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Published by: hemala on Apr 17, 2011
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  • 1. Some Basic Phrases
  • 2. Pronunciation
  • 4. Articles and Demonstratives
  • 6. To Be and to Have
  • 7. Question Words
  • 8. Numbers / Ordinals
  • 9. Days of the Week
  • 11. Seasons
  • 12. Directions
  • 13. Color
  • 14. Time
  • 15. Weather
  • 16. Prepositions
  • 17. Family and Animals
  • 18. To Know People and Facts
  • 19 diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vaynineteenth décimo noveno
  • 20 veinte bayn-tay twentieth vigésimo
  • 21. To Do or Make
  • 22. Work and School
  • 24. To / In and From
  • 26. Misc. Words
  • 27. Conjugating Regular Verbs
  • 28. Reflexive Verbs
  • 29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs
  • 30. Impersonal "a"
  • 31. Preterite Tense
  • 32. Irregular Preterite Tense
  • 33. Imperfect Tense
  • 35. Gustar
  • 36. Fruits, Vegetables and Meats
  • 38. Commands
  • 39. More Negatives
  • 42. Progressive Tenses
  • 44. Present Perfect
  • 45. Places
  • 46. Transportation
  • 47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to
  • 49. Furniture
  • 50. Comparative and Superlative
  • 51. Irregular Forms
  • 54. Future Tense
  • 55. Preceding Adjectives
  • 58. Nature
  • 60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino
  • 64. To Give and to Bring
  • 65. Relative Pronouns
  • 66. Disjunctive Pronouns
  • 67. To Hear, to Smell and to See
  • 69. Past Perfect
  • 70. Suffixes
  • 71. Adverbs
  • 72. Passive Voice
  • 76. Conditional Tense
  • 77. Infinitives followed by Prepositions
  • 80. Subjunctive Mood
  • 81. Irregular Subjunctive Mood
  • 82. Uses of the Subjunctive
  • 85. Other Perfect Tenses

Spanish I 1. Some Basic Phrases 2. Pronunciation 3. Alphabet 4. Articles and Demonstratives 5. Subject Pronouns 6. To Be and to Have 7.

Question Words 8. Numbers / Ordinals 9. Days of the Week 10. Months of the Year 11. Seasons 12. Directions 13. Color 14. Time 15. Weather 16. Prepositions 17. Family and Animals 18. To Know People and Facts 19. Formation of Plural Nouns 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. To Do or Make

22. Work and School 23. Countries and Nationalities 24. To / In and From places 25. To Come and to Go 26. Misc. Words 27. Conjugating Regular Verbs 28. Reflexive Verbs 29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs 30. Impersonal "a" 31. Preterite Tense 32. Irregular Preterite Tense 33. Imperfect Tense 34. Food and Meals 35. Gustar 36. Fruits, Vegetables, Meats 37. To Take or Drink 38. Commands 39. More Negatives 40. Holiday Phrases Mexican National Anthem

Spanish II 41. Useful Expressions 42. Present Progressive 43. Haber 44. Present Perfect 45. Places

46. Transportation 47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to 48. House 49. Furniture 50. Comparative and Superlative 51. Irregular Forms 52. Clothing 53. To Wear 54. Future Tenses 55. Preceding Adjectives 56. More Adjectives 57. Sports and Hobbies 58. Nature 59. To Say and to Go Out 60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino 61. Object Pronouns 62. Parts of the Body 63. Asking Questions 64. To Give and To Bring 65. Relative Pronouns 66. Disjunctive Pronouns 67. To Hear and to Smell 68. Animals 69. Past Perfect 70. Suffixes

Spanish III (Not finished yet!)

71. Adverbs 72. Passive Voice 73. Uses of the Infinitive 74. Shopping 75. Post Office and Bank 76. Conditional Tenses 77. Infinitives followed by Prepositions 78. Office / School Supplies 79. Parts of a Car / Gas Station 80. Subjunctive Mood 81. Irregular Subjunctive Mood 82. Uses of the Subjunctive 83. Travelling / Airport 84. Cosmetics / Toiletries 85. Other Perfect Tenses

1. Some Basic Phrases

¡Buenos días!
buayn-ohs dee-ahs

¡Buenas tardes!
buayn-ahs tard-ays

Hello! / Good morning! ¡Buenas noches!
buayn-ahs nohch-ays

Good afternoon! ¡Hola!

Good evening / Good night ¿Cómo se llama usted?

Hi! ¿Cómo te llamas?

. / Miss Encantado/a.. yoh tahm-bee-ain Same here. ¿Y usted? ee oo-sted Please... may yah-moh What is your name? (informal) Mi nombre es. Por favor. ee-guahl-main-tay Delighted to meet you. ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you later. ¿Y tú? ee too And you? (used when asking the same question) (formal) Te amo.. ¿Cómo estás? coh-moh ay-stahs How are you? (formal) ¿Qué tal? kay tahl How are you? (informal) Yo estoy. chow Good bye. ain-cahn-tah-doh/dah Nice to meet you.. ah-dee-ohs Bad / Very bad / OK Chao. tay ah-moh And you? (informal) I love you.... Hasta la vista.. yoh soy day lohs ay-stah-dohs oo-nee-dohs I'm from. yoh soy day Yo soy de los Estados Unidos. (when talking about your mood) Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Good / Very good Adiós. Mucho gusto. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs How old are you? (informal) Gracias.. Señor / Señora / Señorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah See you tomorrow. yoh ay-stoy What's up? Bien / Muy bien bee-ayn / moy bee-ayn I am. ah-stah loo-ay-go Until we meet again.coh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted coh-moh tay yah-mahs What is your name? (formal) Me llamo. Igualmente. ¿Cuántos años tiene usted? ¿Cuántos años tienes? quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays How old are you? (formal) Yo tengo _____ años.. quahnt-ohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ay oosted I'm from the United States. Hasta mañana.. grah-see-ahs I am _____ years old.. ¿De dónde es usted? day dohn-day ays oo-sted Me too. ¿Cómo está usted? coh-moh ay-stah oo-sted My name is. ¿De dónde eres? day dohn-day air-ays Where are you from? (formal) Where are you from? (informal) Yo soy de. mee nohm-bray ays I am called. . Hasta luego. ah-stah lah vee-stah Bye. Yo también. moo-choh goo-stoh Mister / Mrs.. por fah-bor Thank you..

