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METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) MODULE 1
Metrology (from Ancient Greek metron (measure) and logos (study of)) is the science of measurement. Metrtrology includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement.
Metrology is defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) as "the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology." Metrology is a very broad field and may be divided into three subfields:
Scientific or fundamental metrology concerns the establishment of measurement units, unit systems, the development of new measurement methods, realisation of measurement standards and the transfer of traceability from these standards to users in society.
Applied or industrial metrology concerns the application of measurement science to manufacturing and other processes and their use in society, ensuring the suitability of measurement instruments, their calibration and quality control of measurements.
Legal metrology concerns regulatory requirements of measurements and measuring instruments for the protection of health, public safety, the environment, enabling taxation, protection of consumers and fair trade.
A core concept in metrology is (metrological) traceability, defined as "the property of the result of a measurement or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated
METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 references, usually national or international standards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons, all having stated uncertainties." The level of traceability establishes the level of comparability of the measurement: whether the result of a measurement can be compared to the previous one, a measurement result a year ago, or to the result of a measurement performed anywhere else in the world. Traceability is most often obtained by calibration, establishing the relation between the indication of a measuring instrument and the value of a measurement standard. These standards are usually coordinated by national laboratories: National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), National Physical Laboratory, UK, etc. Tracebility, accuracy, precision, systematic bias, evaluation of measurement uncertainty are critical parts of a quality management system.
Mistakes can make measurements and counts incorrect. If there are no mistakes, all counts will be exactly correct. Even if there are no mistakes, nearly all measurements are still inexact. The term 'error' is reserved for that inexactness, also called measurement uncertainty. Among the few exact measurements are: • The absence of the quantity being measured, such as a voltmeter with its leads shorted together: the meter should read zero exactly. • Measurement of an accepted constant under qualifying conditions, such as the triple point of pure water: the thermometer should read 273.16 Kelvin (0.01 degrees Celsius, 32.018 degrees Fahrenheit) when qualified equipment is used correctly. • Self-checking ratio metric measurements, such as a potentiometer: the ratio is between steps is independently adjusted and verified to be beyond influential inexactness.
METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 All other measurements either have to be verified to be sufficiently correct or left to chance. Metrology is the science that establishes the correctness of specific measurement situations. This is done by anticipating and allowing for both mistakes and error. The precise distinction between measurement error and mistakes is not settled and varies by country. Repeatability and reproducibility studies help quanitfy the precision: one common method is an ANOVA Gauge R&R study. Calibration is the process where metrology is applied to measurement equipment and processes to determine confomity with a known standard of measurement, usually tracable to a national standards board.
Standards are objects or ideas that are designated as being authoritative for some accepted reason. Whatever value they possess is useful for comparison to unknowns for the purpose of establishing or confirming an assigned value based on the standard. The design of this comparison process for measurements is metrology. The execution of measurement comparisons for the purpose of establishing the relationship between a standard and some other measuring device is calibration. The ideal standard is independently reproducible without uncertainty. This is what the creators of the 'metre' length standard were attempting to do in the 19th century. Later, we learned that the Earth’s surface is a terrible basis for a standard. The Earth is not spherical and it is constantly changing in shape. But the special alloy metre/meter bars that were created and accepted in that time period standardized international length measurement until the 1950s. Careful calibrations allowed tolerances as small as 10 parts in 1 million to be distributed and reproduced in metrology laboratories worldwide, regardless of whether the rest of the metric system was implemented and in spite of the shortfalls of the metre/meter’s original basis.
METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1
Historical International Prototype Meter Bars
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF METROLOGY STANDARDS
The inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3000–1500 BCE, Mature period 2600–1900 BCE) developed a sophisticated system of standardization, using weights and measures, evident by the excavations made at the Indus valley sites. This technical standardization enabled gauging devices to be effectively used in angular measurement and measurement for construction. Calibration was also found in measuring devices along with multiple subdivisions in case of some devices. Metrology has existed in some form or another since antiquity. The earliest forms of metrology were simply arbitrary standards set up by regional or local authorities, often based on practical measures such as the length of an arm. The earliest examples of these standardized measures are length, time, and weight. These standards were established in order to facilitate commerce and record human activity. Little progress was made with regard to proto-metrology until various scientists, chemists, and physicists started making headway during the scientific revolution. With the advances in the sciences, the comparison of experiment to theory required a rational system of units, and something more closely resembling modern metrology began to come into being.
METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 The discovery of atoms, electricity, thermodynamics, and other fundamental scientific principles could be applied to standards of measurement, and many inventions made it easier to quantitatively or qualitatively assess physical properties, using the defined units of measurement established by science. Metrology was thus one of the precursors to the Industrial Revolution, and was necessary for the implementation of mass production, equipment commonality, and assembly lines. Modern metrology has its roots in the French Revolution, with the political motivation to harmonize units all over France and the concept of establishing units of measurement based on constants of nature, and thus making measurement units available "for all people, for all time". In this case deriving a unit of length from the dimensions of the Earth, and a unit of mass from a cube of water. The result was platinum standards for the meter and the kilogram established as the basis of the metric system on June 22, 1799. This further led to the creation of the Système International d'Unités, or the International System of Units. This system has gained unprecedented worldwide acceptance as definitions and standards of modern measurement units. Though not the official system of units of all nations, the definitions and specifications of SI are globally accepted and recognized. The SI is maintained under the auspices of the Metre Convention and its institutions, the General Conference on Weights and Measures, or CGPM, its executive branch the International Committee for Weights and Measures, or CIPM, and its technical institution the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, or BIPM. As the authorities on SI, these organizations establish and promulgate the SI, with the ambition to be able to service all. This includes introducing new units, such as the relatively new unit, the mole, to encompass metrology in chemistry. These units are then established and maintained through various agencies in each country, and establish a hierarchy of measurement standards that can be traced back to the established standard unit, a concept
METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 known as metrological traceability. MODERN STANDARDS Currently. For example. In the United States. In 1893. Edward Weston (chemist) and his company perfected his Saturated Standard Cell design. called banks. adapts independent unit of measure theory to practical measurement activity. then a length standard can be reproduced without a meter bar artifact. Ohm's law is the most widely understood concept in all of electricity usage. can still be found in some metrology and calibration laboratories today. ASTM Standard Practice E 380. The candela is defined in terms of the watt. If an accurate time base is available. which in turn is derived . Lesser known is the relationship between the luminance (candela) and current (ampere). Length (meter) and time (second) are already connected this way.S. This advance made a huge practical difference at a critical moment in the development of modern electrical devices. both dealing with angle measurement. It is believed that each of independent units of measure will be defined in terms of the other four independent units eventually. agencies holding this responsibility are the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Voltage and resistance units are dependent on current units. Edward Weston did not pursue patents for his cell design. By doing this. only five independent units of measure are internationally recognized. Groupings of saturated cells. his superior design quickly replaced similar but inferior patented devices worldwide without much discussion. The development of standards also involves individual and small group achievements.replaced by IEEE/ASTM SI10. only current (ampere) is an independent unit. The U. Of the three units of measure involved. per Ohm's law. which allowed the volt to be reproduced to 1 part in ten to the fourth power directly. All measurements of all types are based on one or more of these independent units. Two supplemental independent units are also recognized internationally.
know that there are no radioactive materials in their clocks. This difficult to recreate standard is supplemented by an incandescent bulb design that is used as a secondary and transfer standard. Non-commercial measurement details like these used to be academic curiosities. But as the frontiers of science moved forward. most owners of 'atomic clocks. manufacturing and ordinary living now routinely challenge the limits of measurement. As this resolution capability increased. See leap second for an explanation and as a case study of international cooperation under challenging conditions. Temperature measurement is coordinated by the International Practical Temperature Scale. Luminance (candela) can only be reproduced to 5% of reading despite having sensors that are capable of 50 parts per million (0.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 from the ampere. These bulbs recreate the candela when a specific amount of current is applied. Temperature (kelvin) is defined by accepted fixed points. There are too many other measurement devices used by . some units of measure have much more resolution than others. The second is reproducible to 1 part in 10 to the 14th power. These points are defined by the state changes of nearly pure materials. Engineering. Reproducibility of the standard is the constraint. generally as they move from liquid to solid. what was believed to be a constant proved to be very slightly irregular. The development of standards follows the needs of technology. Between these fixed points. This mosaic of approaches produces uncertainty that is not uniform over the entire range of temperature measurement. As a result. Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (SPRTs) constructed a very specific way are used to interpolate temperature values.' more correctly known as radio clocks. it pulled applied science along.0005%) precision. For example. An unacceptably small percentage of users know that the clocks are synchronized by internal radio receivers for broadcasted time signals from real atomic clocks. maintained by the BIPM.
