Food and Beverage Service
This training manual is meant to be a guide to all hotel personnel in food and beverage service who are involved in the day-to-day training of staff either part-time. Furthermore, it ensures a uniform system of training inputs. It also acts as a self-study guide to any individual who wishes to develop himself/ herself in the vocation of a waiter or restaurant supervisor. The book was developed after understanding the problems that personnel in hotel and restaurant operations face in imparting training. Some of these problems are: (a) Non-availability of training material (b) Limited time to prepare a lecture (c) Limited time to train (d) Not knowing what to teach (e) Not knowing how much to teach (f) Not knowing the sequence in which to teach The material and design of the manual facilitate a “trainer” at a moments notice, or an individual who need spare just half-an-hour a day, to execute a programme. Here is a brief introduction to the approach of the manual. After a thorough “job analysis” of the position in food and beverage outlets, the job positions are divided into two sections- The waiter and the Supervisor. Each is broken into three aspects that are important in the development of an individual-Knowledge, Skills, Attitude. Knowledge Pertains to all cognitive inputs directly or indirectly connected with a job. These inputs act as a background to skill functions to enable a job to be done more effectively. Skill Concentrates on the methodology of doing a particular activity manually or through the use of motor functions coordinated with other senses. Attitude Deals with the psychology desired of staff. Each person comes with his own values and ideas, which may not be conducive to organizational efficiency. Changing the thinking is as important as knowledge and skill. At the end of some the lessons the appropriate Training Methodology and Training Aids that should be employed have been mentioned as a guide to “trainers”
Preface Introduction Training Methodologies and Aids
Part I The Waiter
Knowledge Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Restaurant Basic Etiquette for Restaurant Staff Knowledge of Other Departments The Menu Grooming Service Equipment Linen Furniture Chinaware Glassware Tableware Briefing Preparation for Service Safety Sanitation and Hygiene Food Service Breakfast The Cover Beverage Service Taking an Order 13 15 16 19 20 21
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
26 27 31 32 33 36 38 39 41
Lesson 16 Preparing a check and Receiving Payment 44
Counsel 1 Counsel Counsel Counsel Counsel Counsel Counsel 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ability to Overcome Resistance to do Manual or Menial Work Willingness to serve Capacity to Take Orders from Seniors Cheerful Attitude Towards Work and People Cordial Relations with All-Interaction Pride in Work Tact and Initiative 47 48 49 50 51 52 53
Counsel Counsel Counsel Counsel
8 As Representative of the Organization 9 Honesty 10 Courtesy 11 Negative Attitudes
54 55 56 58
Part II The Restaurant Supervisor
Knowledge Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Alcoholic Beverages Wines Whisky Brandy Gin Rum Vodka Tequila Sake Beer Beer Production Non-Alcoholic Beverages Stimulating Refreshing Nourishing Food Preparation Stocks Sauces Soups Soup Garnishes Cheeses Hard Cheeses Semi-hard Cheeses Soft or Cream Cheeses Blue Cheeses Tobacco Varieties of Tobacco Cigars Menu 62 63 68 74 76 78 80 82 83 84 88
Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 15
89 91 93 95
Lesson 16 Lesson 17
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Sales Orientation Discipline Cost Reducing Methods Briefing Training Your Team Tip Distribution Staff Scheduling Performance Appraisal Assignment of Duties 104 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113
Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson
27 28 29 30 31
Lesson 32 Lesson 33
Attendance Check Point for Supervisor After Closing Carving Banquets Banquets Menu Flaming Special Food Service
114 115 116 117 118 123 124
Counsel 1 Counsel 2 Leadership Motivation 127 128 131 138
Appendices I Glossary.French to English II Glossary.Technical Terms
This eventually led to great competition between different cities and resulted in frenzied hotel building activity. Individual entrepreneurs found themselves crushed in the race of this mult-dimensional. These conditions prevailed for several hundred years. unkempt or is not in a position to pay for the services. They also provided modest wholesome food. This was the first building specifically erected for hotel purposes. Some of the finest hotels of USA were built in this era. technology and marketing thrust that individual owners could not provide. port. Individual owners thus merged themselves to large
. It was felt that the industry would never recover. but the real boom in hotel building came in the twenties. The development of railways and steamships made traveling more prominent. disorderly. The earliest inns were ventures by husband and wife teams who provided large halls for travelers to make their own beds and sleep on the floor. big profits and trained professionals to manage the business. international chain operation spread into all continents. multinational industry.M. the right to refuse if the traveler is drunk. and stabling facilities. (b) International chain operation. The advent of the industrial Revolution in England brought ideas and progress in the business of inn keeping. The Industrial Revoluation also changed travel from social or government travel to business travel. The entire cooking. The first inns go back to the sixth century B. The lead in hotel keeping was taken by the emerging nations of Europe. The real growth of the modern hotel industry took place in the USA beginning with the opining of the City Hotel in New York in 1794.C. but the outbreak of World War II brought a tremendous upsurge. This prosperity continued through the war years into the fifties when two new concepts emerged: (a) Motels. While the growth of motels was restricted to the North American continent. service and recreation was provided by the husband and wife team and his family. It involved big investments. There was a need for quick and clean service. especially Switzerland. International chains could provide the expertise. provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in a fit condition to be received.Introduction
“Hotel” or “Inn” is defined by British law as “a place where a bonafide traveler can receive food and shelter. This period also saw the beginning of chain operations under the guidance of E. Origin The hotel industry is perhaps one of the oldest commercial endeavours in the world. Statler. and were the products of the urge to travel. The depression in 1930 had a disastrous effect on the hotel industry. in turn. thirst quenchers like wine. It was in Europe that the birth of an organized hotels industry took place in the shape of chalets and small hotels which provided a variety of service and were mainly patronized by the aristocracy the day. ale.” Hence. Entertainment and recreation were provided by the host’s wife or his wench. a hotel must provide food (and beverage) and lodging to travelers. spurred by the invention of the ‘wheel’. on payment and has. etc.
Holiday Inn. etc. Hyatt. (d) Marketing ــــ active selling. systems. Ramada Inn. Hiltons. (c) Management ـــexpertise in management. reservation tie-up.
Today’s hotel caters to all the needs and wishes of a guest and we hope the future holds a promise for a further mushrooming of modern hotels. on the basis of management fees and share of profits as “incentive” payment. and etc. chain benefits. These international chains provided the following services to individual owners: (a) Partnership ـــ sharing equity profits. manuals. (b) Franchise ـــproviding “Name” and “Association”. etc.
.international chains such as Sheratons. on payment for marketing fees and “incentive” payment. technicians. marketing services in exchange for franchise and marketing fees. professional managers.
. Demonstration Used for skill training where a trainer actually does a skill activity while trainees watch. METHODOLOGIES Lecture Ideas expressed orally.Training Methodologies and Aids
Training methodology is the way in which knowledge. which is solved in a classroom only. what they are taught in a lecture or demonstration. It is a one-way communication from trainer to trainee. Here trainees approach a situation in a class by actually enacting the role of the principal characters in the situation. Practice A chance for trainees to do. Counseling Used for attitude training. Tours Guided physical movement into work areas. Trainees get a chance to see and feel. A personal meeting when a trainee is made to see the benefits of a correct attitude. Role-play A simulated experience of actual situations. On-job The best form of training where the trainees come into groups with actual experience. whereas training aids are the implements used during the methodology. Here are explanations of methodologies and aids suggested in this manual. skills and attitudes are imparted to trainees. Case-study A theoretical experience of actual situations. A case is a written explanation of a true situation. under simulated conditions.
Samples (Exhibits) Self-explanatory. which facilitates the charts to be flapped over. Overhead projector A modern concept. which flashes each slide according to the sequence. which is unique. It requires chalk and a blackboard duster. and are brought for trainees to actually feel and see. Flip charts Charts. which are sequenced according to the progression of lecture. The trainer writes on a transparent sheet and the matter is projected onto a screen. A few of the actual items.
. This tray is inserted into a projector. The round variety is called a “carousal”.AIDS Blackboard For classroom lectures. The trainer controls the change of slides from one to another. which are being lectured on. which combines the benefits of a blackboard with a projector. Movement of slide trays may be linear or round. Epidiascope A projector. The charts are hung in this sequence on a stand. Note: The best aid in any lecture is the sample of the actual being described. Slide projector One in which slides are inserted into a slide tray according to a particular sequence. It can project any written material on an opaque sheet or flat surface.
Attend briefing before a restaurant service 2. is the waiter. This manual deals with the training of the food and beverage service personnel. TRAINING AID Submit the job description of a waiter of your establishment. good etiquette and manners. In common hotel terminology the services offered in restaurants and bars are referred to as “food and beverage service”. Clear silverware and glassware 6. etc. Take food orders and serve 10. e. Ensure cost control 13. Ensure hygiene and sanitation 15. Serve wine and champagne 11. two major revenue producing areas. cutlery. Mise-en-scene 3. a willingness to serve. Safety
Typical Job Description of a Waiter
This manual attempts to teach a waiter how to do his job well. and above all. flowers. The latter offer food and beverages for sale. Mise-en-place 4. a thorough knowledge of his job. around whom food and beverage service pivots. 1. The subsequent lessons elucidate the knowledge. Requisition restaurant items for service. Receive and seat guests 8. 5. Prepare each table for service 7. linen.rooms and restaurants (and bars). Salesmanship 14.
. skill and attitudes that a waiter should possess to execute his job. skills and attitudes. a pleasing personality. For this he requires correct knowledge. Present a check (or bill) and receive payment 12. effective communication. A good waiter should possess qualities like social confidence.The Waiter
Every hotel. salesmanship. irrespective of size or volume of business. The most important person.g. glassware. Who is a Waiter? A waiter is one who serves food and beverage in a restaurant in a restaurant or bar. He is also popularly known as a Steward or Commis-de-Rang. Take beverage orders and serve 9.
by its décor. Grill Room Various meat cuts are grilled or roasted here. Japanese. a grillroom has a glass partition between the restaurant and the kitchen. Snack Bar/Café/Milk Bar Here the restaurant is informal and the service quick.Knowledge
Lesson 1 The Restaurant
restaurant is a commercial establishment committed to the sale of food and beverage. Basically. Coffee Shop A concept borrowed form the United States. the quality of service. restaurants provide tables and chairs for people to sit and eat food prepared by an attached kitchen. There are different types of restaurants. Thus restaurants. Continental Restaurant The atmosphere is more sophisticated and caters for people who can eat at leisure. so that the guest can choose his meat cut and see the actual preparation. The accent is on good continental food and elaborate service. Specialty Restaurant The entire atmosphere and décor are geared to a particular type of food or theme. independent bar. ice cream. motels or inns who find it uneconomical to have more than one eating-place. the décor is relatively inexpensive. cutlery and linen. Food is pre-plated and the atmosphere informal. soda fountain specialties. Table cover layouts are less elaborate and have basic essentials only. Indian and Polynesian cuisine would be termed “specialty restaurant”. etc. Restaurants may also be independent business entities under individual ownership and management. Normally. distinguished by its quick service. whereby the sales of the restaurant contribute to the sales performance of the hotel as a whole. which are determined. They are equipped with crockery. which offer Chinese. Dining Room Found in smaller hotels.
. The dining room is basically meant for the residents of the hotel but may be open to non-residents also. entertainment facilities and above all. The service is based more or less on the style of the country from which the particular cuisine originates. The snack bar may have a counter for self-service and specializes in snacks. A restaurant may be a licensed part of a Hotel operation.
2). Night Club It is principally open at night for dinner.Discotheque A restaurant. 2. table d’hote. What the waiter needs to know is the type of restaurant he will work in and facilities and services that it provides. 4. Flip chart of organizational hierarchy (Fig. Flip chart of floor plan of your restaurant 2. Most establishments insist on formal wear so as to enhance the atmosphere. A dispensing bar is always provided. A live band may also perform. 6. Décor is lavish while service is elaborate. Floor plan of the restaurant (Fig. Facilities offered in the restaurant such as entertainment. TRAINING AIDS 1.1 gives a typical floor plan).
Restaurant Manager Hostess/ Receptionist
Maitre D’hotel Chef De Rang Sommelier (Wine-Butler) Trancheur (the carver)
Supervisor Head Waiter
Senior Captain Captain Steward
Asst. TRAINING METHODOLOGY The above is board information on the types of restaurants. The type of restaurant that he will work in. Thus. tourists. An essential part of a discotheque is a bar while the food offered consists mainly of snacks. students and socialites.steward (Busboy)
Commis De Rang
Commis De Barasseur
Asst.2 Organization Hierarchy of a Restaurant
. liquor service. A live band is important to the set-up. etc. buffet. which is principally meant for dancing to. explain the following to your waiter: 1.2). dance and cabarets. credit. Type of clientele patronizing the restaurant: business. type of menu such as a la carte. The organizational hierarchy the restaurant (seeFig. Capacity of the restaurant in terms of the number of seats and tables.Waiter
Fig. 5. 3. recorded music. Follow up with an induction tour of the restaurant.
14. Remove tips after the guest has left. 6. 17. 7. All front line personnel are required to have an ability to communicate effectively coupled with certain manners and the etiquette associated with genteelness. which requires remembering them. etc. Remember a guest’s special dish and remind him that you know it. 2. 3. The etiquette that a waiter exhibits in a restaurant should comprise the following: 1. 16. 8. 18. Talk softly. do not interrupt him if he is speaking to another guest. Present the bill/check to the host discreetly in order to avoid embarrassing him. 15. 12. Carry pencils in the pockets and not behind ears or clipped in front of the jacket. A gentle bow at the time of service is permissible. Ascertain whether he would like to order it again. Be polite to guests.
TRAINING MYTHOLOGY The trainer should observe etiquette during actual service and point out any lapses at the end of the service. Avoid arguing with service staff and guest in the restaurant. Assist guests to remove warm. When speaking to guest. 20. Preferably address them by their name. Provide extra cushions or special chairs for children. diplomacy and sociability. Strike a match to enable a guest to light his cigarette. 21. 9. Be attentive to guest calls. Do not overhear conversation. Avoid mannerisms such as touching hair or nose picking. 19. heavy coats in winter and help put them on when they leave. Help to seat ladies. 5. 11.Lesson
Basic Etiquette for Restaurant Staff
The hotel and restaurant business is an admixture of showmanship. 22. Attend to guests as soon as they enter the restaurant. Wish guests the time of the day and welcome them to the restaurant. Desist from chewing gum or beetle nut. Enter and leave the restaurant through the service door only. 13. 4. TRAINING AID Rules and regulations booklet of the hotel/restaurant
. Stand erect at all times. Avoid soliciting for tips. 10.
Kitchen Stewarding Or Wish-up Area This department primarily controls the storage and issue of cutlery. and pates are made. muffins. etc. Bakery and Confectionery: The section. The department is also responsible for washing soiled service ware and subsequently furnishing clean items. smaller kitchens may have different functions done by a single person. crockery. bread-rolls. the still may brew tea continuously.
The kitchen is the place where food is prepared. brioches. Though most departments mentioned below are applicable to a hotel. The same applies to coffee service where ground coffee is brewed and instant coffee is placed in coffee pots to which water is added. A still is a chamber in which water is continuously boiling. pastries. cold meat platters. at low temperatures. cakes. Hot Range: The main cooking range where all hot dishes are prepared. Bar Housekeeping The bar dispenses wines. individual restaurants may also find some useful tips. croissants. The waiter would have to get his supplies of the above items from this department. Vegetable Preparation: Here all raw vegetables are cut into smaller presentable portions. liquor. A waiter must be fully aware of the role of each cocoordinating department. galantines. aerated waters. chops.Lesson
Knowledge of other Departments
A restaurant depends largely on certain departments effective functioning. Garde Manger: The section where cold dishes such as hors d’oeuvres. fish. chinaware and glassware to the restaurant and kitchens. The main sections in a large kitchen are: Butcher Shop: Here raw meats are cut from wholesale cuts and carcasses into smaller portions of given weight so that they are ready to be cooked. Grill: For all grilled items like steaks. The sanitation and hygiene of the kitchen usually comes under the purview of the kitchen stewarding department.
. spirits. salads. cookies. which prepares breads. cigars and cigarettes. While larger kitchens may have distinctly different sections to deal with various aspects of food preparation. hollowware. For tea service a waiter may fill the teapot with tea leaves according to portions required and fill the pot with boiling water from the still. juices. Still Room: Tea and coffee are brewed here. Smooth coordination is important. For a quick turnover of tea.
bottle-openers or any other-supplies. A popular system adopted in most hotels is that the requisitioning department originates a store requisition. Housekeeping and Stores are explained thoroughly.controls/accounts 2nd copy.3A. It is important that the procedure of requisitioning items Kitchen Stewarding. Present flip charts of the organizational hierarchy of each coordinating department. unit price. This is the central point where all checks or bills of hotel residents are collected and then recorded in their overall bill. and description of item.
Executive Kitchen Steward Kitchen Steward
Fig. The front office keeps a record of all guests residing in the hotel. pencils. The source from which a waiter can get supplies of proprietary sauces.retained by originating requisitioning department. which records the following information: unit. maintenance and the aesthetic standards of a hotel. TRAINING AIDS (1) Flip chart with organization hierarchy of each department (2) Flip chart with process flow of coordinating activity. Store Requisition Usually three copies made: 1st Copy.stores.
.The housekeeping department is responsible for the cleanliness. If a resident wishes to sign his bill. 3B. quantity. mechanical and electrical functioning of any service equipment in the restaurant. A waiter should know that the housekeeping department is the source for staff uniforms.
TRAINING METHODOLOGY Explain the role of these departments in your establishment. In addition take the waiter on an induction tour. lighting. Large hotels would have separate General stores. the waiter may contact this department for confirmation of the guest’s name and room number. Food stores. order-pads. restaurant linen and flowers. 3C and 3D. Engineering Front Office This department is responsible for the supply of air-conditioning or heating. Typical organization charts are given in Figs. Cashier (from the Accounts department) The cashier receives all cash and credit payments made for food and beverage sales in a restaurant or bar.3A Organization chart of Kitchen Stewarding. Beverage stores and Perishable stores.retained by stores for record 3rd copy.
Public Area Supervisor
Uniform Room Attds
Linen Room Attds Tailors
Fig.3B Organization Chart of Housekeeping
Front Office Manager Secretary Front Office Supervisor Telex Operator
Fig.3C Organization Chart of Front office
Coffee may be served after it. The classical French menu consists of eleven courses. When the menu is represented on a card. A restaurant may offer two table d’hote menus a guest have a choice of a meal. which they are priced:
A la Carte Table d’hote
Menu in which each food item is separately priced in order to give the guest a choice to suit his taste and budget. shrimp cocktail Crème of tomato soup. The number of courses are restricted in modern times to an appetizer. crepe suzette. smoked salmon. Sole de Bonne Noisette d’Agneau. Cheese and crackers Fruit and nuts
TRAINING METHODOLOGY Distribute copies of the menu card of your restaurant to waiters and explain the following:
. soup. A course is a food item eaten at a particular time and sequence during a complete meal. In a restaurant there are tow different types of menus. main dish and sweet dish. Menu in which the entire meal is priced and charged. which should not only be attractive but informative and gastronomically sound as this reflects the quality of the restaurant. vichyssoise Fish a l’anglaise.Lesson
A menu represents the range of food and beverage items offered in a restaurant. Sometimes there are choices of individual courses within a completely priced meal. caviar. Jambon Pepper steak. The choices offered in various courses are many. irrespective of whether the guest has the complete meal or not. ox knuckies Tomato farcis Baba au rhum. French Hors d’oeuvres Potage Poisson Femme Entrée Releve Sorbet offered at this stage) Roti Legumes Entremets choux chantilly Savoureux Dessert English Appetizers Soup Fish First meat dish Main meat dish Flavoured ice Roast of game birds Or joints Vegetables Sweet dish Savoury Dessert Examples Oysters. consommés. it is referred to as the menu Card. Great pains are taken in compiling the menu card. Chateaubriand Sorbet vanilla (cigars may be Roast turkey.
4. 5. Their ideas should be checked with the points given above. Excessive jewellery should be avoided. Bad breath could be nauseating to a guest since the waiter speaks to the guest at close proximity. 2. sanitation. 5. Briefly how each food item is prepared and how it finally looks when presented to the guest. professionalism and the style of management of his establishment. Here are some tips for a waiter: 1. 3. 3. 6. The price of various items mentioned in the menu. and of a conservative style. High heels could be hazardous during service. he projects the standards of the establishment. 4. 4. Shoes should always be polished. This is important especially since the waiter serves the guest with his hands and is under constant surveillance. A fresh light cologne would be preferable. A tight or oversized uniform gives a sloppy appearance. Stockings should be clean. Nails should be well manicured and hands absolutely clean. 2. Light make-up to project a professional working lady’s image is preferred. 3. Flat shoes with sturdy heels are advisable. 2. 7. 6. The apron and hairband should always be clean. Since he is in direct contact with the guest of the restaurant. A very strong perfume could nauseate a guest. The garnish and accompaniments of each dish. TRAINING METHODOLOGY Solicit the trainee's ideas on the qualities of a good waiter and list on the blackboard or overhead projector.