Most adjectives work this way. if you're a man. you need to roll your tounge when you say the r's. real soft b between 2 vowels ny (as in canyon) almost like a d when in between 2 vowels r w/ a roll of the tongue almost like a th when in between 2 vowels hard h g. The syllable with the accent is the emphasized syllable in a word. You CANNOT leave out the accents or it'll change the meaning of a word. 2. You would use the feminine ending.Note: For Encantado/a. ce. Pronunciation Spanish Letter a e i o u ll v ñ r rr d j g qu ai / all / ay z z. you would use the masculine ending. Also. o. So. 3. Alphabet a b c ch d e f g h i ah bay say chay day ay ay-fay hey ah-chay ee j k l ll m n ñ o p q hoh-tah kah ay-lay ay-yay ay-may ay-nay ayn-yay oh pay koo r rr s t u v w x y z air-ay airr-ay ay-say tay oo oo-bay doh-blay-bay ah-kees ee-gree-ay-gah say-tah . you would say Encantada. if you're a woman. if you're a man. sometimes a h k eye s th (in most parts of Spain) Note: Any time I put a double r (rr) in the pronunciation of a word. and if you're a woman. ci English Sound ah ay ee oh oo y b at beginning of word. you would say Encantado. accents (´ ) are very important in the Spanish language. a.

Singular la (lah) una (oonah) esta esa aquella the some Masc. 4. Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that.to be soy somos eres sois es son estar . as well as ellas. Singular the a. an this that that el (ail) un (oon) este ese aquel Fem. Plural los (lohs) unos (oonohs) Fem. Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries. They can be used in general and abstract ways. Subject Pronouns yo tú él / ella / usted yoh too ail / ay-yah / oo-sted I you (informal) he / she / you (formal) nosotros(as) vosotros(as) ellos / ellas / ustedes noh-soh-trohs boh-soh-trohs ay-yohs / ay-yahs / oo-sted-ays we you all they / they / you (plural) Note: Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well. Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing. 6. Definite and Indefinite Articles and Demonstratives Masc. Plural las (lahs) unas (oonahs) estas esas aquellas these estos those esos those aquellos Note: El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females.to be estoy estamos estás estáis está están tener . Ustedes can also be abreviated to Uds. Use the ese froms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing. ll or rr to be separate letters of the alphabet. To Be and to Have ser . Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs. 5.Note: The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch.to have tengo tenemos tienes tenéis tiene tienen . Usted can be abreviated to Ud.

ser curioso (a) to be happy . La casa es grande.estar en contra to be at fault .tener prisa.Note: Ser is used to indentify or describe.tener frío to be curious .estar cansado (a) 7. Juan está enfermo.tener la culpa to be careful . Common Expressions with "to be" to be afraid .tener sed to be tired . He is a carpenter. The house is large. Michael is studying. The books are John's. Los libros son de Juan. Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels.tener calor to be hungry . Es carpintero. Uses of Ser Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo.tener cuidado to be cold . It tells what something is. The telephone was invented by Bell. or its origin.tener miedo to be against .tener suerte to be patient . The building is a temple. La ventana está abierta. John is sick. It's three o'clock. Uses of Estar Location/position Temporary condition/state State of health Form progressive tense El libro está en la mesa. its basic characteristics.tener hambre to be in a hurry .estar contento (a) to be hot . El telefono fue inventado por Bell. It is necessary. Charles is poor. Es necesario.tener celos to be lucky . The window is open. Son las tres.tener éxito to be thirsty . The book is on the table. Miguel está estudiando. Question Words what who how when qué quién(es) cómo cuándo which cuál(es) how much cuánto (-a) how many cuántos (-as) whom whose a quién(es) de quién(es) where dónde why por qué .tener paciencia to be successful . Carlos es pobre. estar de prisa to be jealous .

8. Days of the Week lunes loo-nays Monday . dieciocho. 17. and 19. So 101 is ciento uno. Also you can also use dieciséis. you use ciento. respectively. And 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. 18. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word. diecisiete. you use just cien. Numbers / Ordinals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 cero uno dos tres cuatro cinco seis siete ocho nueve diez once doce trece catorce quince diez y seis diez y siete cay-roh oo-noh dohs trays kuah-troh seen-koh says see-ay-tay oh-choh new-ay-vay dee-ays ohn-say doh-say tray-say kah-tor-say keen-say dee-ays ee says dee-ays ee see-ay-tay first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth thousandth primero segundo tercero cuarto quinto sexto séptimo octavo noveno décimo undécimo duodécimo décimo tercero décimo cuarto décimo quinto décimo sexto décimo séptimo décimo octavo décimo noveno vigésimo vigésimo primero trigésimo cuadragésimo quincuagésimo sexagésimo septuagésimo octogésimo nonagésimo centésimo milésimo diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vay veinte bayn-tay veinte y uno bayn-tay ee oo-noh veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs treinta cuarenta cincuenta sesenta setenta ochenta noventa trayn-tah kuar-ain-tah seen-kuain-tah say-sain-tah say-tain-tah oh-chain-tah noh-bain-tah see-ain-(toh) meel twenty-second vigésimo segundo 100 cien(to) 1000 mil Note: If you are just saying 100. 9. and diecinueve for 16. If it's over 100.

En verano means in the summer. Seasons spring la primavera winter el invierno summer el verano autumn el otoño Note: To say in the summer. . spring.martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo el día la semana mar-tays mee-air-coh-lays hway-bays bee-air-nays sah-bah-doh doh-ming-oh Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday the day the week ail dee-ah lah say-mahn-ah el fin de semana ail feen day say-mahn-ah the weekend hoy mañana mi cumpleaños oy mahn-yahn-ah today tomorrow mee coom-play-ahn-yohs my birthday 10. use en and the season. Months of the Year enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre el mes ay-nair-oh fay-bray-roh mar-soh ah-breel mi-oh hoo-nee-oh hoo-lee-oh ah-gohs-toh sayp-tee-aim-bray ohk-too-bray noh-bee-aim-bray dee-see-aim-bray ail mais January February March April May June July August September October November December the month el primero de [month] ail pree-mair-oh day _____ the first of [a month] el año ail ahn-yoh the year 11. etc.

. It's two/three/four. Hace frío. It's 5:05 It's 8:15 It's 9:45 It's 9:45 (common in Mexico) It's 8:50 It's 8:50 (common in Mexico) It's 3:30 15. Weather Qué tiempo hace? Hace buen tiempo.. What's the weather like? The weather's nice. Es medianoche. Son las dos/tres/cuatro.12. It's cold. Son diez para las nueve Son las tres y media.. What time is it? It's one.. Son las ocho y cuarto. It's hot. Hace mal tiempo. Hace calor. The weather's bad. It's midnight. Time Qué hora es? Es la una. Colors red pink orange yellow green blue rojo rosado anaranjado amarillo verde azul violet brown violeta marrón dark brown café black gray white gold silver negro gris blanco dorado plateado light blue celeste purple morado 14. Son las diez menos cuarto. Es mediodía. It's noon. Directions north el norte south el sur east el este west el oeste 13. Son las cinco y cinco. Son cuarto para las diez Son las nueve menos diez..