and which definition of each quantity will be used as the basis for accomplishing the process control that their manufacturing and product specifications require. Hertz and. There also are plenty of surname-less units of measure waiting for new champions. also known as “dimensional control plans”. the need for metrology and calibration is difficult to substantiate. INDUSTRY-SPECIFIC METROLOGY STANDARDS In addition to standards created by national and international standards organizations. The completeness with which the manufactured part can be measured such as described in High-definition metrology. Siemens. Watt. several issues beyond accuracy constrain the usability of metrology methods. many large and small industrial companies also define metrology standards and procedures to meet their particular needs for technically and economically competitive manufacturing. how often each quantity will be measured. Ampere. in 1971. while drawing in part upon the national and international standards. for their products. there still are many unanswered questions and a lot of work remaining to be done. These include 1. or “DCPs”. which must match the TAKT Time of the production line. In industrial metrology. After 40+ centuries of effort. They would join Kelvin. . These standards and procedures. 2. Without this basis. The speed with which measurements can be accomplished on parts or surfaces in the process of manufacturing. Industrial metrology standards include dynamic control plans. in the ranks of those who received the ultimate acknowledgement of their contributions to technology and measurement.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 people who don't have adequate comprehension of the basic principles involved. also address the issues of what specific instrument technology will be used to measure each quantity.
the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) plays the dual role of maintaining and furthering both commercial and scientific metrology. The sealer's staff and agents . responding to the accumulated concerns of the state residents. and 5. Large states further divide this effort by county. where a "Sealer" or other appointee is responsible for the validity of most common commercial measurements such as mass balances (scales) in grocery stores and gasoline pump measurements of volume. The accuracy and traceability of commercial measurements is enforced per the laws of the individual states. In the United States. vibration. Commercial measurement generally involves any material sold by any unit of measure. Some intuitive or obvious measurement is generally exempted. NATIONAL STANDARDS Every country maintains its own metrology system. dust.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 3. and a host of other potential hostile factors. The total financial cost of measuring each part. The ability of the measurement results. to be assimilated by the manufacturing operators or automation in time to effectively control the manufacturing process variables. Commercial metrology is also known as "weights and measures" and is essential to commerce of any kind above the pure barter level. Every state maintains its own weights and measures functionality with traceability to the national standards maintained by NIST. NIST does not enforce measurement accuracy directly. such as selling cloth on a cutting table that has a yardstick fastened to it. as they are presented. All counting-based transactions are generally exempt also. 4. The ability of the measurement mechanism to operate reliably in a manufacturing plant environment considering temperature. But each state has its own rules.
The term "commercial metrology" is also used to describe calibration laboratories that are not owned by the companies they serve. For example.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 make periodic inspections to catch merchant cheaters. scale calibrators and other specialists involved in commercial measuring equipment maintenance. They may choose to have their work accredited by voluntary certification organizations based on customer desires. weighmistresses. Calibration laboratories that serve scientific metrology are regulated as businesses only. Typical State Seal application: Even in Las Vegas. but there is no requirement to do so. Irresolvable disputes involving scientific metrology are generally settled in the civil . electricity watt-hour meters and water delivery flow meters are commonly monitored by the state's "public utilities commission" who enforces the measurement tolerances and traceabiity to NIST through the utility providers. Highway State Police and the State Highway Department generally run the commercial truck mass measurement programs for safety purposes and to minimize the damage to road surfaces that overloaded trucks cause. other state government agencies can be involved. maintaining the integrity of commercial measurements. Scientific metrology addresses measurement phenomena not quantified in ordinary commerce. people prefer not to leave volumetric gasoline measurements to chance. Nearly all states license weighmasters. such as the test bed pictured at the beginning of the article. Depending on the specific state.