For Waitresses 1. A well-groomed waiter represents qualities such as hygiene.
. A close shave is necessary before entering the restaurant.1. Stubbles of beard or moustache could be look uncomely. The various food and beverage items on your menu card. TRAINING AIDS Copies of the menu card of your restaurant. Guard against body odours or the smell of cheap perfumes.
Grooming is one of the most important features of a waiter. Hair should be cut close. Follow up learning on subsequent days by pointing out lapses in grooming. The uniform should be spotless and well ironed.
Chinaware can be found in different colours and designs. Storage 9. Standardization For multipurpose use. Buffet cloths: 6’x12” ــــ
2. most equipment is standardized in terms of size and sometimes colour.
Linen 1. Flexibility of use 10.
Examples of Chinaware with Standard Sizes:
. Type of clientele 5. Serviettes/Napkins: 18”x18”
Food and beverage service equipment may be divided into chinaware. which are always coated with glaze. Patterns on top of the glaze ware and discolour very quickly. Availability after stocks run out 8. Slip cloth: 36”x36” 3.Lesson
Service equipment (which includes furniture. glassware and tableware. Chinaware is more resistant to heat than glassware. Durability of equipment 6. Several factors are considered when they are chosen: 1. soda ash and china clay. which are further subdivided into flatware. glazed to give a fine finish. Chinaware It is made of silica. cutlery and holloware. Standard of the restaurant 2. It should be opaque and free from air-bubbles. Ease of maintenance 7. Décor and theme of the restaurant 4. fixtures and linen for all purposes) squarely reflects the standard and style of the restaurant. Price factors 11. Types of service 3. 54” Tablecloths: To fit 2’6” square table 54 ”ــــx To fit 3’ square table 72 ”ـــx72” To fit rectangular table 72 ”ــــx96” To fit rectangular table 72 ”ــــx54” To cover a stained table cloth ـــ Square ــــ 20 ”ــــx20” 4.
Vitrified chinaware is stronger. Should be stacked carefully so that it does not topple over. Glasses should be stored inverted in single rows. Lead is added to make the glass crystal clear. These racks are plastic or rubber lined. Glasses with a stem must be inverted and held by the stem. Glassware The raw materials used are silica and soda ash. 3. 6. ounces or centiliters. Racks with individual compartments for each glass is a better method for storage (as they can be stacked) and transported. 5.Side plate Sweet plate Fish plate Soup plate Joint plate Cereal/Salad palate Coffee cup Tea cup Coffee Demi-Tasse Tea pot Other Chinaware Milk Jugs Cream Jugs Coffee pots Sugar pots Butter dishes Ashtrays Eggcups Soup cups Platters
6.75” diameter 7”and 8. Should be kept covered to avoid dust and germs. Volume 3. 4. with a paper on the shelf to avoid slippage. 1.
Some Tips on Glassware
. where they may be coloured. Restaurant glassware is usually plain except in specialty restaurants. 3.1\3 oz. 2 pint
Some Tips on Chinaware 1. glasses must be transported on trays with a tray cloth to avoid slippage. Should be stored at a convenient height to avoid accidents.2\3 oz. 2. When purchasing glassware it should be ensured that it is completely transparent.5” diameter 8” diameter 8. 5. Volume 6. 4. etc.75” diameter 10” diameter 5” diameter 8-10 oz. i. 1. It has a high breakage rate and therefore needs careful handling.1\2 pint. 2. free of air bubbles and not chipped. Service glasses must be cleaned and held against a light before use for traces of smudges. Volume 1\2 pint. 1 pint. In a restaurant.e. Glasses are measured in terms of capacity. Should be stored on shelves.
TRAINING AIDS 1. 2. 5. Show these samples when taking about them. oeufon cocotte (I) Service spoons &forks : For service (j) Steak knife : Steaks (k) Grapefruit knife : Grapefruit (l) Egg spoon : Eggs (m) Cheese knife : Cheese
Hollowware (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) Soup tureens Individual soup bowls Trays Oval flat with lids Oval or round vegetable dishes with lids Oval or round under dish for vegetables Soufflé cases Oval or round entrée dishes Oval or round dishes for entrée Round flats with covers Asparagus dish Water jug Muffin dish Cocktail juice container
Sliver for serving Drinks:
. 3.TRAINING METHODOLOGY Keep ready samples of furniture. Flip charts with items not available in the establishment. glassware and tableware. linen. 4. of all types of chinaware. Stem glasses to demonstrate how they are carried. chinaware.
Table service consists of the following items. Standard restaurant chair Standard restaurant tables of different shapes and sizes. and when to use them: (a) Soup spoon : Soup served in plates (b) Fish knives and forks : Fish/ Hors d’oeuvers (c) Large knives and forks : Entrée/ Main course (d) Dessert spoons& forks : All sweet served in plates/Oeuf Sur le plat (e) Dessert spoons : Soup served in cups/ cereals (f) Small fruit knives & forks: Fresh fruits (g) Coffee spoons : Coffee (h) Teaspoons : Tea/ fruit cocktails/ice-cream served as" Coupes”/grapefruit. One samples each. glassware and tableware.
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Still room Silver: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
Salver for serving Salver for clearing Ice tongs Ice buckets Champagne bucket with stand Coffee pots Hot milk jug (creamer) Tea pots Hot water jugs Cream jugs (creamer) Toast racks
Special Tableware (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u) (v) (w) (x) Chinaware Plates (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Sugar tongs Asparagus tongs Oyster forks Finger bowls Set of cruets Ice-cream spoons Sauce ladles Soup ladles Butter dishes Snail tong Snail fork Fondue fork Caviar knife Sundae spoon Ice-cream spoon Pastry fork cum knife Corn on cop holder Lobster pick Butter knife Grapefruit spoon Cheese knife Nut cracker Gateaux slice Steak knife
(a) Soup plate-8 ¾” Entrée plate-9 ¾ ” Hors d’oeuvre/fish/entrée courses/soups under plate Meat or fish plate-10” main course Sweet plate-often the 8 ½” plate is used. Dessert or fruit plate-7 ¼ ” Side plate-6 ¾ ” Tea saucer-6”
Fruit nappy (a) (b) (c) (d) Soup plate-7 ½ oz Tea cups-6 ½ ” Coffee cups-8-10 oz Egg cups-3” (f) Demi tasse cup-3 ½ oz (g) French onion soup bowl Ashtrays Bread boats Flower vases Fruit stands Tea strainers Candles stands Wine cradles Wine funnels Drip bowl Sundae coups Cheese dish Oil. bowl-up diagram on a flip chart and show.
. vinegar bottle Oval au gratin Cocotte dish Jam pot Toothpick stand Chaffing dishes Straw stand Burner for dishes Copper pans Irish coffee burners Shaker Stirring spoon and bowl Punch bowl and ladle Supreme bowl
Special Food Service Equipment (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u) (v) (w) (x) (y)
TRAINING METHODOLOGY Get one sample of each so that trainees can see and feel for themselves. TRAINING AIDS Sample each of all items mentioned above. For items not available.
There are certain points that each waiter should keep in mind before presenting himself for briefing. checks on certain aspects of service and receives suggestion or problems of the staff. TRINING METHDOLOGY The trainer must reinforce the above points when the waiters actually go into service.
The waiter should: 1. 3. while de-briefing is done when the restaurant closes. bottle-openers. clean waiter clothes. The Restaurant In-charge would normally check whether the waiter has satisfied the above points but in addition would explain new house rules or policies to his staff and encourage an upward communication from the staff in terms of suggestions and problems. In theses sessions the seniormost member of the restaurant gives his instructions. Be fully conversant with the menu card and the beverage list of the day. The waiter should be prepared to clarify doubts or give suggestions and ask questions. 4. Know the dujour soup and main dish in order to push it to the customers. Be equipped with clean handkerchiefs. This is an opportunity to give the staff some training inputs. 2.Lesson
Briefing is a meeting of the restaurant staff prior to the opening of the restaurant. match box and pen. Acquaint himself with the non-available food and beverage items listed on the menu by asking the Chef or referring to the ‘non-available items’ board.
each with a team of waiters. For the waiter. In large restaurants each station may be headed by a Captain or Chef-de-rang. which are attended by a given team of waiter. the restaurant should be made presentable enough to accept guests. 7. spacious enough to hold all linen. Table cloths and mats are laid on the tables 9.Lesson
Preparation for Service
Mise-en-scene refers to preparing the environment of the area in order to make it pleasant. crockery. comfortable. and etc. safe and hygienic. cutlery. Wilted flowers are discarded and fresh flowers requisitioned Mise-en-place means “putting in place” and is the term attributed to the preparation of a work place for ultimate smooth service. The smooth functioning of service in the given covers will depend on how thoroughly the sideboard has been prepared. Thus a restaurant may have several stations. To ensure that the restaurant is ready for service the waiter makes sure that his station has been efficiently prepared for service. Carpets are well brushed or hovered 2. Exchange dirty linen for fresh linen 8. Menu cards are presentable and attractive 5. The Supervisor or team of waiters should ensure the following mise-enscene: 1.
Sideboard A sideboard (or dummy waiter) is a piece of furniture with shelves and cupboards. Before a restaurant opens the sideboard must be equipped with the following items:
. Table lights or wall lights have functioning bulbs 4. A station comprises of a given number of tables. All tables and chairs are serviceable 3. Before each service session. Doors and windows are thrown open for sometime to air the restaurant. This should be followed by closing the windows and doors and setting the airconditioning or heating to a comfortable temperature.for service to a particular number of coves. Tent cards or other sales material are presentable 6. the restaurant is the service area.
13. Service spoons and forks. crackers. 16. 7.
. Ashtrays-cleaned and polished. 26. See that the wheels of the trolley move freely and are well oiled. Adequate numbers of cutlery used on the table (normally two and a half times the number required for one sitting in the station). All-important proprietory sauces. 21. Keep a sufficient number of dessert plates to serve the items to the guests. 18. 23. 24. 20. celery and watercress should be present. 2. Trays covered with a napkin for service. 6. Cheese Trolley Display different types of cheese on a wooden board with an attractive knife to cut the cheese. Cold water in jugs with under plates and napkins to cover 2. A crumbing plate. Under plates. 14. etc. Fresh mustard filled in appropriate pots. Tabasco sauces. Sugar dredger. Toothpicks in toothpick holders 4. 10. Paper napkins and doyley papers. such as Worcestershire sauces. Pickles and chutneys. Salvers. Keep adequate numbers of service spoons. 17. 3. waiter clothes. tomato ketchup. 5. Hot plates and order taking pads. Maggi sauce. JP/HP sauces (The waiter should ensure that the necks of the bottles are cleaned).1. Water goblets (bar glasses in case bar service is extended by the restaurant). 22.for both brown and white sugar with teaspoons for each. Half plates. 4. napkins and underliners. Finger bowls. 5. Hors d’oeuvres Trolley Before the restaurant opens the waiter should: 1. Set the containers in such a way that they look colourful and attractive. 25. Clean the trolley thoroughly first with a wet cloth (if not made of wood) and then with a dray cloth.) 19. Bread-boats or baskets with assortment of rolls and sticks. Butter dishes. 15. 9. 12. Straw holders. 8. Accompaniments such as brown bread. quarter plates and large plates and saucers. Spare restaurant linen of all types (napkins tablecloths. Cloth napkins are folded and kept ready for service. forks. Pots for preserves are filled and kept ready. Sugar bowls. Cruet sets cleaned and filled with salt and pepper. 11. All usable silverware to be used in service to be polished. 3.
required very frequently. Wine list 6. etc. Hearts of lettuce leaves are kept in a glass jar containing water for preparing green tossed salad. Service spoons and fork 9. Cocktail glass (frappe) 4. It should be equipped with the following items: 1. which might be. Waiter-cloth 3. to mix the salad. Flambé items are also prepared on this trolley. Pink and Sparkling 7. e. Pepper mill 6. Salt and pepper 16. liqueurs for crepe suzettes. French and English mustard 12. e. Gas cylinder (filled) 18. Wine opener (corkscrew) 2. Brandy inhaler 3. Red.g. Crushed ice 5. Wooden board 13. Waiters-cloth
.g. Butter 15. Any other items. Oil 4.Salad Trolley
The waiter must ensure that the salad bowls are set in an attractive way on the trolley. Peg measures 7. The white and sparking wines should be together to identify them easily . Vinegar 7. Flambé copper pans 11. Carving knife and fork 14. Proprietory sauces 2. Matches and ashtrays 10.(grain and cubs) 17. The trolley must be equipped with the following items: 1. Straws 6. White wine 3. Cordial glass 2. are kept ready. Various types of dressings should be arranged in sauce boats on underliners with individual spoons. Half plates to present the cork of the wine bottle 4. Sugar. Different types of wine. The red and rose wines should be placed on one side 8.
This trolley is used to cook food or to complete semi-processed food in the restaurant itself. Napkins 8. White. Wooden bowls with wooden spoons and fork. The wine trolley must be equipped with the following items: 1. Battery and switch for light 5. Brandy 5.
Hors d’oevres trolley ــــ Salad trolley ــــ Cheese trolley ـــــ Gueridon trolley ـــــ Wine trolley ـــــ Liqueur trolley ـــــ Pastry trolley ــــــ with hors d’oevres with salads with cheese with burners/ cylinders with wines with liqueurs with pastries
All the above equipment must have all items that go into them for effective demonstration. Pastry Trolley The pastry trolley must be equipped with: 1. Dessert plates 2. 2. Gateaux slice. Pastry tong 5. Pastry forks 4. then make trainees set-up the same with the trainer reinforcing with suggestions from time to time. 4. TRAINING AIDS Sideboard 1. Cordials. 6. Round tray for keeping pastries 6. 3.
. Assorted pastries 7. 7. 5. Assorted cake slices 8. Paper napkins or folded serviettes 3. Different liqueurs-(eight to ten would be a good choice for a highly rated restaurant) 9.8.
TRAINING METHDOLOGY Actually show the sideboards and various trolleys and demonstrate how they are setup.
The waiter should: 1. 3. He will not be sympathetic to a mistake. Push trolleys.LESSON
Waiter may not realize that he is exposed to a number of hazards that jeopardize not only him but his job as well. The guest will only view it as clumsy and unprofessional.
. A waiter should always be cautious of the possibility of another waiter on the other side. 9. Ensure that shoelaces are well tied otherwise loose laces could result in tripping. Normally the service entrance is a swing door. 8. care must be taken to look through it before using the door. 6. 7. Do not run in the restaurant as it could bustle another waiter. Accidents in the restaurant could tarnish the good image of the establishment.
TRAINING METHODOLOGY Solicit ideas from trainees as to where hazards exist in a restaurant. Carry equipment on trays only as much as the body can take. 5. never pull them. Look out for uneven carpet layout as a winter could trip. in case the door has a window . Report faulty equipment to the proper authority. 2. Discard chipped glassware and chinaware. otherwise it could malfunction at a crucial time. Be careful while lighting a match as it can lead to a fire. 4.
Wipe glasses with a clean waiter cloth and hold up the glasses against a light to detect any stains and thumb impressions. In order to ensure a good image the waiter must keep the following points in mind: 1. 2. Remove soiled dishes and leftover food from the table immediately. Food items and crumbs that fall on the table must be crumbed or wiped out with a napkin on a side plate. Keep sideboards.
Sanitation and Hygiene
anitation and hygiene are predominant criteria for a guest's choice of a restaurant. 6. Clean cutlery in fresh water and dry them before use. TRAINING AID Blackboard. Enforce learning by reinforcing the above points when they are in actual service. Bar mirrors as well as plate glasses should be free of stains. A guest is a particular about hygienic food and the cleanliness of the environment. chalk and duster or overhead projector. 5. 4.
. Keep all sauce bottles are wiped closed.List their ideas on a blackboard and checklist the points given above against their ideas. 3. tables and other surroundings clean and meticulous as a guest is very observant. When in use ensure that the mouth of the bottles are wiped clean before presenting them to a guest.
All beverages are served from the right. The host either portions the food into the guest plates directly or portions the food and allows the waiter to serve
here are some basic principles in food and beverage service that a waiter must know: When food is served by the waiter at the table from a platter onto a guest plate. Never reach across a customer. Food is brought on platters by the waiter and is shown to the host for approval.
TYPES OF SERVICE English Service Often referred to as the "Host Service" because the host plays an active role in the service. Hence. The waiter then places the platters on the table. all items and equipment on the right of the guest must be placed from the right and that on the left from the left. Empty crockery and fresh cutlery are always served from the right. though modern convention permits service from the left also. the service is done from the left. When food is pre-plated the service to the guest is usually done from the right. Soiled plates should always be cleared from the table from the right. when a guest is present at the table. Ladies are always served first and the remaining guests clockwise. Soups are served from the right unless it is poured by a waiter from a large tureen into a soup cup in which case it is done from the left of the guest.
The guest may have to buy coupons in advance. The pantry has to just switch on the floor and give instant service. All food is presented in silver dishes with elaborate dressing. Decentralized : Each floor or a set of floor may have separate pantries to service them. The food is served pre-plated and the cutlery is handed directly to the guest. The guest places his order with the room service order taker. colleges.. Tall stools are placed along a counter so that the guest may eat the food at the counter it self. Sometimes high tables are provided where guests can stand and eat. the menu is fixed and displayed on large boards. Plates are placed before the guest. and hospital or hotel cafeterias. the covers are layed out on the counter itself. In the meanwhile he prepares his tray or trolley. In better establishments.the portion is predetermined by the kitchen and the accompaniments served with the dish balance the entire presentation in terms of nutrition and color.
Grill Room Service
.for replenishment of guest food the waiter may then take the dishes around for guests to help themselves or be served by the waiter.
The American service is pre-plated service which means that the food is served into the guest's plate in the kitchen itself and brought to the guest . The plates are kept near the dish and the guests help themselves The table is set for hors d'oeuvres. or is listed on a menu card or common black board. Sometimes food is displayed behind the counter and the guest may indicate their choice to the counter attendant. which are placed at the sideboard with burners or hot plates to keep the food warm in the restaurant. However. soup. Usually clearance of soiled dishes from the room is done after half an hour or an hour. main courses and sweet dish in sterling silverware. Food is either displayed behind the counter for the guests to choose from. The food is portioned into silver platters at the kitchen itself. The waiter receives the order and transmits the same to the kitchen. This type of service is commonly used in a coffee shop where services are required to be fast. This service exists normally in industrial canteens. There are two types of Room Service: Centralized : Here all the food orders are processed from the main kitchen and sent to the rooms by a common team of waiters. To facilitate quick service. He serves each guest using a services spoon and fork. The waiter then picks the platter from the hot plate and presents the dish to the host for approval. Food is brought from the kitchen in dishes and salvers. Orders are taken at a central point by order-takers who in turn convey it to the mobile pantry. French Service It is very personalized service. present them to the counter waiter who then serves the desired items. which are placed directly on the table. In this form of service various meats are grilled in front of the guest. He then goes to the cashier to have a cheque prepared to take a long with the food order for the guest's signature or payment. the guest can telephone Room Service for the clearance as and when he has finished with the meal. Guest may then sit at tables and chairs provided by the establishment.
carve. Buffet Service A self. when a complete meal is cooked at the table – side in the restaurant. the guest interests the necessary value of coins into the machine.service where food is displayed on tables. which have a shortage of manpower. tables are laid with crockery and cutlery as in a restaurant. Display and presentation are a major part of this service. flambé and prepare the food with showmanship. large hotels install mechanized dispensing units in rooms. For sit-down buffet service. poultry. The principle involved is to have all joints. presented to guests and carved and portioned by the waiter. this is a service where a dish comes partially prepared from the kitchen to be completed in the restaurant by the waiter or. A few courses like the appetizer and soup may be served at the table by the waiter. game and fish elaborately dressed and garnished.
. The waiter has to have considerable dexterity and skill. The guest takes his plate from a stack at the end of each table or requests the waiter behind the buffet table to serve him. Russian Service An elaborate silver service much on the lines of French service expects that the food portioned and carved by the waiter at the gueridon trolley in the restaurant in full view of the guests. The guest may serve himself at the buffet table and return to eat at the guest table laid out. The cooking is done on a gueridon trolley which is a mobile trolley with a gas cylinder and burners. The waiter plays a prominent part as he is required to fillet. in countries.For the sake of information. which will eject pre-prepared food and beverages for guest consumption.