Prepositions a con at with al lado de beside alrededor de around cerca de lejos de delante de debajo de near far from in front of below. in order. and de and el combine to form del. Llueve. Nieva. since sobre on. A and el combine to form al. by for. It's raining.Hace sol. until from. on between. along. through. It's sunny. Está nublado. 17. 16. over sin without Note: There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles. It's windy. from in. Family and Animals family parents wife father mother son la familia los padres la esposa el padre la madre el hijo grandfather grandmother grandson uncle aunt nephew niece cousin (m) cousin (f) relatives el abuelo la abuela el nieto el tío la tía el sobrino la sobrina el primo la prima los parientes dog cat bird fish goat pig cow turtle el perro el gato el pájaro el pez la cabra el cerdo la vaca la tortuga husband el esposo granddaughter la nieta horse el caballo daughter la hija children los hijos sister brother la hermana el hermano rabbit el conejo mouse el ratón 18. To Know People and Facts . Hace viento. It's cloudy. It's snowing. under contra against de en entre hacia para por of. via en frente de opposite detrás de encima de hasta desde behind above till. about for. among towards.

add an -s (libro = libros). There are very few exceptions to making words plural. Add an -es to make words ending in a constinant (papel = papeles). you must make the articles plural also. the definite article may be used with the definite article may be used instead of su with the following forms: de Ud. of yours. And if you're talking about a male. de ella. de Uds. hijo mío? What are you doing. After making the word plural. There are some exceptions to these rules and you just have to memorize them. To Do or Make hacer . de ellos and de ellas. you will use the feminine articles (la señora). and must be preceded by the definite article. el libro mío my book Qué haces.to do or make hago hacemos ." etc. or -tud. it'll be feminine. If a word ends in a -z.. if you are talking about a female.conocer .. los libros de ellos their books The terminal forms are placed after the noun. Also. 20. Formation of Plural Nouns If a word ends in an -ción. Days of the week are also masculine. it corresponds to the English "of mine. change the z to a c and add -es (cruz = cruces). my son? un amigo mío a friend of mine 21. use the masculine articles. To make words ending in a vowel plural.to know people conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen saber .to know facts sé sabes sabe sabemos sabéis saben 19. -dad. de él. When used with the indefinite article. Possessive Adjectives Terminal Forms Singular my your your/his/her/its our your your/their mi tu su tus sus Plural mis Singular mío (a) tuyo (a) suyo (a) Plural míos (as) tuyos (as) suyos (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) nuestro (a) nuestros (as) vuestro (a) vuestros (as) su sus vuestro (a) vuestros (as) suyo (a) suyos (as) Because su and sus can have so many meanings. except in direct address. Words ending in an -o are masculine. -tad.

haces hace hacéis hacen 22. (Fem) Nationality alemán (alemana) argentino(a) australiano(a) boliviano(a) canadiense colombiano(a) costarricense cubano(a) chileno(a) chino(a) ecuatoriano(a) egipcio(a) español(a) . Countries and Nationalities Country Germany Argentina Australia Bolivia Canada Columbia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egypt Spain Alemania Argentina Australia Bolivia Canadá Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Chile China Ecuador Egipto España Masc. Work and School doctor dentist lawyer professor teacher engineer architect writer journalist musician painter pharmacist banker carpenter barber mechanic salesman electrician postman policeman soldier pilot secretary typist nurse el médico el dentista el abogado el profesor el maestro el ingeniero el arquitecto el escritor el periodista el músico el pintor el farmacéutico el banquero el carpintero el barbero el mecánico el vendedor el electricista el cartero el agente de policia el soldado el piloto la secretaria la mecanógrafo la enfermera history math algebra geometry science physics chemistry zoology botany geography music art drawing painting linguistics languages la historia las matemáticas el álgebra la geometría la ciencia la fisica la química la zoología la botánica la geografía la música el arte el dibujo la pintura la lingüística las lenguas / idiomas 23.

India England Italy Japan Mexico Russia South Africa India Inglaterra Italia Japón México Rusia Suráfrica indio(a) inglés (inglesa) italiano(a) japonés (japonesa) mexicano(a) ruso(a) surafricano(a) United States los Estados Unidos (norte)americano(a) France Portugal Poland Francia Portugal Polonia francés (francesa) portugués (portuguesa) polaco(a) 24. To / In and From to a from de in en Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follows the preposition.to come vengo venimos vienes venís viene vienen ir . Words a lot mucho always everyday now usually there siempre todos los días ahora usualmente ahí very much muchísimo a little very little poco muy poco sometimes a veces well after poorly bien después mal over there allí too bad qué malo . 25. Misc. To Come and to Go venir .to go voy vamos vas vais va van 26.

Conjugating Regular Verbs Verbs in Spanish end in -ar. These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs. so just canto means I sing. 28.) To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense. Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another." Reflexive Pronouns me te se Some common reflexive verbs: nos os se . except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form. cant.the subject acts upon itself. Before a verb is conjugated.is the stem. Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is to sing.27. it is called the infinitive. while the reciprocal verbs use "each other. Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English. It can only be used in the first and third person plural forms. simply put no in front of the verb. -er or -ir. Reflexive Verbs The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs . Here are some more regular verbs: -ar verbs bailar desear to dance to want -er verbs aprender comer correr leer vender beber to learn to eat to run to read to sell to drink vivir escribir -ir verbs to live to write escuchar to listen estudiar hablar to study to speak compartir to share recibir to receive practicar to practice tomar viajar to take to travel comprender to understand To make sentences negative. A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive. add these endings to the stems: -ar o amos o -er emos o -ir imos as áis a an es éis e en es ís e en Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns.

