BASICS OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS Important considerations when design protection system

Important considerations when design protection system. 1. Types of fault and abnormal Conditions to be protected against 2. Quantities available for measurement 3. Types of protection available 4. Speed 5. Fault position discrimination 6. Dependability / reliability 7. Security / stability 8. Overlap of protections 9. Phase discrimination / selectivity 10. CT’s and VT’s ratio required 11. Auxiliary supplies 12. Back-up protection 13. Cost 14. Duplication of protection Types of protection A - Fuses For LV Systems, Distribution Feeders and Transformers, VT’s, Auxiliary Supplies B - Over current and earth fault Widely used in All Power Systems 1. Non-Directional 2. Directional. C - DIFFERENTIAL For feeders, Bus-bars, Transformers, Generators etc 1. High Impedance 2. Low Impedance 3. Restricted E/F 4. Biased 5. Pilot Wire

D - Distance For transmission and sub-transmission lines and distribution feeders, also used as back-up protection for transformers and generators without signaling with signaling to provide unit protection e.g.:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Time-stepped distance protection Permissive underreach protection (PUP) Permissive overreach protection (POP) Unblocking overreach protection (UOP) Blocking overreach protection (BOP) Power swing blocking Phase comparison for transmission lines Directional comparison for transmission lines

E - Miscellaneous: 1. Under and over voltage 2. Under and over frequency 3. A special relay for generators, transformers, motors etc. 4. Control relays: auto-reclose, tap change control, etc. 5. tripping and auxiliary relays Speed Fast operation: minimizes damage and danger Very fast operation: minimizes system instability discrimination and security can be costly to achieve. Examples: 1. differential protection 2. differential protection with digital signaling 3. distance protection with signaling 4. directional comparison with signaling Fault position discrimination Power system divided into protected zones must isolate only the faulty equipment or section Dependability / reliability Protection must operate when required to Failure to operate can be extremely damaging and disruptive Faults are rare. Protection must operate even after years of inactivity Improved by use of: 1. Back-up Protection and 2. duplicate Protection Security / Stability Protection must not operate when not required to e.g. due to: 1. Load Switching 2. Faults on other parts of the system 3. Recoverable Power Swings Overlap of protections 1. No blind spots 2. Where possible use overlapping CTs Phase discrimination / selectivity

Correct indication of phases involved in the fault Important for Single Phase Tripping and auto-Reclosing applications Current and voltage transformers These are an essential part of the Protection Scheme. They must be suitably specified to meet the requirements of the protective relays. 1A and 5A secondary current ratings, Saturation of current transformers during heavy fault conditions should not exceed the limits laid down by the relay manufacturer. Current transformers for fast operating protections must allow for any offset in the current waveform. Output rating under fault conditions must allow for maximum transient offset. This is a function of the system X/R ratio. Current Transformer Standards/Classes: British Standards: 10P, 5P, X IEC: 10P, SP, TPX, TPY, TPZ American: C, T. Location of CTs should, if possible, provide for overlap of protections. Correct connection of CTs to the protection is important. In particular for directional, distance, phase comparison and differential protections. VT’s may be Electromagnetic or Capacitor types. Busbar VT’s: Special consideration needed when used for Line Protection. Auxiliary supplies Required for: 1. Tripping circuit breakers 2. Closing circuit breakers 3. Protection and trip relays • AC. auxiliary supplies are only used on LV and MV systems. • DC. auxiliary supplies are more secure than ac supplies. • Separately fused supplies used for each protection. • Duplicate batteries are occasionally provided for extra security. • Modern protection relays need a continuous auxiliary supply. • During operation, they draw a large current which increases due to operation of output elements. Relays are given a rated auxiliary voltage and an operative auxiliary voltage range. the rated value is marked on the relay. Refer to relay documentation for details of operative range. it is important to make sure that the range of voltages which can appear at the relay auxiliary supply terminals is within the operative range. IEC recommended values (IEC 255-6): Rated battery voltages: 12, 24, 48, 60, 11 0, 125, 220, 250, 440 Preferred operative range of relays: 80 to 10% of voltage rated AC. component ripple in the dc supply: <10% of voltage rated

Relays. Economics often overrides technical issues 3. Back-up protection can be simple and is often inherent in the main protection. and loss of supply and customer goodwill. Security/Stability 3. Higher protection costs justifiable by high capital cost of power system elements protected. 6. transformers and feeders. Minimum cost: Must ensure that all faulty equipment is isolated by protection Other factors: 1. Although important. Sensitivity: Degree of risk in allowing a low level fault to develop into a more severe fault 4. Economics cannot be ignored but is of secondary importance compared with the need for highly reliable. Acceptable cost is based on a balance of economics and technical factors. Protection may be the minimum consistent with . Transmission systems 1. Speed 2. Maintenance and repairs to relays 6. Cost of protection should be balanced against the cost of potential hazards there is an economic limit on what can be spent. Emphasis is on technical considerations rather than economics 2. Speed less important than on transmission systems 5. the consequences of maloperation or failure to operate are less serious than for transmission systems. Lost revenue if protection operates unnecessarily Distribution systems 1. Duplicate protections used to improve reliability 7. Reliability Total cost should take account of: 1. Large number of switching and distribution points. fully discriminative high speed protection 3. Commissioning 4. Risk of security of supply should be reduced to the lowest practical levels 5. 2. Damage repair if protection fails to operate 7. 4. CT’s and VT’s 5. High speed protection requires unit protection 6. Setting studies 3.COST The cost of protection is equivalent to insurance policy against damage to plant. Single phase tripping and auto-reclose may be required to maintain system stability . schemes and associated panels and panel wiring 2.statutory safety regulations 4.

To maximize the return on this outlay. Sub-division of the system into zones. As these two requirements are largely opposed. increasing the spare capacity margin and arranging alternative circuits to supply loads. Rapid isolation of the fault by the nearest switch-gear will minimize the damage and disruption caused to the system. taking all factors into account. and the necessity of achieving sufficient reliability. Security of supply can be bettered by improving plant design. It is important to realize that the system is viable only between the cross-over points A and B. can cause fire at the fault location. The large current which then flows. but should rather be balanced against economy. provides flexibility during normal operation and ensures a minimum of dislocation following a breakdown. and mechanical damage throughout the system. its cost and value to the consumer. high reliability should not be pursued as an end in itself.Basic of protection system Introduction The purpose of an electrical power generation system is to distribute energy to a multiplicity of points for diverse applications. it is instructive to look at the relationship between the reliability of a system and its cost and value to the consumer. which imposes a sudden and sometimes violent change on system operation. the system must be loaded as much as possible. For this reason it is necessary not only . regardless of cost. The diagram illustrates the significance of reliability in system design. each controlled by switchgear in association with protective gear. accompanied by the localized release of a considerable quantity of energy. particularly to machine and transformer windings. which is shown in Figure 1. The greatest threat to a secure supply is the shunt fault or short circuit. On the other hand. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilization points with both reliability and economy. Figure 1 Relationship between reliability of supply. A power system represents a very large capital investment.

Relays are extensively used for major protective functions. shunts. and A. Use . wiring and any other devices relating to the protective relays. operating conditions and construction features of power systems. In order to fulfil the requirements of discriminative protection with the optimum speed for the many different configurations. When the system is large. although fundamentally protective in its function. which are only readily expressible by mathematical or graphical means. discriminative protective gear. For example. Relays frequently measure complex functions of the system quantities. and earn the most. Nor is the installation of switchgear alone sufficient. so that it may give the best service to the consumer. the main switchgear. In addition to relays the term includes all accessories such as current and voltage transformers. the chance of a fault occurring and the disturbance that a fault would bring are both so great that without equipment to remove faults the system will become. Absolute freedom from failure of the plant and system network cannot be guaranteed. In many cases it is not feasible to protect against all hazards with any one relay. is excluded from the term 'protective gear'. The risk of a fault occurring. Fundamentals of protection practice This is a collective term which covers all the equipment used for detecting. A system is not properly designed and managed if it is not adequately protected. designed according to the characteristics and requirements of the power system. however slight for each item. but also to keep the system in full operation as far as possible continuously. must be provided to control the switchgear. is multiplied by the number of such items which are closely associated in an extensive system. as are also common services. such as the station battery and any other equipment required to secure operation of the circuit breaker. This is the measure of the importance of protective systems in modern practice and of the responsibility vested in the protection engineer. observation simply of the magnitude of the fault current suffices in some cases but measurement of power or impedance may be necessary in others. it has been necessary to develop many types of relay which respond to various functions of the power system quantities. in practical terms. Revenue for the supply provide a supply of energy which is attractive to prospective users by operating the system within the range AB (Figure 1.C. But the term also covers direct-acting A. inoperable. locating and initiating the removal of a fault from the power system. D. The object of the system will be defeated if adequate provision for fault clearance is not made. In general. trips and fuses. as any fault produces repercussions throughout the net-work.C.1).C.

Deterioration. 3. b. which should be limited to such simple and direct tests as will prove the correctness of the connections and freedom from damage of the equipment. during which period defects may have developed 2. The nature of the power system condition which is being guarded against must be thoroughly understood in order to make an adequate design. Testing is therefore necessary. Protection performance 1. Incorrect design. Comprehensive testing is just as important. but the complexity of the interconnections of many systems and their relation-ship to the remainder of the station may make. coils and other circuits may be open-circuited. Design This is of the highest importance. Installation. since it will be difficult to reproduce all fault conditions correctly. Deterioration in service. auxiliary components may fail. This is the function of site testing. Reliability The need for a high degree of reliability is discussed in Section 1. The need for correct installation of protective equipment is obvious. d. current transformers and other ancillary items. could interfere with correct functioning. in time. No attempt should be made to 'type test' the equipment or to establish complex aspects of its technical performance. deterioration may take place which. .is then made of a combination of different types of relay which individually protect against different risks. these tests must be directed to proving the installation. One of the particular difficulties of protective relays is that the time between operations may be measured in years. as well as reproducing operational and environmental conditions as closely as possible. contacts may become rough or burnt owing to frequent operation. Each individual protective arrangement is known as a 'protection system'. or tarnished owing to atmospheric contamination. c. and this testing should cover all aspects of the protection. it is necessary to test the complete assembly of relays. For example. Incorrect operation can be attributed to one of the following classifications: a. while the whole coordinated combination of relays is called a 'protection scheme'. Difficult the checking of such correctness. Incorrect installation. After a piece of equipment has been installed in perfect condition. and mechanical parts may become clogged with dirt or corroded to an extent that may interfere with movement. For many protective systems. and the tests must simulate fault conditions realistically.

unnoticed until revealed by the failure of the protection to respond to a power system fault. however. Testing should be carried out without disturbing permanent connections. both being required to operate to complete a tripping operation. allowing for redundancy. Staff must be technically competent and adequately trained. such arrangements are commonly applied to circuit breaker trip circuits and to pilot circuits. Protection performance The performance of the protection applied to large power systems is frequently assessed numerically. as well as self-disciplined to proceed in a deliberate manner. A very big step. but it is severe in its judgment of relay performance. the latter against failure to operate. If the risk of an equipment failing is x/unit. Two complete sets of equipment are provided. The quality of testing personnel is an essential feature when assessing reliability and considering means for improvement. This can be achieved by the provision of test blocks or switches. and all must behave correctly for a correct clearance to be recorded. Draw-out relays inherently provide this facility. is x2. in that many relays are called into operation for each system fault. This principle of assessment gives an accurate evaluation of the protection of the system as a whole. It has long been the practice to apply duplicate protective systems to bus-bars. and easily visible double-ended clip-on leads where 'jumper connections' are required. When temporary disconnection of panel wiring is necessary. a 'one-out-of-two' arrangement. For this purpose each system fault is classed as an incident and those which are cleared by the tripping of the correct circuit breakers and only those are classed as 'correct'. in which each step taken and quantity measured is checked before final acceptance. that is. Where x is small the resultant risk (x2) may be negligible. important circuits have been provided with duplicate main protection schemes. These two features can be obtained together by adopting a 'two-out-of-three' . the resultant risk. a test plug can be inserted between the relay and case contacts giving access to all relay input circuits for injection. The former arrangement guards against unwanted operation. either being able to trip independently. clip-on leads for injection supplies. In other cases. a 'two-out-of-two' arrangement. On this basis. relays should be given simple basic tests at suitable intervals in order to check that their ability to operate has not deteriorated. a performance of 94 % is obtainable by standard techniques. that is. mistakes in correct restoration of connections can be avoided by using identity tags on leads and terminals. For this reason. 4. Important circuits which are especially vulnerable can be provided with continuous electrical super-vision. Complete reliability is unlikely ever to be achieved by further improvements in construction. can be taken by providing duplication of equipment or 'redundancy'. The percentage of correct clearances can then be determined. and arranged so that either by itself can carry out the required function.

a protection performance of 99. This property of selective tripping is also called 'discrimination' and is achieved by two general methods: 1. Whichever method is used. any common factors. This 'unit protection' or 'restricted Protection' can be applied throughout a power system and. taking into account the possible range of such variables as fault currents. It is possible to design protective systems which respond only to fault conditions lying within a clearly defined zone. system impedances and so on. The others make incomplete operations and then reset. only those relevant to the faulty zone complete the tripping function. such as. Protective systems in successive zones are arranged to operate in times which are graded through the sequence of equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault. will reduce the overall performance to a certain extent.98 % should be attainable. Zones of protection Ideally. Such schemes have already been used to a limited extent and application of the principle will undoubtedly increase. Probability theory suggests that if a power network were protected throughout on this basis. It is a function of the correct co-ordination of current transformers and relays with a suitable choice of relay settings. Selectivity. common current transformers or tripping batteries. which should cover the power system completely. Certain protective systems derive their 'restricted' property from the configuration of the power system and may also be classed as unit protection. This performance figure requires that the separate protection systems be completely independent. Unit protection is usually achieved by means of a comparison of quantities at the boundaries of the zone. maximum load current. Time graded systems. 2. the circuit breaker being included in both zones. When a fault occurs the protection is required to select and trip only the nearest circuit breakers. . where appropriate. leaving no part unprotected. since it does not involve time grading. Protection is arranged in zones. it must be kept in mind that selectivity is not merely a matter of relay design.arrangement in which three basic systems are used and are interconnected so that the operation of any two will complete the tripping function. Unit systems. although a number of protective equipments respond. can be relatively fast in operation. for instance. the zones of protection should overlap across the circuit breaker as shown in Figure 2.

For practical physical reasons. In Figure 3 a fault at F would cause the bus-bar protection to operate and open the circuit breaker but the fault would continue to be fed through the feeder. this ideal is not always achieved. This leaves a section between the current transformers and the circuit breaker A within which a fault is not cleared by the operation of the protection that responds. Location of current transformers on both sides of the circuit breaker. . as in Figure 3.Figure 2. accommodation for current trans-formers being in some cases available only on one side of the circuit breakers.

Speed. Alternatively. Stability. This problem is dealt. The protection may be of the unit type. although by restricting this operation to occasions when the bus-bar protection is operated the time delay can be reduced. A time delay is incurred in fault clearance. if of the unit type. in which case the boundary will be a clearly defined and closed loop. With by some form of zone extension. Figure 4 Overlapping zones of protection systems. The object is to safeguard continuity of supply by removing each disturbance before it leads to widespread loss of synchronism. owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors. which would necessitate the shutting down of plant. the start will be defined but the extent will depend on measurement of the system quantities and will therefore be subject to variation. would not operate.Figure 3 Location of current transformers on circuit side of the circuit breaker. to operate when opening the circuit breaker does not fully interrupt the flow of fault current. The point of connection of the protection with the power system usually defines the zone and corresponds to the location of the current transformers. the zone may be unrestricted. . It is essentially a term which is applicable to unit systems. applied to protection as distinct from power networks. This term. Figure 4 illustrates a typical arrangement of overlapping zones. refers to the ability of the system to remain inert to all load conditions and faults external to the relevant zone. the term 'discrimination' is the equivalent expression applicable to non-unit systems. The feeder protection. even with a great deal of personal supervision. The function of automatic protection is to isolate faults from the power system in a very much shorter time than could be achieved manually. since the fault is outside its zone.

heavy fault currents can cause damage to plant if they continue for more than a few seconds Figure 5 Typical values of power that can be transmitted as a function of fault clearance time. the only limiting factor will be the necessity for correct operation. The shorter the time a fault is allowed to remain in the system. distribution circuits for which the requirements for fast operation are not very severe are usually protected by time-graded systems. It will be seen that protective gear must operate as quickly as possible. must be weighed against economy.Loading the system produces phase displacements between the voltages at different points and therefore increases the probability that synchronism will be lost when the system is disturbed by a fault. the coil will have an impedance which is inversely proportional to the square of . It is not enough to maintain stability. The destructive power of a fault arc carrying a high current is very great. it does not refer to a current or voltage setting but to the volt-ampere consumption at the minimum operating current. unnecessary consequential damage must also be avoided. Figure 1. A protective system is said to be sensitive if the primary operating current is low. When the term is applied to an individual relay. Even away from the fault arc itself. the greater can be the loading of the system. A given type of relay element can usually be wound for a wide range of setting currents. however. speed. but generating plant and EHV systems require protective gear of the highest attainable speed. It will be noted that phase faults have a more marked effect on the stability of the system than does a simple earth fault and therefore require faster clearance. For this reason. Sensitivity Sensitivity is a term frequently used when referring to the minimum operating current of a complete protective system.5 shows typical relations between system loading and fault clearance times for various types of fault. it can burn through copper conductors or weld together core laminations in a transformer or machine in a very short time.

and so also of the sensitivity. it is usual to supplement primary protection with other systems to 'backup' the operation of the main system and ensure that nothing can prevent the clearance of a fault from the system. If the power system is protected mainly by unit schemes. at best. or separately by means of additional equipment. For D. and it is then normal to supplement the main protection with time graded over current protection. and the burden is therefore frequently quoted in watts. Breaker fail protection can be obtained by checking that fault current ceases within . automatic back-up protection is not obtained. owing to the effect of multiple infeeds. but if the appropriate relay fails or the circuit breaker fails to trip. Primary and back-up protection The reliability of a power system has been discussed in earlier sections. so that the volt-ampere product at any setting is constant. even as a back-up protection. Such back-up protection is inherently slower than the main protection and. Where the system interconnection is more complex. These provide excellent mutual back-up cover against failure of the protective equipment. thereby interrupting the fault circuit one section further back. which will provide local back-up cover if the main protective relays have failed. may be less discriminative. Relay power factor has some significance in the matter of transient performance. but either no remote back-up protection against circuit breaker failure or. Time graded schemes such as over current or distance protection schemes are examples of those providing inherent back-up protection.C. relays the VA input also represents power consumption. depending on the power system configuration. or. Back-up protection may be obtained automatically as an inherent feature of the main protection scheme. not even possible. and will trip further back in the event of circuit breaker failure. the next relay in the grading sequence will complete its operation and trip the associated circuit breaker. Many factors may cause protection failure and there is always some possibility of a circuit breaker failure. the faulty section is normally isolated discriminatively by the time grading. time delayed cover. For the most important circuits the performance may not be good enough. in some cases. In these cases duplicate high speed protective systems may be installed.the setting current value. one more section is isolated than is desirable but this is inevitable in the event of the failure of a circuit breaker. For this reason. This is the true measure of the input requirements of the relay. In this way complete back-up cover is obtained. the above operation will be repeated so that all parallel infeeds are tripped.

all other connections to the bus bar section are interrupted. The following compromises are typical: a. as compared with the alternative of tripping the remote ends of all the relevant circuits. Trip supplies to the two protections should be separately fused. by modifying . should be chosen. Duplication of tripping batteries and of tripping coils on circuit breakers is sometimes provided. Since security of the VT output is vital. trip coils and D. Current trans-formers. It is desirable that the main and back-up protections (or duplicate main protections) should operate on different principles. Separate current transformers (cores and secondary windings only) are used for each protective system. For distribution systems where fault clearance Times are not critical. b. voltage transformers. Auxiliaryrelay. This ideal is rarely attained in practice. as this involves little extra cost or accommodation compared with the use of common current transformers which would have to be larger because of the combined burden. Common voltage transformers are used because duplication would involve a considerable increase in cost. An all-or-nothing relay used to supplement the performance of another relay. as described above. and also because of the increased accommodation which would have to be provided. d. supplies would be duplicated.All-or-nothingrelay A relay which is not designed to have any specified accuracy as to its operating value.C. where system stability is at risk unless a fault is cleared quickly. because of the voltage transformers them-selves.a brief time interval from the operation of the main protection. where appropriate. Definitions and Terminology 1. so that unusual events that may cause failure of the one will be less likely to affect the other. Trip circuits should be continuously supervised. c. it is desirable that the supply to each protection should be separately fused and also continuously supervised by a relay which will give an alarm on failure of the supply and. The extent and type of back-up protection which is applied will naturally be related to the failure risks and relative economic importance of the system. Ideal back-up protection would be completely independent of the main protection. If this does not occur. and confines the tripping operation to the one station. prevent an unwanted operation of the protection. the condition being necessarily treated as a bus bar fault. auxiliary tripping relays. time delayed remote back-up protection is adequate but for EHV systems. 2. local backup. This provides the required back-up protection with the minimum of time delay.