. The Continental Breakfast originated in Europe. or marmalade and rounded off with tae or coffee. Better hotels may serve brioches and croissants. The English breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day. The Continental Breakfast and English breakfast.9). Café complete refers to Continental Breakfast with coffee (or tea) while Café simple refers to just coffee or tea with nothing to eat. The cover layout consists of (see fig. A traditional English Breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day. marmalade and honey pots Note: There are variations to the Continental Breakfast. (e) A bread boat or toast rack (f) Serviette.LESSON
here are basically two types of breakfast offered in hotels and restaurants. A traditional English Breakfast runs into six or seven courses. (g) Jam. It is a light meal as the Europeans normally have a heavy mid-day meal. Consists of bread rolls or toast with jam. (a) A side plate and a side knife (b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate (c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon (d) A sugar pot with tongs. honey.
glassware and tableware. tea or coffee. : Jam.
. croissant. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) A side plate and a side knife A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon A sugar pot (a tongs. bacon. scrambled. 10). choice of eggs. kidney. if there are sugar cubes) A cruet set A fish knife and a fish fork Dinner Knife and fork Jam. fried sole. chairs. : Prunes. Pears. cereals. marmalade. sautéed mushrooms. : Toast. : grilled tomatoes. fish course. omelets : Sausages. Tomato and Grapefruit. toast with jam. coffee. : Grilled herring. rolls. linen. Boiled. marmalade and honey Dessert spoon and fork Serviette : Orange. fried.English Breakfast
Is more elaborate and offers a choice of juices (or fresh or stewed fruits). hot chocolate. meat course. Pineapple. : Tea. TRAINING AIDS Tables. and finally. salami. bread sticks. brioche. breakfast steak. chinaware. fried potatoes
Typical English Chilled fruit juices Breakfast Menu Stewed fruit juices Cereals Fish Eggs Meat Breads Preserves Beverage Eggs can be served with
Layout covers of Continental and English Breakfast (as per Figs. Apples and Figs. honey. Cornflakes. baked beans. The cover consists of (see Fig. 9 and 10) and let trainees see and remember. : Porridge. : Poached. marmalade or honey. Then let them individual make out the covers as practice.
Cover is the space allotted on the table for cutlery, crockery, glassware and linen for
one person. Each cover requires 24"×18" of space. Requirements of a cover: 1. Each cover should be well balanced. 2. All cutlery and other table appointments should be placed at least "away from the edge of the table. 3. Knives and spoons should be placed towards the right of the plate and all forks on the left, except for the butter knife. 4. The cutting edge of the knives should always face the plate with the exception of the butter knife, the cutting edge of which is always away from the plate, the water tumbler should be at the tip of the large knife. 5. The butter dish should be on the top of the forks along with a butter knife and on an under- plate. 6. The napkin should either be placed on top of the cover. 7. Cruet sets should be placed on top of the cover. 8.
STANDARD TYPES OF Refer COVERS
Fig.11 and 12 (Plate 3)
A' La Carte Covers
(a) Side plate with a side knife (b) Water goblet (c)Fish plate (d)Fish knife and fork (e)Cruet set (f)Sauce and oil pots (a)Side plate with a side knife (b)Water goblet (c)Fish fork and knife (d)Soup Spoon (e)Dinner Knife and fork (f)Dessert spoon and fork (g)Cruet set (h)Sauce and oil pots
Table D' Hotel Cover
TRAINING METHODLOGY Lay out the actual covers as given in fig.11 and 12 and let trainees see. Then let them practice laying out thee covers by themselves TRAINING AIDS 1. Tables, chairs, glassware, chinaware and tableware. 2. Copies of a la Carte and table d'hote menus.
everages can be classified as follows :
(a) Water (b)Refreshing drinks- colas, lemonades (c)Stimulants-coffee, tea (d)Nourishing drinks–malted beverages (Oval tine, Horlicks, Bourn vita) milkshakes, fruit juices. Wines, Liqueurs, Spirits, Beers, Cocktails. Here are some standard practices for the services of beverages. Note: All beverages are served from the right.
(a) Water goblets should be kept on the right at the tip of the large knife. (b)Water is served from the right after the guest has taken his seat. (c)Water is served from a jug with a folded waiter-cloth under it to prevent it from spilling on the table. (d)Water should be filled 3/4'' below the rim of the glass. (e)Water should always be chilled, unless the guest asks for water at normal temperature.
(f)The water jug should be covered with a folded waiter- cloth when kept on the sideboard. Refreshing Drinks (a) Aerated drinks like coca cola, lemonade, etc. are served in hi-ball glasses. (b)Tall drinks, such as floats, shakes and house cocktails are served in Tom Collins. (c)Certain tall drinks require long spoons, which must be presented on quarter plates with a doyley paper on it. These beverages are served in a cup and saucer with a teaspoon. If only a beverage is to be served the cup and saucer are placed in front of the guest; otherwise, to the right of the cover. The beverage is poured into the cup and also the milk or cream (as per the guest's requirements) and both the pot and the creamer are left on the table to the right of the cover. A tea napkin or a paper napkin is wrapped around the hot handle of the pot so that the guests do not burn their fingers while serving themselves. Alcoholics Straight drinks are served in a glass with the pegs required and placed on the table on a coaster and any accompaniment like soda water or tonic is poured into the glass in front if the guest. In the case of beer, the bottle is left on the table, if there is any beer left in the bottle after pouring the first mug –full of beer.
Stimulants and Nourishing
. . .
Wine is the juice of freshly gathered grapes, grown in the open and fermented according to local custom and traditions without the addition of any foreign substance or ingredient. This juice is fermented, matured and aged over years to give it mellowness. It has an alcoholic content of 16%. There are four types of wines: Table : Red, White and Rose. These are further categorized into Still, Natural, Sweet and Dry. Fortified : Brandy, Port and Sherry. Sparkling : Champagne Aromated : Vermouth, Quinine Wines. Traditionally red wines are served with red meats such as beef, lamb, etc. white wines with white meats such as chicken, game bird, and fish. Champagne is drunk at the end of meal. However, nowadays, a guest may have any type of wine at any point of the meal. Procedure of Serving Table Wine Once the wine is ordered, it has to be requisitioned from the wine store. Without cleaning the bottle the wine bottle is presented to the host for approval from his right, with the label facing him. White wine glasses are placed just below the water goblet to the right. Red wines glasses are placed below the white wine glass to the right. If the guest does not order white wine then the red wine glass may take the place of the white wine glass. Remove the seal of the bottle at the sideboard and with a corkscrew uncork the bottle. (Refer to skills: Opening a wine bottle) Place the corkscrew with the cork in a side plate of the guest for the host to approve. The cork should be wet and firm. Wipe the bottle mouth and inner neck with a clean cloth. Wrap the bottle with clean napkin and pour a little into the host's glass for him to taste and approve. After the host has approved, change his glass with afresh one, then
Pour the wine gently without making contact between the mouth of the bottle and the rim of the glass. twist the bottle to one side with a jerk to avoid a spillage. The bottle must. TRAINING METHODOLOGY Get empty bottles. In the case of red wine. Only three-fourth of the glass should be filled. have a cork. He may number the guest in a clockwise direction starting from the host or he may decide on his own starting point –perhaps the person sitting closest to the service entrance. It is quite in order to suggest an appropriate cocktail or plain drink by saying “May I recommend our barman’s special Bloody Mary or Planters Punch?” In the case the waiter has given a definite choice and has limited it to two items to make it easy for the guest to choose from. Refill the glasses as a napkin folded around or in a red wine basket. Only the glass is filled. In smaller establishments an order may be taken on an order pad and later transcribed on to a check or bill. In larger restaurants the order is taken on a Kitchen Order Ticket (KOT).proceed to serve the guests clockwise (ladies first and host last).
Taking an Order
rder taking is a skilful art that reflects the efficiency of both the waiter and the establishment . It is expensive to practice with real wine thus a squash can be used. place the bottle in an ice bucket to the right of the host and cover the mouth of the bottle with a clean napkin. Refill the glasses as and when they become empty. An order taken down clearly and precisely would ensure that each guest gets exactly what he has ordered and in the right sequence. appropriate glassware and napkins. While taking down the order the waiter should have already decided on a code to associate the order with a guest.
Various bottles. Demonstrate service of wine and let them practice one by one with other trainees as "guests". while the third copy is retained by the waiter to aid him to give a proper service. It is in order to have any other logical identification system as long as the guest is ensured of his exact order. While pouring the wine observe the following rules: 1. 2. more popularly known as the “wine list”. For white wine or champagne. which have copies. 3. Usually the original copy of the KOT goes to the kitchen or bar while the second copy goes to the cashier for the preparation of the check or bill. This is also the time when a waiter can prove his salesmanship by pushing through suggestions on menu items that yield a high profit margin. etc. however. (preferably filled) under various categories of alcoholic beverages and show the trainees. place it straight on the table with a napkin folded around or in a red wine basket. the number depending upon the establishments control system. After a guest is seated the first thing to offer him is the beverage menu card.
A course in the menu must have the logical sequence of a classical menu. his salesmanship would enable him to explain the dishes in an attractive way. flambé desserts. which offer a range of hot and cold dessert. ice creams and coffee (straight and alcoholic). Of course. The waiter should be at hand to explain dishes. the sequence is according to what range the establishment offers. The normal sequence would be: Appetizer Soup Main Dish Sweet Dish Coffee Normally the dessert and coffee order is taken after the main meal is completed. served on a bed of crisp green lettuce”. Get them to take orders while role –playing on the actual order pad. A guest does not appreciate being bustled into giving his decision.
(1) Copies of order pads. In addition. Some establishments have separate Dessert Menu Cards.
. Polite suggestions may be given to help the guest decide but he should not be forced to decide in favor of the waiter’s recommendation. For example.
Role-play the situation where some trainees are “ guests “ while others take orders. He is therefore required to be conversant with the preparations and final presentation of dishes listed on the Menu Card.When taking down the food order it is prudent to allow the guest some time to decide.
Get sample copies of an order pad or kitchen order ticket and distribute the same for trainees to see. which demand explanations. “ A shrimp cocktail comprises of fresh succulent shrimps garnished in tangy cocktail sauce.
the price of each item and the total value of food and beverage served at a table. Thus the more discreet the activity of paying the check is done the better the service would be. A check has basically two copies: one for the guest and the other for the cashier’s record. A check is also called a bill and provides an accurate account of the type and number of items sold. Payment is done in three ways:
. a “check “ shows that it is a control or check on the food that is sold in a restaurant. (Fig. When a guest is ready to leave and asks for the check. an establishment has a separate restaurant cashier who has a control on all checks. The waiter presents it to the guest on a salver or half –plate. These checks are cash documents and misplacement of any of them will result in an in accurate account of sales for the day and can encourage misuse of the checks.13). It is the basis for charging tax for food and beverage consumption. It is an important sales document. Normally. A check is made when the items are transcribed from an order pad or a KOT. the waiter informs the cashier who then totals the check and gives it to the waiter who signs for the check.The Waiter Skills
Preparing a Check and Receiving Payment
he very nomenclature. The tax is usually a percentage may vary from state to state. In better establishment a check folder is made to present the check discreetly. (Remember a record has to be kept of all movement of the check as it represents cash). Additional copies may be made according to the system of the establishment. It is worthwhile to remember that the time of payment by the guest (especially when he is in company) is an embarrassing moment. During service the check is not totaled in case additional food items are ordered and have to be entered into the check.
It is very important that the waiter should not linger around for tips. Whether the signature on the check and credit card tally. Whether the credit card is accepted by the establishment.
Get samples of check. The waiter confirms with the front office whether the guest is in fact a resident of the hotel. Signing When a guest wishes to sign on the check. Whether the date on the card has expired. credit card vouchers. A copy of the voucher is given to the guest along with the card. and let trainees see. his signature is taken and he is requested to clearly mention his name and room number. The cashier who enters it into a register or NCR machine. 2. Whether the credit card has been black listed. which are given to the guest for his signature.the change along with the original copy is placed in the check folder and presented again to the guest . by consulting a recent list of blacklisted cards. (2) Samples of credit cards (3) Flip chart with process flow of checks and order pad copies. 4. credit card.Cash Payment
When the guest pays in cash the same is taken along with the check to the cashier who enters it into a register or NCR machine. etc. Once the cashier is satisfied with the above verifications he fills up appropriate vouchers. The cashier then gives the change if any and stamps the check “ paid . 3.
(1) Samples of restaurant check.
Credit Card Payment The waiter takes the credit card to the cashier who verifies the following: 1.
. Perhaps a process flow chart will help them conceptualise this activity.
To ensure a proper attitude to menial tasks. The waiter should be told of the important of his job and made to realize that the hotel cannot run without the essential services that he provides.
.The Waiter Attitudes
Ability to Overcome Resistance to do Manual or Menial Work
1. 2. to drive home the fact that at all levels manual work is done. the trainer at times may himself have to do the work that the waiter does. This follows from the fact that in this industry. 3. For all the hotel staff “menial” jobs are part of their normal work. service is of the outmost importance and hence everyone must involve himself in achieving that objective. This would mean that right from the general manager to the utility worker. everyone is actually serving the guest in one way or the other.
This determines his job advancement. At this stage emphasize the point that a guest gives lavish tips only when he is pleased with the service and the service can only be good when the waiter is willing to please. On his attitude and actions will depend the image of the hotel. A waiter’s job is appraised on his keenness and willingness to serve. 2. A waiter is a representative of the hotel and his restaurant. The waiter should be briefed about the tip system and shown how a good service can fetch greater tips. 3.COUNSEL 2
Willingness to serve
. He projects its image and is responsible for maintaining its high standards. promotions. increment and other benefits.
it is his seniors who will assess him and mould him and it is they who to a great extent determine his future by recommending him for advancements in his job. He should also be told that without a proper line of authority.
Capacity to take Orders From Seniors
The waiter should be made to feel that his supervisors have more authority and maturity to guide him. transfer and raises in salary. He should be made to understand that he has a lot to learn from their knowledge. Moreover.
. The example of some of his seniors should guide him at the job. attitude and skill in tackling in their jobs. there would be utter chaos. promotions.COUNSEL
Cheerful Attitude Towards Work and People
. As a result the work atmosphere is pleasant and free of tension and overwork. A cheerful attitude towards colleagues is an advantage because a waiter would be able to obtain the maximum cooperation and help for them. It is infectious as one cheerful person spreads cheer and goodwill wherever he goes. A cheerful attitude is an asset. 2. 3. If one has a cheerful outlook any kind of work can seem worthwhile and interesting. Job satisfaction comes from within oneself and depends on one’s attitude towards one’s work.
Let the group set the goals.
. The phrase” United we stand. divided we fall”.By maintaining cordial relation. A good friendship is also an asset and is of great help during times of trouble. However. should be the motto. which implies more earning of everyone.Cordial relations with guests is good relations. one not only benefits financially but also personally. One of the bet ways to develop cordial relation and a team spirit is through group effort. friendliness does not mean over – familiarity.COUNSEL
Cordial Relation with allInteraction
1. A guest who is pleased with the friendly atmosphere of a restaurant is bound to visit it again and again. 3.Through team spirit and teamwork efficiency is increased. Increase in efficiency implies higher sales turnover. 2. Show how much easier it becomes to resolve problems when every one puts their heads together. 4.
It is an art. It is an art.COUNSEL
Pride in Work
A waiter should realize that the work he is doing is not an ordinary kind of work. which not everyone can do. which has developed from times immemorial and is still being developed.
Also formal case studies can be undertaken to inculcate tact and initiative. 3.
.Role-playing sessions on basis of log book corselets help in developing a waiter’s tact and initiative. 2.COUNSEL
Tact and Initiative
1.Interesting and amusing anecdotes from personal experience or from the experience of others are good illustration.
He must act and behave in a manner befitting the type of set-up he is working in. Thus. 4.A waiter is like a salesman for his department and he projects the image of his restaurant.
.Good actions and behavior are always noted and go a long way in improving a waiter’s prospects and status.Any negligence on his part would at once reflect on the status of the organization and its high standards.COUNSEL
As a Representative of the Organization
1. 2. as a representative of the organization he must endeavor to maintain high standards.
g. overcharging a guest are all forms of dishonesty. 3.. The waiter must be told exactly what is regarded as dishonesty e.COUNSEL
. It can also get the waiters appreciation and commendation. 2. stealing cutlery. eating guest food. which could help a waiter prospects in the professions. Examples of actual incidents where honesty has paid dividends should be quoted. The rewards for being honest can vary from cash and publicity in hotel magazines to appreciation letters from the public. Honesty is always the best policy.
f) Guests should never get the feeling that they are being hustled. say “Thank you. it is the hallmark of a good waiter to be courteous on all occasions not only towards guests but also towards his colleagues and other people working in the same unit . or “ It's been a pleasure serving you. Give the guest enough time to decide what he wants and do not rush him. 4. The advantages and necessity of being courteous should be emphasized as it not only smoothens operations but also ensures better ties. Keep it at the side station when the guest are nearing the end of their meal. It is really proper to let them finish their drink before asking for their food order. Examples of courtesy are given below: a) After a waiter has served breakfast and a guest is leaving. e.COUNSEL
1. Please come again soon “. c) When guests are leaving after lunch or dinner or even if they have just stopped in for a cup of coffee or a drink. 2. b) When approaching a guest use the word ‘assist’. Courtesy should be inherent in his nature and a sign of his desire to please those with whom he comes into contact. and the order is complete. His manner should not be just a part of the “technique” of the restaurant. e) While taking an order the waiter should approach the guest from the left and place the menu in front of him and inquire. Sir/Madam ?” Wait patiently facing the guest until after any necessary advice asked has been given. 3.g. I hope every thing was all right. “ May I have your order. he should say “ Thank you. Do come again. “May I assist you “ or “ May I be of assistance”. have a pleasant day” It should be said with utmost sincerity. In
. d) Always present the check without delay.
If the guest orders right away. m) Each guest entering the restaurant must be received at the door by the hostess or the supervisor in a cordial and pleasant manner and be conducted to a seat. and gentlemen if possible. he should inform him that he will attend to him immediately or in a moment. If the answer is “yes”. Chair should be held for the convenience of all lady guests. “I will send your station waiter. the food should be brought as soon as it is ready to serve. the drink is placed on the table the waiter should ask. guests who cannot be seated in the restaurant should be asked if they wish to wait in the bar until a table is available. first. g) If a guest says his food or drink isn’t right. The waiter should tell him “I am sorry. he should tell the manager. Please let me bring you another or may I bring you another or may I bring you something else?” The waiter should take the order back to the kitchen and tell the chief to replace it.time menu should be presented as soon as the guest is seated. which they have been allotted.
. k) A guest may become impatient if he cannot catch the waiter’s eye. is agreeable to them. the waiter should not tell him so. even if the guest has not finished his drink. The waiter should never ignore guests or just pass them by. sir “. If he has any trouble. h) In case there are restaurants having bar counters or bars in the immediate neighborhood of the restaurant. If possible the supervisor should accompany the guest to the other facility to make sure that they will be taken care of properly. i) In case a waiter is busy and cannot attend to a guest at once. l) When two tables are occupied approximately at the same time. by saying politely. even if he is sure that the guest is wrong. Before taking the food order the waiter should ask whether they would like a drink. n) Guests must be asked prior to seating whether the table. At noon a lot of people are on a tight schedule so the lunch. “ May we bring you a drink before lunch?” If the answer is “No” he should take the food order and serve it as soon as it is ready. He should stop and acknowledge the call. “Would you like to order now or shall I come back later?” If the answer is “later” the waiter the guest is finishing his drink. j) If the waiter knows the guest’s name it is advisable to address him by his name as this shown that the guest is getting personalized service.the evening this holds true. because they are not on his station. the waiter must take the order of the first party.
Counting tips or jingling coins in pockets. which a waiter must be warned against adopting: 1. Cadging for tips. Bad temper or indifference. Soiling menus by keeping them in their ears or in their hair. Forgetting to say “Thank you “ or failing to acknowledge a tip. dirty or untidy hair. 12. 8. 19. 4. Indulging in preferential treatment. Using a bad form of speech. Sneezing or coughing carelessly. 6. 5. dirty hands and nails. spilling food. 17. Talking too much to guest while they are conversing with each other. 10. 7. 16. 3.COUNSEL
Given below are certain attitude. Carrying pens or pencils behind their ears or in their hair. Wearing greasy or spotted or otherwise dirty clothes.