-er. and ninguno (no one) require a as well.to awaken empezar .to want. It is also used before geographical names that are not already preceded by an article. the e of the last syllable changes to ie.to find. After dropping the endings (-ar.to begin despertar .to play morir .to go away levantarse .to go to bed bañarse .to return contar e to i pedir . it is preceded by a.to bathe oneself casarse .to follow servir .to dress pedir pienso pensamos cuento contamos pido pedimos piensas pensáis cuentas contáis pides pédis piensa piensan cuenta cuentan pide piden 30.to sleep encontrar . or -ir). Describe a Chile. Describe Chile.to fly volver .to ask (for) repetir . .to regret.to cost dormir . It isn't used if a number precedes the object though.to seat sentir . Impersonal "a" When the object of a verb (except tener) is a definite person.to be able costar .to dress oneself atreverse . like. love cerrar .to rise sentarse . Veo a alguien. I see John.to die mostrar . The pronouns alguien (somebody).to get married despertarse . 31.to count poder . when used as the direct object. nadie (nobody).to serve vestir . Veo a Juan. and o in the last syllable changes to ue.to wake up irse .to lose preferir .to think querer .to begin entender .to complain 29.to close comenzar . alguno (someone). Preterite Tense The preterite tense expresses an action in the past. feel pensar o to ue contar . e to ie pensar . Irregularities in Regular Verbs Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first and second person plural.to show volar .to understand perder .to repeat seguir . It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem. It is used to describe events that are finished or complete.acostarse . meet jugar . I see somebody.to sit down vestirse .to dare quejarse .to prefer sentar . Some -ir verbs change the e to i.

It is also used with mental and physical conditions and for descriptions.to be ir . tell dije dijiste dijo fui fuiste fue traje trajiste trajo dijimos dijisteis dijeron fuimos fuisteis fueron trajimos trajisteis trajeron estar . He was selling radios.to be poner .to go / ser. It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem. esperar. place tener . creer.to do.to give di diste dió hice hiciste hizo tuve tuviste tuvo dimos disteis dieron hicimos hicisteis hicieron tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron decir .-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -imos -iste -eron -é -amos -í -aste -asteis -iste -ó -aron -ió Viví en España dos años.to see era éramos iba íbamos veía veíamos . Luisa estaba triste.to go ver . Irregular Preterite Tense A few verbs are irregular in the preterite tense.to have traer . Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense: ser . I used to live in Spain. pueder.to bring venir .to put. The preterite tense is used much more often than the imperfect tense though. Imperfect Tense The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going on in the past. make ir . tener.to come 33. They spoke with the children.to be estuve estuvimos estuviste estuvisteis estuvo estuvieron puse pusiste puso vine viniste vino pusimos pusisteis pusieron vinimos vinisteis vinieron hacer . except with these verbs: querer. Louise was sad. and saber. The following are the most common: dar . I lived in Spain for two years.to say. Quién comió la fruta? Who ate the fruit? 32. Ellos hablaron con los niños. -ar verbs -er and -ir verbs -íamos -íais -ían -aba -ábamos -ía -abas -abais -ías -aba -aban -ía Yo vivía en España. El vendía radios. as repeated or habitual.

Literally. We like the house. Vegetables and Meats apple orange banana la manzana la naranja la banana la lechuga lettuce la col cabbage cauliflower la coliflor broccoli corn on the cob el brócoli el elote / la mazorca el rábano .? Do you like it? Le gustan a ella. it means to please and takes an indirect object. while gustan is used with plural nouns.. I don't like it. a Uds.) Nos gusta la casa. a él. a ella. Fruits. you can add a Ud. Le gusta a Ud. a ellos and a ellas to make the meaning clear. Me gustan las flores. (Literally: To me are pleasing the flowers or the flowers are pleasing to me. Gustar Gustar plus a noun means to like something. I like the flowers. dish glass cup salt saltshaker pepper pepper shaker sugar sugar bowl vinegar coffeepot teapot tray el mantel la servilleta el tenedor el cuchillo la cuchara el plato el vaso la taza la sal el salero la pimienta el pimientero el azúcar el azucarero el vinagre la cafetera la tetera la bandeja 35. so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English. No me gusta.. Food and Meals breakfast lunch supper dinner meal food bread roll butter meat fish vegetables fruit cheese crackers candy sandwich ice cream el desayuno el almuerzo la cena la comida la comida el alimento el pan el panecillo la mantequilla la carne el pescado las legumbres la fruta el queso la galleta los dulces el sándwich el helado tablecloth napkin fork knife spoon plate. Me gusta(n) I like Te gusta(n) you like Le gusta(n) you/he/she likes Nos gusta(n) we like Os gusta(n) you like Les gusta(n) you/they like Gusta is used with singular nouns. 36. She likes them.eras erais era eran ibas ibais iba iban veías veíais veía veían 34. With le and les.

to have a drink and tomar un café . regular -ar verbs end in -a. such as tomar una copa. To Take or Drink tomar .grapefruit lemon lime peach apricot fig grapes pear plum cherry pineapple melon watermelon strawberry raspberry blackberry la toronja el limón la lima el melocotón el albaricoque el higo unas uvas la pera la ciruela la cereza la piña el melón la sandía la fresa la frambuesa la zarzamora green peas asparagus green been spinach tomato carrot turnip beet celery onion cucumber parsley squash artichoke eggplant rhubarb los guisantes los espárragos la habichuela la espinaca el tomate la zanahoria el nabo la remolacha el apio la cebolla el pepino el perejil la calabaza la alcachofa la berenjena el ruibarbo radish pepper garlic potato sweet potato beans beef lamb pork sausage ham bacon goose duck chicken turkey lobster el pimiento el ajo la patata la batata los frijoles / las judías la carne de vaca el cordero el cerdo la salchicha el jamón el tocino el ganso el pato el pollo el pavo la langosta 37. In Mexico. In Spain. tomar can be intransitive. and -er and -ir verbs end in -e for the tú form.to take or drink tomo tomas toma tomamos tomáis toman When tomar means to drink. Negative familiar commands use the subjunctive forms. tomar is always transitive. Change the final -r to -d for the vosotros form. it usually refers to alcohol. as beber is almost never used. Affirmative -ar -er or -ir tú -a -e Negative -ar -er or -ir -es -as -éis -áis vosotros -ad -ed Habla! = Speak! (tú form) Comed! = Eat! (vosotros form) No comáis! = Don't eat! (negative vosotros form) Irregular Familiar Commands tú vosotros .to have a coffee. so -ar verbs end in -es and -éis. while -er and -ir verbs end in -as and -áis for the tú and vosotros forms. Commands To form familiar commands. 38.