e. to ensure that the value of burden at rated current is used. The phase angle at which the performance of the relay is declared. time for an independent time delay relay. expressed as the product of voltage and current (volt-amperes.) The maximum value of the System Impedance Ratio up to which the relay performance remains within the prescribed limits of accuracy. or to deal with faults in those parts of the power system that are not readily included in the operating zones of the main protection. 8. 6. A quantity. The curve showing the operating value of the characteristic quantity corresponding to various values or combinations of the energizing quantities. 4. and which is usually in opposition to the actuating quantity. R. impedance for an impedance relay. A relay in which the characteristics are modified by the introduction of some quantity other than the actuating quantity. or by introducing time delays. An auxiliary protective system intended to prevent tripping due to inadvertent operation of the main protective system. Characteristic angle. 9. 7. voltage for a voltage relay. Conjunctive test. Characteristic quantity.g. It is usually the angle at which maximum sensitivity occurs. is always at rated current or voltage and it is important. Characteristic impedance ratio (C. in assessing the burden imposed by a relay. 3. The loading imposed by the circuits of the relay on the energizing power source or sources. A test on a protective system including all relevant components and ancillary equipment appropriately interconnected. . current for an over current relay. which may be either at 'setting' or at rated current or voltage. 5. phase angle for a directional relay. Characteristic curve. The rated output of measuring transformers.Biasedrelay. A protective system intended to supplement the main protection in case the latter should be in-effective.Back-upprotection. the value of which characterizes the operation of the relay. Check protective system. or watts if D.Burden. 10.C) for a given performance for example. expressed in VA. The test may be parametric or specific.I. 11.

a. 14. Specific conjunctive test. Drop-out / pick ratio. 16. b. . Drop-out. Earthing transformer. Discrimination. A test to prove the performance for a particular application. 19. 17. Effective range The range of values of the characteristic quantity or quantities. A time delay relay in which the time delay varies with the value of the energizing quantity. Effective setting The 'setting' of a protective system including the effects of current transformers. A protective system which is designed to respond only to faults to earth. Electrical relay A device designed to produce sudden predetermined changes in one or more electrical circuits after the appearance of certain conditions in the electrical circuit or circuits controlling it. or of the energizing quantities to which the relay will respond and satisfy the requirements concerning it. A three-phase transformer intended essentially to provide a neutral point to a power system for the purpose of Earthing. for which definite values are assigned to each of the parameters. The ratio of the limiting values of the characteristic quantity at which the relay resets and operates. 20. The effective setting can be expressed in terms of primary current or secondary current from the current transformers and is so designated as appropriate. The quality whereby a protective system distinguishes between those conditions for which it is intended to operate and those for which it shall not operate. 13. 15. A test to ascertain the range of values that may be assigned to each parameter when considered in combination with other parameters. 18. Earth fault protective system. Parametric conjunctive test. Dependent time delay relay. while still complying with the relevant performance requirements. 12. This value is sometimes called the differential of the relay. A relay drops out when it moves from the energized position to the un-energized position. in particular those concerning precision.

With a relay de-energized and in its initial condition. That sinusoidal e. which alone or in combination with other energizing quantities. within the above definition. Instantaneous relay. Inverse time delay relay with definite minimum (I. 25. 28.D. The protective system which is normally expected to operate in response to a fault in the protected zone. The electrical quantity. The curve depicting the relationship between different values of the characteristic quantity applied to a relay and the corresponding values of operating time. Inverse time delay relay. must be applied to the relay to cause it to function.f. Operating time characteristic.f. Notching relay. Operating time. 27. 22. M . Knee-point e.m. which.NOTE: The term 'relay' includes all the ancillary equipment calibrated with the device. applied to the secondary terminals of a current transformer. A dependent time delay relay having an operating time which is an inverse function of the electrical characteristic quantity. it is possible. NOTE: All relays require some time to operate. 21.) A relay in which the time delay varies inversely with the characteristic quantity up to a certain value. the time which elapses between the application of a characteristic quantity and the instant when the relay operates. Measuring relay. Independent time delay relay. Main protection. 26. T. 29. causes the exciting current to increase by 50%. A time delay relay in which the time delay is independent of the energizing quantity. 21. Operating value. 24. Energizing quantity. when increased by 10 %. 30. either current or voltage. A relay intended to operate with a specified accuracy at one or more values of its characteristic quantity. A relay which operates and resets with no intentional time delay. after which the time delay becomes substantially independent. to discuss the operating time characteristics of an instantaneous relay. 22. . A relay which switches in response to a specific number of applied impulses.m. 23.

A relay is said to 'pick-up' when it changes from the un-energized position to the energized position. A combination of protective gear designed to secure. The nominal value of an energizing quantity which appears in the designation of a relay. The coordinated arrangements for the protection of one or more elements of a power system. A relay designed to initiate disconnection of a part of an electrical installation or to operate a warning signal. Overshoot time. 36. 31. A protective relay may include more than one unit electrical relay and accessories. 40. expressed as time at the rate of progress of the said condition appropriate to the value of the energizing quantity that was initially applied. 37. the disconnection of an element of a power system. The limiting value of the characteristic quantity at which the relay returns to its initial position. 39. or to give an alarm signal. 35. Rating. A means of interconnection between relaying points for the purpose of protection. The apparatus. Protective gear. The algebraic sum. 34. in the case of a fault or other abnormal condition in the installation. Resetting value.The limiting value of the characteristic quantity at which the relay actually operates. . or both. The nominal value usually corresponds to the CT and VT secondary ratings. Protective scheme. The portion of a power system protected by a given protective system or a part of that protective system. Protective system. A protective scheme may comprise several protective systems. usually abnormal. including protective relays. Protective relay. Pick-up. 33. under predetermined conditions. Protected zone. of all the line currents. Residua/ current. trans-formers and ancillary equipment. for use in a protective system. Pilot channel. in a multi-phase system. The extent to which the condition that leads to final operation is advanced after the removal of the energizing quantity. 41. 32. 38.

45. value of the symmetrical component of the through fault current up to which the protective system remains stable. . Starting relay. 49. 52. Through fault current.). The algebraic sum. Unit electrical relay. The ratio of the power system source impedance to the impedance of the protected zone. The R. in a multi-phase system.M. The limiting value of a 'characteristic' or 'energizing' quantity at which the relay is designed to operate under specified conditions. The current flowing through a protected zone to a fault beyond that zone. 46. A delay intentionally introduced into the operation of a relay system. Stability. System impedance ratio (S.S. or multiples. 43. Setting. of all the line-to-earth voltages. Residua/ voltage. Stability limits. 53./. Unit protection. A protection system which is designed to operate only for abnormal conditions within a clearly defined zone of the power system. Such values are usually marked on the relay and may be expressed as direct values. 47. A relay having an intentional delaying device. The quality whereby a protective system remains inoperative under all conditions other than those for which it is specifically designed to operate. 50. A protection system which has no clearly defined zone of operation and which achieves selective operation only by time grading. Time delay relay. Unrestricted protection. 48. 51. 44. A unit relay which responds to abnormal conditions and initiates the operation of other elements of the protective system. Time delay. percentages of rated values.R. A single relay which can be used alone or in combinations with others.42.

Incident An event related to an internal fault which temporarily or permanently disturbs the normal operation of an equipment [IEV 604-02-03.In electrical equipment. 7. [IEC 604-02-091 3.Typical examples are gas alarms. 2.Corona is a form of partial discharge that occurs in gaseous media around conductors which are remote from solid or liquid insulation. fire or explosion. repair or replacement of the equipment. modified] NOTE . It may occur inside the insulation or adjacent to a conductor [IEC 212-01-34.Fault Definitions and: For the purpose of this International Standard. 6. equipment tripping or equipment leakage.Failure The termination of the ability of an item to perform a required function [IEC 191-04-01] NOTE . rupture of tank.Partial discharge A discharge which only partially bridges the insulation between conductors. failure will result from a damage fault or incident necessitating outage.Damage fault A fault which involves repair or replacement action at the point of the fault [IEC 604-02-08. 5.Non-damage fault A fault which does not involve repair or replacement action at the point of the fault NOTE . . modified] 4. This term is not to be used as a general term for all forms of partial discharges. some of them based on IEC 60050(191).Electrical fault a partial or disruptive discharge through the insulation. a fault may or may not result in damage to the insulation and failure of the equipment. modified] NOTE 1 .Fault An unplanned occurrence or defect in an item which may result in one or more failures of the item itself or of other associated equipment [IEC 604-02-011 NOTE . such as internal breakdown.In the electrical equipment. the following definitions.Typical examples are self-extinguishing arcs in switching equipment or general overheating without paper carbonization. IEC 60050(212) and IEC 60050(604) apply: 1.

. stray losses or leakage flux). 10.spark over (discharge through the oil).Thermal fault Excessive temperature rise in the insulation NOTE . The passage of an arc following the breakdown of the insulation [IEC 604-03-38. eddy currents.Flashover (discharge at the surface of the solid insulation). NOTE 3 .NOTE 2 .Discharges are often described as arcing.Insufficient cooling. NOTE 2 . in the conventions of physics. gas concentrations normally found in the equipment in service which have no symptoms of failure. . for example 10 % .puncture (discharge through the solid insulation). is sometimes described as Partial discharge but should rather be considered as a discharge of low energy.sparking discharges which. and which are over passed by only an arbitrary percentage of higher gas contents. 8.Discharge (disruptive) . modified] NOTE 1 . are local Dielectric breakdowns of high ionization density or small arcs. .Typical causes are . Comparable products may be formed from other liquids under similar conditions. The more specific following terms are also used: . 9.X-wax is a solid material which is formed from mineral insulating oil as a result of electrical discharges and which consists of polymerized fragments of the molecules of the original liquid [IEV 212-07-24. .Excessive currents circulating in adjacent metal parts (as a result of bad Contacts. . for example because of metals or floating potentials. . . modified]. it will be described as a discharge of low or high energy.overheating of internal winding or bushing connection lead. based on the extent of damage observed on the equipment .Depending on the amount of energy contained in the discharge.Typical values of gas concentrations.Excessive currents circulating through the insulation (as a result of high Dielectric losses).tracking (the progressive degradation of the surface of solid insulation by local Discharges to form conducting or partially conducting paths).Sparking of low energy. breakdown or short circuits. . leading to a thermal runaway.

Typical values.c.c. etc.c.c. climate. circuit breaker 52a Circuit breaker auxiliary switch—normally open 52b Circuit breaker auxiliary switch—normally closed 55 Power factor relay 56 Field_application relay 59 Over voltage relay 60 Voltage or current balance relay 64 Earth fault protective relay 67 A. in many countries and by many users.NOTE 1 . 3 Checking or interlocking relay 21 Distance relay 25 Synchronizing or synchronism check relay 27 Under voltage relay 30 Annunciator relay 32 Directional power relay 37 Undercurrent or under power relay 40 Field failure relay 46 Reverse phase or phase balance current relay 49 Machine or transformer thermal relay 50 Instantaneous over current or rate-of-rise relay 51 A.). LIST OF DEVICE NUMBERS 2 Time delay starting or closing relay. directional over current relay 68 Blocking relay 74 Alarm relay 76 D. reclosing relay . are quoted as "normal values". over current relay 78 Phase angle measuring or out-of-step protective relay 79 A. depending on operating practices (load levels. but this term has not been used here to avoid possible misinterpretations. NOTE 2 .c.Typical values will differ in different types of equipment and in different networks. time over current relay 52 A.

1 Master element is the initiating device. This system is used in connection diagrams.3 Checking or interlocking relay is a device that operates in response to the position of a number of other devices. Device Number Definition and function 1. 4.. and incorporated in American Standard C37. 62 and 79 described later. to stop. such as a control switch. in an equipment to allow an operating sequence to proceed. that serves either irectly. except as specifically provided by device functions 48. with appropriate suffix letters when necessary. and the required permissive and protective devices. and in specifications. to place an equipment in or out of operation. in instruction books. (or to a number of predetermined conditions). or to provide a check of the position of these devices or of these conditions for any purpose. 1 or equivalent. or through such permissive devices as protective and time-delay relays.4 Master contactor is a device. according to the functions they perform. These numbers are based on a system adopted as standard for automatic switchgear by IEEE. 3. generally controlled by device No.2 Time-delay starting or closing relay is a device that functions to give a desired amount of time delay before or after any point of operation in a switching sequence or protective relay system. float switch etc.81 Frequency relay 83 Automatic selective control or transfer relay 85 Carrier or pilot wire receive relay 86 Locking-out relay 87 Differential protective relay 94 auxiliary tripping relay IEEE device numbers and functions for switchgear apparatus The devices in switching equipments are referred to by numbers. that serve to make and break the necessary control circuits to place an equipment into operation under the desired conditions and to take it out of . 2.2-1979. voltage relay.

9.6 Starting circuit breaker is a device whose principal function is to connect a machine to its source of starting voltage. [This device may be manually or electrically actuated. 11. used for the purpose of respectively connecting and disconnecting the source of control power to and from the control bus or equipment.10 Unit sequence switch is used to change the sequence in which units may be placed in and out of service in multiple-unit equipment.] 6.13 Synchronous-speed device such as a centrifugal speed switch. 10.8 Control power disconnecting device is a disconnecting device. 7. a slip frequency relay. such as a knife switch.11 Multifunction device is a device that performs three or more comparatively important functions that could only be designated by combining several of these device function numbers. a voltage relay.5 Stopping device is a control device used primarily to shut down an equipment and hold it out of operation.operation under other or abnormal conditions. or pull-out fuse block. 8. 14.14 Under speed device . 12. circuit breaker. an undercurrent relay. 13.12 Over speed device is usually a direct connected speed switch that functions on machine over speed. or any other type of device that operates at approximately the synchronous speed of a machine.9 Reversing device is used for the purpose of reversing a machine field or for performing any other reversing functions. All of the functions performed by device 11 shall be defined in the drawing legend or device function list. but excludes the function of electrical lockout (see device function 86) on abnormal conditions.7 Rate-of-rise relay is a relay that functions on an excessive rate of rise of current. 5.

18 Accelerating or decelerating device is used to close or to cause the closing of circuits that are used to increase or decrease the speed of a machine. or monitored valve used in a fluid.15 Speed or frequency matching device functions to match and hold the speed or the frequency of a machine or of a system equal to. 18. such as a machine field. in a multiple unit installation.20 Electrically operated valve is an electrically operated.16 Reserved for future application 17. 19.21 Distance relay is a relay that functions when the circuit admittance. Note: The function of the valve may be indicated by the use of the suffixes. or a reactor. or approximately equal to. controlled. 16. or their equivalent. or for regulating equipment. or vacuum line. Note: This excludes devices that perform such shunting operations as may be necessary in the process of starting a machine by devices 6 or 42. or reactance increases or decreases beyond a predetermined value. 22. 21.17 Shunting or discharge switch serves to open or to close a shunting circuit around any piece of apparatus (except a resistor). source.22 Equalizer circuit breaker is a breaker that serves to control or to make and break the equalizer or the current balancing connections for a machine field. 20. or of any medium. Note: An example is a thermostat that switches on a space heater in a switchgear assembly when the temperature falls to a desired value as distinguished from a device . impedance.functions when the speed of a machine falls below a pre-determined value. see page 11. that of another machine. 15. or system. 23. gas. air.19 Starting-to-running transition contactor is a device that operates to initiate or cause the automatic transfer of a machine from the starting to the running power connection. a capacitor. and also excludes device 73 function that serves for the switching of resistors. when its temperature falls below or rises above a predetermined value.23 Temperature control device Functions to raise or to lower the temperature of a machine or other apparatus. a machine armature.

that is used to provide automatic temperature regulation between close limits and would be designated as 90T.32 Directional power relay is a relay that operates on a predetermined value of power flow in a given direction or upon reverse power flow such as that resulting from the motoring of a generator upon loss of its prime mover. maintenance.24 Volts per hertz relay is a relay that functions when the ratio of voltage to frequency exceeds a preset value. or one which energizes the excitation and ignition circuits of a power rectifier. or when the temperature of the protected apparatus or of any medium decreases below a predetermined value.27 Under voltage relay is a relay that operates when its input voltage is less than a predetermined value. . or test. 28.25 Synchronizing or synchronism check device operates when two ac circuits are within the desired limits of frequency. 30 Annunciator relay is a nonautomatically reset device that gives a number of separate visual indications upon the functioning of protective devices and that may also be arranged to perform a lock-out function. phase angle. 25. to a source of separate excitation during the starting sequence. 24.31 Separate excitation device connects a circuit. or voltage to permit or to cause the paralleling of these two circuits. 27. 29.28 Flame detector is a device that monitors the presence of the pilot or main flame in such apparatus as a gas turbine or a steam boiler. 32.26 Apparatus thermal device Functions when the temperature of the protected apparatus (other than the loadcarrying windings of machines and transformers as covered by device function number 49) or of a liquid or other medium exceeds a predetermined value. such as the shunt field of a synchronous converter. 31. The relay may have an instantaneous or a time characteristic.29 Isolating contactor is used expressly for disconnecting one circuit from another for the purposes of emergency operation. 26.

33- 33 Position switch makes or breaks contact when the main device or piece of apparatus that has no device function number reaches a given position. 34- 34 Master sequence device is a device such as a motor operated multi contact switch, or the equivalent, or a programming device, such as a computer, that establishes or determines the operating sequence of the major devices in an equipment during starting and stopping or during other sequential switching operations. 35- 35 Brush-operating or slip-ring short circuiting device is used for raising, lowering or shifting the brushes of a machine; short-circuiting its slip rings; or engaging or disengaging the contacts of a mechanical rectifier. 36- 36 Polarity or polarizing voltage device operates, or permits the operation of, another device on a predetermined polarity only or that verifies the presence of a polarizing voltage in an equipment. 37- 37 Undercurrent or under power relay functions when the current or power flow decreases below a predetermined value. 38- 38 Bearing protective device Functions on excessive bearing temperature or on other abnormal mechanical conditions associated with the bearing, such as undue wear, which may eventually result in excessive bearing temperature or failure. 39- 39 Mechanical condition monitor is a device that functions upon the occurrence of an abnormal mechanical condition (except that associated with bearings as covered under device function 38), such as excessive vibration, eccentricity, expansion, shock, tilting, or seal failure. 40- 40 Field relay functions on a given or abnormally low value or failure of machine field current, or on an excessive value of the reactive component of armature current in an ac machine indicating abnormally low field excitation. 41- 41 Field circuit breaker is a device that functions to apply or remove the field excitation of a machine. 42- 42 Running circuit breaker is a device whose principal function is to connect a machine to its source of running or operating voltage. This function may also be used for a device, such as a contactor, that is used in series with a circuit breaker or other fault protecting means, primarily for frequent opening and closing of the circuit. 43- 43 Manual transfer or selector device

is a manually operated device that transfers the control circuits in order to modify the plan of operation of the switching equipment or of some of the devices. 44- 44 Unit sequence starting relay is a relay that functions to start the next available unit in multiple unit equipment upon the failure or nonavailability of the normally preceding unit. 45- 45 Atmospheric condition monitor is a device that functions upon the occurrence of an abnormal atmospheric condition, such as damaging fumes, explosive mixtures, smoke, or fire. 46- 46 Reverse-phase or phase-balance current relay is a relay that functions when the polyphase currents are of reverse phase sequence or when the polyphase currents are unbalanced or contain negative phasesequence components above a given amount. 47- 47 Phase-sequence or phase-balance voltage relay functions upon a predetermined value of polyphase voltage in the desired phase sequence, or when the polyphase voltages are unbalanced, or when the negative phase-sequence voltage exceeds a given amount. 48- 48 Incomplete sequence relay is a relay that generally returns the equipment to the normal, or off, position and locks it out if the normal starting, operating, or stopping sequence is not properly completed within a predetermined time. If the device is used for alarm purposes only, it should preferably be designated as 48A (alarm). 49- 49 Machine or transformer thermal relay is a relay that functions when the temperature of a machine armature winding or other load-carrying winding or element of a machine or power transformer exceeds a redetermined value. 50- 50 Instantaneous over current relay is a relay that functions instantaneously on an excessive value of current. 51- 51 Ac time over current relay is a relay with either a definite or inverse time characteristic that functions when the ac input current exceeds a predetermined value, and in which the input current and operating time are independently related or inversely related through a substantial portion of the performance range. 52- 52 Ac circuit breaker is a device that is used to close and interrupt an ac power circuit under normal

conditions or to interrupt this circuit under fault or emergency conditions. 53- 53 Exciter or dc generator relay is a relay that forces the dc machine field excitation to build up during starting or that functions when the machine voltage has built up to a given value. 54- 54 Turning gear engaging device is an electrically operated, controlled, or monitored device that functions to cause the turning gear to engage (or disengage) the machine shaft. 55- 55 Power factor relay is a relay that operates when the power factor in an ac circuit rises above or falls below a predetermined value. 56- 56 Field application relay is a relay that automatically controls the application of the field excitation to an ac motor at some predetermined point in the slip cycle. 57- 57 Short-circuiting or grounding device is a primary circuit switching device that functions to short circuit or ground a circuit in response to automatic or manual means. 58- 58 Rectification failure relay is a device that functions if a power recitifier fails to conduct or block properly. 59- 59 Over voltage relay is a relay that operates when its input voltage is higher than a predetermined value. 60- 60 Voltage or current balance relay is a relay that operates on a given difference in voltage, or current input or output, of two circuits. 61- 61 Density switch or sensor is a device that operates on a given value, or a given rate of change, of gas density. 62- 62 Time-delay stopping or opening relay is a time-delay relay that serves in conjunction with the device that initiates the shutdown, stopping, or opening operation in an automatic sequence or protective relay system. 63- 63 Pressure switch is a switch that operates on given values, or on a given rate of change, of pressure.