. Eating during the service. e. Using bad form in service. body odor. 14. 15. 11. Having bad breath. Adding up bills wrongly. Ignoring guests by talking amongst themselves. 2. Wearing high-heeled shoes or unpolished shoes. 20. Putting the service cloths in trousers pockets. 13. toe jam. Chewing gum.g.. Quarrelling or being noisy and shrinking responsibility. Hurrying guests to get their stations cleared so that they can leave early. 18. 9.
The Restaurant Supervisor
Who is a restaurant supervisor? A Restaurant supervisor. the restaurant supervisor is expected to possess all the knowledge. 3. Safety 12. His responsibilities include: 1. 2. 10. who may be termed Maitre d’hotel or Senior Captain. Sales 9. He reports to the Restaurant Manager and in some restaurants is the over all In. Hygiene and sanitation Apart from the above. Supervising the mis-en-place and mis-en-scene before the restaurant opens. Briefing.charge. Motivating 5. 7. he is required to have the specialized knowledge elucidated in this part of the manual. Performance. 6. In addition. Preparing specialized food in the restaurant. is responsible for the entire restaurant team and their activity in the restaurant. Scheduling the staff. skills and attitude reflected in part I of this manual. 11. Handling guest complaints 8. Training. Supervising actual service. 4.
The Restaurant Supervisor
All distilled drinks are colorless and may be colored by the addition of synthetic colours or by keeping them in contact with wood when maturing. which concerns us the most. Any potable liquid containing from 1% to 75% of ethyl alcohol by volume is known as an alcoholic beverage. Pure alcohol has no color. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by-product and can be retained as in the case of beers and champagnes. certain bitters and medicinal compounds. social and economic factors so also taxation laws determine why. water and congeners can be drawn off and blended again to obtain the required flavor of the original ingredient.
What is an Alcoholic Beverage
HOW IS POTABLE ALCOHOL OBTAINED Fermentation Sugar in fruit or grain (developed by germination and malting) is converted into alcohol by the action of bacteria.
The fermented mash of fruit or grain is heated. can be trapped and condensed to a liquid. as it is the principle alcohol to be found in all alcoholic beverages.LESSON
Definition of Alcohol Alcohol is an odorless liquid obtained through the fermentation of a sugar containing liquid. taste or smell and is used in compounding other beverage such as liqueurs (sweetened after dinner drinks). by cooling. However. but ethyl is the one. which often contain 40% alcohol and above are not taxable because they are not considered alcoholic beverage. There are many members of the alcohol family. Alcohol. A spirit is a potable alcohol-containing liquid.
What is a spirit?
. In distillation all the alcohol can be separated from the liquid. which evaporates at a lower temperature than water and the flavoring agents. the alcohol. governments have to set certain definite certain definite standards as to what constitutes an alcoholic by volume are taxable. Alternatively. The degree of fermentation can be controlled.
The Romans planted vines in Bordeaux. These are wines. These wines are drunk either before or after a meal. Alcoholic content is less that 14%. viticulture flourished and it is he who is credit with the discovery of fermentation. There is evidence that they exported it to Egypt .C and in Egypt 3000 B. King Henry II of England married Eleanor of Aquitaine who brought a long as her dowry the provinces of Bordeaux and Gascony .
. the valleys of the Rhone. Champagne is the monarch in this category. The Romans embraced . These are wines fortified by the addition of alcohol either during or after fermentation.
Definition of wine
History of wine. In 1153. Maderia and Marsala. The alcoholic content of these wines is between 14 and 16 %. These wines are further classified into dry and sweet wines. In view of this a wine trade flourished between England and France. These wines are drunk on festive occasions and throughout a meal. The Greeks introduce it from Southern France into the Black Sea and from Sicily into North Africa. Classification of Wine The main classifications of wine are on the basis that the grape juice is fermented and not distilled. The Phoenicians from Lebanon introduce the wine and its secrets to the Roman and the Greek who subsequently propagated wine-making and even dedicated a god to wine – the Roman Bacchus and the Greek Dionysus. which normally accompany a meal. Examples of these wines are sherry. White and Rose wines and are referred to as still wines as they lack carbonation. The Old Testament in the Bible gives evidence of wine existing but there is definite evidence of its use in china in 2000 B. This increases the alcoholic content from 15 to 21%. Germany. Since French wines were excellent the English viticulture fell into decay. Marne and Seine and along the Mosel and Rhine. England . We are told by sir John Malcohn in his first account of Persia that during that during the reign of king Jamshed. Christianity and when their empire collapsed it is the church that propagated wine-making for sacramental wine.LESSON
Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshed gathered grapes. port.C as well. They took viticulture into the lands that they conquered. They are responsible for introducing viticulture to Hungary. Dry would mean that there is little or no sugar content. Table Wines These include Red. Wines which have carbon dioxide to make it fizzy.making
Wine is one of God’s choicest gifts to man and its history is almost a romance. Fermentation is conducted in the district of origin according to local customs and traditions. Italy and Spain. Thus the clergy perfected wine making and blending.
The winemaker may decide whether to add vin de press to vin de goutte. These acetobacters can convert alcohol into vinegar.maker uses a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the must. The stalk have a bitter taste due to the presence of tannin thus it should not come in contact with the juice. i. The pips and skins are sent for a third pressing and the juice fermented and distilled to produce eau-de-viedemarc. Grapes are crushed with the feet in some regions or more conveniently by mechanical presses to extract the juice called must. In the case of white wines the skin is separated immediately.the wine is
Grading Weighing Removal of Stalks Crushing
Cellaring and second casks Pressing
. which gets the color fro the skin. Grapes are graded according to quality. This is called “cellaring”. The casks are filled to the full to exclude air. being hungry for oxygen. sulphur dioxide is simultaneously in the grape to ethyl alcohol. The procedure is necessary as there are laws in most countries. the skins of red grapes are allowed to come in contact with the juice. Rose wines are made by allowing the skins of red grapes to come in contact for a short while with the juice to get the desired pink color. principally acetobacter. called vin de press is rich tannin. The fermentation process takes two days to two weeks according to the tradition of the house. Modern methodology incorporates destalking machine. The wine must be separated from the dead yeasts which decompose and give an odd flavor to the wine. This process of enrichment is called ‘capitalization’. which specify the minimum alcoholic strength of wines. Grapes are weighed. Sulphur dioxide is added fairly early in the fermentation process to prevent air from oxidizing the juice and converting the alcohol into vinegar. which indicates the sugar content and thus the alcoholic content. takes up the oxygen from the must to let the wine yeast. Sulphur dioxide also forms a coating on the surface of the juice to prevent the air from entering the juice and the thereby letting the wine yeast to do its work. The residue of pipes and skin (called marc) left in the fermentation tank or vat is sent for further pressing and the resultant juice. At this ‘crushing ‘ stage if red wine has to be made.e. Fermentation is the process of adding wine yeast (known in technical terms as Saccharomyces ellipsoidus) to fresh grape juice to convert the natural sugar in the grape of ethyl alcohol. which is aerobic. During this process the temperature is maintained between 64 and 77F. to determine the quality The ripe grapes are plucked off from the stalks. This dead yeast settles at the bottom of the casks . so that the grape is fully ripened and has nothing more to gain from the plant. In this process carbon dioxide is simultaneously released making fermentation violent at first and then slow. the wine-maker may control the acidity caused by grape acid by adding water or acidifying agents such as gypsum. At this stage the wine. which is anaerobic (able to work in the absence of oxygen) to convert the grape sugar into alcohol. The yeast added is 3 to 5 % of the volume of juice. Sulphur dioxide. The filled casks are put in cellars for the wine to mature.MAKING A TABLE WINE Harvesting Grapes are plucked when the density of the bloom. Once fermentation is complete the “running wine” or vin de goutte is run off into for maturing. a spell of dry weather is chosen. There are methods of purging the casks of any acetobacter by steaming and adding sulphur dioxide. We see then that nothing is wasted and the sugar in the grape is completely utilized. or natural yeast on the skin taken from a number of bunches is constant. As far as possible. These laws may allow the wine –maker to add small quantities of sugar should the must show insufficient alcohol potential. it is alive in the presence of oxygen. The air has bacteria.
At the end of the process the bottles are completely inverted.carefully pumped into another cask without disturbing the dead yeast leaving some wine at the bottom called lees which is sent for distilling into eau – de-vie de-marc. natural and honest way of improving the quality of a wine. This takes place naturally by allowing the wine to rest in oak barrels for one or two years to gain maturity and pick up a soft and mellow character from the oak wood. After the primary fermentation. The wine in bottles is immersed upright in double boilers with water. which is larger in diameter than the mouth of the bottle. which must be removed before the wine moves into the final stages of preparation.
Maturing of Wine
Motorization can be induced artificially by agitation. Still inverted. The young wine is pumped into a refrigeration unit to stabilize the wine. have a distinct preparation process: The initial steps in wine making are the same as for the others. Cool and dry weather is chosen. Bottling This is done before the blended wine has lost its bouquet. This process ensures a consistent quality. Pasteurization Pasteurization is the process to age the wine and free the wine from further fermentation. refrigeration and electrical impulses. The immersion is for 1-2 minutes. the bottles necks are dipped into a freezing mixture. SPARKLING WINES Pressing and Fermentation Blending Bottling Sparkling wines among which champagne is universally accepted as the finest. This occurs after the wine has been bottled. heating. fines. Bottles are cleaned and dried with hot air. heated to temperature between 180 and 190F. This is an art that require considerable experience. is squeezed to shut the bottle and is secured with a steel wire clip called an agrafe. known as ‘ pupitres’. For example Bordeaux and Burgundy wines are aged for 3-4 years while Chablis is aged for 18 months. and it is at this stage that the carbon dioxide bubbles from and remain captive in the wines. which collects the protein haze in the wine during its passage to the bottom of the cask. Fining and Filtration This is the process of converting the cloudy wine into clear ‘fine’ wine. or store of wine.
Secondary Fermentation Maturing Remuage
the Wine Companion. It is a legitimate. At this stage sugar and yeast is added to the wine. The bottles are left undisturbed for a year or two so that the wine can mature. Aging of Wine Wine is aged in bottles. Blending is done of wines from different vineyards and different years. white of egg or Bentonite – colloid clay.1975. The wine may then be passed through fine filters. David Burroughs and Norman Bezzane William Collins Sons and Company (P) Ltd. This may be done with a gelatinous substance such as isinglass (bladder of sturgeon fish). judgment and sensitivity. Remuage is the initial part of the process of removing the sediment when the bottles are placed in special racks. at a slight angle. wines of different vineyards and varying qualities are blended to form the cuvee. The bottles are stocked in chalk cellars at around 60-65F During its long rest in the chalk cellars the wine gives off sediment.
. The object is to encourage the sediment as to slide down the bottle and settle on the base of its temporary stopper. A cork. The base wine is bottled in champagne bottles stoutly made to contain the gas pressure of up to 90 Ibs per square inch which develops during the secondary fermentation. The period of aging may differ from house to house. quality and color.
Gradations are from the driest to the sweet Brut. Vintage champagne is made only in years when there is more sunshine than in a normal year. Some Brut champagnes contain no final liqueur at all and are completely dry. Grandes Marques are high quality champagnes produced by major champagne houses. at the time of the vintage. Sec. a year or more before they are marketed. Bottles are sent back to rest again for perhaps. and Doux. Pink champagne is made by allowing the skins of black grapes to remain in contact with pressed grape juices. The liqueur content depends on how sweet the wine is intended to be. as they are made in what makers claim to be the particularly good years. which is champagne made only from white grapes. Extra Sec.
. Some are “blanc de blancs”. Demi Sec. Deluxe brands are costlier than other champagnes. Dosage The bottle is topped up with champagne and expedition liqueur. The cork is the sediment is ejected as a frozen bullet.The sediment and the small quantity of wine around it become ice.
dessert wine or an after dinner wine. In this system the next oldest wine. are called rayas or ‘wines for burning’ from which oloroso developes. This is characteristic of vintage port. which is matured in the shortest time in casks. It is a delicate and mellow wine. This is derived partly from the soil and climate of the Island of Madeira. Tawny port is kept longer in casks (two years or more) giving the brownish colour that gives it its name. The Hamlyn Book of Wines.. Is a blended and fortified wine that comes from the town Jerez in Spain. Tawnies are less sweet and lighter in body than Rubies. It was created at the beginning of the eighteenth century in the Douro Valley in Portugal. dry wines but get converted into medium or sweet wines by blending. The most distinctive feature of Madeira is its curious smoky after taste. Mauzavilla and Amontillado. The most important grape used for sherry is Palomino. Secondary wine can be used for colouring. Is declared when the marker finds the crop good in the particular year. Crusted port is a blend of high quality wines usually from different vintages. Sherry has no vintage year. Kept for several years in casks and for more in bottles it develops a crust in the bottle. Ruby port. The second oldest cask is in turn replenished with the third oldest wine and so on.
. robust and deep ruby in colour. The wine is put into a “hot room” and heated to a temperature of 90-140 o F for several months. It is aged for 10 to 30 years before it is ready for consumption. soup wine. Some of the popular fortified wines are: It can claim to be the world’s greatest fortified wine. It can be served as an aperitif. There are two basic categories: fino and oloroso which both start life as pale. There are different types of port. before being fortified with spirit and matured in wood. England (P) 1973.FORTIFIED WINES Port
There are wines to which alcohol is either during or after fermentation. It is an elegant and well-balanced wine. Secondary wine can be used for medium or sweet wines by blending. which do not have this growth. Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd. White port is mad from white grapes and is made in the same way as Tawany. which are kept open to the air. is full bodied. but chiefly from the “cooking” process to which it is subjected. Those wine casks. The Solera system is another notable feature of sherry. The difference is that fino develops with the appearance of a curious yeast growth called “flor” which appears on the surface of the fermenting wine in casks. Madeira is one of the most versatile of the fortified wines. Well-known Fino sherries are Fino. Late Bottled port is aged in casks instead of bottles for six to eight years.
Drying and Grinding Germinating is stopped at a certain time and the barley is subjected to heat over fires of smokeless coal and peat. As alcohol has a lower boiling point than water. This is blended with Scotch grain whisky. into vast vats. Scotch malt whisky is made from malted barley only and is manufactured by the potstill process.Lesson
Whisky is a spirit obtained by the distillation of a fermented mash of grain (usually barley. The malt is then ground. In the production of Scotch two distillation processes are used: 1. The peat gives smoke which flavours and gives an aroma to the malt during this process. maize or rice. Distillation The wash is distilled twice in pot-stills. The pot-still process. or all together) and is aged in wood. This process has the following sequences: Cleaning The barley is washed to separate the husk and is then dried. which is used for lightness. which is then cooled and condensed back
. This blending was invented in the 1860’s. Irish. Malting The selected barley is soaked in water for two or three days till it sprouts a shoot. The sweetish liquid produced (wort) is drawn off and the remaining husks removed for cattle food. an alcoholic strength of about 10%. The sprouting barley is constantly turned by hand or by a “Saladin” machine to aerate it. it becomes vapour. There is no similarity in taste between Scotch. 2. a thumbnail long. Canadian or the tow American whiskies-rye and bourbon. Its Gaelic name Usquebeathe meaning “water of life” was later anglicized to “whisky”. The barley is spread on the concrete floor to germinate for 8-12 days. The result is a sort of beer. The wash heated. Grain whisky is produced by this process. Two types of whiskies are necessary to produce scotch. The first is Scotch malt whisky. which attacks the sugar and converts it into crude alcohol. Mashing The ground malt is crushed with hot water and the conversion of soluble starch into maltose is completed. It must be noted that the Scottish water itself plays an important part in the final products.the wash.
Scotch Whisky Scotch whisky is distinctive product of Scotland where it is believed that the first whisky was made in the Highlands in the sixteenth century. The patent (or Coffey).still process permits continuous distillation. It is the water in Scotland that imparts the unique quality to Scotch. Fermentation The wort is cooled and then passed into vessels where it is fermented by yeast. There are approximately 200 brands of whiskies available and they vary in taste from distiller. which gives the body and character. not too finely. Malt whisky is produced by this process. which has individual distillation according to lots.
Variety of scotch bottles with labels. This produces a fairly weak and impure spirit called ‘low wines’. Blending After the malt whisky and grain whisky are matured. Filtering and Boiling The Scotch whisky is finally filtered and bottled. Maturation This new whisky is poured into oak wood casks where it is matured into a pleasant mellow spirit for as long as fifteen years. Glassware and ingredients to prepare cocktails. thought not less than three years. Finer whiskies are matured in actual sherry casks or wine treated casks.
. Each major blend differs and the maintenance of a precise standard of quality and task is the blenders function. These may be matured after blending to “marry” the blend completely. Training AIDS 1. There are as many as forty different malt and grain whiskies blended according to a secret formula handed down from generations to produce the Scotch whisky we know today. This is distilled again to produce pure scotchmalt whisky. they are blended and “married” to achieve consistent quality and bouqet. Cocktails Rob Roy : 30 ml Scotch whisky 30 ml vermouth Whisky Mac : 30 ml Scotch Whisky 30 ml Ginger wine Shake. do not chill. 2.into liquid.
Add ingredients and stir till outside of glass is frosted. lemon and cherry for decoration Mix Bourbon. Sour mash whiskey is made through a variation of the fermentation method. lemon and cherry. Decorate with a sprig of mint. Fill a 10 oz. Popular Drinks Some very popular Bourbon drinks are: 30 ml Bourbon over ice topped with soda Bourbon with Coke Bourbon with dry ginger ale Bourbon with lemonade Training AIDS 1. that Bourbon was recognized as a “distinctive product of the U. Most Bourbons are straight whiskies. Cocktail Bourbon Mint Julep 60 ml Bourbon ½ teaspoon sugar 4 springs mint Cracked ice Dash of dark rum or brandy Mint. But it was only May 4. Glassware and ingredients for making for a cocktail.BOURBON WHISKY The Rev. Top with a dash rum or brandy. glass with cracked ice.1964 that a resolution was by the U. which means that they are obtained from a spirit distilled from maize or rye and aged in new charred oak barrels for at least two years.S. The distiller uses part of the previous day’s mash and fresh yeast in previous batch.S. Serve with straws. sugar and mint.Elijah Craig is credited with the production of the first Bourbon Whiskey in 1789 in Bourbon in the United States.”. Senate and the House of Representatives. Sample of bourbon whiskey bottle.
Add Irish whisky. Add sugar to taste. Float cream on top. glass with hot black coffee. rye) mostly. 20% oats and wheat in a manner similar to the malt of Scotland and it is distilled in pot-stills.IRISH WHISKY Irish whisky is made from a mash of cereal grains (wheat.
. Glassware and ingredients to make the cocktail. Do not stir. with perhaps. Irish whiskies were mostly straight whiskies highly flavoured and smooth. Serve. 2. Triple distillation and long maturation contribute to the uniqueness of Irish whisky for even the youngest is aged in sherry casks for at least seven years by law. But now a number of blended (malt and grain) whiskies are available and are found to be lighter bodied products. Irish whisky bottle with label. Training AIDS 1. Cocktails Irish Coffee Hot black coffee 60 ml Irish whisky Sugar Lightly whipped fresh cream Fill an 8 0z.
wheat and barley malt. TRAINING ADIS 1. 2. olive Manhattan (Sweet) Same ingredients as the Manhattan Dry recipe. white oak barrels for two or more years but most Canadian whiskies are at least six years old. except that Sweet Vermouth is used instead of dry.CANADIAN WHISKY The principal grains used in Canadian whisky are maize.
. Glassware and ingredients to make a cocktail. Cocktails Manhattan (Dry) 45 ml Canadian whisky 20 ml Dry Vermouth 1-2 dashes Angostura bitters Ice Twist of lemon. The proportion of grain used and the distilling and redistilling processes are the trade secrets of the master distiller. Garnish with Maraschino cherry instead of lemon Popular Drinks Some very popular Canadian whisky drinks are: Canadian whisky with dry ginger ale 30 ml Canadian whisky over ice topped with soda water Canadian whisky with Coke Canadian whisky with lemonade Canadian whisky with 3 parts lemonade and 1 part dry ginger ale with a twist of lemon. Maturation takes place in charred. Canadian whisky is a product of blended whiskies. which may be done before aging or during the aging period. Sample of Canadian whisky bottle.
System in which absolute alcohol was 200 and Proof spirit was 100. Proof was evolved from the days when there was no way of measuring the strength of spirits. British proof spirit was thus 57% alcohol. which indicates tne volume of alcohol in a beverage. There are three Proof Systems: 1.25. 2.PROOF
Proof is a term found on the label of alcoholic beverage bottles to indicate the alcoholic content of the said beverage.S> Proof indicates 50% alcohol. British System. The mixture was made progressively stronger till such time the water portion had no effect on the gunpowder and allowed it to explode when ignited.S. U. The system of assessing proof was adding spirit and water to gunpowder. Thus U. if 100% was the beverage volume. Under this system Proof Spirit was 100 and absolute alcohol 175. Thus. 3. 40% on the label would indicate the volume of alcohol in that volume of beverage. Metric System (Gay Lussac).