More Negatives To make sentences negative. nada nadie ninguno (a) tampoco ni ni.decir hacer ir irse poner salir ser tener venir di haz ve vete pon sal sé ten ven decid haced id idos poned salid sed tened venid To form formal commands of verbs. just add no before it. while -er and -ir verbs will add -a for Usted and -an for Ustedes. 39. you place no before the verb. The word order is no + verb + negative. but if they follow. either nor neither.. jamás means ever when it follows an affirmative verb. 40. -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well: c becomes qu. This means -ar verbs will add -e for the Usted form and -en for the Ustedes form.. (not) anybody no. and add the opposite vowel ending. Other negatives may precede or follow the verb. drop the -o ending of the yo form. ever Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative. (not) anything nobody..ni ni siquiera nunca. they must follow a negative verb (a double negative). nor not even never. none neither. -ar -er or -ir Usted -e -a Ustedes -en -an Beba! = Drink! (Usted form) Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form) No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form) Ir and ser have irregular forms as formal commands: vaya and vayan for ir and sea and sean for ser. jamás nothing. g becomes gu. and z becomes c. Holiday Phrases . Verbs that end in -car.. To make a command negative.

at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. Sobre sangre se estampe su pie. Y tus templos. For in heaven your eternal destiny has been written by the hand of God. But should a foreign enemy Profane your land with his sole. que inermes tus hijos Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen. before your children become unarmed Beneath the yoke their necks in sway. May your countryside be watered with blood. patria. Que en el cielo tu eterno destino Por el dedo de Dios se escribió. Ciña ¡oh patria! tus sienes de oliva De la Paz el arcángel divino. palaces and towers crumble in horrid crash. Think.Feliz Navidad Feliz Año Nuevo Merry Christmas Happy New Year Feliz Cumpleaños Happy Birthday Mexican National Anthem: Mexicanos. Mas si osare un extraño enemigo Profanar con su planta tu suelo. And may your temples. and let the earth tremble at its center upon the roar of the cannon. war! On the mount. If the bugle in its belligerent tone should call upon them to struggle with bravery. Your forehead shall be girded. ¡Patria! ¡patria! Tus hijos te juran Exhalar en tus aras su aliento. Y sus ruinas existan diciendo: De mil héroes la patria aquí fue. fatherland. guerra sin tregua al que intente De la patria manchar los blasones! ¡Guerra. Si el clarín con su bélico acento Los convoca a lidiar con valor. War. beloved fatherland. en el valle Los cañones horrísonos truenen Y los ecos sonoros resuenen Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad! Antes. Piensa ¡oh patria querida! que el cielo Un soldado en cada hijo te dio. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón. ¡Guerra. palacios y torres Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo. War. On blood their feet trample. al grito de guerra El acero aprestad y el bridón. guerra! En el monte. and let the earth tremble at its center . and their ruins exist saying: The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here. that heaven gave you a soldier in each son. Mexicans. at the cry of battle lend your swords and bridle. ¡Guerra. oh fatherland. your children swear to exhale their breath in your cause. guerra! Los patrios pendones En las olas de sangre empapad. al Grito de Guerra by Francisco González Bocanegra Mexicanos. war! The patriotic banners saturate in waves of blood. Fatherland. ¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva! ¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria! ¡Un laurel para ti de victoria! ¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor! Mexicanos. For you the olive garlands! For them a memory of glory! For you a laurel of victory! For them a tomb of honor! Mexicans. with olive garlands by the divine archangel of peace. war without truce against who would attempt to blemish the honor of the fatherland! War. Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen. in the vale The terrifying cannon thunder and the echoes nobly resound to the cries of union! liberty! Fatherland.

y retiemble en sus centros la tierra Al sonoro rugir del cañón. it's because the anthem has no words. If you're wondering why I didn't include the Spanish national anthem. . upon the roar of the cannon. it's all instrumental.

Progressive Tenses The progressive tense indicates an action that is ongoing. Estaban cantando. Useful Expressions Hay Había Hay que + infinitive Tener que + inf. Estuve escribiendo una carta.) This tense can be translated as have or has done something. Haber Haber . and adding the following endings to the stem: Present Participles -ar -er -ir -ando -iendo -iendo Juan está hablando. Present Perfect The present perfect tense is a compound tense using haber with a past participle. (Haber is only used as a helping verb. I was writing a letter. it is never used to show possession.to have he has ha hemos habéis han 44. Josh is talking. 43. Acabar de + inf. Hace + time There is/are There was/were It is necessary to + inf. To have to + inf. To have just + past participle time + ago 42. Ir a + inf. They were singing. To go to + inf. Please note that the preterite tense is used more often than this tense when expressing the past. .41. Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb. It is formed by using estar (in any tense) with a present participle.

Past participles are formed by dropping the infinitive ending.muerto (died). They have not sold the house. la llave? Where have you put the key? Hemos gastado mucho dinero. volver (to return) .abierto (opened).? What did you say? 45. We have spent a lot of money. poner (to put) . Dónde ha puesto Ud. hacer (to do) .escrito (written). morir (to die) . and adding these endings: Past Participles -ar -er -ir -ado -ido -ido The following verbs have irregular past participles: abrir (to open) . Qué ha dicho Ud. escribir (to write) .puesto (put). decir (to say) .hecho (done).vuelto (returned). No han vendido la casa. Transportation by bus by bicycle by car by subway by taxi by plane by train by boat on foot en autobús en bicicleta en coche en metro en taxi en avión en tren en barco a pie by motorcycle en motocicleta . Places movies restaurant mountain cafe house concert library theater country supermarket bread shop el cine el restaurante la montaña el café la casa el concierto la biblioteca el teatro el campo la panadería office bank pastry shop meat shop fruit shop fish shop pharmacy candy store bookstore flower shop la oficina el banco la pastelería la carnicería la frutería la pescadería la farmacia la dulcería la librería la papelería la floristería swimming pool la piscina ice cream shop le heladería el supermercado paper store 46.dicho (said). ver (to see) visto (seen).

to Be Able to. can puedo puedes puede podemos podéis pueden deber-to have to. must debo debes debe debemos debéis deben 48. House house living room den dining room kitchen bedroom room closet bathroom fireplace stairway wall floor ceiling roof hall window ground floor second floor la casa la sala de recibo el gabinete el comedor la cocina la recámara el cuarto el armario el cuarto de baño la chimenea la escalera la pared el suelo el techo el tejado el pasillo la ventana el piso bajo el primer piso 49. To Want. drape lamp picture wardrobe bed dresser chest of drawers stove refrigerator el mueble le mesa el diván el sofá el escritorio la silla la butaca el estante para libros la alfombra el tapete la cortina la lámpara el cuadro el guardarropa la cama el tocador la cómoda la estufa el refrigerador .47. to Have to querer-to want quiero queremos quieres queréis quiere quieren poder-to be able to. Furniture furniture table couch sofa desk chair armchair bookcase carpet rug curtain.