66.64 Ground detector relay is a relay that operates upon failure of machine or other apparatus insulation to ground. It is not applied to a device connected in the secondary neutral of a current transformer. or detects a ground on a normally ungrounded winding or circuit. or a specified number of successive operations within a given time of each other.70 Rheostat is a variable resistance device used in an electric circuit which is electrically operated or has other electrical accessories. and in the other position prevents the circuit breaker or the equipment from being operated. connected in the power circuit of a normally grounded system. or limit switches. or other media to the prime mover for such purposes as starting. .71 Level switch is a switch that operates on given values. steam. or stopping.64. holding speed or load. 68. or that is used to permit intermittent acceleration or jogging of a machine at low speeds for mechanical positioning. such as auxiliary. a two-position device that in one position permits the closing of a circuit breaker. electrical. position. It is also a device that functions to energize a circuit periodically or for fractions of specified time intervals. 67. or on flashover of a dc machine to ground.65 Governor is the assembly of fluid. or on a given rate of change. Note: This function is assigned only to a relay which detects the flow of current from the frame of a machine or enclosing case or structure of a piece of apparatus to ground. 69. or mechanical control equipment used for regulating the flow of water.69 Permissive control device is generally.68 Blocking relay is a relay that initiates a pilot signal for blocking of tripping on external faults in a transmission line or in other apparatus under predetermined conditions. or in the secondary neutral of current transformers.66 Notching or jogging device Functions to allow only a specified number of operations of a given device or equipment.67 Ac directional over current relay is a relay that functions on a desired value of ac over current flowing in a predetermined direction. or that cooperates with other devices to block tripping or to block reclosing on an out-of-step condition or on power swings. 71. of level. or the placing of an equipment into operation. 70. 65.

74. or that operates in connection with. and test positions. for example. or to switch a space heater in circuit.73 Load-resistor contactor is used to shunt or insert a step of load limiting. or between two currents.75 Position changing mechanism is a mechanism that is used for moving a main device from one position to another in an equipment. disconnected. operating when the frequency or rate of change of frequency exceeds or is less than a predetermined value. as covered under device function 30. a visual or audible alarm. that is used to operate. or regenerative load resistor of a power rectifier or other machine in and out of circuit. or indicating resistance in a power circuit.72 Dc circuit breaker is used to close and interrupt a dc power circuit under normal conditions or to interrupt this circuit under fault or emergency conditions. 81.80 Flow switch is a switch that operates on given values.79 Ac reclosing relay is a relay that controls the automatic reclosing and locking out of an ac circuit interrupter. generally in response to load circuit conditions. 82 82 Dc load-measuring reclosing relay is a relay that controls the automatic closing and reclosing of a dc circuit interrupter. .81 Frequency relay is a relay that responds to the frequency of an electrical quantity. or a receiver used to receive the electrical signal from a remote transmitter and convert the signal to represent the original measured quantity. 76-76 Dc over current relay is a relay that functions when the current in a dc circuit exceeds a given value. 73. or between voltage and current. shifting. or to switch a light. 75. 78. 80. of flow. 77.72. 79.78 Phase-angle measuring or out-of step protective relay is a relay that functions at a predetermined phase angle between two voltages.74 Alarm relay is a relay other than an annunciator. shifting a removable circuit breaker unit to and from the connected.77 Telemetering device is a transmitter used to generate and transmit to a remote location an electrical signal representing a measured quantity. or on a given rate of change.

(Thisdevice function number is normally not necessary unless the switch is electrically operated or has electrical accessories. such as pumps. or any similar piece of apparatus that otherwise has no device function number. induction regulator. or isolating switch in an ac or dc power circuit. 86. or other quantitative difference between two currents or some other electrical quantities. tie lines.91 Voltage directional relay is a relay that operates when the voltage across an open circuit breaker or contactor exceeds a given value in a given direction. power. load interrupter. and load. etc. at a certain value or between certain (generally close) limits for machines. such as an auxiliary switch. or phase angle. 85 Carrier or pilot-wire receiver relay Is a relay that is operated or restrained by a signal used in connection with carriercurrent or dc pilot-wire fault directional relaying. 87. 89..83. etc.89 Line switch is used as a disconnecting.90 Regulating device functions to regulate a quantity or quantities.88 Auxiliary motor or motor generator is a device used for operating auxiliary equipment. for a tap changer. frequency. or other apparatus. speed. temperature. including the operating motor. blowers. such as voltage. current. exciters. position switches.87 Differential protective relay is a protective relay that functions on a percentage.) 90. . 88.83 Automatic selective control or transfer relay is a relay that operates to select automatically between certain sources or conditions in an equipment or that performs a transfer operation automatically. rotating magnetic amplifiers. etc. a magnetic lock. 84.86 Lockout relay is an electrically operated hand or electrically reset auxiliary relay that is operated upon the occurrence of abnormal conditions to maintain associated equipment or devices out of service until it is reset.84 Operating mechanism is the complete electrical mechanism or servomechanism. 91. solenoids.

92. contactor. this may be done by using a double function . or to prevent immediate reclosing of a circuit interrupter if it should open automatically. in one step. IEEE device numbers Supervisory control and indication. 93.93 Field-changing contactor Functions to increase or decrease.94 Tripping or trip-free relay Functions to trip a circuit breaker. Typical examples of such device functions are: RE1. A similar series of numbers. prefixed by the letters RE (for “remote”) shall be used for the interposing relays performing functions that are controlled directly from the supervisory system.99 Used only for specific applications on individual installations where none of the assigned numbered functions from 1 to 94 is suitable. 94.92 Voltage and power directional relay is a relay that permits or causes the connection of two circuits when the voltage difference between them exceeds a given value in a predetermined direction and causes these two circuits to be disconnected from each other when the power flowing between them exceeds a given value in the opposite direction. Note: The user of the “RE” prefix for this purpose in place of the former 200 series of numbers now makes it possible to obtain increased flexibility of the device function numbering system. the value of field excitation on a machine. RE5 and RE94. Devices performing more than one function If one device performs two relatively important functions in an equipment so that it is desirable to identify both of these functions.96 97. or equipment.95 96. For example. in pipeline pump stations. A similar series of numbers. and so on. are used for those device functions that are associated with unit 1. starting with 101 instead of 1. the numbers 1 through 99 are applied to device functions that are associated with the over-all station operation. 95. or to permit immediate tripping by other devices. a similar series starting with 201 for device functions that are associated with unit 2. for each unit in these installations.97 98. even though its closing circuit is maintained closed.98 99.

number and name such as: 50/51 Instantaneous and Time Over current relay. Suffix numbers If two or more devices with the same function number and suffix letter (if used) are present in the same equipment, they may be distinguished by numbered suffixes as for example, 52X-1, 52X-2 and 52X-3, when necessary. Suffix letters Suffix letters are used with device function numbers for various purposes. In order to prevent possible conflict each suffix letter should have only one meaning in an individual equipment. All other words should use the abbreviations as contained in American Standard Z32.13-1950, or latest revision thereof, or should use some other distinctive abbreviation, or be written out in full each time they are used. The meaning of each single suffix letter, or combination of letters, should be clearly designated in the legend on the drawings or publications applying to the equipment. In cases where the same suffix (consisting of one letter or a combination of letters) has different meanings in the same equipment, depending upon the device function number with which is used, then the complete device function number with which it is used, the complete device function number with its suffix letter or letters and its corresponding function name should be listed in the legend in each case, as follows: 90V, Voltage regulator. Lower case (small) suffix letters are used in practically all instances on electrical diagrams for the auxiliary, position, and limit switches. Capital letters are generally used for all other suffix letters. The letters should generally form part of the device function designation, are usually written directly after the device function number, as for example, 52CS, 71W, or 49D. When it is necessary to use two types of suffix letters in connection with one function number, it is often desirable for clarity to separate them by a slanted line or dash, as for example, 20D/CS or 20D-CS. The suffix letters which denote parts of the main device, and those which cannot or need not form part of the device function designation, are generally written directly below the device function number on drawings, as for example, or . 52/CC or 43/A Auxiliary devices Separate auxiliary devices Actuating quantities These letters indicate the condition or electrical quantity to which the device responds, or the medium in which it is located, such as:

Main devices These letters denote the location of the main device in the circuit, or the type of circuit in which the device is used or the type of circuit or apparatus with which it is associated, when this is necessary, such as: X Y – Auxiliary relay 1) Z R – Raising relay L – Lowering relay O – Opening relay or contactor C – Closing relay or contactor CS – Control switch CL – Auxiliary relay, open (energized when main device is in open position) OP – Auxiliary relay, open (energized when main device is in open position) U – “Up” position-switch relay D – “Down” position-switch relay PB – Push button 1) In the control of a circuit breaker with so-called X-Y relay control scheme, the X relay is the device whose main contacts are used to energize the closing coil or the device which in some other manner, such as by the release of stored energy, causes the breaker to close. The contacts of the Y relay provide the antipump feature for the circuit breaker. A – Air or Amperes or Alternating C – Current D – Direct or Discharge E – Electrolyte F – Frequency, or Flow, or Fault H – Explosive J – Differential L – Level, or Liquid P – Power, or Pressure PF – Power factor Q – Oil S – Speed, or Suction, or Smoke T – Temperature V – Voltage, Volts, or Vacuum VAR – Reactive power VB – Vibration W – Water, or Watts A – Alarm or Auxiliary power AN – Anode B – Battery, or Blower, or Bus

BK – Brake BL – Block (Valve) BP – Bypass BT – Bus tie C – Capacitor, or Condenser, or Compensator, or Carrier current, or Case, or Compressor CA – Cathode CH – Check (Valve) D – Discharge (Valve) E – Exciter F – Feeder, or Field, or Filament, or Filter, or Fan G – Generator, or Ground2) H – Heater, or Housing L – Line, or Logic M – Motor, or Metering N – Network, or Neutral 2) P – Pump, or Phase comparison R – Reactor, or Rectifier, or Room S – Synchronizing, or Secondary, or Strainer, or Sump, or Suction (Valve) T – Transformer, or Thyratron TH – Transformer (high-voltage side) TL – Transformer (low-voltage side) TM – Telemeter U – Unit 2) Suffix “N” is generally used in preference to “G” for devices connected in the secondary neutral of current transformers, or in the secondary of a current transformer whose primary winding is located in the neutral of a machine or power transformer, except in the case of transmission line relaying, where the suffix “G” is more commonly used for those relays which operate on ground faults. Main device parts These letters denote parts of the main device, divided in the two following categories: 1. All parts, except auxiliary contacts, position switches, limit switches, and torque limit switches. 2. All auxiliary contacts and positioning and limit switches for such devices and equipment as circuit breakers, contactors, valves and rheostats and contacts of relays. These are designated as follows: Standard reference positions of some typical devices are as follows: BK – Brake C – Coil, or Condenser, or Capacitor

b – Contact that is closed when the main device is in the standard reference position. or Synchronizing motor S – Solenoid SI – Seal-in TC – Trip coil V – Valve a – Contact that is open when the main device is in the standard reference position. aa – Contact that is open when the operating mechanism of the main device is in the nonoperated position and that closes when the operating mechanism assumes the opposite position. bb – Contact that is closed when the operating mechanism of the main device is in the nonoperated position and that opens when the operating mechanism assumes the opposite position. commonly referred to as the nonoperated or reenergized position and that closes when the device assumes the opposite position. Device Standard reference position Power circuit breaker Main contacts open Disconnecting switch Main contacts open Load-break switch Main contacts open Valve Closed position Gate Closed position Clutch Disengaged position Turning gear Disengaged position Power electrodes Maximum gap position Rheostat Maximum resistance position Adjusting means 1) Low or Down position Relay 2) Deenergized position Contactor 2) Deenergized position Relay (latched-in type) Non-latched-in position Contactor (latched-in type) Main contacts open Temperature relay 3) Lowest temperature Level detector 3) Lowest level Flow detector 3) Lowest flow . commonly referred to as the nonoperated or deenergized position.CC – Closing coil HC – Holding coil M – Operating motor MF – Fly-ball motor ML – Load-limit motor MS – Speed adjusting. and that opens when the device assumes the opposite position.

rising speed. when necessary. or Cold D – Decelerating. whose contact position is dependent only upon the degree of energization of the operating or restraining or holding coil or coils which may or may not be suitable for continuous energization. or Engaged F – Failure. respectively.. Other switches These letters cover all other distinguishing features or characteristics or conditions. 2. increasing flow. or Detonate. A – Accelerating. or Down. or other components for the purpose.e. springs. rising level. voltage. and increasing pressure. The deenergized position of the device is that with all coils deenergized. Hence the “a” and “b” designations usually are sufficient for circuit breaker auxiliary switches. i. Note: If several similar auxiliary switches are present on the same device. levers. they should be designated numerically 1. or Automatic B – Blocking. current. etc. load. 3. or Forward H – Hot. or similar adjusting devices comprising rheostats. 3) The energizing influences for these devices are considered to be. or Back-up C – Close. highest vacuum The simple designation “a” or “b” is used in all cases where there is no need to adjust the contacts to change position at any particular point in the travel of the main device or where the part of the travel where the contacts change position is of no significance in the control or operating scheme. which serve to describe the use of the device or its contacts in the equipment such as: Device Standard reference position 1) These may be speed. increasing vibration. 2) These electrically operated devices are of the non-latched-in type. rising temperature.Speed switch 3) Lowest speed Vibration detector 3) Minimum vibration Pressure switch 3) Lowest pressure Vacuum switch 3) Lowest pressure. or Disengaged E – Emergency. or High .

or Leading M – Manual OFF – Off ON – On P – Polarizing R – Right. Examples of these conventions and variations are shown in Figure 6. which. or Remote. or Low. or Raise. which is continually pickedup. or Trailing TDC – Time-delay closing TDO – Time-delay opening Relay contact systems Relay contact systems Self-reset. Hand or electrical reset. Contacts are shown on diagrams in the position corresponding to the un-operated or de-energized condition regardless of the continuous service condition of the equipment. These contacts remain in the operated position after the controlling quantity is removed. can be made to give hand reset output contacts by the use of auxiliary elements. or Trip. a voltage supervising relay. A 'make' contact is one that closes when the relay picks up. The contacts remain operated only while the controlling quantity is applied. The majority of protective relay elements have self-reset contact systems. would still be shown in the de-energized condition. or Swing T – Test. or Lower. or Receiving. or Reverse S – Sending. a. or Local. returning to their original condition when it is removed. whereas a 'break' contact is one that is closed when the relay is un-energized and opens when the relay picks up.HR – Hand reset HS – High speed L – Left. Hand or electrically reset relays are used when it is necessary to maintain a signal or a lock-out condition. For example. b. They can be reset either by hand or by an auxiliary electromagnetic element. if it is so desired. . or Reclosing.

by the small amount required to permit closure of the second. A protective relay is usually required to trip a circuit breaker. the electromechanical effort is absorbed by the controlling force. The relay may energize the tripping coil directly. the tripping mechanism of which may be a solenoid with a plunger acting directly on the mechanism latch or. Most other types of relay develop an effort which is independent of the position of the moving system. Occupy an intermediate position and according to their design and consequent closeness to one or other category. or. This auxiliary switch is needed to open the trip circuit when the circuit breaker opens. in the case of air-blast or pneumatically operated breakers. an electrically operated valve.Figure 6 indications of contacts on diagrams. which combine many of the characteristics of measuring devices and contactors. being made up of a hand-trip control switch and the contacts of the protective relays in parallel to energize the trip coil from a battery. through a normally open auxiliary switch operated by the circuit breaker. At setting. since the protective relay contacts will usually be quite incapable of performing the interrupting duty. . may have an appreciable contact capacity. The auxiliary switch will be adjusted to close as early as possible in the closing stroke. and the number of circuits to be energized. there being insufficient force to compress the spring of the first contact to make. according to the coil rating. Attracted armature relays. Not only does this limit the 'making' capacity of the contacts. to make the protection effective in case the breaker is being closed on to a fault. The power required by the trip coil of the circuit breaker may range from up to 50 watts. Protective relays are precise measuring devices. the contacts of which should not be expected to perform large making and breaking duties. the margin for operating the contacts being negligibly small. may do so through the agency of another multichannel auxiliary relay. to 3000 watts for a large extra-high-voltage circuit breaker. but if more than one contact pair is fitted any slight misalignment may result in only one contact being closed at the minimum operating value. The basic trip circuit is simple. for a small 'distribution' circuit breaker.

Operation of the armature releases a shutter to expose an indicator as above. b. As a guide for power system operation staff. Such a relay is equivalent to a sensitive electromechanical relay with a tripping contactor. There may also be remote signaling requirements. Electrical indicators may be simple attracted armature elements either with or without contacts. as indicators are arranged to operate only if a trip operation is initiated. Shunt reinforcement with sealing. two or more breakers may have to be tripped by one protective system. . are bi-stable devices. In general. c. The functioning of the measuring modules will not react on the tripping modules. These are illustrated in Figure 7. although some measuring relay elements are capable of tripping the smaller types of circuit breaker directly. Series sealing. and other control functions to be performed. on GEC Measurements relays. For the above reasons it is often better to use inter-posing contactor type elements which do not have the same limitations. protective systems are invariably provided with indicating devices. and may be either mechanically or electrically operated. by special shaping of the active parts. For larger switchgear installations the tripping power requirement of each circuit breaker is considerable. Although two contacts can be fitted. with very few exceptions. or modules. The magnet.For this reason. Indicators. These effects can be reduced by providing a small amount of 'run-in' to contact make in the relay behavior. static relays have discrete measuring and tripping circuits. The edge of the magnet is colored to give the indication. which is free to rotate. which. interlocking with other functions (for example auto-reclosing arrangements). consists of a red diagonal stripe on a white background. Shunt reinforcing. In British practice these are called 'flags'. An alternative type consists of a small cylindrical permanent magnet magnetized across a diameter. and lying between the poles of an electromagnet. A mechanical indicator consists of a small shutter which is Released by the protective relay movement to expose the indicator pattern. which are energized by the protection relays and provide the necessary number of adequately rated output contacts. care must be taken in their alignment. and a small tolerance in the closing value of operating current may have to be allowed between them. These various operations are carried out by multi-contact tripping relays. so that the number or rating of outputs has no more significance than the fact that they have been provided. further. Not every component relay will have one. Operation indicators. Relay tripping circuits. These may be small attracted armature type elements fitted in the same case as the measuring relay. lines up its magnetic axis with the electromagnet poles. Auxiliary contactors can be used to supplement protective relays in a number of ways: a. and. the provision of multiple contacts on such elements is undesirable. whereas in America they are known as 'targets'. but can be made to reverse its orientation by the application of a field.

and the contactor closes a contact in parallel with the protective relay contact. which would be a serious handicap for certain types. The coil of the series contactor carries the trip current initiated by the protective relay. Another advantage is that the indicator can operate only after the main contacts have closed. With indicators operated directly by the measuring elements. When used in association with high speed trip relays. Nothing is added to the total tripping time. avoiding the need for indicators on the measuring elements. The indicator must have operated by the time the contacts make. . even if chatter occurs at the main contact. with about 5 % of the trip supply voltage being dropped across them. This is to stop indication occurring when the tripping operation has not been completed. The main disadvantage of this method is that such series elements must have their coils matched with the trip circuit with which they are associated. care must be taken to line up their operation with the closure of the main contacts. Series sealing. This closure relieves the protective relay contact of further duty and keeps the tripping circuit securely closed. Electrically operated indicators avoid imposing an additional friction load on the measuring element. they can conveniently carry the operation indicator. which usually interrupt their own Ta.When such auxiliary elements are fitted. The coils of these contactors must be of low impedance. but must not have done so more than marginally earlier. Figure 7 Typical relay tripping circuits. and the indicator does not operate until current is actually flowing through the trip coil.

and more than one protective relay were connected to trip the same circuit breaker. This may pose a problem in design if a variable number of auxiliary elements (for different phases and so on) may be required to operate in parallel to energize a common tripping relay. which then reinforces the contact which is energizing the trip coil. It should be noted that two contacts are required on the protective relay. . Shunt reinforcing. all the auxiliary relays would be energized in parallel for each relay operation and the indication would be confused. The duplicate main contacts are frequently provided As a three point arrangement to reduce the number of contact fingers. If this were done. since it is not permissible to energize the trip coil and the reinforcing contactor in parallel. b. Here the sensitive contacts are arranged to trip the circuit breaker and simultaneously to energize the auxiliary unit. the auxiliary elements must be fast enough to operate and release the flag before their coil current is cut off.coil current.