Its French language acronym is BIPM. This is the headquarters for the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. The meter was originally defined as one ten-millionth of the distance between the North Pole and the equator at the longitude of Paris. that was the standard from 1889 to 1960. Because of the difficulty of reproducing this measurement. Some federal government entities like the Federal Communications Commission and the Environmental Protection Administration are considered to be the final authority in their domains rather than the NIST. Disputes involving only metrology issues with those organizations probably would not be heard in any courts. a platinum bar of that length was constructed in 1799 and housed at Pavillon de Breteuil near Paris. LINE STADARDS INTERNATIONAL PROTOTYPE METER Historical International Prototype Meter bar. . made of an alloy of platinum and iridium.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 court systems.
Although we might suggest that the Egyptians had discovered the art of measurement. can be highly polished. whereas in the early and most historic eras. and there has been steady significant pressure since to convert to a scientific basis from so called customary units of . In 1889 the meter was redefined as the distance between precision marks on a new 'X' shaped 90% platinum 10% iridium bar at 0 °C. This alloy was used because it is does not oxidize. when later analyzed. some quantities are designated as fundamental units meaning all other needed units can be derived from them. The meter was redefined yet again in 1989 in terms of the speed of light. regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. Roman science. and expands or contracts very little with temperature changes. was not as advanced.458 meters per second and is used to indirectly calculate the length of the meter. is hard. The French Revolution gave rise to a scientific system. Selected metrologists were authorized to travel there to duplicate the marks on to their own bars for regional prototypes The new bar served as standard until 1960 when the meter was redefined in terms of the wavelength of a spectral line of Krypton86.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 It was discovered that this bar was a fraction of a millimeter too long. it is really only with the Greeks that the science of measurement begins to appear. soon began to place their measurement system on a more scientific basis.792. By comparison.. The present speed of light is defined as 299. Scientifically. the units were given by fiat (See Statutory law) by the ruling entities and were not necessarily well inter-related or self-consistent. and their early experimentation with weights and measures. The bar is kept at the BIPM. SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important. The Greeks' knowledge of geometry. which came later..
conversion to a common basis had no impetus. In most systems. as a better more basic parameter. Later science developments showed that either electric charge or electric current must be added to complete the minimum set of fundamental quantities by which all other metrological units may be defined. nautical miles. and the understanding that a better more universal system (based on more rationale and fundamental units) only gradually spread with the maturation and appreciation of the rigor characteristic of Newtonian physics. length was measured in inches. Historically a wide range of units were used for the same quantity. rods. notably the 1824 legal changes to the imperial system.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 measure. especially in the utilitarian subfields of applied science like civil and mechanical engineering. such as power. fathoms. for example. and time are fundamental quantities. Nor were they necessarily the same units (or equal units) between different members of similar cultural backgrounds. Some systems have changed to recognize the improved relationship. are derived from the fundamental set. miles. in several cultural settings. It was only after the appreciation of these needs and the appreciation of the difficulties of converting between numerous national customary systems became widespread could there be any serious . Once the analysis tools within that field were appreciated and came into widespread use in the nascent sciences. feet. or as has been now accepted as better in science and engineering. leagues. speed is distance divided by time. Other quantities. the substitution of mass for weight. yards. changing one's measurement system has real fiscal and cultural costs. furlongs. measurement systems were perfectly adequate within their own cultural milieu. Moreover. for example. It must be understood by the modern reader that historically. etc. speed. length (distance). stadia. chains. with conversion factors which are not simple powers of ten or even always simple fractions within a given customary system. weight.