. The spirit that caused explosion was said to be “proved”. which is used in all commonwealth countries.
The more mature expensive brandies are better appreciated when drunk neat.O. This is distilled in pot stills producing 30% alcohol. Brandies are aged in oak casks for a minimum of tow years while the usual aging period is from three to eight years. The cognac is matured for years in oak casks and then blended to give a fine cognac. apricot and apple. in order of top quality production. Distillation was referred to by them as ‘burning’ process.P. La Granda Champagne 2. Les Bons Bois 6. Grape brandy is a mixture of distillates obtained from the fermented juice or mash of grapes. There is no vintage brandy.O. “burnt wine”. Cognac is only produced in the French district of Charente.P. There are brandies from other fruits as well such as peach. Bois Commums Cognac brandy had its birth in the seventeenth century when the art of second distillation was discovered. It is best to use the younger brandies for mixed drinks. V. the grapes must be grown.S. La Petite Champagne 3. V. In order to be labeled Cognac.Lesson 4
Brandy comes from the Dutch word brandewijn.O.S. listed below. Armagnc is fuller bodied and drier than cognac. 1. The white wine from which cognac comes is harsh.O. Les fine Bois 5. The second distillation gives cognac with an alcoholic content of not more than 72%. Cocktails Brandy Alexander 1/3 proportion Brandy 1/3 proportion Cream de cacao Nutmeg
. V. * One star ــــMatured for two years ** Two stars ــــMatured for two to four years *** Three stars ــــMatured for five to eight years V. Grape brandy is produced in many countries but experts consider Cognac as the best.O. in which the city of Cognac is situated. fermented and distilled in this area where there are seven famous districts. V. which comes from the region of that name in the south-west of France.S.V. Les Bois Ordinaire 7. which means.P. ـــــvery old ـــــvery old Pale ـــــvery Superior Old ـــــvery Superior Old Pale (matured for 50 years) ـــــVery Very Superior Old Pale
Another worthy French brandy is Armagnac. Les Borderies 4.
crème de cacao and fresh cream with ice. Strain into 3 oz. Serve with sprinkled nutmeg on top.Shake brandy. Popular Drinks Some very popular brandy drinks are: Brandy with Dry ginger ale Brandy with Lemonade Brandy with Coke Brandy with orange Juice
. Strain into a 6 oz. champagne glass. cocktail glass and serve. Side Car ½ proportion Brandy ¼ proportion Cointreau ¼ proportion Lemon Juice Ice Shake brandy. cointreau and lemon juice with ice.
which is sold under the name of “Geneva” or “Holland” and distilled in Holland. The spirit was brought to England and acquired sufficient popularity in places such as London. in some cases has not altered since the first distiller mad gin. This means that the gin lacks sweetness and pronounced aromatic flavour or bouqet. but the distiller by law cannot make any age clam. with juniper berries and other plants. Portsmouth. Most brands use the word “dry” and even “London dry” on their labels. “jenever” or “genever” in Dutch-Anglicised to gin). Altogether “London dry” is the most commonly used. the sweetest is Sloe gin-a mixture of dry gin and sloe berries. is gold or straw coloured. Each distiller has his own secret formula. differs from English gins. French and Italian Vermouth with cracked ice. There are others not at all alike in flavour. golden gin is a dry gin and because it is aged. which. Dutch gin. There are several kinds of gin. Gin production was given full encouragement when William III from Holland and his English consort ruled England. Distilled gin is obtained by orginal distillation of mash or by the redistiallation of distilled spirits. 15% barley malt and 10% other grains and the resulting spirit has to be mixed with distilled water. Since then gin consumption accelerated till well after the Industrial Revolution when in 1870 Mr. orange juice. flavoued with the oil of juniper (“genievre” in French. Serve in 2 ½ oz. Plymouth and Bristol. The grain formula consists of 75% corn. His bill was overruled by the House of Commons and has come to stay as a popular social drink. Old Tom gin is slightly more perfumed and sweeter. as it is too strong to drink. Gladstone passed a bill to cut down the Victorian Gin palaces which were focal social points.Lesson
Gin was first produced in Holland in the sixteenth century as a medicinal spirit. Gin does not have to be aged. Pink Lady 60 ml gin 4 dashes Grenadine 1 dash egg white
. Plymouth gin is the driest of all and is produced by one distiller only-Coats and Co. Cocktails Bronx 30 ml dry gin 15 ml orange juice 1 dash of French Vermouth 1 dash of Italian Vermouth Cracked ice Shake gin. It is heavy in body and very aromatic. London Dry originally applied to gin produced near London but is now descriptive of many gins. cocktail glass.
Strain into a cocktail glass and serve. It is garnished with a lemon wedge. ice and topped with tonic water Gin with bitter lemon Gin with lemonade Gin with Coke
. Popular Drinks Some very popular gin drinks are: 30 ml gin.Shake Grenadine. Gimlet 60 ml gin with a dash of lime cordial topped with water or soda. gin and egg white.
a sort of Caribbean Paris then. grenadine and egg white. Dark Rum: The production process is the same as in white rum except that a highly refined sugar-cane syrup or caramel is added to give colour and flavour. the West Indian. and syrup or sugar. Golden Rum: This is basically white rum matured in casks that lend the golden colour to the rum. The resultant alcohol wash is distilled in Coffey-stills. Jamaica. Puerto Rico is a big rum producer and other suppliers are Britain. Natural yeasts. Daiquiri 3 parts Bacardi (white) 1 part lemon or limejuice 3 dashes of Gomme syrup or 1-teaspoon sugar Thoroughly shake Bacardi. White rum become popular via the precastro Havana. plus special strains cause the residual sugar in the molasses to ferment. Cocktails
Bacardi 3 parts Bacardi (white) 1 part lemon juice 1 part Grenadine 1 dash egg white 1 Maraschine cherry Shake Bacardi. West Indies as early as the seventeenth century and from this came the drink we know as rum today. Strain into chilled cocktail glasses and serve. Hot buttered Rum 45 ml of Jamaican Rum 1 lump of sugar Small slice of butter Boiling water
. A mash is made of molasses (a by-product of cane sugar and water). Venezuela. It is made by the pot distillation process (though the Coffey-still process has become popular nowadays). White Rum: Is a distillate of molasses. Brazil.Lesson 6
“Rumbullion” meaning “rumpus” was the drink of the slaves on plantations in the British. This rum is white because the spirit is not given a colouring. American tourists imbibed large quantities of white rum with their preferred mixerCoca Cola. This method allows the distiller to draw off the required amount flavour from the wash. lemon or lime juice. This drink was called “Cuba Libra”. Australia and Cuba. lemon juice. This is adjusted according to the brand. British law in 1904 defined Rum as a spirit distilled from the by-products of sugar-cane from sugar-cane growing countries.
Sprinkle nutmeg on top and serve.Nutmeg Combine rum. Fill a glass with boiling water poured over silver spoon (to prevent the glass from breaking) and stir. sugar and butter.
Add salt and pepper. Garnish with a slice of orange and cherry and serve. Tabasco sauce and lemon juice. Screw Driver 3 cubes ice 45 ml Vodka Orange juice 1 Maraschine cherry In a 10 oz. Saky Dog 3 cubes ice 45 ml Vodka Grape-fruit juice Slice of orange 1 Maraschine cherry. Caviar and smoked salmon go very well with vodka. Top up with grapefruit juice and serve. Top up with orange juice. leaving it odourless. vodka has different flavourings. Mix together and then add ice cubes. nothing is added to the neutral spirit. In Russia. This gives you the advantage of being able to add to it your favourite non-alcoholic beverage while mixing drinks. Garnish with slice of orange and Maraschine cherry. In 10 oz. colourless and smooth.Lesson 7
Vodka was produced in Poland and Russia in the twelfth century and has been a favourite drink in these countries ever since. The tradition way of drinking vodka is to gulp the chilled drink neat accompanied by nibbles of food. In the making of genuine vodka. tasteless. This drink has now gained global popularity as a good cocktail mixer. vodka. It has an alcoholic content of 40%. Cocktails
Bloody Mary 60 ml Vodka 1 dash Worcestershire sauce 2 drops Tobasco sauce 7 ml drops lemon juice Salat and pepper Ice cubes Tomato juice In a 10 oz. highball glass place ice and vodka. All its characters are removed. It is an alcoholic distillate from a fermented mash of grain. Serve with swizzle stick. highball glass place ice and vodka.
. glass put Worcestershire sauce. from chocolate to cayenne pepper. Top with tomato juice.
Popular Drinks 30 ml vodka ice topped with your favouite juice Vodka with Coke Vodka with Tonic Vodka with lemonade Vodka with ginger ale
Strain into cocktail glasses. The mescal is fermented and distilled. A piece of lemon and some salt were put on the clenched fist of the left hand. just long enough to impart the gold colour ready for bottling. Garnished with a slice of lemon and serve. There are two varieties-white and gold label. Today the Mexicans drink tequila with tomato juice and call it “Sangrita”. Tequila was drunk from the right hand followed by a lick of lemon and salt. The white label is not aged where as the gold is aged in used whisky barrels. Triple sec or Cointreau and lemon or lime juice. the end product being tequila. Vigorously shake Tequila. Cocktails
Margarita Salt 45 ml Tequila 15 ml Triple sce or cointreau 30 ml fresh lemon juice Slice of lemon Rim the glass with salt by first moistening the rim with a slice of lemon then sprinkle salt over the moistened area. True comes from the city of Tequila in south west Mexico.
. Tequila is made from the sap of the wild mescal plant (similar to cactus) and is produced near the city of Tequila where the mescal plant is found in abundance. It probably earned its mule kick reputation because of the way the peons drank it.Lesson 8
Tequila dates back to Aztek times long before the Spanish conquered the country. Tequila is known to have a very strong alcoholic content but it is much the same as gin of vodka.
Cocktails 90 ml sake Juice of ¼ lemon 1-teaspoon castor sugar Ice Soda water Slice of lemon Stir sake. Pour into a drinking cup and serve. Allow to burn for 1 second. lemon juice and castor sugar with ice and top with soda water. Tamage Sake 180 ml sake 1 egg 1-teaspoon sugar Bring Sake to boil and light with a match. Its colour can vary from clear to pale amber with each brand having a distinctive character and taste. It has 18 per cent alcohol.
. It does not need aging.Lesson 9
This rice wine is a traditional drink and is usually served warm in small cups called “Sakazuki” and poured from a narrowmouthed bottle called “Tokkuri”. Remove from heat. Garnish with a slice of lemon and serve. Add egg and sugar and stir.
e. Its work is to propagate and split up the sugar components into equal quantities of alcohol and carbon dioxide. rice. corn or wheat. the final product would not be beer. It is then kiln-dried upto 18oF to stop germination. The process of making beer can be broadly divided into three distinct stages: Brewing The barley is steeped in water until it germinates. increasing the refreshing quality and stimulating digestion. When the grain has been steeped and dried. If used alone. Hops Hops belong to the nettle family. A consistent carbon dioxide level means that the barman will not have any trouble handling beer at normal temperatures. But these grains lack essential enzymes (chemicals which facilitate the extraction of sugar) and when used require special treatment. which impart a bitter flavour and pleasant aroma. Raw Materials in the Making of Beer
Barley Barley is preferred to other cereals as it can be more easily malted for brewing and the solubles extracted from barley malt are more complete than those of other grains. Sugar Sugar is an important addition as it helps to produce a beer of pale colour. which determines the amount of the foam formation.g. flavoured with hops. The resultant product is termed malt and is ready for grinding. Actually any cereal containing starch or sugar maybe used in the brewing of beer.
. increased stability. The female plants used bear cone-shaped formations. The alcoholic content is between 3% to 5% and is known to be a very refreshing drink especially in summer. The resultant solution “wort” is then used to make beer and the residue (spent grain) is as stock fodder. less filling and with a better taste and of course. and is ready for grinding or stoning. it is termed malt. Mashing The crushed malt is mixed with water at a given temperature for the proper length of time.Lesson 10
Beer is a potable alcoholic beverage fermented from cereals and malt. At this stage it may be well to mention that it is the carbon dioxide content of the beer. Brewers’ Yeast Brewers’ Yeast is a micro-organism belonging to the saccharomyces species and is capable of reproducing at a fantastic rate. maize.
Where malt is crushed and is known as ‘Grist’. As used in known as Saccharomyces and Carevisiae. Storage for “Grit” above the mashing tun. Wort pumped to the tank above the refrigerator. Wort is converted to beer.
Yeast splits up wort into alcohol and CO2 gas. Mashing is the mixing of grist and hot water. This is the most decisive phase in the brewing for attaining brews of fine taste and aroma. Mountain spring water is preferred. Wort runs in copper kettles where hops and sugar are added. Where the product is cooled to 60o F and run into a fermenting vessel. Used for cattle food and supplementary diets. The latter is used for bottled beer. Foreign matter is removed. Hops are strained off in the hop back. Yeast reproduces by itself and is used for subsequent fermentation. Spent hops are used for cultivating gardens. Invert sugar is used-a produce of cane sugar. Cask beer is packed. Where yeast is added to start fermentation. Boiling is necessary to sterilize and concentrate-hops are afterwards extracted. and fermentation is complete when the beer is sent to the Dropping Vessel. The liquid drawn-off is malt extract known as “Wort”. Impart a special bitter flavour and aroma and have preservative value.Fermentation Fermentation is the next process where the yeast splits the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. BEER PRODUCION Malt Hops Sugar Water Yeast Ingredients Made from barley. The husk of the malt left behind and used for cattle food.
. Different Stages Storage Bin Screen Mill Grist Case Mashing Tun Grain Copper Hop Back Spent Hops Wort Receiver Refrigerator Fermenting Vessel CO2 Dropping Vessel Malt received from the producer is weighed and stored in the “Storage Bin”.
The choice of isinglass is important since some brewers find one type more effective than the other. Ale is synonymous with beer except that it is a term used for ordinary mild beer while better beer is referred to as “beer” Porter is a black beer achieved by roasting malt. but is heavier and has a stronger hop character than porter.e. Lager is a German word meaning ‘store’. It has a strong malt flvour and a sweet taste. but sweeter than stout. Beer is filled into various size bot
Invert Sugar is a product of cane sugar which has been treated in the course of refining with small amount of acids. Most people like their beer as beer but there are some variations for drinks using beer. The process matures the beer. The process of inversion has the effect of converting the cane sugar into Dextrose and Levulose. Beer and Tomato juice. but it is in no sense a constituent of beer and is used purely for the purpose of clarification Lager Beer Lager beer is distinguished by the fact that the wort is fermented by a bottom fermentation type of yeast (i. Finings are made from isinglass. with less flavouring of hops. Bottled beer is sent here for a conditioning period and further for chilling where excess CO2 gas is rejected. Both these sugars are fermentable and thus more readily assimiable by yeast.Cellar Finings Conditioning Room Cold Room Filter Bottling
Beer is sent to cellar for the conditioning period. It consists chiefly of proteins and water. which is manufactured from the swimming bladder of the sturgeon fish.
Beer Drinks Red Eye
. yeast which is introduced at the bottoms of the fermenting tanks) and then is stored in refrigerated cellars (lager) at freezing point for a period of six months. Beer is passed through a filter to make it brilliant. Bottled beer is sent here for a conditioning period and further for chilling where excess CO2 gas is rejected. Finings are made from isinglass and are used to help in clarification. Stout is similar to porter in as much as the malt is roasted. This name originated from the fact that London porters used to drink this beer. This is a name given by the Irish and is almost similar to porter. Plisener large is stored in the limestone caves of Pilsen in Czechoslovakia. Without inversion the use of either raw or refined sugar imposes a heavy strain upon the strength of yeast. It is more malty in flavour.
1 lager jigger or Scotch whisky served straight with a glass of beer as a chaser. Beer with lemonade.
Common syrups and squashes available are strawberry.LESSON
Consuming non-alcoholic beverage has become a way of life . adding tea leaves to it and stirring till the water imbibes the co lour and flavour. gas. grape fruit.we start with the morning bed tea. Most manufacturers have their own formula for the basic flavor or essence. refresh ourselves with carbonated drinks at the end of tiring day or at a party and finally go to bed with a warm nourishing drink. Common essence used belongs to the citrus family. sugar and artificial essence.
. Syrups and squashes are concentrates of fruit essences sweetened with concentrated sugar syrup. pine-apple and lime. As regards milk based nourishing drinks we have popular coca based drinks like drinking Chocolate. Turkish coffee is made by the common method of boiling water. Soda is just purified carbonated water. We usually associate nourishing drinks with fresh juices or milk. Ovaltine and Bournvita. Coffee The origins of coffee are mysterious but many tropical countries have thriving coffee trade. It is essential to know a little about these beverages because they certainly add a sizeable contribution to the establishment’s profits. refreshing and nourishing. Ground coffee captures the best essence of coffee beans and is made by boiling it with water in a closed apparatus. Mineral water is original medicinal water from mineral springs. it would not be complete not to mention the commercial colas that have flooded every market Coca cola is the most popular with a consumption of approximately 150 million bottles a day. Cappuccino is the same espresso coffee with a sprinkling of cinnamon powder on top. Imitations of mineral water are called Tonic water or bitter lemon in which a dosage of quinine is injected. adding a teaspoon of powered coffee and drinking it with or without milk. Non-alcoholic beverage may be classified into three categories stimulating. Espresso coffee is made by the infusion of steam through a special espresso machine that gives a frothy texture to the coffee when served. Under the category of refreshing drinks. The East India Company introduced it into India around the seventeenth century and tea became a popular drink in India and Europe through London. mango. Amongst drinks with the fruit juices are fresh and tinned orange. These are not carbonated. Cold coffee is very popular and is made as Turkish coffee is made with milk and sugar and then chilled. These are sweetened powder mixes that dissolve readily in milk to give a rich coca flavor. raspberry. etc. Tea is drunk hot by boiling water. Refreshing These are mostly aerated water which comprises combination of water. Cona coffee is the best under closed systems. career through the morning and afternoon with cupfuls of coffee. Other aspirants to the top place are Pepsi cola. with sugar to taste.
Tea It is believed that the origins of tea are from China where the tea plants were introduced from an unknown source. Basically bottles with water and essence are infused with carbon dioxide and the bottle sealed immediately. Colas have a generous infusion of carbon dioxide to give the drinks the fizz. Milk is added with sugar to taste. Thus we have lemonade and orangeade. This aspect of a person’s life is fully understood and propagates by hotels and restaurants. orange and lemon. Iced tea has a similar process except that one can add or not add milk and refrigerate the mixture. 7’ up. Cappuccino is the same espresso machine that gives a frothy texture to the coffee when served. while tomato juice is loner from the vegetable family.
etc. There are four traditional methods of roasting: Pot Roasting. eg. which are placed into mud ovens which are heated from within. poached fish.g. Fat is basted to moisten and soften the meat.