Figure 1. links. auxiliary switch contacts and so on. because it is sometimes in-convenient to find a suitable contact to use for this purpose. This means that provision must be made for releasing the sealing circuit when tripping is complete. which is applicable wherever a remote signal is required. this is a disadvantage. With the circuit healthy either or both of relays A and B are operated and energize relay C. Shunt reinforcement with sealing. Schemes using a lamp to indicate continuity are suitable for locally controlled installations. These complications. It will be seen that the effect of bounce is countered by means of a further contact on the auxiliary unit connected as a retaining contact. Supervision of trip circuits. have directed attention to its supervision. This is a development of the shunt reinforcing circuit to make it applicable to relays with low torque movements or where there is a possibility of contact bounce for any other reason. This provides super-vision while the circuit breaker is closed. Figure 8(c) illustrates such a scheme. coupled with the importance of the circuit. . by the addition of a normally closed auxiliary switch and a resistance unit. and the possible burning out of the contacts not only of the sensitive element but also of the auxiliary unit. The trip circuit extends beyond the relay enclosure and passes through more components. supervision can be obtained while the breaker is both open and closed. Relays A and C are time-delayed by copper slugs to prevent spurious alarms during tripping or closing operations. The resistors are mounted separately from the relays and their values are chosen such that if any one component is inadvertently short-circuited. The resistance in series with the lamp prevents the breaker being tripped by an internal short circuit caused by failure of the lamp. the addition of a normally open push-button contact in series with the lamp will make the supervision indication available only when required. The simplest arrangement contains a healthy trip lamp. but when control is exercised from a distance it is necessary to use a relay system. I n either case. as shown in Figure 8(a). a tripping operation will not take place. such as fuses.8(b) shows how. The chattering would only end when the circuit breaker had finally tripped.Figure 8 Examples of trip circuit supervision. Both A and B must reset to allow C to drop-off. a simple extension gives pre-closing supervision. c. Using the shunt reinforcing system under these circumstances would result in chattering on the auxiliary unit. relay contacts. and in some cases through a considerable amount of circuit wiring with intermediate terminal boards. The alarm supply should be independent of the tripping supply so that indication will be obtained in the event of the failure of the tripping battery.

3.1. Temperature. Over voltage. pressure . 3. Frequency. Other. If the magnitude of the incoming signal is outside a preset range. the relay will operate.1. . Protection. Directional over current. 3.1 General function: Auxiliary. Control.3 Incoming signal: Current. Microprocessor. Differential. Nonelectric (thermal. Solid state.). Velocity.4 Type of protection Over current.1. the incoming signal and the type of functioning. generally to close or open electrical contacts to initiate some further operation. Distance. Others. 3.2 Construction: Electromagnetic.... their construction. Reverse power..etc.. usually from a current and/or voltage source. Computerized. 3. for example the tripping of a circuit breaker. Monitoring.1 Classification: Protection relays can be classified in accordance with the function which they carry out. Pressure. Voltage.1.Classification and function of relays A protection relay is a device that senses any change in the signal which it is receiving.

The attracted armature relay. In this case. . among other factors. 3. and operate by the movement of a piece of metal when it is attracted by the magnetic field produced by a coil. have an operating coil and various contacts and are very robust and reliable. as detailed below. which is shown in figure 1. 1 Attraction relays Attraction relays can be supplied by AC or DC. 3 . The other type is the piston or solenoid relay. for example G for generator. magnetic and mechanical components. So that I = K 2 / K1 =constant. illustrated in Figure 2. consists of a bar or plate of metal which pivots when it is attracted towards the coil. which is closed or opened according to the design when the armature is attracted to the coil.K2. the resultant force is zero and therefore Κ112 = K2.Figure 1 Armature-type relay In some cases a letter is added to the number associated with the protection in order to specify its place of location. K2 is the restraining force. The construction characteristics can be classified in three groups. The armature carries the moving part of the contact. There are two main types of relay in this class. Τ for transformer etc. usually produced by a spring. the effective area and the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. where Κ1 depends upon the number of turns on the operating solenoid. the air gap. When the relay is balanced. Nonelectric relays are outside the scope of this book and therefore are not referred to. It can be shown that the force of attraction is equal to K1I2 .2 Electromagnetic relays Electromagnetic relays are constructed with electrical. 2 . the piston also carries the operating contacts. in which α bar or piston is attracted axially within the field of the solenoid.

the restraining tension of the spring or the resistance of the solenoid circuit can be varied.In order to control the value at which the relay starts to operate.i Where: T= torque B = flux density L =length of the coil a = diameter of the coil N = number of turns on the coil i = current flowing through the coil Figure 2 Solenoid-type relay .N. The torque produced in the coil is given by: T = B. Attraction relays effectively have no time delay and. 3 . 2 Relays with moveable coils This type of relay consists of a rotating movement with a small coil suspended or pivoted with the freedom to rotate between the poles of a permanent magnet.a.l. 2 . for that reason. are widely used when instantaneous operations are required. The coil is restrained by two springs which also serve as connections to carry the current to the coil. thus modifying the restricting force.

produce a torque that can be expressed by T= Κ1. Where Φ1 and Φ2 are the interacting fluxes and θ is the phase angle between Φ1 and Φ2.Φ1. 3 Induction relays An induction relay works only with alternating current. It consists of an electromagnetic system which operates on a moving conductor. which is proportional to the torque. It thus follows that the relay has an inverse time characteristic similar to that illustrated in Figure 3. 3 . These two fluxes. which are mutually displaced both in angle and in position.Φ2 . It should be noted that the torque is a maximum when the fluxes are out of phase by 90º. and functions through the interaction of electromagnetic fluxes with the parasitic Fault currents which are induced in the rotor by these fluxes. and Φ2= Φ2 sin (ωt+ θ ) . for example 80º.Figure 3 Inverse time characteristic From the above equation it will be noted that the torque developed is proportional to the current. The relay can be designed so that the coil makes a large angular movement. where θ is the angle by . Figure 4 Electromagnetic forces in induction relays It can be shown that Φ1= Φ1sin ωt. and zero when they are in phase.sin θ. 2 . The speed of movement is controlled by the damping action. generally in the form of a disc or cup.

This creates a flux in the area influenced by the short circuited section (the socalled shaded section) which lags the flux in the nonshaded section. Thus: ∴ F α Φ2 Φ1 sin θ α T Induction relays can be grouped into three classes as set out below.F 2 ) α (Φ2 iΦ1+ Φ1 iΦ2 ) Figure 4 shows the interrelationship between the currents and the opposing forces. igure 5 Shaded-pole relay Figure 6 Wattmetric-type relay .which Φ2 leads Φ1. Then: iΦ1 α And dΦ1 α Φ1 cosωt dt i Φ1 dΦ 1 α α Φ 1 cos ( ωt + θ ) dt F = ( F 1 . Shaded-pole relay In this case a portion of the electromagnetic section is short-circuited by means of a copper ring or coil. see Figure 5.

and has a fixed central core. Configurations with four or eight poles spaced symmetrically around the circumference of the cup are often used.Κs and Φ are design constants. . see Figure 7. for example in instantaneous units. In the first two types of relay mentioned above. with just one supply for the top coil. Where K. Cup-type relay This type of relay has a cylinder similar to a cu which can rotate in the annular air gap between the poles of the coils. Ι1 and I2 are the currents through the two coils and θ12 is the angle between I1 and I2. Α special spring provides the restraining torque. The torque equation is T= ( KI1I2 cos (θ12 – Φ) – Ks ). which induces an out-of-phase flux in the lower coil because of the air gap. which are provided with a disc. The torque is a function of the product of the two currents through the coils and the cosine of the angle between them. The cup-type relay has a small inertia and is therefore principally used when high speed operation is required. in some cases. . The time delay can be increased by the addition of a permanent magnet.with the upper and lower coils fed by different values or. Figure 6 illust r ates a typical arrangement. the inertia of the disc provides the time-delay characteristic. The movement of the cylinder is limited to a small amount by the contact and the stops. The operation of this relay is very similar to that Figure 7Cup-type relay Of an induction motor with salient poles for the windings of the stator.

together with some calculations illustrating the methods used. For this reason a review of the concepts and procedures for calculating fault currents will be made in this chapter. This simplification is important because all the system equipment must be modeled in some way in order to quantify the transient values which can occur during the fault condition. In order to illustrate the transient nature of the current.1 + V max Sin (ω t + α ) R Figure 1 RL. the selection of conductor sizes and for the specifications of equipment such as power-circuit breakers. given the large increase in current flow when a short circuit occurs.Calculation of short circuit current The current that flows through an element of a power system is a parameter which can be used to detect faults. For the circuit shown in Figure 1. of which the solution is in two parts: ia (t ) : ih (t ) + ip (t ) . it is important to bear in mind that these calculations are also required for other applications. for example calculating the substation Earthing grid. 1 Mathematical derivation of fault currents The treatment of electrical faults should be carried out as a function of time. from the start of the event at time t = 0 until stable conditions are reached. Although the use of these short-circuit calculations in relation to protection settings will beconsidered in detail. consider an RL circuit as a simplified equivalent of the circuits in electricity-distribution networks. and therefore it is necessary to use differential equations when calculating these currents. circuit for transient analysis study This is a differential equation with constant coefficients. the mathematical expression which defines the behaviour of the current is: e(t) = L di + Ri(t) 2.2.

If the tripping of the circuit. . It is impossible to predict at what point the fault will be applied on the sinusoidal cycle and therefore what magnitude the DC component will reach. the first term varies sinusoidally. and has an initial maximum value when α − Φ = ±π / 2 . while the second term decreases exponentially with a time constant of L/R. 2. By the use of differential equation theory. the DC component reaches its theoretical maximum value half a cycle later.2 Where: Z = R 2 + ω 2 L2 α = the closing angle which defines the point on the source sinusoidal voltage when the fault occurs and Φ = tan −1 (ωL / R ) It can be seen that. The latter term can be recognised as the DC component of the current. in eqn. which will not be discussed in detail here. the complete solution can be determined and expressed iii the following form: i(t ) = Vmax (Sin (ω t + α ) − Sin(α − Φ).e −( R / L) ) Z 2. takes place when the sinusoidal component is at its negative peak.Where: ih(t) Is the solution of the homogeneous equation corresponding to the transient period and ip(t) is the solution to the particular equation corresponding to the steady-state period. see Figure 2. owing to a fault. and zero value when Φ=α.2.

e. The reduction in current from its value at the onset. including the AC and DC components. In Figure 4 it will be noted that the variation of current with time. can be interpreted as a reactance which varies with time. owing to the gradual decrease in the magnetic flux caused by the reduction of the e. This effect is known as armature reaction. i. applied to an RL circuit. of the induction current. and which makes the calculations quite difficult.3 The fault current which results when an alternator is short circuited can easily be analysed since this is similar to the case which has already been analysed.f.Figure 2 Variation of fault current with time a (α–Φ) =0 b (α–Φ)=π/2 An approximate formula for calculating the effective value of the total asymmetric current. when voltage is.m. asym = 2 2 I rms + I DC 2 . The physical situation that is presented to a generator. with acceptable accuracy can be obtained from the following expression: I rms . comes close to the three . Notwithstanding this. 1(t). can be seen in Figure 3. in the majority of practical applications it is possible to take account of the variation of reactance in only three stages without producing significant errors.

transient and steady-state currents.discrete levels of current. The corresponding values of direct axis reactance are denoted by X d . I". Figure 3 Transient short-circuit currents in a synchronous generator Figure 4 Variation of current with time during a fault . X d and Xd. the subtransient. 1 ' and I. " ' respectively.

Of necessity.M.9 2V / X d ) 2 + (0.m. depending on the operating speed of the protection relays.Figure 5 Variation of generator reactance with time during a fault And the typical variation with.010 and C37. time for each of these is illustrated in Figure 5. the behaviour of the generator under short circuit conditions. Transient reactance values are generally used in stability studies.4 . value of the AC current. values can be defined depending on whether or not the DC component is included. Taking into account the rapid drop of the short-circuit current due to the armature reaction of the synchronous machines.s. The asymmetrical values are calculated as the square root of the sum of the squares of the DC component and the r. when calculating short-circuit currents it is necessary to take into account two factors which could result in the currents varying with time: the presence of the DC component. short-circuit values based on the transient reactance are used. To sum up.S. in some cases. Asymmetrical or symmetrical r. Time delay units can be set using the same values but.e.s. and the fact that extinction of an electrical arc is never achieved instantaneously. i.: " " = (0.5 recommend using different values of subtransient reactance when calculating the so-called momentary and interrupting duties of switchgear.9V / X d ) 2 2 2 I rms = I DC + I AC 2. The peak values are obtained by multiplying the R.m. ANSI Standards C37. In studies of electrical protection some adjustment has to be made to the values of instantaneous short circuit current calculated using subtransient reactance's which result in higher values of current. values by 2 . switchgear specifications require reliable calculations of the shortcircuit levels which can be present on the electrical network.

asym .int = ( 2 I rms .m. sym .sym 2. a factor of 1. From this. sym .sym 2.sym .int e − ( R / L ) ) 2 + I rms . the value of the r.The momentary current is used when specifying the closing current of switchgear.s. current would then be: 2 2 I rms . the AC and DC components decay to 90% of their initial values after the first half cycle. again. the so-called r. value of interrupting current is used in which.56 I rms. Typically.asym.56V / X d = 1.rms . and therefore: Replacing the DC component by its exponential expression gives: 2 2 I rms .clo sin g = I DC + I AC . int = I DC + I Ac. It should be noted that. The peak value is obtained by arithmetically adding together the AC and DC components. the AC component is multiplied by a factor of 2 Thus: I peak = I Dc + I AC " " = (0. in .6 When considering the specification for the switchgear-opening cur-rent.9 2V / X d ) 2 + (0.9 2V / Xd ) + (0.6 is used by manufacturers and in international standards so that.55 Irms.sys " " = (0.5 Usually.9V / X d ) 2 " = 1. in this case. this value should be used when carrying out similar calculations.9 2V / Xd ) = 2. int 2 I rms .rms . the AC and DC components are taken into account.s.m.

5 times generator subtransient reactance As an illust r ation of the validity of the curves for any situation.sym. . reproduced by permission of the IEEE) NOTE: Fed predominantly through two or more transformations or with external reactance in series equal to or above 1.asym.5–1979. int ) has been drawn for different Values of X/R. IEEE Standard C37. and for different switchgear contact-separation 2e −2( r / l )t + 1 I /I 2. in ANSI Standard C37.= I rms.7 rms . int The expression ( rms. sys . The multiplying factor graphs are reproduced in Figure 6 Figure 6 Multiplying factors for three-p hase and line-to-earth faults (total current rating basis) (from.

If the frequency. a=1 ∠120 °. Va Vb and Vc can be represented thus: Va =Vao + Va1 + Va2 Vb =Vbo + Vb1 + Vb2 Vc =Vco + Vc1 + Vc2 It can be demonstrated that: V b= V ao+a 2V a1+aV a2 V c= V ao+aV a1+ a 2V a2 where a is a so called operator which gives a phase shift of 120° clockwise and a multiplication of unit magnitude.e. a 2=1 ∠240° Therefore. and a 2 similarly gives a phase shift of 240°.Consider a circuit breaker with a total contact-separation time of two c y c l e s o n e cycle due to the relay and one related to the operation of the breaker mechanism. f is 60 Hz and the ratio X/R With this arrangement. voltage values of any three-phase system. i. the following matrix relationship can be established: ⎡Va ⎤ ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ × ⎢V ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ ⎢ b⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎢Vc ⎥ ⎢1 a a ⎥ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Inverting the matrix of coefficients: ⎡1 1 1 ⎤ ⎡V a ⎤ ⎡Va 0 ⎤ ⎢V ⎥ = 1 ⎢1 a a 2 ⎥ × ⎢V ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ b⎥ ⎢ a1 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎢1 a 2 a ⎥ ⎢Vc ⎥ ⎢Va 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ From the above matrix it can be deduced that: .e. i.

a three-phase unbalanced system is shown in Figure 8 together with the associated symmetrical components. the neutral current is equal to In = (Ia + Ib + Ic) and. and gives: I a = I a 0 + I a1 + I a 2 I b = I a 0 + a 2 I a1 + aI a 2 I b = I a 0 + a I a1 + a 2 I a 2 Therefore: 1 (Ia + Ib + Ic ) 3 1 I a1 = ( I a + aI b + a 2 I c ) 3 1 I a 2 = ( I a + a 2 I b + aI c ) 3 Ia0 = In three-phase systems. therefore. . l n= 3 I 0 By way of illustration.1 (Va + Vb + Vc ) 3 1 Va1 = (Va + aVb + a 2Vc ) 3 1 Va 2 = (Va + a 2Vb + aVc ) 3 Va 0 = The foregoing procedure can also be applied directly to currents.


5 with an earth wire. Three values of positive reactance are normally quoted-subt r ansient.5. The positive. provided that the applied voltages are balanced. These sequence impedances are designated Z1. and 3 to 5 for three-core cables: For transformers. The following ratios may be used in the absence of detailed information.f source in series with the positive-sequence impedance. those in which only negative and zero-sequence currents flow are called the negative and zero-sequence impedances. the positive-sequence network is composed of an e.25 for single core. as are those of cables. The resistance of the windings is much smaller and can generally be neglected in short-circuit calculations. the positive and negative-sequence impedances are equal because in static circuits these impedances are independent of the phase order. respectively. depending on the transformer connections. or infinite. Z2 and Z0. being independent of the phase if the applied voltages are balanced. and are used in calculations involving symmetrical components.2. When modelling small generators and motors it may be necessary to take resistance into account.m. For a single-circuit line. . Therefore. In fault studies the subtransient and transient reactance of generators grid motors must be included as appropriate. Zo/Z1 = 2 when no earth wire is present and 3. respectively.m. The zero-sequence impedance is either the same as the other two impedances. depending on the machine characteristics and fault clearance time. For a double-circuit line Zo/Z1 = 5. However. for most studies only the reactance's of synchronous machines are used. The zero-sequence impedances of lines different from the positive and negative-sequence impedances since the magnetic field creating the positive and negative-sequence currents is different from that for the zero-sequence currents. denoted by X".f but only include impedances to the flow of negative and zero-sequence currents. Since generators are designed to supply balanced voltages. The negative and zero-sequence net-works do not contain e.and negative-sequence impedances of overhead-line circuits are identical. transient and synchronous reactance. Xd' and Xd. For underground cables Zo/Z1 can be taken as 1 to 1. similarly. the generated voltages are of positive sequence only.1 Importance and construction of sequence networks The impedance of a circuit in which only positive-sequence currents are circulating is called the positive-sequence impedance and.