as as much/many. than less.... No tengo tanto dinero como ustedes... The adverbs (the last four) do not agree with the noun. To form the superlative. The cat is less intelligent than the dog. as El gato es menos inteligente que el perro. Comparative and Superlative Comparisons are expressed as follows: màs..que menos. place the definite article before the comparative.como tanto(a.. I don't have as much money as you. Rosa is the tallest girl in the class.como more. The most common are: Adjective/Adverb Comparative good bad great small well badly much little bueno malo grande pequeño bien mal mucho poco better worse greater less better worse more less mejor peor mayor menor mejor peor más menos Superlative the best the worst the greatest the least best worst most least el mejor el peor el mayor el menor el mejor el peor el más el menos Note that the bueno and malo change according to gender and number while grande and pequeño change according to gender.. Mi prima tiene más discos que nadie... 51.. 52..50.. más alta taller la más alta the tallest Rosa es la niña más alta de la clase.. Clothing clothing clothes dress la ropa los vestidos el vestido . My cousin has more records than anyone.. os. Irregular Forms Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.. just add más or menos before the adjective or adverb. than as. To form comparatives. as). Note that de is used to express in after a superlative.que tan.

Future Tense The future of regular verbs is formed by adding the following endings to the infinitive: -é -emos -ás -éis -á -án Many verbs use irregular stems in the future tense. but they still use the regular endings from above: decir (to say.to put on llevo llevamos me pongo nos ponemos llevas lleváis te pones os ponéis lleva llevan se pone so ponen Note: You don't use possessive pronouns when referring to parts of the body or clothing.to wear ponerse .suit blouse skirt jacket wrap. coat hat beret shoes slippers robe underwear gloves purse raincoat umbrella pants vest coat shirt collar tie belt sock cap overcoat wallet shorts pajamas el traje la blusa la falda la chaqueta el abrigo el sombrero la boina los zapatos las zapatillas la bata la ropa interior los guantes la bolsa el impermeable el paraguas los pantalones el chaleco el saco la camisa el cuello la corbata el cinturón el calcetín la gorra el sobretodo la cartera los calzoncillos el pijama 53. tell) dir- . To Wear llevar . 54. but you do use the definite article.

the latter becomes an abstract noun.one. but the following adjectives drop the final -o if placed before a masculine noun in the singular: bueno . tercero third When grande means great. Preceding Adjectives Most adjectives follow the noun they describe.first. short pretty beautiful ugly wide narrow heavy light hard soft sweet sour bitter alto bajo lindo. alguno . ninguno . place) saber (to know) salir (to leave. el pobre . malo .no. tall low.the poor man If the neuter article lo is placed before a singular masculine adjective. bonito hermoso feo ancho estrecho pesado ligero duro blando dulce agrio amargo When any form of the definite article is placed before an adjective. uno . bueno . except those beginning with Do. More Adjectives large small long short good bad rich poor strong weak easy difficult fat thin grande pequeño largo corto bueno malo rico pobre fuerte débil fácil difícil gordo delgado high. Santo (saint) drops the -to before all masculine nouns. Sports .good.hacer (to do. any. make) poder (to be able) poner (to put.some.good. it precedes the noun and drops the -de before a singular noun of either gender. 56. lo bueno . pobre .poor.bad. primero . then the adjective becomes a noun.or To-. go out) tener (to have) venir (to come) harpodrpondrsabrsaldrtendrvendr- 55.the good (everything that is good) 57.

to go out digo decimos salgo salimos dices decís sales salís dice dicen sale salen .ball game match team player soccer football la pelota el juego el partido el equipo el jugador el fútbol el fútbol americano pool la piscina basketball el baloncesto tennis el tenis swimming la natación boxing wrestling hockey el boxeo la lucha el hockey baseball el béisbol raquet ball (small) bat glove ball una raqueta una pelota un bate un guante un balón net volleyball el volibol una red unos zapatos de futból unos esquís cleats skis ski poles unos bastones boots helmet unas botas el casco basketball hoop una canasta 58.to say salir . Nature continent island peninsula gulf bay ocean coast beach sea river lake mountain valley plain desert jungle forest garden flower rose tree el continente la isla la península el golfo la bahía el océano la costa la playa el mar el río el lago la montaña el valle la llanura el desierto la selva el bosque el jardín la flor la rosa el árbol 59. To Say and to Go Out decir .

) La carta es para Concha. los. Estoy por escribirla. It is also used after a passive verb to indicate the agent (by) and estar por + infinitive indicates what remains to be done or to be in favor of. I will have it by Tuesday. Lo tendré para el martes. Object Pronouns Subject yo tú él ella Usted I you Direct me te me you Indirect me to me te to you Object of Prepositions mí ti me you him/it her/it you he/it le. on account of. Bebe lecho pero no bebe café. Estudia para aprender. but he does not drink coffee. I'm going for Alice. to send for. It was written by Cervantes. at). Sino (but) is only used in negative sentences of contrasting statements when the verb of the first clause is understood but not repeated. for. I'm going by train. exchange. Pero (but) usually follows an affirmative expression. Por and Pero vs. Juan está para salir. way or means (by). la nos os him/it le her/it le you us you le os to him/it él to her/it ella to you to you Usted nosotros (as) we vosotros (as) you Ustedes ellos (as) you nos to us les to you nosotros (as) us vosotros (as) you Ustedes you them les. John is about to leave. It's sold by the pound. unit of measure (by. but milk. I am in favor of writing it. The letter is yet to be written. to go for. Voy por Alicia. point of future time (for. price (for). The letter is for Concha. but may follow a negative statement if the verb of the first clause is repeated. on behalf of. Se vendre por libras. I voted for Juanita. Para vs.60. because of. He studies in order to learn. por el pueblo through the town por la mañana in the morning Pagó un peso por el libro. reason. 61. or if another verb follows. Por is used to express: a place through or along which. Voy por tren. for the sake of. La carta está por escribir. las you they los them les to them ellos (as) . No bebe café sino leche. motive. purpose (in order to). during. by) and to be about to (estar para + infinitive. He does not drink coffee. expressions of time (in. Sino Para is used to express: use or destination (for). per). Fue escrito por Cervantes. Voté por Juanita. lo she/it la you le. He paid a dollar for the book. He drinks milk.