. Boiling Food items are cooked in boiling water (100 c). After the meat is cooked. etc. Oven roasting – the meat is basted and roasted in a tray in the oven at temperatures of 300F. Basic Soups 3. The meet needs constant basting with fat and is rotated over the flame to ensure even cooking. The water never boils but simmers that is.g. e. There are two types steaming – indirect steaming where food is sealed with cloth or aluminum foil and placed in a closed container which is immersed in another container which generates steam from boiling water or from a steamer . which has crossed rods within to prevent the meat from sticking to the bottom. boiled green peas. Methods of cooking 2.LESSON
There are certain aspects of food preparation that all restaurant personnel should be familiar with. the natural liquid formed called "Jus Roti" may act as the gravy. Green vegetables are put in boiling water and root vegetables are put in cold water and then boiled. Otherwise. Roasting Food is cooked in direct contact with heat. They are. Root vegetables may be added later for flavor. Boiled potatoes. stock may be added to the liquid inside to make a sauce.quality meats like game birds are trussed to retain their shape and placed in a pot. This is sealed and heated from below on a slow fire. Steam pudding. Tandoori roasting – an Indian concept where meat is marinated with spices and curd and skewered on rods. The meat is constantly basted and turned round for even cooking and color. Spit roasting – the meat is skewered into a rod and roasted above direct flames. 1. e. Basic Sauces 4. The meat is basted with fat. Preparation of menu items. Poaching Food items are cooked in shallow water. Methods of Cooking (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) Steaming Boiling Roasting Poaching Grilling Frying Baking Broiling Smoking Stewing Braising Water media Water media Fat media Water media Fat media Fat media Radiant heat media Dry heat media Smoke media Water media liquid media
Cooking is done by moist heat (vapors). In direct steaming food items are in direct contact with the vapors. it is kept below boiling point. poached eggs.
bay leaf. gravies. For flavoring. Stock is prepared by adding sufficient cold water to submerge all the bones. The method by which cakes. Types of brown stock are brown beef stock. This method of cooking uses fat as a cooking media. Tough meat is used. etc. Whole vegetables. biscuits. It can be done on grids or pans where food is cooked uncovered. mutton stock. at different temperature in an oven. e. mutton stew or Irish stew. etc. 2. in a closed room. onions. leeks. The water is brought to a boil. etc.done on slow (very slow) fire and used for tender items. In case of chicken the simmering time is 20 minutes. turnips. 3. e. etc. K. beef stock. are used. Food is partially cooked or colored. Deep frying – Done in hot oil or fat. smoked salmon. Delhi
. grilled chicken. White Stock – The type of stock is determined by the source of meat and bones e. It is cooked on low fire or in an oven at a low temperature. e. bacon and ham in a casserole.Arora.g. soups. There are two basic stocks. pudding. stews. herbs.g. fish stock..g.g. veal stock. parsley and thyme are used. It is used as a method of preserving food. It is a dry method of cooking by direct heat either from above or below. and aromats as mentioned above. Bones are first roasted till they are rich brown and the stock process is followed as above. There are three types of frying: 1. The meet is then placed on a bed of vegetables. Discarded bones and cartilage. Sauté. theory of cookery Frank Bros and Co. It is first browned to seal off pores so as to retain the juices. and then simmered for six hours. Herbs and spices are added for flavour and the juice is served as gravy. It is a combination of roasting and stewing. pies. Shallow frying – very little fat used but cooking is done fully. steaks.Grilling
The fasted method of cooking expensive meat cuts done on hot grid iron with heat coming from top or below. chicken stock. are cooked in dry radiant heat. brown veal stock and brown game stock. brown mutton stock. the food is submerged in the oil and cooked. smoked ham. carrots. are added for flavor. The casserole is sealed with a lid to prevent evaporation and then placed in an oven to cook. This meat is marinated before grilling and never pricked while cooking as the juices flow out. Stocks are flavored and nutritious liquids used as foundations for sauces. which contain albumen and gelatin. Food is preserved with the help of smoke from wooden shaving and sawdust. Very slow method of cooking in a utensil with a closed lid where tough meats and joints are cooked in water to soften them.
Mayonnaise Tomato Sauce Volutes
Sauces may be thickened by thickening agents or liaisons: Roux Cooking of flour and butter in the proportion of 1:1. vegetables and eggs. chicken Volute. It is a basic cold sauce used for salad dressings and hors d'oeuvres. fish Volute.e. This is prepared by making a brown roux of flour and butter. carrots. 2. Seasoning is added for taste. thyme and peppercorns. are introduced for flavor along with sated vegetables.g.
There are six basic sauces from which derivates are made: 1. etc. Salad oil is incorporated into the beaten yolk of an egg. Milk is added a little at a time and stirred to avoid lumps. carrots. Hollandaise Bechamel This is prepared by making a white roux out of flour and butter in equal proportions. 4. blond or brown. to which it is browned. The type of volute is determined by the type of stock added. Tomatoes are cooked with bacon.
. An onion with one clove is added for flavour. Melted butter is added until it blends smoothly.g. Tomato puree is added and stirred to avoid lumps. which goes with a dish. 3. bayleaf. The role of a sauce is to: 1. 5. Espagnole (brown sauce) 3. white. It is prepared by first reducing peppercorn and vinegar and adding eggs yolks. These are made by adding stock to light brown (blond) roux. The product is simmered gently for 4 or 6 hours and then strained. i. e. Hollandaise is a warm sauce served over grilled or baked fish. Tomato 5. Mirepoix. adds color to the sauce. 6. Mayonnaise 6.13
A sauce is a liquid accompaniment. till it reaches a sandy texture. which are whisked to a thick consistency. Enhance flavor Give color Help in digestion Moisten dry food Enhance nutritional Lend a name to a dish. e. which consists of onion. Light brown roux is used for thickening. chopped onions and garlic in stock and passed through a sieve. bacon trimmings. The product is then passed through a fin strainer. Veloutes 4. on a gentle fire. Fish Portuguese Give a balanced taste. The degree. 7. Béchamel (white sauce) 2. Brown stock is added vigorously to blend with the roux.
etc are made into a paste with a liquid and then added to boiling liquid. Basically for fish sauces.
Yolks of Eggs/Cream These liaisons are added as a finishing agent. arrow root.Starch Buerre Maine
Items such as corn flour. When added the liquid is never boiled.
. Flour and butter are Kneaded in the proportion of 1:1 and added a little at a time to a boiling liquid and stirred to form a smooth consistency. It is added to thicken cream and volute soups. Blood Added to give natural flavors especially in game cooking.
coagulate and bind most of the cloudy material. It is brought to boil and simmered. The following table classifies the soup for easy reference. The base is stock of beef. meat.LESSON
Soups are wholesome nutritious liquid food made from meat. vegetables cereals or poultry. seafood. celery seasoning and egg whites. though it is the first course in many meals and acts as an appetizer . The protein in the egg white and meat. Broth is a cloudy soup which contains a mixture of vegetables. mutton or chicken to which raw. chicken. these are cut in regular shapes. onions. etc. Bouillon is more or less the same except that it is clearer and has a strong meaty flavor. The soup is strained through a muslin cloth. It is the second course in a French classical menu.
Broth (Bouillon) SOUP GARNISHES
Thick Cold/ Jellied Consommés Cream soups
Vegetable Cream Soups
Fruit Cream soup
It is a richly flavored clear soup. lean mince meat is added along with finely diced or chopped carrots.
g. Cereals Croutons Cheese Cream Boiled rice. It enhances flavor. 4.A garnish is an important aspect of soup preparation and presentation. Light soups should precede heavy dishes. etc. e. with French onion soup. cream of mushroom.
Tips for the service of soup 1. rounds.g. Seafood Diced into small pieces or juliennes. e. Heavy soups must come in small portions. Dices or other even shaped bread or toast. e. with cream soups. e. with consommés. e. as in mixed vegetable soup. etc. Grated Parmesan cheese grilled on croutons.g. Bisque d'Homard. and cold soups chilled. e. 3. Cream of tomato soup. breadsticks. Pasta Vegetables Noodles or spaghetti.g. 6. Hot soups must be served very hot. e. It is put into a prepared soup just before service.
Meats. light and easily eatable.g. Clear soups must enable you to see the bottom of the soup bowl. with mulligatawny soup. 5. 2.
.g. Cut in various shapes and sizes such as juliennes. Unsweetened whipped cream or sour cream. with minestrone soup. cheese croutons. Soup accompaniments are toasts. These must be hot and crisp.g. Garnishing must be small. dices. cottage cheese diced. Cream of chicken soup. Poultry. color and wholesomeness.
It is made by first pasteurizing good quality milk. Gouda : Another cheese from Holland.LESSON
Cheese is a product of pure. Cream cheese is subjected to heavier pressures. paler yellow than Edam. Hard Semi-hard Soft or cream Blue
: Has nutty flavors and is creamy in color. It is pale yellow. : A mellow open textured cheese. It is exclusively used for cooking purposes. HARD CHEESE English
Cheeses are divided into: 1. The sage. Its loose texture makes it ideal for kitchen use. : A cheese from Italy. A dry cheese having an appearance of pinpricks all over it. 4. Wensleydale : The white Wensleydale has a soft flaky texture. The method of manufacture could also be determinant. cream. the Cheshire blue is richer and rare. Emmentaler : A pale yellow cheese from Switzerland. Lancashire : Possesses a mild flavor when young but increase in pungency as it matures. fresh milk.
2. It is also subjected to pressure. It has a close texture. is pale in color with a honeyed after taste. The crud is put into moulds to mature and becomes cheese. Double Gloucester A straw colored cheese with a nutty flavor similar to Cheddar. With cavities all over. The solid portion –crud is separated from the liquid portion – whey. Gruyere Parmesan : Another cheese from Switzerland. 30% and 20% fat. curdling it with the addition of bacteria and rennet. The character.It is sold in grades of 40%. or milk and cream mixed together. It has a yellow or red rind. It is global shaped and has a yellow or red rind . which determines the type of cheese. and develops a strongflavor as it matures. pale yellow in color with a waxy texture. Edam : A cheese from Holland. 3. There are different types of Cheshire – Cheshire red and Cheshire white. It is creamy white in color. It also has cavities and is a popular Kitchen cheese. It comes as a flat cheese with rounded edges and has a soft texture. Derby : Has a honey color and close texture.
. both with the same flavor and crumbly. firm and dry.flavored Derby cheese is popular at Christmas time. texture and flavor are dependent on the land on which the cattle graze.
Demi. It is made from cow's milk. : A French cheese made from pasteurized cow's milk and packed in square boxes. It is creamy but crumbly in texture .Petit Brie and Grond Brie. It has a mild flavor and softens on ripening. It is a close texture cheese. It is a small flat round cheese yellow in color with a very thin rind. : It hails from Denmark as the name suggests. It is sold wrapped in foils. It gains full flavor when ripe.
SOFT OR CREAM CHEESE English European Camembert : there are no noteworthy English cheeses in this category.SEMI. It is made from cow's milk : A French cheese made from cow's milk which softens on ripening. : The surface is wrinkled and brownish – grey in color. it has a white crud intersected by blue veins. A French cheese made from cow's milk. : A French cheese made from sour milk.It has unique characteristic as it is matured in the caves of Roquefort. normally pre-portioned. it is creamy white in color with a mild delicate flavor and smooth texture.HARD CHEESES English : Made from skimmed full cream milk. It has a soft semi-solid textures and rinds which crumble.
. : Made in Italy. It is flat and square in shape and comes wrapped in foil. It has a very thin rind. It has a thin rind and comes in square shapes. It is straw colored with with deep blue veins : The blue veined Wensleydale cheese matures slowly.Sel BLUE CHEESE English Dorset Blue Wensleydale Stilton European Danish Blue Gorgonzola Roquefort
: Made from skimmed milk it has a very close texture being a hard pressed cheese. : This cheese is made in France. : A French cheese which comes in two sizes.
2. the temperature does not fall below 45o F. In countries where tobacco plants flourish.Lesson
Tobacco is a fastidious plant that requires a proper soil and a moderate climate. 1. In their original home the USA. the leaves turning yellowish green. to which tobacco leaves are quite sensitive. intended for cigars are more carefully selected and gathered one by one. Greece.
. the plant with their preyious leaves are conveyed to the barn where they undergo two important processes of drying and curing. Non-fermentative method. It is grown in countries with a tropical or semi-tropical climate such as Cuba. specially against pests. Turkey and Rhodesia. Syria. Jamaica and Philipines. Jawa. Fermentative method. There are three phases that are important to from the time the seed is planting to the time it is ready for consumption: (1) Planting (2) Harvesting (3) Curing
The seeds are plants in nurseries and are carefully tended till the young plants are strong enough to be transplanted. the plant ripens in about six months. A cloudy day is preferred for harvesting as a precaution against a disease known as sun-burn. which is done by one of two well-known methods. The selected plants are the ripest and are cut to the root and then gently laid in rows in the field where they are left to wilt before being taken away to be dried and cured. If all goes well. This results in bigger and juicier leaves. a constant eye has to be kept on them. The plant is further pruned off dead stems and leaves. The general health of the plant determines the number of leaves that are ultimately permitted to reach maturity and these may number anything between 9 and 20. In general. Sumatra. The former is used if the leaves are dark and heavy and the sun-cured or yellow tobacco is desired. This characteristic of tobacco leaves is the main reason why tobacco planting is regarded as one of the dirtiest jobs a farmer can tackle. The time span from the moment the plants are prepared to raise a new crop to the time when the tobacco is ready for the shipment is about two years. In about two months when the plants have grown upto seven feet high (according to their type) expert hands nip off the flower buds. Then they are straddled (put in bundles) carefully across sticks. Drying comes first followed by curing. As they grow. tobacco leaves acquire characteristics that are internationally favoured and are as popular as the tobaccos of India. The leaves are sticky and sear anything that comes into contact with them.
then the stalks and the mid-ribs are removed by hand or machine. which renders them supple and usable. which turns it into a dark shade. Non-Fermentative Method Chewing tobacco is made from this sun-cured process. ‘Lugs’ is used for the remainder unsuitable for any smoking purpose. When the barn is full. which should not fall below 65o F or rise above 75o F. Bundles of tobacco are separated and put in steam heated chambers in which the temperature is raised to anything between 120o F and 160o F.Fermentative Method The barn used for fermentative processes is a building with tiers of poles. which are piled. during which the leaves turn brown. they are too dry for immediate use. Heat is generated naturally in these mounds of raw tobacco. The sticks to which the cut plant have been tied are laid across the poles. ‘First’ is the name given to the finest and the brightest leaves. which is retained again for 4-8 hours and is then slowly increased until it reaches 170o F the tobacco can then be said to be cured and the yellow colour permanently fixed. Incidently. The temperature is maintained at about 170o F. the piles are constantly turned over. The leaves are placed on a platform within well-ventilated shelves or upon unsheltered scaffoldings. glossy and pliable and develop a distinct flavour. Several flues uniformly distribute heat from a fire for 4-5 days. These varieties are used to increase the strength of pipe mixture. Perique is another of the same variety grown in Lousiana. A certain degree of moisture in the air is essential plus a fairly low even temperature. The selected leaves are gathered into bundles. on the floor. under good conditions 4-5 days are enough following which the leaves are cured or dried. ‘Second’ to those of slightly lower quality. which forms the bulk of the tobacco production. VARIETIES OF TOBACCO Latakia and Perique Latlkia is a dark strong variety made from plants grown in Syria and other eastern countries. nowadays there is little demand. The stripped leaves are left in ordinary heaps for about 24 hours during which they become thoroughly impregnated with additional moisture. with the tobacco leaves hanging downwards. there is an impression of a forest of tobacco plants. They then go to the manufacturer of chewing tobacco for which. Sometimes camel or cow dung is used as fuel for the fire. This process takes between 3-4 weeks.
. The cured leaves are spread out on the floor in a lightly compressed mass. The blending of the various mixtures is in the hands of experts who know the exact proportion in which stronger tobacco like Latakia a d Perique should be blended with lighter tobacco. When a permanent yellow leaf is desired the tobacco is subjected firstly to a temperature of 99o F and subsequently the temperature is constantly increased until it reaches 180o F and this is maintained for 4-8 hours. this heat makes the leaves dry and brittle. and to ensure fermentation. They are then taken down to be stripped. it is the second. form one end to another. In this method the sun plays the largest part. Then decreased to 125o F. This is smoke cured by the fire of the Asiatic oak. Pipe Tobacco The tobacco factory is usually a large and airy building.
required lengths and stocks them neatly. Jamica. Most of today’s popular pipe mixtures are composed almost entirely of Empire tobacco. the bales are emptied and the customary process of removing the leaves from the mid-ribs is carried out by hand. Cigarette Tobacco In the manufacture of cigarettes. The papers for the cigarettes are unloaded from a disc and enter the machine and receive the tobacco flowing in a constant stream. The leaves are stored according to the purpose for which they are to be used: (1) As filler (shredded tobacco) (2) Wrapper or binder or second (3) Outside wrapper or third
. The packet should be opened (pulling out a few cigarettes partially). GIGARS The best leaf for the production of cigars is grown in Cuba. As they ripen. Viringian Rhodesian leaves are used separately or in carefully blended mixtures. It should be made sure that the ashtray is on the table. The cigarettes are not packed immediately but are left to dry for 24 hours. Less good tobacco but still acceptable to all but the true connoisseur. Any excess moisture is removed by panning or stoving. Service of cigarettes Cigarettes should never be carried by hand to the customer but placed on a salver or plate. which make cigarettes. which compresses them in the form of a hard cake.a different process which brings out the aroma. So human is this equipment that a carton or packet incompletely filled is automatically rejected. The tobacco is left for a day or two to mature following which it goes to a cigarette-manufacturing machine. Then a wooden mould came into use in which the leaves could be pressed into any desired from-into generally what is known as the bellied or torpedo shape. The paper is rolled the tobacco and gummed at the end. Paper and tobacco move together on their journey. Germany. South Africa. Originally all cigars were made by hand and were straight in shape. The tins if required for export are vacuum-sealed. the leaves are placed in a machine. The machines used for packing are equally ingenious as those. the tobacco is spread out evenly on trays to enable it to cool down to the temperature of the air following which tests are carried out to ensure that the moisture content does not exceed the legal limit of 32%. They are then shredded finely or coarsely with knives or cutting machines.When the different brands have been made up. Excessive moisture is removed from the tobacco and also the impurities. The leaves then go to a machine. Considerable practice is necessary for making cigarettes by hand as it requires a high degree of skill. Japan. Thereafter they are backed in bundles and dispatched to the cigar manufacturers. On arrival at the market. which cuts them into fine shreds. The plants are grown in the same way as other tobacco plants. Holland. they are hung in a shed for drying and curing by the fermentative method. The continuous tube of cigarette the runs beneath knives. which cuts it into cigarettes of. is produced in India. bundles from the warehouse are received and stripped of the midribs by machine or hands. As pipe tobacco. Jawa. it is the waiter’s duty to exchange them frequently for fresh ones. Russia and Hungary. Borneo and the East Indies. the Rhodesian leaves being mainly favoured. The waiter should stand by with a match to light the cigarette. After panning. Ashtrays should never be allowed to collect too much of ash. Comparatively small quantities of cigarettes are still made by hand.
Smoking There is an art involved in smoking a cigar. a sharp knife to cut the wrapper and scissors to trim the leaves.The only accessories used for hand-made cigars are a hard. never store in a refrigerator as it dries and ruins the tobacco. temperatures above 75o F may cause mould to set in. After selection of large leaves used for binding. The customer having chosen the cigar he wishes. Corona 2. Cigars are also judged by their appearance. which are made of cedar-wood. Judging A good cigar should form grayish ash. by shape and by aroma. Strength 1. therefore a cigar is never smoked to the end. It should never be rushed through but smoked slowly.C (Strong) (Medium) (Light)
. A cigar cutter of piercer should be given. which joins the mouth. The type of cigar will be printed on the box. wooden board. The waiter should then offer a matchbox to the customer. is ‘V’ shaped or straight cut or pierced with care and never bitten off. by touch. the waiter should offer to remove the band. is simple to describe but amazingly difficult for anyone except the expert. Colorado Claro 3. The cigar is then lit evenly from all sides with a match and never with a cigarette lighter. The crude way of testing a cigar is by pressing it in between the fingers but it will only spoil it and even break the leaves. a wrapper leaf of a required characteristic is selected and cut into proper shape and the whole is rolled in such a way as to ensure up or straight down the cigar. Cigars should never be overhandled for fear of breaking the outer leaf. The process. A whitish ash denotes a mild cigar while a darkish ash indicates a strong cigar. Storage All tobacco should be kept in a dry place and at even temperature.C. The end. Moulded cigars are made in much the same way except that the filler tobacco is pressed into the mould instead of being shaped by the expert hands. Afterwards it is covered with wrapper in the usual way. Colorado 2. The butt-end is bitter due to the accumulation of oil and tannin and. Claro Length 1. Service Cigars should be offered in their own boxes to allow the customer to choose his own. The filler tobacco is skillfully rolled in the binder leaves. The cigars will keep well in their own boxes. That is why it is best to keep cigars and cigarettes in the dining room or bar in glasscase. thickness and shape. which followed. The best temperature for storage is 65o F to 70o F. The paper band must be removed before smoking a cigar.C C. which will last for along time before falling off. Corona Corona 9 ½” 4 ½” C C. which may taint it with aroma of the spirit. a number of pieces of filler tobacco are so arranged as to produce roughly the desired length.
. Henry Clay 10. Bolivar 2. Half Corona 4. Petit Corona
4 ½” 4 ½” 4 ½”
Some Famous Brands of Mild Havana Cigars 1. Larranga 3. Bock 8. Romeo 4. J. Romeo-Y-Julieta 5. Upman 6. La Corona (outstanding) 7.S Murais 12. Havana 9. Byrons 11. Grown Corona 5.3.
time. Place of preparation. Appropriate cutlery.g. if any 11. Time taken for the preparation 3. When and where to serve. Alternatives. Portion sizes 14. crockery and silver used with each dish 13.g. It is important to know which menu is applicable. Price 9. type of clientele 15. who to serve. Sauces used with the dish 4. type of outlets. e. 12. Popular selling items An establishment may have several menus. Which course each dish belongs to 10. pantry. Method of preparation and all the ingredients used 2. where and when. Accompaniments and garnishes 5. Garde Manager.Lesson
The restaurant supervisor must be ware of certain points regarding each dish on the menu: 1. Whether the dish is vegetarian or non-vegetarian 6. Here are few menus that establishments have: Breakfast menu Luncheon menu Dinner menu Snack menu Sunday menu Children’s menu Dessert menu Room service menu Poolside menu Bar b’que menu Banquet menu Health menu Wine list TRAINING METHODOLOGY
. etc. Method of service 7. hotrange. e. Appropriate wine/spirits to be served with each dish according to traditional practice 8. occasion.