30 X"= subtransient reactance. in these networks. Within 0.12 0. X0=zero sequence reactance The subtransient reactance is the reactance applicable at the onset of the fault occurrence. In connecting sequence networks together.25 1.22 0. The zero sequence networks carries only zero-sequence current in one phase which has an impedance of Zo = 3Ζn + Zeo The voltage and current components for each phase are obtained from the equations given for the sequence networks.20 0. is at earth potential so that only zero-sequence currents flow through the impedances between neutral and earth. corresponding to the phase of the system. Xd=synchronous reactance X. Typical per-unit reactance's for three phase synchronous machines are given in Table 1.09 0.14 0. the reference busbar for the positive.and negative-sequence networks is the generator neutral which. The reference busbar for zero-sequence networks is the earth point of the generator.28 0.35 X0 0. The current which flows in the impedance between the neutral and earth are three times the zero-sequence current. Figure 2.2=negative sequence reactance. X'd =transient reactance.14 0.09 0.20 1. the fault level falls to a value determined by the transient reactance and then decays exponentially to a steady-state value determined by the synchronous reactance.15 0.18 0. are obtained from the point an on phase a relative to the reference bus bar.30 0. and can be deduced from Figure 2.20 0. The equations for the components of voltage.9 illustrates the sequence networks for a generator.1 sec.70 1.20 X2 0.9 as follows: Va1 = E a − I a1 Z 1 Va 2 = − I a 2 Z 2 Va 0 = − I a 0 Z 0 Where Εa = no load voltage to earth of the positive-sequence network Z1 = positive-sequence impedance of the generator .Table 1 Typical per-unit reactance for three -phase synchronous machines Type of machine Turbine generator Salient pole generator 2 pole 4 pole with dampers without dampers " Xd ' Xd Xd 1.03 0.07 0.

I2 and Io respectively. carrying currents I1.type of fault. 2. in order to calculate fault 1 levels using the method of symmetrical components. Then. negative and zero-sequence network. are connected together in a particular arrangement to represent a given unbalanced fault condition.Z2 = negative-sequence impedance of the generator Zo= zero-sequence impedance of the generator (Zeo) plus three times the impedance to earth The above equations can be applied to any generator which carries unbalanced currents and are the starting point for calculations for any type of fault.2. it is essential to determine the individual sequence impedances and combine these to make up the correct sequence networks. Consequently.2 Calculation of asymmetrical faults using symmetrical components The positive. for each . The same approach can be used with equivalent power systems or applied to loaded generators. Ea then being the voltage behind the reactance before the fault occurs. . the appropriate combination of sequence networks is formed in order to obtain the relationships between fault currents and voltages.

Single phase fault connected to earth As in the previous equations. Ic =0 and V a =0. . the sequence networks will be connected in series. Therefore. it can easily be deduced that I a1 = I a2 = I ao = Ea / (Z1 +Z 2 + Zo ).Phase-to-earth fault The conditions for a solid fault from line a to earth are represented by the equations Ib=0.

2. .10b. Phase-to-Phase-to-earth fault The conditions for a fault between lines b and c and earth are represented by the equations 1a = 0 and Vb=Vc =0. Phase-to-Phase fault The conditions for a solid fault between lines h and c are represented by the equations I a = 0. Equally.10c. The current and voltage conditions are the same when considering an open-circuit fault in phases b and c. For this case. I b = –I c and Vb = V c .10a.3 Equivalent impedances for a power system. From these equations it can be proved that: I a1 Ea = ZoZ2 Z1 + Zo + Z2 The three sequence networks are connected in parallel as shown in Figure 2.and negative-sequence networks in parallel as indicated in Figure 2. with no zero-sequence current. and thus the treatment and connection of the sequence networks will be similar. the zero-sequence network is not involved and the overall sequence network is composed of the positive. it can be shown that I ao = 0 and I a1 = Ea /(Z 1 +Z 2 ) = I a2 .as indicated in Figure 2.

on the basis that the generator ímpedances are not significant in most distribution-network fault studies. Thus.e. it may be assumed that overall Ζ2 = Z1 which simplifies the calculations. For lines and cables the positive and negative ímpedances are equal.2Z1 3 Supplying the current and voltage signals to protection systems In the presence of a fault the current transformers (CTs) circulate current proportional to the fault current to the protection equipment without distinguishing between the vectorial magnitudes of the Sequence components. Thus. . i. the above formula reduces to Ia = 3I0 = 3 VLN / (2Z1 + Zo).When it is necessary to study the the power system. the system must by its corresponding The equivalent positiveand can be calculated directly from: Z= V2/P effect of any change on first of all be represented sequence impedances. Where VLN = line-to-neutral voltage and Zo= (3VLN / Ia) . Ia1=Ia2=Ia3 = VLN/ (Z1 + Z2 + Z0) Where: VLN = the line-to-neutral voltage. negative-sequence impedances Where: Z = Equivalent positive and negative-sequence impedances V =nominal phase-to-phase voltage P = three-phase short circuit power The equivalent zero-sequence of a system can be derived from the expressions of sequence components referred to for a single-phase fault.

given this. regardless of the values of the sequence components. It is very important to emphasise that.Figure 10 Connection of sequence networks for a3ymmetrical faults a Phase-to-earth fault b Phase-to-phase fault c Double phase-to-earth fault Therefore. the advantage of using symmetrical components is that they facilitate the calculation of fault levels even though the relays in the majority of cases do not distinguish between the various values of the symmetrical components. the relays operate on the basis of the corresponding values of fault current and / or voltages. in the majority of cases. .

Figure 11a Currents and voltages for various types of faults .

Relays usually only operate using the summated values in the right-hand columns.Figure 11b Currents and voltages for various types of faults a Sequence currents for different types of fault b Sequence voltages for different types of fault In Figure 11a & b the positive and negative sequence values of current and voltage for different faults are shown together with the summated values of current and voltage. However. relays are available which can operate with specific values of some of the .

Voltage transformers: With voltage transformers (VTs) it is essential that the voltage from the secondary winding should be as near as possible proportional to the primary voltage. The behavior of current and voltage transformers during and after the occurrence of a fault is critical in electrical protection since errors in the signal from a transformer can cause maloperation of the relays. In addition. the growth of electronics has led to their being used increasingly in logic circuits. In these cases there must be methods for obtaining these components. 1.Current and voltage transformers Current or voltage instrument transformers are necessary for isolating the protection. The majority of protection relays have nominal voltages of 110 or 63. VTs are designed in such a way that the voltage drops in the windings are small and the flux density in the core is well below the saturation value so that the magnetization current is small. Although these filters can be constructed for electromagnetic elements. factors such as the transient period and saturation must be taken into account when selecting the appropriate transformer. . Among the relays which require this type of filter in order to operate are those used ιn negative-sequence and earthfault protection. and for supplying the equipment with the appropriate values of current and voltage . control and measurement equipment from the high voltages of a power system. and 120 V for the voltage coils. However.generally these are 1A or 5Α for the current coils. in this way magnetization impedance is obtained which is practically constant over the required voltage range.sequence components. When only voltage or current magnitudes are required to operate a relay then the relative direction of the current flow in the transformer windings is not important. In order to achieve this. 3. The secondary voltage of a VT is usually 110 or 120 V with corresponding line-to-neutral values.5 V. depending on whether their connection is line-to-line or line-to-neutral. the polarity must be kept in mind when the relays compare the sum or difference of the currents. and this is achieved by using filters which produce the mathematical operations of the resultant equations to resolve the matrix for voltages and for currents.

as shown in Figure 1a. with the length of the voltage drops increased for clarity. the primary voltage. VTs have an excellent transient behaviour and accurately reproduce abrupt changes in. the nominal maximum errors are relatively small.Figure 1 Voltage transformer equivalent circuits Figure 2 Vector diagram for voltage transformer 1. In spite of this.2. The magnetization branch can be ignored and the equivalent circuit then reduces to that shown in Fig 1b. The vector diagram for a VT is given in Figure. .1 Equivalent circuits VTs can be considered as small power transformers so that their equivalent circuit is the same as that for power transformers. The secondary voltage Vs lags the voltage Vp/n and is smaller in magnitude.

In order to select the nominal power of a VT. The allowable error limits corresponding to different class values are shown in Table 2.3 Burden The standard burden for voltage transformer is usually expressed in volt-amperes (VΑ) at a specified power factor. secondary wiring burdens and the uncertainty of system parameters. multiplied by the nominal transformation ratio. If the error is positive. the accuracy of a VT is important. 1. This range should be between 5 and 173% of the nominal primary voltage for VTs connected between line and earth.5 kV or higher.2 Errors When used for measurement instruments. Notwithstanding this. and the value of voltamperes (VΑ). or when it is necessary to measure the voltage and power factor of each phase separately.4 Selection of VTs Voltage transformers are connected between phases. errors should he contained within narrow limits over a wide range of possible voltages under fault conditions. especially for those values close to the nominal system voltage. Voltage transformers are specified in IEC publication 1 8 6 Α by the precision class. errors in a VT are clue to differences in magnitude and phase between Vp/n. The voltage error is the percentage difference between the voltage at the secondary terminals. it is usual to acid together all the nominal VΑ loadings of the apparatus connected to . caused by the drop in voltage from the circulation of the magnetization current through the primary winding. where Vn is the nominal voltage. The connection between phase and earth is normally used with groups of three singlephase units connected in star at substations operating with voltages at about 34.1 3. and errors due to voltage drops as a result of the load current IL flowing through both windings. owing to the problems of having to cope with a variety of different relays. These consist of the errors under open-circuit conditions when the load impedance Ζ B is infinite. Referring to the circuit in Figure 1a. Errors in magnitude can be calculated from Error V T = {(n Vs . then the secondary voltage exceeds the nominal value.1. or between phase and earth. for example for billing and control purposes. although the precision requirements of a VT for protection applications are not so high at nominal voltages. The phase error is considered positive when the secondary voltage leads the primary voltage. 1. V2. The nominal secondary voltages are generally standardized at 110 and 120 V. Table 1 gives standard burdens based on ANSI Standard C57. and Vs. and the primary voltages V1.Vp) / Vp} x 100%. The nominal primary voltage of a VT is generally chosen with the higher nominal insulation voltage (kV) and the nearest service voltage in mind.

.0 120.0 40.268 0.5 20.0 3.5 2.2 10.0 0.0 0.85 31.0 80.2 0.0 40.0 40.010 0.0 2.1 0. In addition.1 0.101 0.0 Vn and 1.2 80.5 0.0 0.Table 1 Standard burdens for voltage Transformer Standard burden Characteristics for 120 V and 60 Hz desig Volt.5 1.089 0.090 0.2 Ζ 200. 1.4 134.0 0.0 1.034 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.powe resistance( n ampere r Ω) s facto r W 12.2 ΖΖ 400.5 Vn 0.364 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.2 27.2 Υ 75.10 115.0 0.0168 0.2 Vn 0.0 1.0 80.3 Characteristics for 69.0403 1.4 54.0 Vn 0. especially if the distance between the transformers and the relays is large.85 61.4 20.070 1152 575 192 72 36 411 38.0 1.0 1.2 2.3 V and 60 Hz inductanc impedanc resistanc inductanc impedanc e e e e e (H) (Ω) (Ω) (H) (Ω) 3.20 82.8 Vn .0 1.0 40.2 Μ 35.4 1. it is important to take account of the voltage drops in the secondary wiring.1 0.4 10.85 163.0 80.5 0.356 384 192 64 24 12 137 Table 2 Voltage transformers error limits Class Primary Voltage Phase error voltage error (±min) (±%) 0.040 1.0 Vn = nominal voltage The VT secondary winding.70 403.0 0.2 Χ 25.

in fact the two parts of the divider taken together can be considered as the source impedance which produces a drop in voltage when the load is connected. and Ze is the magnetization impedance of . One alternative. is to use a capacitor voltage transformer. Α simplified equivalent circuit of a capacitor VT is shown in Figure 4 in which Vi is equal to the nominal primary voltage. For improved accuracy a high voltage capacitor is used in order to obtain a bigger voltage at the point of connection.1.fact that this impedance can be compensated for by connecting a reactance in series at the point of connection. some resistance is always present. in an actual situation on a network. With an ideal reactance there are no regulation problems .however. which can be reduced to a standard voltage using a relatively inexpensive trans-former as shown in Figure 3. the cost increases in a similar manner to that of a high voltage transformer. Figure 4 Capacitor VT equivalent circuit The capacitor divider differs from the inductive divider in that the equivalent impedance of the source is capacitive and the . and is similar to a resistive divider in that the output voltage at the point of connection is affected by the load .5 C a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e t r a n s f o r m e r s In general. The divider can reduce the voltage to a value which enables errors to be kept within normally acceptable limits. Ri represents the resistance of the primary winding of transformer Τ plus the losses in C and L. and a more economic solution. C is the numerically equivalent impedance equal to ( C1 + C2 ). L is the resonance inductance. for this reason. This device is effectively a capacitance voltage divider. the size of an inductive VT is proportional to its nominal voltage and.

the secondary voltage is maintained for some milliseconds because of the combination of the series and parallel resonant circuits represented by L.transformer Τ. the resistance of the secondary circuit and the load impedance are represented by secondary voltage and current. The voltage error is the difference in magnitude between Vi and V's. Referred to the inter-mediate voltage. C and the transformer T. so that the vector difference between Vi and V's which constitutes the error in the capacitor VT. Good quality CTs are more reliable and result in less application problems and. and thus. Ri and R's are not large and. From the diagram it can be seen that. This is illustrated in the vector diagram shown in Figure 4. the circuit in Figure 4. causing serious errors in magnitude and phase. Therefore. in general. Rs' and ' ZB respectively. under stable system conditions the capacitor VT acts like a conventional transformer. with the exception of C. whereas the phase error is indicated by the angle θ. Ie is small compared to I' s . high grade CTs must always be used.4 is the same as the equivalent circuit of a power transformer. in addition. while Vs' and I s' represent the Figure 5 Capacitor VT vector diagram It can be seen that. 2 Current transformers Although the performance required from a current transformer (CT) varies with the type of protection. the values of EL and EC predominate.5 which is drawn for a power factor close to unity. when the primary voltage collapses. at the system frequency when C and L are resonating and canceling out each other. Capacitor VTs display better transient behaviour than electro-magnetic VTs as the inductive and capacitive reactance in series are large in relation to the load impedance referred to the secondary voltage. for frequencies different from the resonant frequency. is very small. provide better protection. .

6a. since it does not influence either the current IH/n or the voltage across Xm. In general.Figure 6 Current transformer equivalent circuits The quality of CTs is very important for differential protection schemes where the operation of the relays is directly related to the accuracy of the CTs under fault conditions as well as under normal load conditions. ZL. and the secondary impedance is. CTs can become saturated at high current values caused by nearby faults. care should be taken to ensure that under the most critical faults the CT operates on the linear portion of the magnetization curve. The circuit in Figure 4. ZL. 2.6b where ZH can be ignored. Rm and Xm represent the losses and the excitation of the core.7. the primary current referred to the secondary side.6a can be reduced to the arrangement shown in figure 4.1 Equivalent circuit An approximate equivalent circuit for a CT is given in Figure 4. Where n2ZH represents the primary impedance ZH referred to the secondary side. The current flowing through Xm is the excitation current Ιe. . with the voltage drops exaggerated for clarity. is shown in Figure 4. to avoid this. is resistive and Ιe lags Vs by 90°. so that Ie is the principal source of error. The vector diagram. Note that the net effect of Ie is to make I lag and be much smaller than ΙH /n. In all these cases the CT should be a ble to supply sufficient current so that the relay operates satisfactorily.

Figure 7 Vector diagram for the CT equivalent circuit 2.2 Errors The causes of errors in a CT are quite different to those associated with VTs. In effect, the primary impedance of a CT does not have the same influence On the accuracy of the equipment it only adds an impedance in series with the line, which can be ignored. The errors are principally due to the current which circulates through the magnetizing branch. The magnitude error is the difference in magnitude between ΙH / n and IL and is equal to Ir the component of Ie in line with k (see Figure 7). The phase error, represented by θ, is related to Iq the component of Ie which is in quadrature with IL. The values of the magnitude and phase errors depend on the relative displacement between Ie and IL, but neither of them can exceed the vectorial error it should be noted that a moderate inductive load, with Ie and IL approximately in phase, has a small phase error and the excitation component results almost entirely in an error in the magnitude. 2.3 AC saturation CΤ errors result from excitation current, so much so that, in order to check if a CT is functioning correctly, it is essential to measure or calculate the excitation curve. The magnetization current of a CT depends on the cross section and length of the magnetic circuit, the number of turns in the windings, and the magnetic characteristics of the material. Thus, for a given CT, and referring to the equivalent circuit of Figure 4.6b, it can be seen that the voltage across the magnetization impedance, Es, is directly proportional to the secondary current. From this it can be concluded that, when the primary current and therefore the secondary current is increased, these currents reach a point where the core commences to saturate and the magnetization current becomes sufficiently high to produce an excessive error. When investigating the behaviour of a CT, the excitation current should he measured at various values of voltage the so-called secondary injection test. Usually, it is more convenient to apply a variable voltage to the secondary winding, leaving the primary winding open-circuited. Figure 4.8a shows the typical relationship between the secondary voltage and the excitation current determined in this way. In European standards the point Κp on the curve is called the saturation or knee point and is defined as the point at which an increase in the excitation voltage of ten per cent produces an increase of 50 % in the excitation current. This point is referred to in the ANSI / IEEE standards

as the intersection of the excitation curves with a 45° tangent line, as indicated in Figure 4.8b. The European knee point is at a higher voltage than the ANSI/IEEE Knee point. 2.4 Burden The burden of a CT is the value in ohms-of the impedance on the secondary side of the CT due to the relays and the connections between the CT and the relays. By way of example, the standard burdens for CTs with a nominal secondary current of 5 A are shown in Table 3, based on ANSI Standard C57.13. IEC Standard Publication 185(1987) specifies CTs by the class of accuracy followed by the letter Μ or P, which denotes whether the transformer is suitable for measurement or protection purposes, respectively. The current and phase-error limits for measurement and protection CTs are given in Tables 4a and 4.4b. The phase error is considered positive when the secondary current leads the primary current. The current error is the percentage deviation of the secondary current, multiplied by the nominal transformation ratio, from the primary current, i.e. {(CTR x Ι2) – I1} ÷ I1 (%), where I1 = primary current (A), I2 = secondary current (A) and CTR = current transformer transformation ratio. Those CT classes marked with `ext' denote wide range (extended) current transformers with a rated continuous current of 1.2 or 2 times the nameplate current rating. 2.5 Selection of CTs When selecting a CT, it is important to ensure that the fault level and normal load conditions do not result in saturation of the core and that CT magnetization curves

Figure 8a CT magnetization curves

Figure 8b CT magnetization curves a Defining the knee point in a CT excitation curve according to European standards b Typical excitation curves for a multi ratio class C CT (From IEEE Standard C57.13-1978; reproduced by permission of the IEEE).

2 18. The secondary voltage Ε in Figure 4. The first two meth ods provide precise facts for the selection of the CT.6 9. CT classes of accuracy.0 25 50 100 200 Power factor 0.3 Standard burdens for protection CTs with 5 Α secondary current Designation Resista nce Inductance Impedance Voltamps (Ω) (mH) (Ω) (at 5 A) B-1 B-2 B-4 B-8 0.0 2.5 The errors do not exceed acceptable limits. The third only provides a qualitative estimation.5 0.0 4.s. this can be determined by dividing the maximum Fault current on the system by the transformer turns ratio selected ZB = e x t e r n a l impedance connected ZL = impedance of the secondary winding ZC =impedance of the connecting wiring .0 8.4 1. If the impedance of the magnetic circuit.6U has to be determined for all three methods.0 2.0 4.0 2.5 0. this can be removed from the equivalent circuit with little error' giving Es=Vs and thus: Vs=IL (ZL+ZC+ZB) (1) Where Vs = r.5 0.Table 4. voltage induced in the secondary winding =maximum secondary current in amperes. Xm is high.3 4. CT magnetization curves.m. These factors can be assessed from: formulae.5 1.

