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Material Handling

Material Handling

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Published by n_peetu
Material Handling Techniques
Material Handling Techniques

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Published by: n_peetu on Apr 17, 2011
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02/23/2013

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MATERIAL HANDLING

Material Handling
‡ Material handling is the function of moving the right material to the right place in the right time, in the right amount, in sequence, and in the right condition to minimize production cost.
± The cost of MH estimates 20-25 of total manufacturing labor cost in the United States [The Material Handling Industry of America
(MHIA)]

Goals of Material Handling
‡ The primary goal is to reduce unit costs of production
‡ Maintain or improve product quality, reduce damage of materials ‡ Promote safety and improve working conditions ‡ Promote productivity
± ± ± ± ± material should flow in a straight line use gravity! It is free power move more material at one time mechanize material handling automate material handling

Goals of Material Handling
‡ Promote increased use of facilities ‡ Reduce tare weight (dead weight) ‡ Control inventory

Overview of Material Handling Equipment
‡ Material handling equipment includes:
± Transport Equipment: industrial trucks, Automated Guided vehicles (AGVs), monorails, conveyors, cranes and hoists. ± Storage Systems: bulk storage, rack systems, shelving and bins, drawer storage, automated storage systems. ± Unitizing Equipment: palletizers ± Identification and Tracking systems

Considerations in Material Handling System Design
1. Material Characteristics
Category Physical state Size Weight Shape Condition Safety risk and risk of damage Measures Solid, liquid, or gas Volume; length, width, height Weight per piece, weight per unit volume Long and flat, round, square, etc. Hot, cold, wet, etc. Explosive, flammable, toxic; fragile, etc.

Considerations «cont.
2. Flow rate
Quantity of material moved

Conveyors

High Low
Manual handling Hand trucks

Conveyors AGV train Powered trucks Unit load AGV

Short

Long

Move Distance

Considerations «cont.
3. Plant Layout
Layout Type Fixed ± position Characteristics Large product size, low production rate Variation in product and processing, low and medium production rates Typical MH Equipment Cranes, hoists, industrial trucks

Process

Hand trucks, forklift trucks, AGVs

Product

Limited product variety, high production rate

Conveyors for product flow, trucks to deliver components to stations.

20 Principles of Material Handling

1. The Planning Principle
± Large-scale material handling projects usually require a team approach. ± Material handling planning considers every move, every storage need, and any delay in order to minimize production costs. ± The plan should reflect the strategic objectives of the organization as well as the more immediate needs.

2. The systems principle: MH and storage activities
should be fully integrated to form a coordinated, operational system that spans receiving, inspection, storage, production, assembly, «, shipping, and the handling of returns. ± Information flow and physical material flow should be integrated and treated as concurrent activities. ± Methods should be provided for easily identifying materials and products, for determining their location and status within facilities and within the supply chain.

3.

Simplification principle
± simplify handling by reducing, eliminating, or combining unnecessary movement and/or equipment. ± Four questions to ask to simplify any job:
‡ Can this job be eliminated? ‡ If we can¶t eliminate, can we combine movements to reduce cost? (unit load concept) ‡ If we can¶t eliminate or combine, can we rearrange the operations to reduce the travel distance? ‡ If we can¶t do any of the above, can we simplify?

4. Gravity principle
± Utilize gravity to move material whenever practical.

5. Space utilization principle
± The better we use our building cube, the less space we need to buy or rent. ± Racks, mezzanines, and overhead conveyors are a few examples that promote this goal.

6. Unit load principle
± Unit loads should be appropriately sized and configured at each stage of the supply chain. ± The most common unit load is the pallet
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ cardboard pallets plastic pallets wooden pallets steel skids

± pp 164 - 169

8. Automation principle
± MH operations should be mechanized and/or automated where feasible to improve operational efficiency, increase responsiveness, improve consistency and predictability, decrease operating costs. ± ASRS is a perfect example.

10.

Equipment selection principle

± Why? What? Where? When? How? Who? ± If we answer these questions about each move, the solution will become evident. ± Look at pp 160-161.

11.

The standardization principle

± standardize handling methods as well as types and sizes of handling equipment ± too many sizes and brands of equipment results in higher operational cost. ± A fewer sizes of carton will simplify the storage.

13.

12. The dead weight principle
± ± ± ± ± ± Try to reduce the ratio of equipment weight to product weight. Don¶t buy equipment that is bigger than necessary. Reduce tare weight and save money. Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs of all handling equipment. Pallets and storage facilities need repair too. use handling equipment to help achieve desired production capacity i.e. material handling equipment can help to maximize production equipment utilization.

13. The maintenance principle

14. The capacity principle

Example
‡ A punch press can cycle every 0.03 minute, but our time standard for manually loading and unloading this press is only 300 pieces per hour.

Press capacity = 60 min / 0.03 = 2000 pieces/hr Utilization = 300 / 2000 = 15%
‡ Should we buy a new press? ‡ If we can purchase a coil-feeding material handling system, we could approach 100% press utilization.

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