by simply moving the decimal point. METRIC SYSTEM .234 m is 1234.001234 kilometres. Thus the basic metric unit of length is the metre or meter.0 millimetres. or 0.. Often secondary units (multiples and submultiples) are used which convert to the basic units by multiplying by powers of ten. Eventually cubits and strides gave way under need and demand from merchants and evolved to customary units. however egocentric or amusing it may now seem viewed with eyes used to modern precision. the different units were defined independently according to the length of a king's thumb or the size of his foot.e. systems of measurement were defined locally. In antiquity. perhaps itself defined in hands and knuckles. Credit the French Revolutionary spirit for taking the first significant and radical step down that road. the length of arm or per custom like the weight of water in a keg of specific size.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 justification for an international effort of standardization. The unifying characteristic is that there was some definition based on some standard. a single basic unit is used for each fundamental quantity. In the metric system and other recent systems. the length of stride. i. a distance of 1.
and more recently to the English speaking countries. mass. electric current. The other units of length and mass. Mesures usuelles (French for customary measurements) were a system of measurement introduced to act as compromise between the metric system and traditional measurements. Metric systems of units have evolved since the adoption of the first well-defined system in France in 1791. customary. for length and mass. the names for these are formed with prefixes. In the early metric system there were two fundamental or base units. kilogram and second as well as the kelvin. A number of variations on the metric system have been in use. candela. This relationship is compatible with the decimal system of numbers and it contributes greatly to the convenience of metric units. the centimetre-gram-second systems (cgs) useful in science. ampere. time. and all units of area. and metric.S. During this evolution the use of these systems spread throughout the world. the metre and the gram. luminous intensity and amount of substance.).K. Multiples and submultiples of metric units are related by powers of ten. U. The first of these classes are the seven SI base units for length.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 A baby bottle that measures in three measurement systems—imperial (U. the metretonne-second system (mts) once used in the USSR and the metre-kilogram-second system of units (mks) most commonly used today. . The current international standard metric system is the International System of Units (Système international d'unités or SI) It is an mks system based on the metre. The second of these are the SI derived units. It was used in France from 1812 to 1839. first to the non-English-speaking countries. and compound units such as density were derived from these two fundamental units. These include gravitational systems. volume. temperature. The SI includes two classes of units which are defined and agreed internationally. and mole.
Several foot units were in use. power) are expressed in terms of SI derived units. but it did not have a definite relationship to the other units. the hand (4 inches). In Anglo-Saxon England (before the Norman conquest of 1066).8 inches). ENGLISH CUSTOMARY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES DISTANCE In all traditional measuring systems. force. from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger. the span (width of the outstretched hand. although it has evolved to be longer than most people's feet. your total "arm span. 3 palms or 9 inches). which is very close to its modern length. The shaftment was frequently used. The inch (ynce) was defined to be the length of 3 barleycorns.g. 18 inches)." from one fingertip to the other. short distance units are based on the dimensions of the human body. Finally. but it is also understood to be the distance from the tip of the nose to the end of the middle finger of the outstretched hand. the nail (length of the last two joints of the middle finger. there are many other "natural units" of the same kind. a foot equal to 2 shaftments (13 inches). in many languages. and the cubit (length of the forearm. The fathom was also used.75 inch). the shaftment (width of the hand and outstretched thumb.5 inches long. the word for "inch" is also the word for "thumb. if you stretch your arms out to the sides as far as possible. the palm (width of the palm. Historically. . about 9. 3 inches). an actual foot length.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 These derived units are defined in terms of the seven base units. The inch represents the width of a thumb." The foot (12 inches) was originally the length of a human foot. short distances seem to have been measured in several ways. 2 palms or 6 inches). work. 0. in fact. The yard (3 feet) seems to have gotten its start in England as the name of a 3-foot measuring stick. 3 digits or 2.25 inches). and the "natural foot" (pes naturalis. All other quantities (e. is a fathom (6 feet). including a foot equal to 12 inches. including the digit (the width of a finger. but it was roughly 6.