1 0.5 30 1.0* 2.1 0.5 ext 1.0 3.25 0.2 5 10 30 60 120 1.2 0.0 1.0 ext 3.2 0.00 1.350.350.f.05 120 90 - - 0.2 1.751.50 0. Bmax.5 1.00 1.44.5 2.10 0.0 ext *ext = 200 % 0.0 3.25 0. Α =cross-sectional area of core (cm2) Ν =number of turns Bmax =flux density (lines/cm2) Table 4α Error limits for measurement current transformers Class % current error at the given % phase error at the given proportion of the rated current shown below proportion of rated current shown below 2.0 0.751.1 0 -8 V (2) Where f =frequency in Hz. Α.1 0.5 1.05 0.5 2.2 ext 0.50 0.0 0.00 3.3.2 0.1 0.75 10 0.5 0.Use of the formula This method utilizes the fundamental transformer equation: Vs = 4.0 _ 1.000.0 5 10 30 60 - 0.5 0.0 - .0 1.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 5 0.500.2 0.0*1.2 8 15 45 0.2 0.0 0.0 3.1 10 20 60 120 - 0.5 1. N.00 60 120 - 5 10 30 60 120 8 15 45 90 - 10 20 60 120 - 15 30 90 - .20 0.2 0.5 0.

percentage Current ratio error 5 +/.1 and Bmax. Example 1. is 35 000x 5/2000=87. To use the formula.0 180 90 60 60 Total error for nominal error limit current and nominal load is five per cent for 5P and 5Ρ ext CTs and ten per cent for 10P and 10P ext CTs.4 0.1 0. 4.Phase error (minutes) 20 100 120 5 20 100 120 5 5 0. 2. If Bmax. The cross-sectional area of metal and the saturation flux density are sometimes difficult to obtain.35 0.5 1.2 0.31+2) =202.1 0. Determine whether the CT would be saturated by a fault of 35 000 A at 50 Hz.44X50X3.2 0. Bmax.2. Exceeds the saturation density.1X108/4. 4.75 0. N= 2000/5 = 400 turns And Vs=87.0 1. including connections.5 90 45 30 30 3 1.25X400=70 030 lines/ cm2 Since the transformer in this example has a steel core of high permeability. is 2 Ω.5 0. this relatively low value of flux density should not result in saturation.Table 4b Error limits for protection current transformers Accuracy Class % Current 0. The latter can be taken as equal to 100 000 lines/Cm2. then the secondary current. Solution If the CT is not saturated.5 0.5 1.1 V. Using eqn.25 In cm2 and a secondary winding with a resistance of 0.5x (0. V is determined from eqn. IL. having a steel core of high permeability.31 Ω. .5 A. Assume that a CT with a ratio of 2000/5 is available. which is a typical value for modern transformers.2 30 15 10 10 1.2 0. there could be appreciable errors in the secondary current and the CT selected would not be appropriate. a cross-sectional area of 3.0 +/.1 15 8 0. can now be calculated: Bmax = 202.75 0. The impedance of the relays. is then calculated using eqn.

(e) This provides one point on the curve of IL against IH. . and with the help of the magnetisation curves. current obtained on applying an r.m. The method consists of producing a curve which shows the relationship between the primary and secondary currents for one tap and specified load conditions. (d) Calculate I H / n (=IL + Ie) and multiply this value by n to refer it to the primary side of the CT. such as shown in Figure 4. Ie.Using the magnetization curve Typical CT excitation curves which are supplied by manufacturers state the r. 4. The process is summarized in the following steps: (a) Assume a value for IL.9. The curves give the magnitude of the excitation current required order to obtain a specific secondary voltage. Figure 4.assume a value for IL.s. Starting with any value of secondary current.9 using the magnetization curve a .1. (c) Locate the value of Vs on the curve for the tap selected. and find the associated value of the magnetization current. with the primary winding opencircuited.s. By joining the points together the curve of IL against IH is obtained. the value of the corresponding primary current can be determined.m. voltage to the secondary winding. and the process is then repeated to obtain other values of IL and the resultant values of IH. (b) Calculate Vs in accordance with eqn.

13) is described by two symbols — a letter and a nominal voltage. However. these define the capability of the CT.draw the point on the curve This method incurs an error in calculating I H /n by adding I e and IL together arithmetically and not vectorially. is the permissible load for a given tap of the CT. For example. this error is not great and the simplification snakes it easier to carry out the calculations. assuming that there is no saturation for the tap selected. which implies not taking account of the load angle and the magnetizations branch of the equivalent circuit.b . The classification T includes those CTs with a dispersion flux which considerably affects the transformation ratio. each tap will have a voltage capacity proportionally smaller. is the fraction of the total number of turns being used and Vc is the ANSI voltage capacity for the complete CT. changing the tap until the fault current is within the linear part of the characteristic. The permissible load is defined as ZB= (NP Vc) / 100. the curve should be checked to confirm that the maximum primary fault current is within the transformer saturation zone. C indicates that the transformation ratio can be calculated.+ I e ) e . and T indicates that the transformation ratio can be determined by means of tests. In practice it is not necessary to draw the complete curve because it is sufficient to take the known fault current and refer to the secondary winding.IH=n(I1. without considering the DC transient component of the DC saturation is particularly significant in complex protection schemes since. If not. and in consequence it can only feed a portion of the load without exceeding the ten per cent error limit. 2. The classification C includes those CTs with uniformly distributed windings and other CTs with a dispersion flux which has a negligible effect on the ratio.find I e from the curve d . with a CT of class C—100 the ratio can be calculated. where ZB. and the error should not exceed ten per cent if the secondary current does not go outside the range of 1 to 20 times the nominal current and if the load does not exceed 1Ω (1Ω x 5 Ax 20=100 V) at a minimum power factor of 0. high fault currents circulate through the CTs. After construction. in the case of external faults.Vs = I L ( Z L + Z C + Z B ) c . This converted value can be taken as IL initially for the process described earlier. NP. then it will be necessary to repeat the process. When considering a winding provided with taps. If the tap is found to be suitable after finishing the calculations. the behavior of a CT has been discussed in terms of a steady state.5. Accuracy classes established by the ANSI standards The ANSI accuracy class of a CT (Standard C57. These accuracy classes are only applicable for complete windings. then a value of I H can be obtained which is closer to the fault current.6 DC saturation Up to now. within defined limits. .

To illustrate this. opening the secondary circuit of a CT could result in dangerous over voltages which might harm operational staff or lead to equipment being damaged. In particular. an example is given next using typical data for a CT and a 13. Generally speaking. e.If saturation occurs in different CTs associated with a particular relay arrangement. because the current transformers are designed to be used in power circuits which have impedance much greater than their own. and/or of unduly large dimensions. Standard primary ratings are given in B. however. secondary circuits associated with CTs must always he kept in a closed condition or short-circuited in order to prevent these adverse situations occurring. Rated outputs higher than 15VA and rated accuracy limit factors higher than 10 are not recommended for general purposes.S. say from 5 to 15 times the rated current o f the transformer. It is possible. the maximum ratio of CT’s is usually limited to about 3000/1.000/20A together with 20/1A interposing auxiliary CT’s Instantaneous over current relays Class P method of specification will a suffice. this could result in the circulation of unbalanced secondary currents which would cause the system to malfunction. But when the product of these two exceeds 150 the resulting current transformer may be uneconomical. When such relays are set to operate at high values of over current. A secondary accuracy limit current greatly in excess of the value t o cause relay operation serves no useful purpose and a rated accuracy limit of 5 will usually be adequate. 2.7 Precautions when working with CTs Working with CTs associated with energized network circuits can be extremely hazardous. such as those encountered on large turbo alternators. . primary rating is usually chosen to be equal to or greater than the normal full load current o f the protected circuit. This is due to (I) limitation of size of CT’s and more importantly (II) the fact that the open circuit volts would be dangerously high for large CT’s Primary ratings. the accuracy limit factor must be at least as high as the value of the setting current used in order to ensure fast relay operation. As a consequence. the equivalent primary-circuit impedance is almost unaffected but a high voltage will be developed by the primary current passing through the magnetizing impedance Thus. It is standard practice in such applications to use a cascade arrangement of say 5. t.g. 3938:1973. Choice of CT’s Primary rating The c. 5. when secondary circuits are left open. to combine a higher rated accuracy limit factor with a lower rated output and vice versa.2 kV feeder.000 amperes.

They are in general suitable for ensuring phase fault stability up to 10 times the rated primary current and for maintaining time grading of the earth f a u l t relays. Class “X” Current Transformer Protection current transformers specified in terms of complying with Class ' X I Specification is generally applicable to unit systems where balancing of outputs from each end of the protected plant is vital.rated current of C. This balance. and relay RCT . Hence a statement of knee point voltage is the parameter of prime importance and it is normal to derive. is essentially of a transient nature and thus the extent of the unsaturated (or linear) zone is of paramount importance.g. from heavy current test results. a formula stating the lowest permissible value of VK if stable operation is to be guaranteed.Is a constant found by realistic heavy current tests? In . Class 5P current transformers in which the product of rated output and accuracy limit factor approaches 150 should be used. Class 10P current transformers are generally recommended in which the product of rated output and rated accuracy limit fact or approaches 150 provided that the earth fault relay is not set below 20% of the rated current of the associated current transformer and that the burden of the relay at its setting current does not exceed 4VA.T.secondary winding resistance of the line current transformers RL . or stability during through fault conditions. up to current values of the order of 10 times the earth fault setting provided t h a t the phase burden effectively imposed on each current transformer does not exceed 50% of it s rated burden. for both directional and non-directional relays class 10P current transformers should be used Earth fault relays with inverse time characteristic (1) Schemes in which phase fault current stability and accurate time grading are not required. e. Vk = K In (RCT + 2RL + R0) Where K . The rated accuracy limit factor is not less than 10 the earth fault relay is not set below 30 % The burden of the relay at its setting does not exceed 4VA The use of a higher relay setting the use of an earth fault relay having a burden of less than 4VA at its setting The use of current transformers having a product of rated output and rated accuracy factor in excess of 150.Over current relays with Inverse and Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) lag characteristic In general.lead burden (route length) in ohms . (2) Schemes in which phase fault stability and/or where time grading is critical.

G. T Line • 33 KV O. H. 4 . 2 . 400. 2. H.Ro . T Line • 11 KV O. I. Cable 33 KV U. H.any other resistance (or impedance) in circuit 4. G. T. H. H. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5.M. H. G. T Line • 22 KV O. G. Cable 132 KV U. 4. H.Protection Scheme 1 . Cable 11 KV U. T Line • 400 KV O. Types and voltage level of Feeders A – O. 3.Transformers Protection Schemes. Inter Trip.H.Bus Bar Protection Schemes. (POTT) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme. T Line B – U. G. H. T Line • 220 KV O. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. T Line • 66 KV O. H. Lines • 500 KV O. 275 and 220 KV O. Cable 220 KV U. Cables • • • • • • • 275 KV U. T Line • 275 KV O.T. G. Cable 500. T Line • 132 KV O. Lines Protection Schemes Main (A) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme.Generators Protection Schemes.D. H. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail ) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here . (PUTT) • Backup Protection: 1. G. 3 .Feeders Protection Schemes. Cable 66 KV U.


• Main Protection: • Back up Protection: 132 and 66 KV O.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.T. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here .H. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. 3. Lines Protection Schemes Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme. Circuit Breaker Fail To Tripe. Inter Trip.D.M. I. 4. 2. (PUTT) 1.


M. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. Inter Trip (Through Pilot Cable). I. 2. 4.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip.C.M.T.T Direction O/C & EF Relay 275.T Direction O/C & EF Relay • I.D.D. Inter Trip. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 132.D.G.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 33. 2.33 and 22 KV O.D. (POTT) With Carrier Signal through Pilot Cable Back up Protection: 1. and 66 KV U. Line Protection Scheme Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) Back up Protection: I.G.M. Line Protection Scheme Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) Back up Protection: 1.H.T. 3.D. 22 KV U.H.G.C. Lines Protection Schemes • I. I. 220 U.D. Line Protection Scheme • • • • • • • • • • Main (A) Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Lines Protection Schemes • I. 4.M. I.M. .D.C.T Non Direction O/C & EF Relay 11 KV O. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe.M.M. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe 3.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.

(Y.G. Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here .M.• Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I.Δ). 2 Winding Power Transformer 1 32 KV / 33 KV. 20 MVA & 15 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 33 KV / 11 KV.D.C.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 3 Winding Power Transformer 275 KV / 132 KV / 33 KV. & 45 MVA. Line Protection Scheme Transformers Protection Schemes Some types of power transformers 300 MVA. 75 MVA.Y. 30 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 132 KV / 11 KV. 11 KV U.

. • Main (A&B) Protection: 1. Differential Protection. 2. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. (both at 275 kv and 132 kv) side neutral of the star winding.300 MVA 3 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme.

Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 33 KV side 3.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 300 KV side 3. Inter Trip (through pilot cable).D.B Fail to trip. 6. 2. 2.B only) 3.2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme.D. Winding Temperature Trip. 2. (At the neutral of the LV.D. 4. • Main (A) Protection: 1. I. (for cable tails ) 10. Buchhols Trip. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). Tap Changer Buchhols Trip. 8.T Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. • Backup Protection: 1. Buchhols Trip. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). I. • Main (A) Protection: 1. . 5. 75. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip.M. I. Differential Protection. Winding. Oil Temperature Trip. 5. C. 2. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. Winding).T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. 7. 6.B Fail to trip. (For cable tails) 20 & 15 MVA. I.M. (At the neutral of the LV. (For 132 KV. • Backup Protection: 1. 8. Differential Protection.D. Winding. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV.M. 7.M. Winding). 45 And 30 MVA. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. 2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme.33 / 11 KV. Buchhols Trip. C. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. 2. C. 9. SF6 pressure Low Trip. Winding Temperature Trip.• BackupProtection: 1.

B only).M. Winding Temperature Trip. . Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme.B Fail to trip.C. . 275. 400.M. Oil Temperature Trip.I.D. • 66 and 33 KV. .I. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. .Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar. C.SF6 Pressure Trip. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme.D.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 132 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. 275 &132 KV. SF6 Pressure low Trip.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar or Arc protection or Micro switch protection. 400.M.M.D. . “for 132 kV only”). Bus-Bar Protection Scheme. 33 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.Arc protection or Micro switches protection. .T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 500.I. (For 132 KV. (For cable tails) SF6 pressure Low Trip.Bus-Bar Protection Schemes Bus-Bar Protection Schemes.D. 275. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme for both connected • • • • • • • • • • • . . . 33 KV.C. I. • 500. .D.B Fail to Trip. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme. 11 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. .I.SF6 Pressure low Trip. Inter Trip (through pilot cable – SHR connected through cable C. • • 22 and 11 KV BUS-Bar Protection Scheme.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.B Fail to Trip.Inter Trip (through pilot cable).M. . C. Buchhols Trip. .B. and 220 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. 220 and 132 KV.

H. H. T. H. Cable . 33 KV Bus-Bar or to tertiary of 300 MVA Transformer. H. T Line • 220 KV O. G. • Winding Temperature Trip. H. Cables • 275 KV U. T Line • 132 KV O. 4 . T Line • 33 KV O.Feeders Protection Schemes.Transformers Protection Schemes. Types and voltage level of Feeders A – O. T Line B – U. • I. 3 . Protection Scheme 1 .Generators Protection Schemes. H. Lines • 500 KV O.D. T Line • 22 KV O. T Line • 66 KV O. G.M. H. • Oil Temperature Trip. T Line • 275 KV O.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. Cable • 220 KV U. G.Bus Bar Protection Schemes. T Line • 400 KV O. 2 . H. H. • Buchhols Trip. T Line • 11 KV O.

3. 275 and 220 KV O. 5.• 132 KV U.M. G. G. 2.T. I.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. G. Cable 500. G. 4. SF6 Pressure Low Trip Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail ) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here . Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. (PUTT) • Backup Protection: 1. Lines Protection Schemes • Main (A) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. Cable • 33 KV U. Inter Trip. Cable • 11 KV U. Cable • 66 KV U.H. 400.D. (POTT) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme.


2.132 and 66 KV O. I. 4.M. Lines Protection Schemes • Main Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme. 5. 3.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Circuit Breaker Fail To Tripe.D.H. SF6 Pressure Low Trip Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here . (PUTT) • Back up Protection: 1.T. Inter Trip.


33 and 22 KV O. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: 1.T. Lines Protection Schemes • I. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe.T Non Direction O/C & EF Relay 11 KV O. 220 U.M. 3.T.C.G. 2. I.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe Inter Trip. (POTT) With Carrier Signal through Pilot Cable • Back up Protection: 1. 2.G.D. 4.H. SF6 Pressure Low Trip Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 132. Line Protection Scheme • Main (A) Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme.M.C.T Direction O/C & EF Relay • I. 5. 5.M. 3.M. 4.D. Inter Trip (Through Pilot Cable).M.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Lines Protection Schemes • I.T Direction O/C & EF Relay 275.D.H. I. and 66 KV U.D.D. SF6 Pressure Low Trip Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip .

D.C.D. 2 Winding Power Transformer 1 32 KV / 33 KV.D.M. I.M.G.G.33.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.Y. . Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • • Back up Protection: I. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.C. (Y. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • • • • Back up Protection: I. • 75 MVA.Δ). 22 KV U. • 30 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 132 KV / 11 KV.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Transformers Protection Schemes Some types of power transformers • 300 MVA. 3 Winding Power Transformer 275 KV / 132 KV / 33 KV. & 45 MVA. 11 KV U.M. • 20 MVA & 15 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 33 KV / 11 KV.

Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here • 300 MVA 3 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. Main (A&B) Protection: .

2.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. 6. C. • Main (A) Protection: 1. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). (For 132 KV.2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. Buchhols Trip.D. Differential Protection. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. Oil Temperature Trip. 2. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. Winding Temperature Trip. (for cable tails ) 10. 8. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. 2. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. (For cable tails) 20 & 15 MVA.D. (At the neutral of the LV.M. Differential Protection.T Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. . Tap Changer Buchhols Trip.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 300 KV side 3. 2. 5. 8. (At the neutral of the LV.D.33 / 11 KV. Winding. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip. 9. 5. 2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. Winding). I. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). 7.B only) 3.B Fail to trip. 75. • Backup Protection: 1.B Fail to trip. Buchhols Trip. 2. I. C. Winding Temperature Trip. C. Inter Trip (through pilot cable).M. Differential Protection. 7.M. Buchhols Trip.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 33 KV side 3. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. 6. I. SF6 pressure Low Trip. Winding). (both at 275 kv and 132 kv) side neutral of the star winding. • Main (A) Protection: 1. 4. • BackupProtection: 1. 2.D. • Backup Protection: 1. 45 And 30 MVA.M. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. I.1. Winding.

Bus-Bar Protection Schemes Bus-Bar Protection Schemes. . Bus-Bar Protection Scheme.M.SF6 Pressure low Trip.B Fail to Trip. Buchhols Trip. 33 KV. .C. .I.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. . • • 22 and 11 KV BUS-Bar Protection Scheme. 400. C. SF6 Pressure low Trip. (For cable tails) SF6 pressure Low Trip. . 500. “for 132 kV only”).T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.I. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme for both connected • • • • • • • • • • • . 275.D. . 400. . Oil Temperature Trip. C. Winding Temperature Trip. 33 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme.B only). . Inter Trip (through pilot cable – SHR connected through cable C. (For 132 KV.Arc protection or Micro switches protection. 132 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. • 66 and 33 KV.M.D.B Fail to trip. 275.C.I.M.D. . Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.B. 11 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. .B Fail to Trip.I.Inter Trip (through pilot cable).M. I.D. and 220 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. • 500.D.SF6 Pressure Trip.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar or Arc protection or Micro switch protection.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.M. 220 and 132 KV. . . 275 &132 KV. Cable oil pressure Low Trip.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.

to 33 KV Bus-Bar or to tertiary of 300 MVA Transformer. If a short circuit occurs the circuit impedance is reduced to a low value and therefore a fault is accompanied by large current. The basic element in Over-current protection is an Over-current relay. Over-current relaying has following types: 1. earth faults or winding faults.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. High speed Over-current protection. there is an associated temperature rise. This is most widely used protection. Short circuits a be phase faults. • Winding Temperature Trip. Over-current protection includes the protection from overloads. • Oil Temperature Trip. Hence with overloading. Hence fast fault clearance is always desirable on short-circuits. 3. the fault current is more than load current. • I.D. • Buchhols Trip. Over-current and Earth Fault Protection v Introduction As the fault impedance is less than load impedance. Over-current protection is that protection in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the pickup level. Short-circuit currents are generally several times (5 to 20) full load current. Over-current protection of overloads is generally provided by thermal relays. 2. normally by means of CT's. Over-current protection includes short-circuit protection. Definite time Over-current protection. The permissible temperature rise has a limit based on insulation class and material problems.M. . Directional Over-current protection (of above types). Overloading of a machine or equipment generally) means the machine is taking more current than its rated current. Inverse minimum time Over-current protection. 4. The Over-current relays are connected to the system.

3. It can be applied where there is an abrupt difference between fault current within the protected section and that outside the protected section and these magnitudes are almost constant. 4. Fuses Circuit-breakers fitted with overloaded coils or tripped by over-current relays. 2. The primary requirements of over-current protection are: • • The protection should not operate for starting currents. thermal relays used for overload protection and HRC fuses for short-circuit protection.P. the over-current is provided in addition as a back-up and in some cases to protect the machine from sustained through fault. Several protective devices are used for over-current protection these include: 1. Over-current relays in conjunction with current transformers. Inverse time and instantaneous phase and ground over-current relays can be employed for motors above 1200 H. permissible over-current. If time delay cannot be permitted. thermal relays and HRC fuses are employed. high-set instantaneous relaying is used. .When a machine is protected by differential protection. For small/medium size motors where cost of CT's and protective relays is not economically justified. Series connected trip coils operating switching devices. and current surges. The over-current protection is provided for the following: v Motor Protection Over-current protection is the basic type of protection used against overloads and short-circuits in stator windings of motors. the time delay is provided (in case of inverse relays). The protection should be coordinated with neighboring over-current protections so as to discriminate. To achieve this. v Applications of Over-current Protection Over-current protection has a wide range of applications.