.Get the menu of your restaurant and determine whether the trainees know all about it on the basis of the check-list given above.
B. Corbieres. Port. Sweet white wine or sparkling wine. always chilled (Muscadot. Light white wines. which go with the different courses or different types of preparation:
Hors d’oeuvres Soups Pasta Fish Game Poultry Roast and Joints Cheese Dessert
Soave. Emilion). Suggest the appropriate wine with each dish. Propose the expensive food items on the menu first.g. white burgundy or light red Italian (piesporter Gold Tronichen. Christi). St. “Shrimp Cocktail is made of succulent shrimps on a bed of crisp lettuce and topped with tangy cocktail sauce”. Champagne. Boaujolais). Whenever explaining a dish (in the menu) conjure up a delightful picture to the guest. earn more revenue for the restaurant. Red wines (Medoc. Given below are the wines. Amouitillado or Olorso Sherry.
Wines are expensive and thus. Lacrimi. Served well chilled (voyvary. Geogres. Rhone or Italian (Nuits St. Meursault.Supervisor Skills
A. Madeira Wine.” (ii) “Why don’t you try the Chefs special Steack au Poivre. Sauterne. Volpolicelia. Chateauneuf du Pape. Cevery Chambertin. The lobsters are freshly caught and are very succulent. Liebfraumtich. Wine sales must be rushed to the maximum. Moselle). C. Rubywine or tawny. Champagne.” (iii) “Our restaurant is famous for its Chateaubriand for two”. Riesling. Cotes de Rone. This is done by making the proposition attractive. Red burgundy. Here are some approaches. “Chicken Stroganoff is strips of soft breast of chicken cooked in wine flavoured brown sauce. Classico. Barolo). e. Valpolicella. German wines. Italian wines (Chanti. Dry Sherry Pouilly Fuisse. garnished with fresh cream and mushrooms and served with steaming Indian pillauf”
. (i)“I would recommend the Lobster Thermidor today. Barbera). chabils.
g. can motivate a guest to order them. and if possible. J. “Our Chefs Fish Portugaise is the talk of the town”. e. This little gesture will bring them back again. of irregular guests also. A guest demands this if he is to come back again.
G. hors d’oeuvres in the restaurant. When a guest leaves the restaurant it is important to invite him to visit your establishment again. K. A statement like: “The Chef has conveyed that he has kept aside for you a juicy portion of your porkchops today”.
Display of wines. If flowers are easily available. give clean and efficient service. Try remembering names of gests.D. Place tent cards or small display material on tables.
. Food prepared in the restaurant (gueridon) lends an aroma to the environment that stimulates appetites. cheese. A guest feels special and may visit your restaurant just because he is know to the management and feels wanted. I. F.
H. The matter on these cards could either promote another outlet in the hotel or promote a speciality of the restaurant. present a rose to the lady guests in the group from the management. Try remembering the favourite dishes of regular guests. if attractively done. “Have your after dinner liqueur at Maddok Bar on the first floor”. Above all.
7. Never be overfriendly with the staff. sit with him and understand his reasons for rebellion. Ensure that he has had an opportunity to be conversant with the rules before punishing him. Ignorance of rules is a crime. Remember a bad apple can spoil the bunch. which demands sincerity. Given below. where grooming and physical conduct play a role. Punish. Give him attention. Don’t kill adventurism but give him challenging jobs with risks. Here are some tips to prevent indiscipline. Improve upon the control system and seal loopholes. honesty and perseverance. A fault committed must be checked at once. Cultivate good habits. so punish him. Set an example by being self-discipline yourself. on the left are the reasons for indiscipline. Tell them the benefits of self-discipline and how it can achieve promotions. and mental. 1. Discipline is of two types-physical. Motivate him out of rebellion. while on the right side the suitable action is suggested. Councel him. 3. better tips.
(b) Adventurism (c) System of control absent/ in efficient (d) Ignorance of rules
(e) To attract attention (f) Does not accept the system (g) Rebel (h) Affiliation with negative groups (i) Bad habits (j) Short cutting systems (k) Willful motives
. Persist in repearing house rules and standing instructions to the staff. If positive. Win over the group leader who subsequently will influence the group to be positive. etc.
(a) Unavoidable circumstances
Sometimes there is a crucial element like sickness or pressing demands-this should be excused provided this not too regular. 2. Penalize him heavily. 5. This is because the temptations a hotel are many. 4. 6.Lesson
Discipline is the hallmark of a good hotelier. Always reprimand in privacy.
Switch off equipment like hot case. Send back flowers to Housekeeping or store in a cool place so as to re-use them. Never forget to make checks for whatever is served. Handle service equipment with care. A spillage could spoil the carpet plus waste that portion of food. Tea and coffee should be served according to portions. Be hawk-eyed for staff pilfering food. Cancel food or beverage orders as soon as possible so as to avoid wastage (in case of cancellation or duplication). Return the same to the kitchen.
. Do not misuse them by using them as duster cloths. Switch off gas burners of flambé trolley when not in use. Crockery and cutlery is expensive. Order pads should not be used for rough work. Carry food carefully. Do not mishandle them. Linen is expensive. table lamps. chilling machine. return extra portion to the kitchen. Send timely maintenance orders. Check upon the number of portions. Always use waiters’ dusters for cleaning purposes. Try not to take orders wrong. display cabinet lights. Left over butter and milk can be utilized in the kitchen again. Here are some tips to ensure this: Stop wastage. size of portions and if found excess. Don’t hesitate to clarify doubts.Lesson
Cost Reducing Methods
Cost reduction is one way of increasing profitability. gas burners when the restaurant closes.
Management policies. Motivation of staff is important for efficient and smooth running of the restaurant. 15. 9. Listen and ask for suggestions to increase efficiency. Be absolutely punctual: Preferably half an hour before the restaurant opens. Handkerchief. Correct anyone who was observed to have committed faults in services when the restaurant was open last. 4. menu. Price increase. Finally ask the staff to make a final check of their station and tables. wines. Important functions. if used.B. It sets a plan of action and check for the shift. Questioning: Ask questions regarding service. Allot duties for doing mise-en-place for the next day. How effectively this period of briefing is utilized is the marke of a good supervisor. Check turn-out of staff. Allot job responsibilities. 5. butter and rolls.I. e. Du jour items. cutlery cleaning. guests expected in the restaurant. Nail cut. Omissions or additions to the menu.g. 10. etc. 14. 2. 3. Be impeccably groomed: Shoes polished. linen exchange. Give the staff pep talks from time to time to boost up morale. Ball pen with a small scribbling pad. See that they are carrying the following items: Waiter Cloth. 6. Name plate. water. cocktails. Bottle opener/can openers. Groups staying in the hotel.
Briefing is an important tool in the hands of the Restaurant Supervisor. 13. Take attendance and find out reasons for absenteeism. inspect them personally. for the restaurant. 8. V. to ensure that staff has adequate knowledge. In the case of a restaurant where buffet layout is made for lunch allocate staff who are off-time next day to stay back and do the set-up. Uniform clean and well pressed. 7. 11. 1. Use briefing time to train staff. Ask for and solve problems faced by staff on their job. Give special instructions like: Not available items. 12.
skill and attitude. Skills are developed through demonstration. Training helps to equip a person to do a job in the shortest possible time. 4. 5. During briefing take two or three items from the menu and explain them daily. Training helps the management have a well co-ordinate team. time and effort. Take half-an-hour off between shifts each day and explain to staff the lessons in Part I of this manual.
. 4. 6. while attitude is developed through rules and regulations. Training condenses the experiences that other have gained over several years. films. reading material. Make spot checks to ascertain whether systems and procedures are cloth. etc. A simple blueprint to train your staff in the restaurant: 1. 6. Knowledge can be imparted through lectures. 2. the restaurant supervisor’s personal example. In balanced training it is important to develop knowledge. practice and on-the-job training. 3. Training manpower is not easily available in the market. thus presenting the possibility of better assignments and better pay packets. counseling and advice.Lesson
Training Your Team
Training is the process of changing a given behaviour to a desired behaviour. 3. 5. Training removes the anxiety of workers about their workplace. Repeat rules and regulations and ensure they are understood. Training costs money. Training connotes self-development to staff. 2. That desired behaviour is the excellence in performance wanted of your team in a restaurant. All along ensure physical and mental discipline. 7. Why is training important? 1. Keep the poor workers as understudies to good ones.
i. which is followed most widely. This amount is entered in the register and the signature of the recipients obtained. which all the staff members have. The tips are distributed according to ‘points’.Lesson
One of the systems for collections of tips is keep what one receive.e. Supervisors get the maximum and Trainee waiter the minimum.
. It is the duty of the Restaurant Supervisor to see that distribution is honest and just. At the end of the week this figure is multiplied by the total number of points each person has and the money is distributed. The practice. Each staff member is given a fixed number of points depending upon his seniority. The entire amount is counted by him and entered into the ‘tip register’ after the restaurant closes. is the ‘pooling system’ as under: The captain ensure that all the money received as tips is collected at each station in a box. The total money received during the week is divided by the total number of the points.
24). 24: Staff Scheduling Chart
. D Mr. Thus maximum and most efficient staff must be working during peak and rush hours. whenever necessary.Lesson
The schedule should be prepared at least 2-3 days before it becomes effective. Overlapping. Equal number of persons must be present on each shift as far as possible so as to facilitate proper rotation. G
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤
≤ ≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤
≤ ≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
≤ OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
Fig. Any special requests for off-days. should be granted as far as possible without affecting operations. except on days of rush (see Fig. shifts. Off-days should be evenly distributed throughout the week with the same number of persons off each day. Staff distribution must be optimal. A Mr. weekly or fortnightly as the case may be so as to be impartial to all. C Mr. B Mr. Staff must be rotated through all the shifts. It must be duly authorized by the Restaurant Manager. E Mr. F Mr.
Sun OFF ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
Mr. should be done during peak hours.
Strictly concentrate on the subordinate’s performance and not his personality. Such a system is future-oriented and gives a correct picture as to what potential an individual shows in terms of performance. 9. Help the subordinate to identify his weaknesses and develop an action plan to overcome them. The actual appraisal becomes less difficult and as appraisal interview helps in bringing about a health exchange of ideas. Set objectives and targets in conjunction with subordinates.Lesson
The purpose of performance appraisal is to ascertain an individual’s present and future value to the organization. 4. Set an appraisal interview in a relaxed atmosphere and open to free exchange of views. 6. Set standards of performance. This would mean setting objectives and targets mutually at the beginning of a performance period and assessing whether they have been achieved at the end of it. the appraisal system should encourage methods by which individual deficiencies can be met through training and development.
. If an appraisee cannot achieve the stated objectives and targets. Setting standards of performance is also implicit in the system. the best approach would be to appraise performance and not personality. 8. It also binds the superior and subordinate to act as a team to achieve targets. Review mid-way how a person is doing and tell him freely his shortcomings. Here are the things that a supervisor must start to do: 1. 7. Objectives and targets should be realistic. Give subordinates an opportunity to explain themselves. Show the subordinate the path to future growth. His present value is assessed by his past performance while his future value is determined by his present potential. In order to avoid subjectivity. 2. 3. otherwise quality of performance will be overlooked. A good appraisal would bring to light these two aspects. The main fear in handling performance appraisal is the element of subjectivity. 5. Approach the system as one that helps in developing an individual and not destroying his personality.
wiping glasses. Duties like linen exchange. A standard formula is given below though it may change according to the type of service: One Supervisor per station. must be assigned on a weekly or fortnightly basis. For example. and Restaurant Supervisors. clearance. One or more Assistant Waiters per station. food pick-up and other similar duties. The person assigned to the bar must have a good experience and knowledge of beverages. cleaning. Waiters.Lesson
Assignment of Duties
Duties must be rotated once every week to prevent monotony. One Waiter per 20 covers. Supervisors to a station must be on the basis of the number covers it contains.
. A Waiter must be assigned to the various trolleys on a daily basis. Assistant Waiters. The allocation of Waiters. store requisition. Different station must be assigned to the staff on a rotation basis. an Assistant Waiter should be rotated through various duties like bussing. Each station must have a uniform number of staff members: Assistant Waiters.
This is presented to the labour authorities. which devotes one page to each person and shows the number of hours worked and the days off. taking into consideration the local labour laws. Any changes made should be counter-signed.Lesson
Must be taken daily and shiftwise. The Restaurant Manager should be made aware of late-comers and absentees to take necessary action. Any person who reports late should be marked late and the records must be sent to the Personnel Department for necessary action like deduction from salary. A register. which has all the names together and is used only to mark a person absent or present. The register should be carefully handled as it is used for a full year and should be kept in a safe place.
. This has to be filled in very carefully. Use a pen and ensure that there is no over-writing to avoid malpractices. Staff should be made to realize that coming to their job on time is of great importance. Two registers are generally maintained:
One. Prolonged absenteeism and periodic late-coming should be dealt with severely.
See that checks are not under or over-priced. Co-ordinate with Chef and Barman and inform in case anything is finished. Food pick-up and service should be efficient and quick. See that food is being served according to the courses.
. Ensure that maximum staff is assigned to areas of maximum rush. wine-chiller are functioning If any dishes are specially recommended by the Chef If KOTs and checks are available. No one should be missing from his duty. During Service See that none of the staff talks loudly or eats in the restaurants.Lesson
Check Point for supervisor
Before the service in the restaurant starts the Senior Captain or Supervisor must check the following: Side station Tables and covers Gueridons Bars Hot cases and plate warmers Show case/tables Salad / dessert trolleys Cutlery according to the menu Reservation cards on tables Butter and rolls and ice water If moultons are fixed properly All table appointments Placement of menu cards The temperature of the air-conditioning Position and condition of tables and chairs Wine and food available or not available If hot cases have been switched on If the glass chiller. Ensure that no malpractices are being followed in the restaurant.
See that covers are laid for next day. Ensure that buffet layout responsibility has been delegated. linen exchanged.Lesson
All soiled dishes. Lock the side stands. All electrical equipment should be prepared. dirty linen should be removed. See that lights are switched off and the restaurant locked up. Check for missing checks or unsigned checks. See that bar inventory has been taken.
. Linen should be sorted out and tied in a bundle and left at the appropriate place.
The trancheur cuts the rib roast while the waiter transfers it immediately on to a hot plate.Lesson
Carving of meat in a restaurant is a very skillful art. sharpened. then one thick weighing 180 grams. 5. Note If the guest wants to carve the roast himself left him do so. Lamb leg Roast turkey Baron (two legs with saddle – mutton) Selle (saddle) Chateaubriand (slicing 6-8 slices)
. portion by portion and serves it to the guest from his right. cut the roast absolutely flat. Take clean. High quality restaurants employ a person skilled in this art who is called a trancheur. In case he wants an American cut. if any Trim excesses and tissues Slice it to have a flat side (on one end)
Cleaning of Rib Roast (a) (b) (c) (d) How to Carve Stand behind the carving trolley facing the guest. Equipment (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Carving knife Carving fork Carving board Carving trolley Deboning knife Sharpening file Chopping knife Remove cartilage and strings Remove feather bones. then cut two thin slices weighing 90 gms each. carving knife and fork. Place the rib roast upright on the carving board. Serve Jus-de-roti in a sauce boat on a dessert plate with a dessert spoon. which can be carved. 4. Here are some tips on this activity. are: 1. Various other meats. 2. Serve accompaniments like vegetables French fries separately. In case he wants an English cut. 3. This requires dexterity and showmanship. With a long and smooth motion. Take guest approval by showing the roast to the host.
Banquets are special functions organized for professional. Banquet Supervisor Waiters Asst. Old Boys Association. National Days. dealing with guests and co-ordinating all arrangements. The representative is often present in functions to ensure that guests are satisfied with the arrangements. etc. The secretary handles all correspondence and filing and often takes bookings on the phone. Painting. The banquet representative prepares a sales kit of brochures. Professional Associates. social or state occasions.
. Dealers. The Waiters and Assistant Waiters make the actual arrangements and do the service. Normally such functions are organized when the number of people involved are fifteen or more. Banquet Staff: The Banquet staff normally consists of the following:
Banquet Manager Banquet Sales Rep. Fabric. The types of functions normally are:
Professional Luncheons Conferences Meetings Exhibitions Social Dinners Wedding receptions Cocktail parties Fashion shows Recitals Coffee parties Balls State Dinners Intra-Government and Inter-government parties for Heads of States. Books. National or international. Waiters Casual Staff Barman Wine Waiter Secretary
Company. The supervisor co-ordinates the implementation of function arrangements and controls staff job allocation. The banquet department normally have a skeleton staff and employ casual staff for functions. Press. Banqueting is the service for these functions and is different from the usual service offered in restaurants.
In the set-up the Banquet Manager is over0all in-charge of administration. Training Courses. Seminars. Board Meetings. Sales. Clubs. Sculpture. Company annual days.
11. Seating plan and named of guest for state banquets. Banquet Menu There should be menus for each type of occasion. The choice should be large. 7. varied and within a wide price range. band. Sometimes two or three menus are offered for each type of occasion. Number of people expected and number guaranteed. Menu-type of service required. A guaranteed number is the minimum number of people for whom a charge will be made. alcohol and non-alcoholic drinks to be served. The banquet wine list must offer a good range of wines. Name of Booking Party. Number of covers required. microphones. etc. 6. ice-sculptures. Special arrangements such as. 4.Taking a Banquet Booking A booking is taken on a special information sheet called a Function sheet or Function Prospectus. 10. Type of menu. 5. 12. flowers. Price to be charged per person. Price for hall and special arrangements. The desires of the guest.
Procedure to Service a State Banquet
. lectures. Each menu is well balanced offering vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. ensure that stocks are available before committing any wine. Size of hall allocated. 8. Banquet Table Layouts The type of layout is dependent upon (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Nature of function. Name of the person to whom the bill is to be sent to. Date of function. 13. 9. Nature and type of function. The type of service to be provided. raps. Wines. Time of function. Care must be taken that the Menu Card is carefully and attractively designed. 2. Types of table layout. 14. The type of information recorded is 1. 3. However. The Person-in-charge of banquet booking must be fully conversant with the preparation and presentation of each dish. A typical lunch or dinner menu would offer: Hors d’ oeuvre Soup Entre Sweet Dish Coffee Guests may add other courses according to their choice and budget.
Reception and Preliminaries It is customary for a banquet to be preceded by a cocktail. Snacks are served and the cocktail lasts usually for half an hour. The table plan is usually displayed at the reception room where cocktails are served. The toastmaster or announcer bangs his gavel three times before announcing, “Mr. Chairman, My Lords (in order of importance) Ladies and Gentlemen, dinner (or lunch) is served” in a loud clear, formal tone of voice. Dining Room Preliminaries The doors of the banquet hall are opened and guests take their seats. The waiting staff stand at attention at their respective stations. The announcer calls guests attention and announces the service meal. Once this has been done the meal begins. Mise-en-place All cutlery should be on the table arranged neatly for the number of courses to be served. Fruit knives and fork are not kept but placed on the sideboard. Various wine glasses are kept. Water goblets are placed (liqueur and cordial glasses are never placed). Salt and pepper shakers and the bread and butter are placed on the table before the guests enter. The name of the guest is written on cards, which are placed at the head of the cover where the guest is to sit. Seating should be arranged such that gentlemen and ladies are seated alternately. Husband and wife should sit opposite each other. A station number-stand should be placed prominently for easy identification of waiters. Napkins should be attractively folded for each cover. Flower vases with fresh flowers should be placed on tables. Space and guest per waiter Usually a banquet table accommodates three to six guests on each side. Space between covers should be a minimum of 20” and a maximum of 32” per cover (24” ideally). Space between tables should be a minimum of 4 ½ feet (6 ft ideally). Two waiters are allocated to 8-10 covers. The wine waiter may serve upto 30-35 covers. The banquet supervisor normally stands behind the chairman during the meal. The manager stands right opposite the banquet supervisor for signals or instructions. Timing and Movement The waiters stand at the allotted station when the guests arrive in the banquet hall. Waiter No. 1 behind chair No. 1 of his table and waiter No.2 behind chair No.2 of his chair. Waiters draw the chairs out to enable guests to sit. Ladies are given first preference.