William of Malmsebury wrote that the yard was "the measure of his [the king's] own arm. have come down to us today with essentially no change. These ancient Saxon units. 40 rods make a furlong (fuhrlang). and measurements in this unit were said to be "by the foot of St." thus establishing that unit for the first time in England. A "pace" here means two steps." The Norman kings had no interest in changing the length of the rod. This was not very convenient.5 feet). For a long time no one felt any need to be precise about this. It just didn't make much difference whether the . Longer distances in England are traditionally measured in miles." thus launching the story that the yard was defined to be the distance from the nose to the fingertip of Henry I. Paul's" (de pedibus Sancti Pauli). an old Saxon unit probably equal to 20 "natural feet. since the accuracy of deeds and other land records depended on that unit. which were called "yards. Henry I also appears to have ordered construction of 3-foot standards. In fact. the foot being 36 barleycorns and the yard 108. all land in England was traditionally measured by the gyrd or rod. so the mile is a unit of roughly 5000 feet. Meanwhile. right and left. the rod and the furlong.5 yards happened to be the length of the rod as measured by the 12-inch foot. but 5. equals 4 rods or 1/10 furlong in order to fit nicely with the Saxon units.5 yards (16. or about 5 feet. The mile is a Roman unit. The chain. it appears that during the reign of Henry I (1100-1135) the 12-inch foot became official. In the Saxon land-measuring system. and the royal government took steps to make this foot length known. Paul's Church in London. Accordingly. because distances longer than a furlong did not need to be measured exactly. Although no single document on the subject can be found. a more recent invention. so nothing could be done about it.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 When the Normans arrived. the length of the traditional furrow (fuhr) as plowed by ox teams on Saxon farms. both the foot and the yard were established on the basis of the Saxon ynce. the length of the rod was fixed at 5. they brought back to England the Roman tradition of a 12-inch foot. A 12-inch foot was inscribed on the base of a column of St. originally defined to be the length of 1000 paces of a Roman legion.
This decision completed the English distance system.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 next town was 21 or 22 miles away. land is traditionally measured by the acre. In medieval England. various mile units seem to have been used. AREA In all the English-speaking countries. very awkwardly indeed. If we line up 10 of these 4 x 40 standard acres side by side. and since the mile is 8 furlongs there are exactly 10 x 8 x 8 = 640 acres in a square mile. a very old Saxon unit that is either historic or archaic. But the acre was never visualized as a square. Since this was just before the settling of the American colonies. This correspondence is not exact: the furlong is 660 English feet and the stadium is only 625 slightly-shorter Roman feet. In 1592. The word "acre" also meant "field". we get 10 acres in a square furlong. This works out. meaning "day". and as a unit an acre was originally a field of a size that a farmer could plow in a single day. Parliament settled this question by setting the length of the mile at 8 furlongs. since the furlong was an English unit roughly equivalent to the Roman stadium and the Romans had set their mile equal to 8 stadia. Eventually. to be exactly 43 560 square feet . the corresponding unit in German is called the morgen ("morning") or tagwerk ("day's work"). one furlong (40 rods) in length but only 4 rods (1 chain) wide. which is derived from jour. The French word for the unit is journal. which works out to 1760 yards or 5280 feet. Most area units were eventually defined to be the area of a square having sides equal to some simple multiple of a distance unit. depending on your point of view. An acre is the area of a long and narrow Anglo-Saxon farm field. since the oxen had to be rested in the afternoon. like the square yard. what made the most sense to people was that a mile should equal 8 furlongs. . British and American distance units have always been the same. this meant a field that could be plowed in a morning. There are references to the acre at least as early as the year 732. In practice.