. when the cost of differential relaying cannot be justified. For instantaneous over-current protection. Inverse time over-current relays. The following relays are used. The lines (feeders) can be protected by (1) (2) (3) Instantaneous over-current relays. 1. moving iron type. However. Electromagnetic induction type. Directional over-current protection. industrial installations commercial. generally up to 11 kV. 2.v Transformer Protection Transformers are provided with over-current protection against faults. Small transformers below 500 kVA installed in distribution system are generally protected by drop-out fuses. as the cost of relays plus circuit-breakers is not generally justified Line Protection. Static over-current relays. permanent magnet moving coil type and static. Double actuating quantity induction relay with directional feature. Attracted armature type. Lines can be protected by impedance or carrier current protection also. For inverse time characteristic. 4. Temperature indicators and alarms are always provided for large transformers. v Relays used in Over-current Protection The choice of relay for over-current protection depends upon the Time / current characteristic and other features desired. Protection of Utility Equipment The furnaces. drop out fuses. industrial and domestic equipment are all provided with over-current protection. HRC fuses. permanent magnet moving coil type and static. Directional over-current relay. only. 3. over-current relays are provided in addition to differential relays to take care of through faults. are used in low voltage medium voltage and high voltage distribution systems. etc. 5.

Inverse characteristic 3. I1*T=K In more inverse characteristic In*T=K .6. Thermal relays are used widely for over-current protection. Very Inverse In definite characteristic. I0*T=K Where: I = Current in relay coil T = Relay lime K = Constant.e. Not: Now Digital Numerical Relay you can used for all types v Characteristics of relay units for over current protection There is a wide variety of relay-units. time is inversely proportional to current i. Extremely Inverse 4. the time of operation is almost definite i.e. Definite characteristic 2. These are classified according to their type and characteristics. The major characteristic includes: 1. In inverse characteristic.

However for higher magnitudes of actuating quantity the time is constant.08 second. dash poss. 1) An inverse curve is one in which the operating time. As suck they are not instantaneous in real sense.1).1 second. usually less than 0. Definite time curve is one in which operating time is little affected by magnitude of actuating current. However even definite time relay has a characteristic which is slightly inverse The characteristic with definite minimum time and of inverse type is also called Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics (Fig. The typical characteristics are shown in (Fig. Such relays are provided with delaying means such as drag magnet. The relays which are not instantaneous are called Time Delay Relay'.Where n can be between 2 to 8 the choice depends on discrimination desired. The operating time of a relay for a particular setting and magnitude actuating quantity can be known from the characteristics supplied by the manufacturer. bellows. back-stop arrangement. etc. . Instantaneous relays are those which have no intentional time lag sod which operate in less than 0. becomes less as the magnitude of the actuating quantity is increased. escape mechanisms.

the choice of CT's and polarity connections should be correct. Therefore such schemes are used with solidly earthed systems where phase to phase and phase to earth faults are likely to occur. the relay contacts close. 2) the three current transformers and relay coils connected in star and the star point is earthed. 2) responds to phase faults and earth faults including single-phase to earth fault. These current flows through relay coils and the relay picks-up.(Fig.1) Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics Principle of trip circuit Referring to (Fig. . thereby the trip circuit is closed and the circuit breaker-operates The over-current protection scheme with three over-current relays (Fig. When short circuit occurs in the protected zone the secondary current of CT's increases. For proper functioning of over-current and earth fault protection.

2) Over Current protection with three phase OC relays Methods of CT Connections in Over-current Protection of 3-Phase Circuits v Connection Scheme with Three Over-current Relays Over-current protection can be achieved by means of three over-current relays or by two overcurrent relays (See Table 1). Note For balanced load only. .Fig. Table 1 Fig 1 Description One OC with one CT for over load protection.

Two OC and one EF relays for phase to phase and phase to earth fault protection Earth-Fault Protection EF setting less than phase fault setting v When the fault current flows through earth return path. EF current > two time pickup phase current 4 5 Three OC relays with three CT's for phase to phase fault protection and phase to earth fault. Since earth faults are relatively frequent. When separate earth fault protection is not economical. IR+IY+IB=0 . Hence the vector sum of three secondary currents is also zero. However such protection lacks sensitivity. Earth fault protection senses earth fault current. earth fault protection is necessary in most cases. the phase relays sense the earth fault currents. Residually connected Earth-fault Relay Referring to Fig. 3 In absence of earth-fault the vector sum of three line currents is zero.2 Two OC relays with two CT's for phase to phase fault protection. the fault is called Earth Fault. Other faults which do not involve earth are called phase faults. Following are the method of earth fault protection. v Connections of CT's for Earth-fault Protection 1. 3 Three OC relays with three CT's for phase to phase fault protection. Hence separate earth fault protection is generally provided.

Hence flows through the earth-fault relay. . However. 4). in presence of earth fault the conditions is disturbed and (IR+IY+IB) is no more zero.The sum (IR+IY+IB) is called residual current The earth-fault relay is connected such that the residual current flows through it (Figs. In the scheme discussed here the earth-fault at any location near or away from the location of CT's can cause the residual current flow.3 and Fig. Hence the protected zone is not definite. the earth-fault relay operates. Therefore. If the residual current is above the pick-up value. the residually connected earth-fault relay does not operate. in the absence of earth-fault.3) Earth-fault Relay connected in Residual Circuit. Such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection (Fig.

voltage transformer is connected between neutral and earth . The relay senses the earth faults beyond the transformer/generator winding hence such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection. In case of large generators. The magnitude of earth fault current is dependent on type of earthing (resistance. The fault current finds the return path through the earth and then flows through the neutral-to-earth connected. The zone of protection cannot be accurately defined.4) Earth fault protection combined with phase fault protection 2. The earth-fault protection by relay in neutral to earth circuit depends upon the type of neutral Earthing. 5). In this type of protection. Earth-fault Relay connected in Neutral to Earth Circuit (Fig. Another method of connecting an earth-fault relay is illustrated in Fig 5. The protected area is not restricted to the transformer/generator winding alone. The relay is connected to secondary of a CT whose primary is connected in neutral to earth connection. reactance or solid) and location of fault. Such protection can be provided at various voltage levels by connecting earth-fault relay in the neutral-to-earth connection of that voltage level.(Fig.

(Zero Sequence CT) In this type of protection (Fig. 4) The increase in current of phase causes corresponding increase in respective secondary currents. A secondary coil is connected to a relay unit. The secondary current flows through respective relay-units Very often only two-phase relays are provided instead of three. Combined Earth-fault and Phase-fault Protection It is convenient to incorporate phase-fault relays and earth-fault relay in a combined phasefault and earth-fault protection. Hence two relay-units are enough. 5) Earth-fault protection by earth-fault-relay connected in neutral-to-earth circuit. 6) a single ring shaped core of magnetic material.(Fig. (Fig. because in case of phase faults current in any at least two phases must increase. The cross-section of ring-core is (Fig.6) Principle of core-balance CT for earth fault protection . encircles the conductors of all the three phases. Earth-fault Protection with Core Balance Current Transformers.

During normal condition. Application for Core Balance CT's with Cable Termination Joints The termination of a three core cable into three separate lines or bus-bars is through cable terminal box. For example for single line ground fault. so that saturation is not a problem. If = 3Iao = In Hence the zero-sequence component of I o produces the resultant flux Φr in the core. For eliminating the error due to sheath .Ample. is current in neutral to ground circuit. Core-balance protection can be conveniently used for protection of lowvoltage and medium voltage systems. Φ=k (Ia + Ib + I c ) where k is a constant Φ = K * Ia. The sheath currents (Ish) flow through the sheath to the cover of cable-box and then to earth through the earthing connection between cable-box. Theory of Core Balance CT . This form of protection is likely to be more popular with static relays due to the fewer burdens of the latter. The induced current flowing through cable sheath of normal healthy cable needs particular attention with respect to the core balance protection. (Fig. we get resultant flux Φ as. be the three line currents and Φa. Assuming linearity. the Core Balance Protection is used along with the cable box and should be installed before making the cable joint. Hence core balance current transformer is also called as zero sequence current transformers (ZSCT). Referring to theory of symmetrical components (Ia + Ib + I c )= 3 I c= I n Where. Instantaneous relay unit is generally used with core balance schemes. 7). During earth faults. such a balance is disturbed and current is induced in the secondary. During no-earth-fault condition. Φb and Φc be corresponding components of magnetic flux in the core. (Ia + Ib + Ic) = 0 Hence Φr = 0 and relay does not operate During earth fault the earth fault current flows through return neutral path. Let Ia. The burden of relays and exciting current are deciding factors. the components of fluxes due to the fields of three conductors are balanced and the secondary current is negligible. Io is zero sequence current and In. Ref. Ib and I c . Very large cross-section of core is necessary for sensitivity less than 10 A. when earth fault is absent.

Earthing connection passing through 5 5. the earth-fault current finds the' path through the neutral connection. Core balance CT Fig (7) Mounting of Core Balance CT with Cable Terminal Box Frame-leakage Protection The metal-clad switchgear can be provided with frame leakage protection. The concrete foundation of the switchgear and the cable-boxes and other conduits are slightly insulated from earth. it is sensed by the earth fault relay. 1. Insulator support for 1 4. . The cable box should be insulated from earth. In the event of an earth fault within the switchgear.current (Ish) the earthing lead between the cable-box and the earth should be taken through the core of the core balance protection. The metal-frame-work or enclosure of the switchgear is earthed with a primary of a CT in between (Fig. the resistance to earth being about 12 ohms. Thereby the error due to sheath currents is eliminated. The switchgear is lightly y insulated from the earth. Sheath of 3 core cable connection to (1) 3. Cable terminal box 2. 8). While doing so.

Directional over-current protection comprises over-current relay and power directional relay. Residually connected relay. Distance relays arranged for detecting earth faults on lines. If power flow is in the opposite direction. the directional over-current protection remains un-operative. 2. 6. Core-balance-scheme. Directional over-current protection responds to overcurrents for a particular direction flow. Relay connected in neutral-to-ground circuit. It does not act for faults occurring in the other direction. Frame leakage method. The power directional relay does not measure the power but is arranged to respond to the direction of power flow. a single relay casing. The directional relay recognizes the direction in which fault occurs. The circuit breaker CB3 is provided with a directional . relative to the location of the relay. Directional operation of relay is used where the selectivity can be achieved by directional relaying. Circulating current differential protection.(Fig. 3. Directional Over-current Protection The over-current protection can be given directional feature by adding directional element in the protection system. 8) Principle of frame-leakage protection of metal-clad-switchgear Circulating current differential protection also responds to earth-faults within its protected zone. 9) passing through sub-section B. It is set such that it actuates for faults occurring in one direction only. Consider a feeder AC (Fig. 4. Earth-fault protection can be achieved by following methods: 1.

9) Principle of directional protection Relay `R' which will trip the breaker CB3 if fault power flow in direction C alone. The voltage coil of directional element is connected to a line VT. Relay connections of Single Phase Directional Over-current Relay : The current coils in the directional over-current relay are normally connected to a secondary of line CT. having phase to phase output (of 110 V). the directional element does not measure the magnitude of power. However for faults in feeder BC the circuit-breaker CB3 trips Because it's protective relaying is set with a directional feature to act in direction AC Another interesting example of directional protection is that of reverse power protection of generator (Fig. the directional element measures magnitude and direction of power flow. Reverse power protection operates when the power direction is reversed in relation to the normal working direction. the generator continues to run as a motor and takes power from bus-bars. Therefore for faults in feeder AB. 10). . in Reverse Power Relays. 10) Reverse powers protection against motoring action of a generator Directional power protection operates in accordance with the direction of power flow. There are four common methods of connecting the relay depending upon phase angle between current in the current coil and voltage applied to the voltage coil. the circuit breaker CB3 does not trip unnecessarily. Reverse power relay is different in construction than directional over-current relay. (Fig. In directional over-current relay. If the prime mover fails.(Fig. It senses only direction of power flow. However.

These are basically power measuring devices in which the system voltage is used as a reference for establishing the relative direction or phase of the fault current. it is necessary to make the response of the relay directional by the introduction of directional control elements. Normal system . apart from loads. is reactive so that the fault power factor is usually low. The power system. they are not arranged to respond to the actual system power for a number of reasons: 1.11 Numerical Over current. Although power measuring devices in principle. Vb and Vc. A relay V a . and Overload Protection Relay 3-Phase Directional over current relays When fault current can flow in both directions through the relay location.Fig.

Although the relay element may be inherently wattmetric. 1. but relays located at such points will receive voltages which are unbalanced in their value and phase position. as shown in (Fig. each phase of the relay is polarized with a voltage which will not be reduced excessively except by close three-phase faults. but the fault voltage to earth will be half the initial phase to neutral voltage.12) At the point of fault the vectors will coincide.voltages V b 1 and V c 1 Voltages at fault location on faulted phases V b 2 and V c 2 Voltages remote from fault location Fig. its characteristic can be varied by the addition of phase shifting components to give maximum torque at the required phase angle. To this end. A number of different connections have been used and these are discussed below. leaving zero voltage across the fault. at unity system power factor.12 Phase voltages for a B-C fault Responding purely to the active component would not develop a high torque and might be much slower and less decisive than it could be. the locus of their ends being the original line be for a homogeneous system. it is the particular voltage across the short-circuited points which are reduced. Relay connections This is the arrangement whereby suitable current and voltage quantities are applied to the relay. When the fault is single-phase. At other points in the system the vector displacement will be less. . by which the current and voltage applied to the relay are displaced. The various connections are dependent on the phase angle. The system voltage must collapse at the point of short circuit. So a B—C phase fault will cause the B and C phase voltage vectors to move together. and which will remain in a satisfactory relationship to the current under all conditions. Relay maximum torque The maximum torque angle (MTA) is defined as the angle by which the current applied to the relay must be displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to produce maximum torque. The effect of the large unbalance in currents and voltages is to make the torques developed by the different phase elements vary widely and even differ in sign if the quantities applied to the relay are not chosen carefully.

and it is satisfactory under all conditions for plain feeders provided that three phase elements are employed. is 0°. and it can be shown that a directional element having this connection and 0° MTA will provide correct discrimination for all types of faults. Also. When only two phase elements and an earth fault element are used there is a probability of failure to operate for one condition. 13b). In this case. there is a danger that at least one of the three phase relays will operate for faults in the reverse direction. operation will depend upon the C element. The most satisfactory maximum torque angle for this connection. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied Vac voltage by 90°. that ensures correct operation when used for the protection of plain feeders. with the B phase element omitted. taking into account the possible range of source and line impedances. 30° relay connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage V ac. which quantities have a large relative phase displacement. will produce only a poor torque. 13a). for this reason a directional element having this connection should never be used to protect transformer feeders. for all fault conditions. the potential coil voltage lags the current in the current coil by 30° and gives a tripping zone from 60° leading to 120° lagging currents. but the C element will receive Ic and the collapsed Vcb voltage. but in the case of a two phase and one earth fault element relay.866 of maximum. when applied to plain feeders If applied to transformer feeders. An inter-phase short circuit causes two elements to be energized but for low power factors one will receive inputs which.Examination of the suitability of each arrangement involves determining the limiting conditions of the voltage and current applied to each phase element of the relay. In particular a B—C fault will strongly energize the B element with lb current and Vba voltage. which may fail to operate if the fault is close to the relaying point. as shown in (Fig. For unity power factor and 0. . however. This is satisfactory provided that three phase elements are used.5 lagging power factor the maximum torque available is 0. This connection has been used widely in the past. so the maximum torque occurs when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 30°. as shown in (Fig. although correct.

13) Vector diagrams for the 30° connection 60° No.A phase element connected l a Va c B phase element connected l b Vba C phase element connected Ic Vcb (a) Characteristic and inputs for phase A element (b) B-C Fault with voltage distortion (Fig. 1 connection (0° MTA) .

When used for the protection of plain feeders there is a slight possibility of the element associated with the A phase mal-operating for a reversed B—C fault. It has been proved that the most suitable maximum torque angle for this relay connection. which uses Vac voltage with delta current produced by adding phase A and phase B currents at unity power factor. one which ensures correct directional discrimination with the minimum risk of mal-operation when applied to either plain or transformer feeders. it is unlikely that the over current element which the directional element controls will receive sufficient current to cause it to operate. The torque at unity power factor is 0.5 of maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0.14) Vector diagram for the 60° No. 1 connection (phase A element) However. gives a current leading the voltage Vac by 60°. In this case. so maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. For this reason the connection may be safely recommended for the protection of plain feeders. although the directional element may mal-operation. the source impedance would . This connection. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage to the relay by 90°. that is. remote from the relay end. is 0°. and provides a correct directional tripping zone over a current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging.866. A phase element connected lab Va c B phase element connected I bc V b a C phase element connected Ica Vcb (Fig.The A phase relay is supplied with lab current and Vac voltage. see (Fig. For mal-operation to occur. When applied to transformer feeders there is a possibility of one of the directional elements mal-operation for an earth fault on the star side of a delta/star transformer.14).

the flux of the voltage coil lags the applied voltage by 90° so the maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. which usually precludes their being used for any other protective function. and also because it offers no advantage over the 90° connection. For this reason.15) Vector diagram for the 60° No. however. for two reasons: first. . and secondly. if the arc resistance is high enough to cause mal-operation of the directional element it is unlikely that the over current element associated with the mal-operation directional element will see sufficient current to operate.have to be relatively small and have a very low angle at the same time that the arc resistance of the fault was high. 2 connection (phase A element). The connection. in most systems the source impedance may be safely assumed to be largely reactive. it is rarely used. 2 connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage In this case. The possibility of mal-operation with this connection is very remote. This connection gives A phase element connected Ia —Vc B phase element connected Ib — Va C phase element connected Ic —Vb (Fig. does suffer from the disadvantage that it is necessary to connect the current transformers in delta. 60° No.

The most suitable maximum torque angle for a directional element using this connection is 0°. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. A phase element connected Ia Vbc B phase element connected Ib Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig.16) Vector diagram for the 90°. see (Fig. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0.for quadrature connection and having a maximum torque angle of 30° is recommended when the relay is used for the protection of plain feeders with the zero sequence source behind the relaying point. 2 connection is now never recommended. However. the 60° No. two types are available.5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. A relay designed .5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0.a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging.866. . and the relay maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°.866.15). see (Fig. For this reason. In this case. there is a risk of incorrect operation for all types of faults with the exception of three-phase faults. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 60°. depending on the angle by which the applied voltage is shifted to produce the relay maximum torque angle. even if this maximum torque angle is used. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0. 90°.16).30° connection (Phase A element) 90° relay quadrature connection This is the standard connection for the type CDD relay.30° characteristic (30° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with la current and Vbc voltage displaced by 30° in an anti-clockwise direction.

see (Fig. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0. This connection should also be used whenever single-phase directional relays are applied to a circuit Theoretically. three fault conditions can cause mal-operation of the directional element: a phase-phase ground fault on a plain feeder.17) Vector diagram for the 90°45° connection (Phase A element) This connection is recommended for the protection of transformer feeders or feeders which have a zero sequence source in front of the relay. in practice.707 of the maximum torque and the same at zero power factor lagging. It should be remembered. and the relay maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 45°. The 90°.17). A phase element connected Ia . in order to ensure correct relay operation for faults beyond the star/ delta transformer.45° connection is essential in the case of parallel trans-formers or transformer feeders.90°.Vbc B phase element connected Ih Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig. however.45° characteristic (45° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage Vbc displaced by 45° in an anti-clockwise direction. In this case. are such that. the magnitude of the current input to the relay would . the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 45°. that the conditions assumed above to establish the maximum angular displacement between the current and voltage quantities at the relay. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 45° leading to 135° lagging. a phase-ground fault on a transformer feeder with the zero sequence source in front of the relay and a phasephase fault on a power transformer with the relay looking into the delta winding of the transformer.

the two relays with the same operating time are at the same substation and will .1 TMS. but care must be taken to ensure that their continuous thermal rating of twice rated current is not exceeded. faults. where the setting of both relays are identical. can be made non-directional. Parallel feeders If non-directional relays are applied to parallel feeders. and giving them lower time and current settings than relays R1 and R2. provided that in the latter case the relays are located on the same feeder. for all practical purposes. Ring mains Directional relays are more commonly applied to ring mains. any faults that might occur on any one line will. to ensure correct discriminative operation of the relays during line. that is. With this type of system configuration it is necessary to apply directional relays at the receiving end and to grade them with the nondirectional relays at the sending end. one at each end of the insufficient to cause the over current element to operate. regardless of the relay settings used. The usual practice is to set relays R'1 and R'2 to 50% of the normal full load of the protected circuit and 0.18) with their directional elements looking into the protected line. It can be shown analytically that the possibility of mal-operation with the 90°.45° connection is. isolate both lines and completely disconnect the power supply. It is interesting to note that when the number of feeders round the ring is an even number. This is done by setting the directional relays R'1 and R'2 as shown in (Fig. In the case of a ring main fed at one point only. the relays at the supply end and at the mid-point substation. non-existent.