use an indirect object pronoun + duele(n) + body part. 4. 63. Then it is attached to the verb as one word. the indirect comes before the direct. Me duele la cabeza. 2. Give me the book. the prepositional form of a plus an object of a preposition may be used. Asking Questions Simply raise your voice at the end of the sentence. 1. 3. el libro.An object pronoun generally precedes the conjugated verb. He sent us to you. When you have more than one pronoun. Parts of the Body hand foot ear eye tongue face hair nose tooth lip la mano el pie la oreja el ojo la lengua la cara el cabello la nariz el diente el labio mouth finger la boca el dedo fingernail la uña elbow arm knee leg head neck el codo el brazo la rodilla la pierna la cabeza el cuello shoulder el hombro la garganta stomach el estómago throat To express pain. If both pronouns begin with the letter l. Déme Ud. When one or two object pronouns follow and are attached to the verb form. Add no? or verdad? or no es verdad? to the end of the statement. . My head hurts. For clearness or emphasis. His feet hurt. then the first one is changed to se. an accent mark must be added to retain the original stress of the word. 62. Le duelen los pies. except if is used in an affirmative command. such as Isn't it? Aren't you? Don't you? Didn't he? Isn't she? etc. Place the predicate in front of the subject of the sentence. These translate to many phrases in English. with an infinitive or gerund. Nos envió a Ud.

la cual. mí ti él ella Usted nosostros (-as) vosotros (-as) ellos ellas Ustedes Ello is also used as a neuter pronoun meaning it. . it means whom. except after a preposition. These pronouns are used for clearness when there are two antecedents. The house in which I live is small. los cuales. Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun connects a dependent clause to a main clause and refers to something already mentioned (the antecedent. or show emphasis. When used with a preposition. -as) is a possessive adjective and it agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed.to bring doy damos das dais da dan traigo traemos traes traéis trae traen 65. los que. To Give and to Bring dar . Sí can mean yourself. yourselves or themselves. herself. the words become conmigo.la que. Quien (-es) is often used in place of el que and its forms as well. when it means one who. Disjunctive Pronouns Disjunctive pronouns are used independently of the verb. las que) and el cual (and its forms . which) refers to persons or things. Quien (-es) (who) is used in a supplementary clause. When con combines with mí. I visited the city near which he lives. El que (and its forms .to give traer . and with prepositions. himself. Cuyo (-a. the forms of mismo (-a. when it refers to things only. He visitado la ciudad cerca de la cual vive.64. las cuales) may replace que or quien. contigo and consigo. Que (who. which is always the word that follows it. Que and quien are the most commonly used relative pronouns.) This pronoun may serve as the subject or object of a verb. Lo que and lo cual (which) refer to the whole sentence. -os. etc. whom. -os. ti or sí. They are the pronouns which follow prepositions. 66. La casa en que vivo es pequeña. For clearness. those who. or the object of a preposition. that. -as) can be added to these pronouns.

It consists of the imperfect of haber and a past participle.to hear oler ." It indicates an event that happened prior to another event in the past.to smell ver . Past Perfect The past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + past participle.to see oigo oímos oyes oís oye oyen huelo olemos veo vemos hueles oleís ves veís huele huelen ve ven 68. to Smell and to See oír . . Sometimes the preterite of haber is used. Animals giraffe elephant bear lion eagle parrot rhinoceros whale snake alligator la jirafa el elefante el oso el león el águila el loro el rinoceronte la ballena la serpiente el caimán hippopotamus el hipopótamo tiger bull fox monkey wolf turtle el tigre el toro la zorra el mono el lobo la tortuga 69. but the imperfect is more common.67. To Hear.

appreciation or pity. adjectives or adverbs. admiration. To indicate where something is made or sold. Unaccented vowels should be dropped before adding the suffixes. When -dor is added to a verb (minus the final letter). The most common suffixes are -ito (a) and -cito (a). add -ería. We had learned Spanish. Habíamos aprendido el español.Carlos había vivido en México. Carlos had lived in Mexico. affection. Suffixes Suffixes may be attached to nouns. They express size. . When -eza and -ura are added to adjectives. 70. it indicates the performer of the action. The ending -ero (a) indicates the maker or dealer in charge of something. they express abstract nouns.

.. while lo mas + adverb + an expression of possibility is translated: as . The house was destroyed by the wind. If you use estar instead of ser. Adjective correcto facil claro absoluto rapido Adverb correctamente facilmente claramente absolutamente rapidamente correctly easily clearly absolutely rapidly Lo + adverb + que expresses how. Cuando la vi. lo bien que how well lo mas pronto posible as soon as possible 72. The agent is expressed by por if the action is physical. Passive Voice In passive sentences.71. When I saw it. the subject does the action. Uses of the Infinitive . the subject receives the action of the verb. the past participle is called the predicate adjective and it is not a passive sentence. El nino fue castigado por su padre. The wind destroys the house. Rose is loved by everyone. Rosa es amada de todos. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject. la casa estaba Predicate Adjective destruida. The passive voice in Spanish is formed with a tense of ser and a past participle. as . The boy was punished by his father. Adverbs Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective.. However. and by de if mental. Ser should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence. However. the meaning of both sentences is the same.. two common adverbs that do not end in -mente are despacio (slowly) and demasiado (too much). the house was destroyed. 73. La casa fue destruida por el viento. In active sentences. Active Passive El viento destrue la casa.

al. -ía -íamos . Post Office and Bank post office envelope mailbox mail carrier stamps package el correo el sobre el buzón el cartero las estampillas el paquete bank (traveler's) check to cash (a check) to save (money) to deposit account el banco el cheque (de viajero) cobrar ahorrar depositar la cuenta 76. ver or oír. To form the present conditional. I hear Maria singing. Oigo cantar a Maria. Verbs that had irregular stems in the future tense. El correr es buen ejercicio. Shopping department store shopping mall belt glasses gloves sunglasses el almacén el centro comercial el cintúron las gafas los guantes los lentes de sol shop/store (open-air) market (fixed) price sale to bargain to spend money la tienda el mercado (al aire libre) el precio (fijo) la rebaja regatear gastar 75. He left without speaking. Conditional Tense The conditional tense expresses an idea dependent on a condition that is either expressed or understood. Partío sin hablar.The infinitive is translated as a gerund (the -ing form of the verb) after these words: el. It can also refer to the past when it expresses probability. add these endings to the infintive for all three types of verbs. also use that stem for the conditional tense. Running is good exercise. a preposition. 74.