The wine waiter stands near the last chair of the table and also helps in the seating of the guests. After all guests are seated the banquet manager signals the function supervisor to commence service. Note: Timing is the most important element in this service, which should be done with precision and grace. For the first course of horsd’oeuvres, waiter No.1 has the platter with the horsd’oeuvres and waiter No.2 has the plates hot or cold as the case may be. Waiter No.1 stands behind the first chair and waits till the plates are placed by waiter No.2 then, he serves from the left of the table to the right. Service starts only after a signal is received given that the function captain has served the chairman. After the horsd’oeuvres are served, the waiters stand behind the chair where they have finished serving. On getting the signal the function supervisor commences removing the chairman’s plate. Waiter No.2 carried continental trays for clearance and waiter No.1 comes with napkin in hand. They stand behind chair No.1 with waiter No.1 in front and waiter No.2 slightly towards the left of waiter No.2 and behind him. On getting the signal they do the clearance with waiter No.1 picking up the soiled dishes and stacking them properly on the clearance tray held by waiter2. Again they stand behind the last chair and move out for the second course on getting a signal. All the courses are served in this manner. Every time clearance is done, all soiled dishes and cutlery pertaining to that course only, are removed. In the case of main course the vegetables are served by waiter No.2 and main dish by waiter No.1 from the left with a serving fork and knife. Plates are kept before this by waiter No.2. Before the dessert is served, all salt and pepper shakers, sauces, bread and butter along with the soiled dishes and cutlery are removed. Side by side the dessert spoon is placed on the right and dessert fork on the left. Before this, crumbing is done with the help of a waiters cloth (folded) and crumbing tray by No.1. The wine waiters do not go out with other waiters, but stay back and serve wines according to courses and serve water. They may also take orders for drinks. The wine glasses are usually not removed but red wine glasses may be removed before serving dessert. Cognac and liqueurs are served by the wine waiter. Coffee (Black) is served by No.1 from the right and demitasse cups placed by Waiter No.2 from the right. Toast Procedure At the conclusion of the meal, when the coffee cups have been placed in front of the guests, the toastmaster again calls. He announces “My Lords, Ladies and Gentlemen, pray silence for Mr. Chairman who will propose the toast”.
Ashtrays are put by the Wine Water as soon as this has been announced. The toast indicates that formal part of the meal is over and guests are allowed to smoke. Coffee is poured. The speeches continue and the wine butler quickly moves and serves cognac or liqueurs. Glasses should never be empty during speeches. Ashtrays are frequently changed (covering the used ashtrays with the inverted clean one, removing both together and replacing by the inverted clean one).
Flaming or Flambé is a process that requires showmanship and adds flavour to a dish being cooked. This is done mostly in restaurant in full view of guests. The process is simply to allow flames to should the particular dish being cooked so as to give a visual sensation. The flames itself are momentary in order not to burn the final product. Leaping flames are created while the dish is in the process of preparation while soft
blue flames are encouraged at the time of presentation to the guest. To get these flames, alcohol is the best medium as it complements the flavour of the dish also. The choice of alcoholic beverage depends on the suitability of that beverage to the dish. Most alcoholic beverages are capable of being flamed. Once the beverage is exposed to the air, vaporization makes the alcohol inflammable. Obviously those with higher alcoholic content will flame more, e.g. brandy, rum. To be able to flame a fortified wine such as sherry, means keeping it undiluted and having it vessled (in dish, spoon or ladel) for heating it before flaming. Even in the case of the stronger spirits and liqueurs, it is important not to allow the flaming liquid to dilute within a sauce, syrup of juice until it is well alight. It is vital to ignite quickly on the liqueur vapours. Lamp flame is preferable to matches when flaming liqueurs. To get a flame, some alcohol is poured into the pan in which the particular dish is being cooked. The pan is tilted slightly to allow the flames of the gueridon trolley to ignite the alcohol vapours. Once flame is in process, stirring promotes the blaze and basting is therefore more affective and spectacular, if done when the pan is on fire. Sugar sprinkled into the blaze in sweet dishes varies the flame colour. Flaming during presentation to a guest requires a teaspoon or tablespoon of alcohol, which is ignited and poured around the food. This gives a soft blue flame.
Special Food Service
Fondue Bourguinonne for Two Serve raw cubes of beef fillet weighing totally 450-500 grams. With hot oil in a copper pan. Accompaniments: Sauces (a) Americaine (b) Beanaise (c) Hollandaise (d) Curry Mayonnaise
Serve a grape-fruit spoon and a sugar dredger. Place on a bed of crushed ice on a bread boat. Serve Americaine sauce in a sauce boat with a dessert spoon placed on a dessert plate. Melon (Half served chilled with or without port wine) Cut the melon into two halves. Serve in a grape-fruit cup on top of a dessert plate with doyley paper. Hold the shell apart with the first finger and draw the knife along the top shell to loosen the muscle holding the shell. With right hand insert the tip of the blade of the oyster knife into the lips of the closed shells. Scoop out small balls with a scooper. Then using the blade of the knife. Sprinkle castor sugar and put a cherry in the center. Push the knife in and give it a slight twist to break the ligaments.Rolishes
(e) Cold pepper sauce (f) Cocktail sauce (a) Capers (b) Pickled onions (c) Olives
Service: Place two long fondue forks on the left (The top of the fork handle has a colour code for easy identification when many forks are in the pot). Serve with a teaspoon or dessert spoon or dessert spoon Caster sugar is served as an accompaniment. Place back these balls and put on a dinner plat and serve. remove the muscle from the shell. Grape-fruit (Half grape-fruit served chilled) Cut grape-fruit in two halves with a grape-fruit knife. Oysters (Huitres) (Usually 6 oysters served at a time per person).
. Grill the snails. Serve both portions in separate earthenware fondue plates from the right. Place one steak knife on the right Serve hot oil in a copper pan placed on a burner in the center. Accompaniments: (a) Cayenne pepper (b) Freshly ground black pepper (c) Chilli vinegar (d) Tobasco sauce (e) Half a lemon (f) Brown bread and butter Snails (Escargota) Clean slice and sauté the snail and stuff it into its shell with Beurre Maitre D’hotel. loosen the segments in each half. Hold the oysters in the palm of your left hand.
.Serve 6 snails per persons with snail tong on the left and the left and snail fork on the right of the cover. Accompaniments: (a) Hot breakfast toast (b) Butter (c) Segments of lemon (d) Sieve hard boiled white and yolk of eggs (e) Chopped challots. Generally 1 oz. Smoked Salmon Smoked salmon may be served either by using a large fork to roll the salmon slices from a patter and then unrolling it on to the guest a plate or pre-plating it at the gardemanager. 1 dessert spoon) is the portion served with a wooden spoon so as not to crush it. Mix well
Caviar (Served from a caviar pot in a dish of crushed ice. Accompaniments: Brown bread and butter Note : Beurre Maitre D’hotel is made as fallows: Make a paste of butter Add finely chopped parsley and garlic and a few drops of lemon juice. on an under plate).
. there are some basic necessities for leadership in all situations. Anyone who passes the buck or shies away from problems is not a leader. The absence of those qualities in particular situations could lead to poor leadership. However. dictate the qualities that are best suited. The need to come to grips with the situation.Attitudes
Social scientists have found it difficult to reach agreement on a common set of leadership traits. therefore. There is no leadership style too that is a success in all situations. Situations. 1.
Do not let baises override decision. 3. The ability to understand ones own strengths and weaknesses. The experience itself is worthwhile and brings out the best in a person.2. List out all personal strengths and weaknesses and call out an action pan to overcome deficiencies and improve assets. Develop a high sense of physical and mental discipline. 4. This requires a sensitivity to human feelings. he is not going to etch out himself above the other pedestrian works. Find out their individual strengths weakness and use them to their individual working advantage.
Every suervisor is anxious to motivate his team towards greater productivity. Through this knowledge of strengths and weakness one can carve out a plan to overcome deficiencies and develop further assets and thus become a better person. Find out what motivates them. 3. Demand from yourself a high standard of conduct and honesty. It also requires the ability to know what motivates each man. Understand each member of the team working under the supervisors control. 4. a special day
. This requires a tremendous sense of purpose. Be objective in judgment. Creativity (and initiative) is important to leadership. Here are some immediate things a supervisor can do to acquire leadership qualities. 5. Unless a leader contributes something new and original to his workplace and takes the risk of initiating and sustaining it. recognition pins. This requires objectivity and honesty. Introspect a while. Leaders are those who influence people to meet certain objectives. Indulge in self-development through personal reading. 6. Come to grips with them and try solving them. Consider all problems as your own. He is more often than not frustrated in the attempt-cash prize. 1. 2.
These methods cannot generate continuous and perpetual motivation. Delegate responsibility and authority to release the achievement motivator. A man likes to feel that his contribution is recognized and that he has a value as a human being and is not a cog in a machine. This feeling of achievement is the greatest motivator. To do this the supervisor must delegate responsibility and limited authority for the man to execute his job well. Most methods employed nowadays are carrots’ dangled for individuals to grab at. Once he is ready to assume these he can be made accountable for his job. The best way is to satisfy this need as far as possible. If one looks at the definition of ‘motive’ one realizes the intricate dynamics of this whole process. No man likes to feel he is static. He must feel firstly. To sum up. Firstly. Growth is an important motivator and can be achieved through training and development. Secondly he has to rub shoulders with workers who come from different backgrounds socially. The modern worker has a tremendous anxiety of alienation. Very often supervisors crack down hard when a worker does something wrong but rarely praise good work done. The subordinate must be properly trained to assume responsibility and authority. This makes workers under him pawns in a vast chessboard. Recognition of good work done is a fine motivator. 2. The supervisor can remove some of these anxieties by giving personal attention to each member of his team. Motivation is thus the process of releasing the inner drive to achieve an objective. educationally and economically. the worker should be helped to grow mentally and in skills. Give attention to give worker security. A motive is an inner drive to achieve an objective. Make a worker feel worthwhile. How do we motivate then? The supervisor would have to change his attitude towards people first. Delegating accountability gives the worker a purpose in life and the need to do a job well. Most important is to sit with each worker and chalk out common objectives and agreed norms to achieve them. One of the greatest needs of today’s worker is to have a feeling that he is in control of his workplace and not vice versa. From this we see that motivation has to be generated from within an individual and not without. Upward communication should be encouraged that feelings may be aired and managed. The anxiety of adjustment to different values to maintain harmony and the worker’s own anxiety as to how he is beging perceived.
. When he has met his objectives he certainly has a feeling of achievement. 4. Train and develop to give the worker a feeling of growth. he is so far away from the chairman of the company who he perceives as the moderator of his working life. This gives workers a security as to what is expected of them. culturally. that his work is meaningful. the supervisor should: 1. 3. Finally. There are many levels in between toget himself and the top. Very often supervisors assume all responsibility and accountability for fear of losing control of the workplace. The staff under him must be perceived as human beings with feelings and needs. Another aspect that a supervisor needs to attach importance to is to pay attention to his staff. They are not automatons within a complex work machinery.off are some of the several methods. is overbearing.
French to English
Champignons 15. Aubergine 2. Pamplemousse 16. Raisin 21. Grenade 9. Melon 10. Raifort 28. Cresson 13. Laitue 20. Navet 22. Sultanes
Pineapple Apricot Banana Cherry Dates Strawberry Fruits Pomegranate Melon Nuts Mango Orange Peach Pear Grape-fruit Apple Raspberry Papaya Prune Grapes Sultanas
. Oignon 23. Asperges 4. Potiron 27. Celeri 12. Poire 15. Persil 25. Ail 5. Legume 19. Artichaut 3. Pois 26. Concombre 14. Dates 6. Radis 29. Orange 13. Prun 20. Menthe 21. Mangue 12. Chou 8. Haricot vertes 18. Papaya 19. Noix 11. Peche 14. Truffe
Brinijal Artichoke Asparagus Garlic Beetroot Carrot Cabbage Cauliflower Brussels sprout Lemon Celery Cress Cucumber Mushrooms Spinach Ginger Haricot beans Vegetable Lettuce Mint Turnip Onion Potato Parseley Peas Pumpkin Horse-radish Radish Truffe
1. Fruits 8. Citron 11. Gingembre 17. Choufleur 9. Pomme de terre 24. Cerise 5. Banane 4. Abricot 3. Betterave 6.Vegetables
1. Fraise 7. Pomme 17. Chou de bruxelles 10. Ananas 2. Carotte 7. Pramboise 18. Epinard 16.
Eperlan 6. Cabillaud 5. Truite
Anchovy Bel Whitebait Cod Smelt Halibut Herring Lemon sole Mackerel Whiting Fish Plaice Pomfret Salmon Sole Turbot Trout
1. Anchois 2. Paisen 15. Lievre 11. Crevettesroses 3. Saumon 15. Merlan 11. Gibbier 9. Dinde 6. Homard 1. Plie 13. Lapin 10. Jacques 5. Chapon 2. Maquereau 10. Turbot 17. Crouletache 2. Poussin 13. Huttres 7.Fish
1. Coquilles st. Blanchalle 4. Anguille 3. Dinonneau 8. Sole 16. Crevettesgrises 4. Limende 9. Caneton 3. Poule 14. Caills 5. Dindon 7. Canard 4. Poulet 12. Volaille
Shell fish Prawns Shrimps Scallops Snails Oysters Lobster Capon Duckling Duck Quail Turkey(hen) Turkey (cock) Young turkey Game Rabbit Hare Young male chicken A spring chicken Common hen Pheasant Pigeon Chicken
Poultry and Game
. Poisson 12. Pigeon 16. Stromatee 14. Fletan 7. Escargots 6. Hareng 8.
Pince a glace 37.
Agneau Baeuff Mouton Pore Passion Viande Veau Vache
Lamb Beef Mutton Pork Fish Meat Veal Cow Plate Soup plate Large plate Large plate Half plate Half plate Tea saucer Coffee saucer Consommé sauce Butter dish Sideboard Knife Dessert knife Large knife Oyster knife Fish knife Butter knife Steak knife Spoon Dessert spoon Coffee spoon Soup spoon Tea spoon Mustard spoon Service spoon Ice-cream spoon Grape scissors Coffee pot Jam pot Nut cracker Cup Oil and vinegar crus Tea pot Milk pot Sugar tonges Ice tongs Quarter plate Saucer Suger pot Sause boat Cup Glass
1. 7. Couteau huitre 15. Pot a lait 35. Buffer 12. Auiller a moutrade 25. 2. Cuiller a service 26. Couteau a dessert 13. Cuiller 19. Assiette a café 9. 5. Sucriers 40. Assiette de poisson 7. Couteau a poisson 16. Cuiller a entremet 21. Confiturier 30. 8. Assiette 2. Assiette a consommé 10. Catetiere 29. Ciseaux a couper les raisins 28. Verrs
1. Soucoupe 39. Couteau a beurre 17. 3. Assiette a potage 3. Cuiller a café 22. Tasse 42. Cuiller a the 24. Demi-tasse 32. Pot a the 34. Assiette d’entrement 6. Beurrier 11. Cuiller 20. Huilier 33. 6. Assiette anglaise 5. Casso-nossete 31. Pince a sure 36. Assiette de viande 4. Petite assiette 38. Couteau a bifteck 18. Cuiller a soupe 23. Sauciere 41. Cuiller a glace 27. 4. Couteau de table 14. Assiette a the 8.
Biscuit 46. ice-cream Coffee Ice cube Bread slice cut to various Oil sharpes and sizes.Miscellaneous
29. Petit pain 74. Farine 20. Plate du jour 70. A point 38. Garcon 22. Canapé 63. Diner 16. Huile 28. Lait 64. Pain 72. Fromage 56. Covert 11. Carnture 23. Eau 17. Choix 3. butter Smoked with parsley and lemon juice Cold Cheese Well cooked or well done Waiter Drink. Cendrier 13. Petit dejeuner 71. Boisson sucre 59. Glace 26. Various tit-bits may by Vegetables or fruits placed on these and served. Pain blanch 75. Beurre-manie 42. Alcool 39. Goles 25. Dejeuner 15. Bain-narie 40. Cotellette 5. Chaud 10. Pain grille 77. Corbeille de fruit 43. Beurre noir 51. Beurre noir 52. Beurre fondue 50. Cuisse 9. Neuilles 67. Gateau 24. Croute 37. Cream 6. Picalitti 73. Confiture 4. Cocoa 61. Crepe 7. Au beurre 32.especiallyof chicken Just done Hot Alcohol Cover Double boiler Lid A sumptuous feat Fruit basket Butter and flour-kneaded Ashtray together Candle Beer Lunch Beef steak Dinner Literally”twice baked” Sweet Soup prepared from shell fish Water Butter Stuffing Melted butter Staffed Black butter Flour Nut brown butter Chilled Maitre d’hotel butter. Macedoine 65. used plain or Milk fried. Boisson 58. i. Mile 66. Omelette 69.e. A l’huile 33. Oeufs 68. Beurre maitre 53. Chandelle 14. Bisque or doux 47. Patisserie 78. Baquet 41. A la broch 31. Faric 19. Biere 44. Au four 34. Pain bis 76. Au maigre 36. Frappe 21. Honey Noodles Eggs Omelet Special dish of the day Breakfast Bread Mixed pickles Bread roll White bread Brown bread Toast Pastry Lamp used for gueridon cookery
. Cru 8. Glacon 27. Couvercle 12. Au gratin 35. Beurre 49. Bifteck 45. A la 30. Café 62. Roohand
Menue of the day Flesh In the style of Choice Roasted in spit Jame With butter Cutlet Cooked in or served Cream Backed Pancake Gratinted Crust An expression for dishes Raw prepared without meat Leg. Chair 2. Frace 18. Couce 48. Bien cuit 57. Buffet 60. beverage Garnish Soft drink Cake Sideboard Jelly Coca Ice. Carte du-jour 1. Froid 55. Fume d’hotel 54.
Saignant 83. Rechauffe 80. Riz 82. Salade 85. Souper 84. Rhum 81. Sucre 88. Sirop 87.79. Saucisse 86. Vinagre
Reheated Rum Rice Under done Supper Salad Sausage Syrup Sugar Napkin Caterer Vinegar
. Serviette 89. Traiteur 90.
The Restaurant Supervisor
cooked.round spongygenerally earthenware china flat. forks and spoons before the cups.69 See page 68. pepper and mustard Sweetened and flavoured spirit time and sequence during Food items eaten at a particular Residual wine with a complete meal dead yeast Tablecloths. service starts and servimg dishes made of Light. glassware and line for one individual Person located in room service who takes down food and beverage ordersdecoration ofplaces them from their hotel Furnishing and when guest room room day Of theover the telephone.glass. Lacks sweetness Food served into a guest and before the brought before The process of capturing platecooling it is vapour of a a guest boiling liquid Amount of food allotted to one person See page 66 See page 66 Paste of meat Bottle racks that behaviour around society Rules of personalcan be tiltedin polite an axis See page juice of marc Distilled 68. pressed and served cold in aspic See page 62 Lacking carbonation appetizer before or during a meal Extra dish served as Wines that contain carbon dioxide See pageof sturgeon fish Bladder 83 Small present of money for service rendered Tossed in a shallow pan See page 83 Meal at fixed time and price for guests at hotel Running wine Wine made from residual fermented wine Micro-organism used in fermentation
. dusters. traycloths Crescent-shaped bread-roll Bill of payment Preparing of patrons Customersthe restaurant environment Meaning literally “put in place” but refers to preparation All knives.69 Alcoholic content in a beverage containing liquid The action of yeast on any sugar Wines strengthened in alcoholic content Person staying in the hotel Pink by the patron of restaurant or hotel Customer oradditionof aalcohol or spirit See page 65 White meat boned. saucers All plates.A la carte Acetobacter Aerobic Anaerobic Alcohol Birioche Brut Bentonite Cuvee Cruet set Liqueur Course Lees Linen Croissant Check Mis-en-scene Clientele Mis-en-place Cutlery Crockery Muffin Marc Cover Order-Taker Décor De jour Dry Ore-plated Distillation Portion Degorgement Dosage Pate Pupitres Etiquette Pot-still process Eau-de-vie-de-more Potent still process Proof Fermentation Fortified Wines Residents Rose Guest Remuage Galantine Spirit Still wine Hors d’oeuvre Sparkling Sakazuki Isinglass Tip Sauted Tokkuri Table d’hote Vin de goutte Vin de presse Yeast
Ordered as separately priced items from the menu Bacteria Alive in the presence of oxygen Alive in the absence of oxyg en See page 62 Small sweet cake made with light yeast dough Lacks sweetness completely Colloid clay Stock of blended wine Sprinkler pots for salt. skin on table taken by the wine The place andaresidual fermented cutlery. porcelain or cake Pips. napkins.