19) (Fig. It may also be noted that. whenever the operating times of the relays at each substation are different. . the two relays with the same operating time are at different substations and therefore do not need to be directional. whereas when the number of feeders is an odd number.have to be directional.19) Grading of ring mains The arrows associated with the relaying points indicate the direction of current flow that will cause the relays to operate. that is. as shown in (Fig. Grading of ring mains The usual procedure for grading relays in an inter-connected system is to open the ring at the supply point and to grade the relays first clockwise and then anti-clockwise. so the relay with the longer operating time can be non-directional. at inter-mediate substations. the difference between their operating times is never less than the grading margin. the relays looking in a clock-wise direction round the ring are arranged to operate in the sequence 1—2—3—4—5—6 and the relays looking in the anti-clockwise direction are arranged to operate in the sequence 1'—2'—3'—4'—5'—6'.

the voltage coil is actuated by the residual voltage. such as those at the supply point where the power can flow only in one direction. Disconnection of the faulty line is carried out according to time and fault current direction.A double-headed arrow is used to indicate a non-directional relay. Directional Earth-Fault Protection In the directional over-current protection the current coil of relay is actuated from secondary current of line CT. As in any parallel system. It will also be found that the operating times of the relays that are inoperative are faster than those of the operative relays. In directional over-current relay. whereas the current coil of directional earth fault relay is actuated by residual current. one set of relays will be made inoperative because of the direction of current flow. such as those at intermediate substations around the ring where the power can flow in either direction. the voltage coil is actuated by secondary of line VT. The relays which are operative are graded downwards towards the fault and the last to be affected by the fault operates first. The polarizing quantity is obtained either from residual current . applicable to all forms of directional protection that the current in the system must flow from the substation bus-bars into the protected line in order that the relays may operate. and a single-headed arrow a directional relay. Consequently. where the operating times of relays 3 and 3' happen to be the same. whichever is more convenient. by means of a suitable high set instantaneous over-current relay and then to proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. the fault current has two parallel paths and divides itself in the inverse ratio of their impedances. This applies to both paths to the fault. Thus. The directional earth fault relay (single phase unit) has two coils. The first is to open the ring at one of the supply points. In directional earth fault relay. with the exception of the mid-point substation. at each substation in the ring. time graded over current protection is difficult to apply and full discrimination may not be possible. two solutions are possible. the second to treat the section of the ring between the two supply points as a continuous bus separate from the ring and to protect it with a unit system of protection. Directional earth fault relays sense the direction in which earth fault occurs with respect to the relay location and it operates for fault in a particular direction. When two or more power sources feed into a ring main. and then proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. The directional relays are set in accordance with the invariable rule. and the other set operative. such as pilot wire relays. With two sources of supply. the faulty line is the only one to be disconnected from the ring and the power supply is maintained to all the substations.

V b a n d V c are secondary voltages of the potential transformer ('Three phase five limb potential transformer or three separate single phase potential transformers connected as shown in Fig. The torque is proportional to T = I RS * V RS * cos (Φ . The residual current I RS i. Summary Over-current protection responds to increase in current above the pick-up value overcurrents are caused by overloads and short-circuits. V b and Vc are phase voltages. Earth fault protection responds to single line to ground faults and double line to ground faults. The over-current relays are connected the secondary of current transformer. One to the coils is connected in residual current circuits (Ref. 11) the directional earth-fault relay has two coils.I RS = (Ia + Ib + Ic) or residual voltage VRs = V a + V b + V c Where V a .e. 5). the out of balance current is given to the current coil and the residual voltage VRs is given to the voltage coil of the relay. V RS= V a + V b + V c Where V a . Fig. The coil connected in potential-transformer secondary circuit gives a polarizing field. 20).α) Φ = angle between I RS and VRs α = angle of maximum torque. The other coil gets residual voltage. definite time characteristic. The characteristic of over-current relays include inverse time characteristic. The current coil of earth-fault relay is connected either in neutral to ground circuit . This coil gets current during earthfaults. Referring to (Fig.

The relay settings are first determined so as to give the shortest operating times at maximum fault levels and then checked to see if operation will also be satisfactory at the minimum fault current expected. It is usually more convenient to use a scale corresponding to the current expected at the lowest voltage base or to use the predominant voltage base. per cent or per unit. rotating machines and feeder circuits. that is. 11. 4. The starting current requirements of motors and the starting and stalling times of induction motors. 5. Since large scale tests are normally impracticable. PRINCIPLES OF TIME/CURRENT GRADING Among the various possible methods used to achieve correct relay co-ordination are those using either time or over current or a combination of both time and over-current. Directional over-current relay and Directional Earth fault relay responds to fault in which power flow is in the set direction from the CT and PT locations. Such directional relays are used when power can flow from both directions to the fault point. 3. that the primary current required operating the relay in front is always equal to or less than the primary current required operating the relay behind it. on a common scale. It is generally sufficient to use machine transient reactance X'd and to work on the instantaneous symmetrical currents. use relays with the same operating characteristic in series with each other. . The basic rules for correct relay co-ordination can generally be stated as follows: 10. 8. such as fuses. 7. The maximum peak load current through protective devices. The data required for a relay setting study are: 1. Frame leakage protection can be used for metal clad switchgear. The alternatives are a common MVA base or a separate current scale for each system voltage. Decrement curves showing the rate of decay of the fault current supplied by the generators. Performance curves of the current transformers. It is always advisable to plot the curves of relays and other protective devices. The maximum and minimum values of short circuit currents that are expected to flow through each protective device. that are to operate in series. Core balance CTs are used for earth-fault protection. 9. 2. Whenever possible. The impedances in ohms. A one-line diagram of the power system involved. showing the type and rating of the protective devices and their associated current transformers. system analysis must be used. 6. of all power transformers. Co-ordination Correct current relay application requires knowledge of the fault current that can flow in each part of the network.or in residually connected secondary CT circuit. Make sure that the relay farthest from the source has current settings equal to or less than the relays behind it.

For this reason. at the infeed end of each section of the power system. Hence. which provides the means of discrimination. Circuit breaker protection is provided at B. the relay is sometimes described as an 'independent definite time delay relay' since its operating time is for practical purposes independent of the level of over current. C. where the fault level (MVA) is highest. If a fault occurs at F.The common aim of all three methods is to give correct discrimination. The relay at B is set at the shortest time delay permissible to allow a fuse to blow for a fault on the secondary side of trans-former A. D and E. because of the difference in impedance values between the source and the fault. 1. each one must select and isolate only the faulty section of the power system network. 21) to illustrate the principle. the relays controlling the various circuit breakers are . Typically. The main disadvantage of this method of discrimination is that the longest fault clearance time occurs for faults in the section closest to the power source. 1. Each protection unit comprises a definite time delay over current relay in which the operation of the current sensitive element simply initiates the time delay element. Provided the setting of the current element is below the fault current value this element plays no part in the achievement of discrimination.25s is adequate. and the subsequent operation of the circuit breaker at B will clear the fault before the relays at C. therefore. typically. Discrimination by time In this method an appropriate time interval is given by each of the relays controlling the circuit breakers in a power system to ensure that the breaker nearest to the fault opens first. leaving the rest of the system undisturbed. Discrimination by current Discrimination by current relies on the fact that the fault current varies with the position of the fault. a time delay of 0. D and E have time to operate. It is the time delay element. that is.25s. A simple radial distribution system is shown in (Fig. That is to say. the relay at B will operate in 0.

typically from 250 MVA to 130 MVA. since the distance between these points can be only a few meters. 22) illustrates the method.24 ohms Hence I=6350/0. . Discrimination by current is therefore not a practical proposition for correct grading between the circuit breakers at C and B. This can be seen by considering the grading required between the circuit breakers at B and A in (Fig. 1.485 ohms ZL1= cable impedance between C and B = 0. the system short circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1) A Where Zs = source impedance = 112 / 250 = 0. there are two important practical points which affect this method of coordination. corresponding to a change in fault current of approximately 0. However. At this lower fault level the fault current would not exceed 6800 A even for a cable fault close to C. there would be variations in the source fault level. 2.725 = 8800 A So a relay controlling the circuit breaker at C and set to operate at a fault current of 8800 A would in simple theory protect the whole of the cable section between C and B. the problem changes appreciably when there is significant impedance between the two circuit breakers concerned.1%. For a fault at F1. However. (Fig. In practice. It is not practical to distinguish between a fault at Fl and a fault at F 2. so a relay set at 8800 A would not protect any of the cable section concerned.set to operate at suitably tapered values such that only the relay nearest to the fault trips its breaker. 22).

Assuming a fault at F4.07(112/4) =2.24 + 0. With this characteristic. Now.04 ohms ZT = transformer impedance =0.24 ohms ZL2 = cable impedance between B and 4 MVA transformer 0.12 ohms Hence I = 6350/ 2. assuming a source fault level of 130 MVA: I = 6350 /(0.885 = 2200 A For this reason. that is. the time of operation is inversely proportional to the fault current level and the actual characteristic is a function of both 'time' and 'current' .485 ohms ZL1 = cable impedance between C and B 0.24 + 0.3 x 2200. Discrimination by both time and current 3 Discrimination by both time and current Each of the two methods described so far has a fundamental disadvantage. at the end of the 11 kV cable feeding the 4 MVA transformers. assuming a fault at F3. Assuming a safety margin of 20% to allow for relay errors and a further 10% for variations in the system impedance values.485 + 0. the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) Where ZS = source impedance =112 / 250 = 0. Alternatively. that is. A It is because of the limitations imposed by the independent use of either time or current co-ordination that the inverse time over current relay characteristic has evolved. 2860 A for the relay at B.93 + 0.004)=5250 Amp. it is reasonable to choose a relay setting of 1. the disadvantage is due to the fact that the more severe faults are cleared in the longest operating time. for either value of source level. Discrimination by current can only be applied where there is appreciable impedance between the two circuit breakers concerned. In other words. the relay at B would operate correctly for faults anywhere on the 11 kV cable feeding the transformer.04)=8300 Amp. the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) I = 6350 /(0. In the case of discrimination by time alone. a relay controlling the circuit breaker at B and set to operate at a current of 2200 A plus a safety margin would not operate for a fault at F4 and would thus discriminate with the relay at A.

2x100x10)/ 1322 =0.36% .04 X 100 X 10) / 112= 0.5 X 10 / 30 =7.settings.21) except that typical system parameters have been added.5 % 132 kV overhead line percentage impedance on10 MVA base = (6.33% 11 kV cable between C and B percentage impedance on 10 MVA base = (0.98 % 30 MVA transformer percentage impedance on 10 MVA base =22. before a relay co-ordination study of the system shown in (Fig. it is necessary to refer all the system impedances to a common base and thus. The advantage of this method of relay Co-ordination may be best illustrated by the system shown in (Fig. we have: 4MVA transformer percentage impedance on 10MVA base=7X (10/4) =17. 23). using 10 MVA as the reference base. In order to carry out a system analysis.24 X 100 X10) /112 =1.5% 11 kV cable between B and A percentage impedance on10 MVA base = (0.23) which is identical to that shown in (Fig.

suitable discrimination with the 200 A fuse is achieved. a voltage base of 3.76 MVA at 11 kV.5+0. that is.36+0.2.98+7. which is assumed to protect the largest outgoing 3.3kV fuse has been plotted.33+1.5+0.132 kV source percentage impedance on 10 MVA base = (100 x 10) /3500 =0. which are an important aid to satisfactory protection co-ordination.29% The graph in (Fig.3kV or 1880 A at 11 kV. In this example. the grading of the over current relays at the various sub-stations of the radial system is carried out as follows: Substation B CT ratio 250/5A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse.3kV has been chosen and the first curve plotted is that of the 200 A fuse. as for the type CDG 14 relay. Once the operating characteristic of the highest rated 3. Substation C CT ratio 500/5A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse.3kV circuit. 250 A and 4. This relay must discriminate with the 200A fuse at fault levels up to: (10 x 100) / (17. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%.23) illustrates the use of 'discrimination curves'. This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation . 6260 A at 3.29) = 35. and at a time multiplier setting of 0.7 MVA That is. as for the type CDG 14 relay.

7.B at fault levels up to: (10 X 100) / (1. that is. suitable discrimination with the relay at substation B is achieved. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%.5 +0.29) = 98.36 +0.280 A at 3. 17.98 +7. and at a time multiplier setting of 0.52 MVA at 11 kV. .7MVA That is.3kV or 5180 A at 11 kV. 500 A and 9.

(Fig. This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation C .23) Time and current grading Substation D CT ratio 150/1A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse. as for the type CDG 14 relay.

07 .000 A at 3.29) = 123 MVA That is. 270. 21. suitable discrimination with the relay at substation C is achieved.33 0. These differences can be summarized as follows: Relay B C D Fault level (MVA) 98.14 (seconds) 0.25. 23) at the maximum fault level reveals significant differences.7 123 1540 Time from Fig.25 0.3kV or 6750 A at 132 kV. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%.5 + 0. A comparison between the relay operating times shown in (Fig.29) = 1540 MVA That fault levels up to (10 X 100) / (7. This relay must discriminate with the relay in substation D at fault levels up to: (10 x 100) / (0.07 0.36 + 0. and at a time multiplier setting of 0.2 MVA at 132 kV and at a time multiplier setting of 0. that is.36+0. The operating characteristics of the CDG 14 relay show that at a plug setting of 100%.12 (seconds) 0. Substation E CT ratio 500/1 A Relay over current characteristic assumed to be extremely inverse.05 Time from Fig. that is.3kV or 538 A at 132 kV. 21) and the times obtained from the discrimination curves of (Fig. as for the type CDG 14 relay. suitable discrimination with the relay at substation D is achieved.65 1.9.500 A at 3. 500 A and 114 MVA at 132 kV. 150 A and 34.

33/0.375 0. Even for faults at the remote ends of the protected sections. 4 GRADING MARGIN ./Min MVA) 98.7 0.7 0.07/0.45 0.39 Average time (seconds) 0.17 0.17 98.14 (MVA) (seconds) 35.12 0.86 0.7/35.21) for the definite time over current relay.7 123/98.42 0.25/0.39 To finalize the co-ordination study it is instructive to assess the average operating time for each extremely inverse over current relay at its maximum and minimum fault levels. as shown by the following table: Relay B C D E Fault level Time from Fig.86 1540 0.E 3500 1. Relay Fault level (Max.07/0.465 0.14 (seconds) (Max.7 1540/123 3500/1540 B C D E Time from Fig.32 This comparison clearly shows that when there is a large variation in fault level all along the system network the overall performance of the inverse time over current relay is far superior to that of the definite over current relay./ Min) 0. reductions in fault clearance times are still obtained.42 123 0.25 These figures show that for faults close to the relaying points the inverse time characteristic can achieve appreciable reductions in fault clearance times. and to compare these with the operating time shown in (Fig.

Final margin on completion of operation. The overshoot time is not the actual time during which some forward operation takes place. A. Errors. 3. which can have phase and ratio errors due to the exciting current required to magnetize their core. static relay circuits may have energy stored in capacitors. 4. For example. some tolerance must be allowed. 2. Overshoot When the relay is de-energized. B. Relay design is directed to minimizing and absorbing these energies. as may the current transformers.The time interval between the operations of two adjacent relays depends upon a number of factors: 1. but some allowance is usually necessary. an induction disc relay will have stored kinetic energy in the motion of the disc. Relay grading and setting is carried out assuming the accuracy of the calibration curves published by manufacturers. however. The fault current interrupting time of the circuit breaker. operation may continue for a little longer until any stored energy has been dissipated. This does not. The overshoot time of the relay. apply to independent definite time delay over current relays. . C. but the time which would have been required by the relay if still energized to achieve the same amount of operational advance. The operating time characteristic of either or both relays involved in the grading may have a positive or negative error. Circuit breaker interrupting time The circuit breaker interrupting the fault must have completely interrupted the current before the discriminating relay ceases to be energized. Errors All measuring devices such as relays and current transformers are subject to some degree of error. but since some error is to be expected.

Some extra allowance. Hence. this to apply to the relay nearest to the fault. that is. or safety margin. rather than using a fixed grading margin. To this total effective error for the relay a further 10% should be added for the overall current transformer error. the discriminating relay must just fail to complete its operation.D.5% but allowance should also be made for the effects of temperature. Recommended time The total amount to be allowed to cover the above items depends on the operating speed of the circuit breakers and the relay performance. it is better to adopt a fixed time value. and departure from reference setting.4s is reasonable. however. 15%. 0. is required to ensure that a satisfactory contact gap (or equivalent) remains. and to add to it a variable time value that takes into account the relay errors. it is first assumed that each inverse time over current relay complies with Error Class E7. frequency.1 s for the fault current interrupting time of the circuit breaker. At one time 0.5. A value of 0. for the time interval t' required between inverse time over current relays it is proposed to adopt the equation: t' = 0. to allow for the operating time of the circuit breaker and relay overshoot. which shall be considered to be slow.25 seconds .05s for the relay over-shoot time and 0. made up of 0.1 s for the safety margin. Considering next the variable time values required. A practical approximation is to assume a total effective error of 2 x 7.5 defined as normal British practice in BS 142:1966.25s is chosen for the fixed time value. E. With faster modern circuit breakers and lower relay overshoot times 0.35s may be feasible.5 relay are ±7. while under the best possible conditions 0. the CT errors and the safety margin.25t + 0.5s was a normal grading margin. The normal limits of error for an E7. In some instances. Final margin After the above allowances have been made.

frequency and departure from reference setting. unlike the inverse time over current relay.25 seconds Where t = nominal operating time of relay nearest to the fault.5s. it will be seen that with the assumed relay settings and the tolerances allowed in BS 142:1966 the permissible grading margin between the over current relays at each section breaker is approximately 0. for the time interval t' required between independent definite time delay over current relays. but allowance should also be made for the effects of temperature. A practical approximation is to assume a total effective error of 2 x 10. With the increase in system fault current it is desirable to shorten the clearance time for faults near the power source. which are in this situation disproportionately large when compared with the clearance time of modern circuit breakers.M. defined as normal British practice in BS 142:1966. pick-up and overshoot . this to apply to the relay. 20%. The normal limits of error for an El 0 relay are ± 10%. The discriminating curves shown in (Fig. which shall be considered to be slow. it is not necessary to add a further error for the current transformers. it is assumed that these comply with Error Class El 0. Hence. v STANDARD I. this can only be achieved by improving the limits of accuracy.2t + 0.D. that is.Where t = nominal operating time of relay nearer to the fault. it is proposed to adopt the equation: t' = 0. in order to minimize damage. OVER CURRENT RELAY (TYPE CDG 11) Limits of accuracy have been considered by various national committees and (Fig.25) illustrate the application of such a relay to a sectioned radial feeder. It is therefore necessary to reduce the time errors.T. However. voltage. nearest to the fault. As far as the independent definite time delay over-current relays are concerned.24) shows a typical example of the limits set by the British Standards Institution specification BS 142:1966 for the standard inverse definite minimum time over current relay.

00E NOTE: The allowance error in operating time should not be less than 100ms All this must be obtained without detriment to the general performance of the relay.(Fig. the progress made in the GEC Measurements relays has made it possible to discriminate more closely by reducing the margin between both the current and the time setting of the relays on adjacent breakers. . owing to variations in materials and practical tolerances. in other words. and the construction must remain simple with the minimum number of moving parts. 24) Typical limits of accuracy set by BS 142: 1966 for an inverse Definite Minimum Time over current relay NORMAL BRITISH PRACTICE ACCURACY CLASS E7. While these requirements present considerable difficulties in manufacture.13E At 10 times setting 1.5% TIME/CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC ALLOWABLE LIMIT At 2 times setting 222E At 5 times setting 1. there must be no reduction in the operating torque or weakening of the damper magnets or contact pressures.01E At 20 times setting 1.

25) application of an IDMT over current relay to a sectioned Radial feeder These relays will thus enable the time setting of the relay nearest the power source to be .sayedsaad. make it possible to increase the number of breakers in series without increasing the time setting of the relays at the power source.(Fig. or. alternatively. Web address: http://www.

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