.89B4321X What does the above information represent? a) b) c) d) e) -8- . a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Ex d Zone 1 & Zone 2 Groups II & III BS 229 FLP 3745 T5 max to BS 4683 Part l 250 V.13) The certification label of a bulkhead luminaire provides the following information. 60 W What does the above information represent? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 14) A fluorescent luminaire certification label provides the following information.
up to l2 V Explain the terms: a) b) c) d) -9- .10.15) An Increased Safety motor certification label gives the following information.5 S tE T1 .79149X What does the above information represent? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) 16) An explosion protected item of apparatus is marked with following information. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Ex e tE T3 .10 S tE T2 .42 IEC79-7 BS4683/4 BASEEFA Ex No.5 S IA/IN = 8.l Ampere . a) b) c) d) Ex s II T6 BASEEFA 77224 BS 4683 Part 4 0.10.
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) EEx ia IIC T4 BASEEFA Ex 90C2345 U max in = 28.l5 µF What does the above information represent? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) .3 W L eq = 0 C eq = 0.10 - . a) b) c) Ex [ia] IIC BASEEFA Ex 74442/B/S SFA 3012 What does the above information represent? a) b) c) 18) An item of explosion protection is marked with the following information.5 V I max in = 30 mA W max in = 1.17) A zener barrier interface device is marked with the following information.
11 - . ambient temp.c. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) [EEx ia] IIC BASEEFA Ex86B2 133 Max. 60°C Um: 250V U Max out: ≤ 28 V I Max.19) A shunt-diode safety barrier is marked as follows. 300 Ω BASEEFA Ex832452 [EEx ia] IIC 250 Um 28 Uz I max out: 93 mA What does the above information represent? a) b) c) d) e) f) 20) The following information was specified on a Galvanic interface. isolator: 4/20 mA Explain what each of the above represent. a) b) c) d) e) f) 28 V. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) . out: ≤ 93 mA d.
.12 - .
Appendix 3: Supplement to gland selection procedure -1- .
Note: If a flameproof enclosure contains non-sparking components. Q A - When should a suitable sealing device or barrier gland be used? A sealing device or barrier gland will be used where: 1) A cable is not thermoplastic. BS 6116. remains current. The insulation effectively “flows” away from the point of pressure to leave an ineffective seal which could allow the free passage of hot gasses produced by an explosion within the enclosure. BS 5345 for the time being.Supplementary notes for the selection of flameproof cable glands The selection procedure for flameproof cable glands is given in Unit 10 of this manual. is not substantially compact and circular and/or does not have extruded bedding. (b) and (c) overleaf specify the type of cable glands necessary to maintain the integrity of the flameproof enclosures for the conditions detailed in the four questions below. A - Questionnaire . The gas group is IIC and the enclosure. has a volume greater than 2 litres. however. appropriate glands which accommodate this difficulty should be selected. If “cold flow” cannot be avoided. BS 6346 or BS 6883. 2) 3) 4) Q - What is the condition referred to as “cold flow” with regard to cable insulation and by what means may this difficulty be overcome? The pressure applied on the cable insulation by the seals of a gland when it has been tightened in accordance with the manufacturers instructions produces an indentation on the cable insulation. stopper box or sealing chamber? Devices which utilise compound to occupy the spaces between the individual insulated conductors of a cable to prevent the passage of the hot gasses produced by an explosion within a flameproof enclosure. The gas group is IIA or IIB and the enclosure. which is located in Zone 1 or Zone 2. typically terminals. -2- .selection of cable glands With reference to diagrams (a). otherwise consultation with the manufacturer will be necessary. Cables which are free of these difficulties will be manufactured to BS 5308. Attention to the manufacturer’s cable specification during the selection process may reveal if “cold flow” is a possibility. in the Code of Practice BS 5345: Part 3: 1989. which is located in Zone 1 and contains components that are a source of ignition. then a barrier gland may not be necessary. BS 5467. thermosetting or elastomeric. contains components which are a source of ignition. Gland selection considerations Q A What is a barrier gland. and also in BS EN60079-14 which supersedes BS 5345. Cables meet the constructional requirements in the standards except that they are manufactured from a material which is susceptible to “cold flow”. but this should be verified by consultation with the manufacturer.
Type of gland required? _______________________________ 4) For an enclosure of the type illustrated in figure (c). Type of gland required? _______________________________ 3) For an enclosure of the type illustrated in figure (b). with a volume greater than 2 litres and installed in Zone 2. Type of gland required? _______________________________ 2) For an enclosure of the type illustrated in figure (b).Note: Assume for each question that filled cables manufactured to recognised standards are used and that sparking components are installed except where enclosures have separate terminal chambers. 1) For an enclosure of the type illustrated in figure (a). gas group IIB. gas group IIC. with a volume greater than 2 litres and installed in Zone 2. Type of gland required? _______________________________ -3- . with a volume less than 2 litres and installed in Zone 2. with a volume greater than 2 litres and installed in Zone 1. gas group IIB. gas group IIC.
Enclosure entry methods a) Indirect entry EEx d enclosure b) Direct entry EEx d enclosure c) EEx d enclosure with indirect entry EEx e terminal chamber -4- .
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