Office / School Supplies pencil eraser pen el lápiz la goma la pluma dictionary tape (audio) map el diccionario la cinta el mapa . de.-ías -íais -ía -ían 77. Verb + a + another infinitive acostumbrarse aprender atreverse ayudar comenzar convidar decidirse dedicarse empezar enseñar invitar ir negarse persuadir principiar rehusar resignarse resistirse resolverse venir volver to become used to to learn to to dare to to help to begin to to invite to to decide to to devote oneself to to begin to to teach to to invite to go to to refuse to to persuade to to begin to to refuse to to resign oneself to to resist to resolve to to come to to return to to consent to to consist to amuse oneself to insist on to endeavor to to insist on to busy oneself to think of to persist in to delay in Verb + de + another infinitive acabar acordarse alegrarse aprovecharse arrepentirse cansarse cesar dejar encargarse gozar jactarse olvidarse tratar to have just to remember to be glad to to profit by to repent to tire of to cease to cease to take charge of to take pleasure in to boast of to forget to to try to Verb + en + another infinitive consentir consistir divertirse empeñarse esforzarse insistir ocuparse pensar persistir tardar Verb + con + another infinitive contar contentarse soñar to count on to content oneself with to dream of 78. en or con when followed by another infinitive. Infinitives followed by Prepositions The following verbs require a. although the preposition is not always translated into English.

Present Subjunctive -ar verbs -e -es -e -er and -ir -amos -áis -an -emos -a -éis -as -en -a The past subjunctive is formed from the third person plural of the preterite. Remove the -on ending. Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive is not used very often in English. adelante la estación de servicio 80. Parts of a Car / Gas Station car garage tank gasoline oil air grease tire spare tire wheel steering wheel brake speed slow danger stop go service station el coche el garage el tanque la gasolina el aceite el aire la grasa la llanta llanta picada la rueda el volante el freno la velocidad despacio peligro alto siga. and add these new endings: Past Subjunctive all verbs . Some command forms are actually the subjunctive.ink paper letter book la tinta el papel la carta el libro newspaper novel backpack stapler scissors el periódico la novela la mochila la grapadora unas tijeras notebook el cuaderno 79. but is is very common and important in Spanish. so the formation of the present subjunctive should not be too difficult.

to go out salga salgas salga estar . it is habláramos.to be able to pueda podamos puedas podáis pueda puedan saber .to have haya hayamos hayas hayáis haya hayan poder .to go vaya vayamos vayas vayáis vaya vayan querer . Instead of hablaramos. instead of comieramos.to bring venir . The present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.to have tenga tengamos tengas tengáis tenga tengan decir .to do/make haga hagamos hagas hagáis haga hagan poner .to want quiera queramos quieras queráis quiera quieran ser . Irregular Subjunctive Mood Many verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive mood: dar . Present perfect subjunctive haya hayamos + past hayas hayáis participle haya hayan Past perfect subjunctive hubiera hubiéramos + past hubieras hubierais participle hubiera hubieran 81.to give dé demos des deis dé den haber . Similarly. the past perfect subjunctive is formed with the past subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.-a amos -as -ais -a -an An accent is added to the stem vowel as well in the first person plural form.to say/tell diga digamos digas digáis diga digan hacer .to give diera diéramos dieras dierais diera dieran decir . but the endings given are used more often.to put/place ponga pongamos pongas pongáis ponga pongan salir .to come traigo traigamos venga vengamos traigas traigáis vengas vengáis traiga traigan venga vengan Many verbs are irregular in the past subjunctive as well: dar .to be esté estemos estés estéis esté estén ir . Note that there is another way to form the past subjunctive (a different set of endings). etc.to be seamos seáis sean salgamos sea salgáis seas salgan sea traer .to know sepa sepamos sepas sepáis sepa sepan tener .to be estuviera estuviéramos estuvieras estuvierais estuviera estuvieran .to say/tell dijera dijéramos dijeras dijerais dijera dijeran estar . it is comiéramos.

After expressions of emotion.to have hubiera hubiéramos hubieras hubierais hubiera hubieran poder .to go fuéramos fuerais fueran querer .to come viniera viniéramos vinieras vinierais viniera vinieran ir . 3.haber . such as es posible (it's possible).to be fuera fuéramos fueras fuerais fuera fueran venir . sentir (to be sorry). After the verb querer when there is a change of subject (but use the infinitive if there is no change of subject) 2. the past subjunctive must be used in the if-clause (and the main clause is in a conditional tense) 83. alegarse (to be glad). After most impersonal expressions. 9.to be able to pudiera pudiéramos pudieras pudierais pudiera pudieran saber .to put/place pusiera pusiéramos pusieras pusierais pusiera pusieran ser . 5. temer (to fear).to do/make hiciera hiciéramos fuera hicieras hicierais fueras hiciera hicieran fuera poner . In contrary-to-fact conditions. such as esperar (to hope).to bring trajera trajéramos trajeras trajerais trajera trajeran hacer . when futurity is implied. 4. Uses of the Subjunctive The main uses of the subjunctive include: 1.to want quisiera quisiéramos quisieras quisierais quisiera quisieran tener . and antes que (before) 8.to know supiera supiéramos supieras supierais supiera supieran traer . Travelling / Airport . After time conjunctions. such as para que (in order that). When one person tells (decir) or asks (pedir) another person to do something. In adjective clauses is the antecedent is indefinite 7. es importante (it's important). such as cuando (when).to have tuviera tuviéramos tuvieras tuvierais tuviera tuvieran 82. After certain conjunctions. hasta que (until). After dudar (to doubt) and other verbs expressing uncertainty. es necesario (it's necessary) if there is a subject for the subordinate verb. sin que (without). en cuanto (as soon as). when there is a change of subject. 6.

Cosmetics / Toiletries shampoo soap makeup el champú el jabón el maquillaje brush comb toothpaste toothbrush towel electric razor el cepillo el peine la pasta de dientes el cepillo de dientes la toalla la maquinilla de afeitar shaving cream la crema de afeitar la loción lotion el esmalte para las nail polish uñas 85. referring to the present. there are also the preterite. future and conditional perfect tenses. . luego que. Other Perfect Tenses Beside the present and past perfect tenses. The future perfect is formed with the future of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability. cuando (when). and it has the same meaning as the past perfect. and hasta que (until). But this tense is normally only used after conjunctions of time. referring to the past. The preterite perfect is formed with the preterite of haber + past participle. The conditional perfect is formed with the conditional of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability. All are conjugated with a form of haber and a past participle. tan pronto como (as soon as). después (de) que (after).passport customs arrival departure (round-trip) ticket luggage el pasaporte la aduana la llegada la salida el pasaje (de ida y to go on vacation vuelta) to pack (one's el equipaje suitcases) la habitación individual/doble la estación de tren (de train (bus) station autobuses) la estación de metro subway hacer un viaje to take a trip single/double room ir de vacaciones hacer las maletas 84. such as así que.

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