During the Middle Ages there were many different pound standards in use. Since the troy pound was smaller than the commercial pound units used in most of Europe. This unit seemed about the right size to merchants. but many European merchants preferred to use a larger pound of 16 ounces. since merchants trading along a certain route had to be familiar with the units used at both ends of the trip. The oldest English weight system has been used since the time of the Saxon kings.S. Thus barleycorns are at the origin of both weight and distance units in the English system. the . perhaps because a 16-ounce pound is conveniently divided into halves. originated as a Roman unit and was used throughout the Roman Empire.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 WEIGHT The basic traditional unit of weight. Twenty pennies weighed an ounce. which provided the basis on which coins were minted and gold and silver were weighed. Even today gold and silver prices are quoted by the troy ounce in financial markets everywhere. Since Roman coins were still in circulation in Saxon times. was very inconvenient. so it weighed 7200 grains. The troy pound weighs 5760 grains. the troy system was designed to model the Roman system directly. Modeled on a common Italian pound unit of the late thirteenth century. Around 1300 the mercantile pound was replaced in English commerce by the 16-ounce avoirdupois pound. It is based on the 12-ounce troy pound. The troy system continued to be used by jewelers and also by druggists until the nineteenth century. quarters. and Britain. some of 12 ounces and some of 16. or eighths. The use of these weight units naturally followed trade routes. This unit contained 15 troy ounces. This is the pound unit still in common use in the U. In traditional English law the various pound weights are related by stating all of them as multiples of the grain. and therefore a pennyweight is 480/20 = 24 grains. the pound. which was originally the weight of a single barleycorn. rather than 12 or 16. and the ounces weigh 480 grains. The Roman pound was divided into 12 ounces. medieval English merchants often used a larger pound called the "mercantile" pound (libra mercatoria). but its division into 15 parts.
they called it the cental. (The American hundredweight became so popular in commerce that British merchants decided they needed a name for it. especially the German zentner and the French quintal. the two English ounce units don't agree: the avoirdupois ounce is 7000/16 = 437. not very impressed with the history of the British units. or 16 cloves of 7 pounds each.5 grains while the troy ounce is 5760/12 = 480 grains. Conversion between troy and avoirdupois units is so awkward. which.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 avoirdupois pound weighs exactly 7000 grains. while the avoirdupois pound was used for everything else. most international shipments are reckoned in metric tons. There were very good reasons for the odd size of this "hundred": 112 pounds made the hundredweight equivalent for most purposes with competing units of other countries. so the British hundredweight can be divided conveniently into 4 quarters of 28 pounds. During the nineteenth century. Unfortunately. The ton.) Today. The troy system quickly became highly specialized. was defined to equal 20 hundredweight or 2240 pounds. Until . an unfortunate disagreement arose between British and Americans concerning the larger weight units. no one wanted to do it. coincidentally. originally a unit of wine measure. VOLUME The names of the traditional volume units are the names of standard containers. are rather close in weight to the British long ton. is divided further into 16 drams. The definition of the ton as 20 hundredweight made the disagreement carry over to the size of the ton: the British "long" ton remained at 2240 pounds while the American "short" ton became exactly 2000 pounds. which is equal to 112 avoirdupois pounds rather than 100. 8 stone of 14 pounds. Furthermore. Since at least 1400 a standard weight unit in Britain has been the hundredweight. Americans. The avoirdupois ounce. 1/16 pound. 112 is a multiple of 16. redefined the hundredweight to equal exactly 100 pounds. used only for precious metals and for pharmaceuticals.
For dry commodities. For liquids Americans preferred to use the traditional British wine gallon. there are 2 gallons in a peck and 4 pecks in a bushel. This corn gallon holds 268.42 cubic inches. was originally the volume of eight pounds of wheat. The situation was still confused during the American colonial period. or other containers whose size in gallons tended to vary with the commodity. so the traditional . The Imperial gallon was designed to hold exactly 10 pounds of water under certain specified conditions. it was very difficult to measure the capacity of a container accurately in cubic units.5 inches in diameter and 8 inches deep. that they could carry. hogsheads. For larger volumes of dry commodities. As a result. Larger volumes of liquids were carried in barrels. as different commodities were carried in containers of slightly different sizes. Unfortunately. the basic English unit of volume.8 cubic inches. 1/8 of this bushel. This custom led to a multiplicity of units. with wine units being different from beer and ale units or units for other liquids. volume system includes both "dry" and "liquid" units. such as wheat or beer. which Parliament defined to equal exactly 231 cubic inches in 1707. larger gallon.S." defined by Parliament in 1696 to be the volume of a cylindrical container 18. so the standard containers were defined by specifying the weight of a particular substance. so the Americans were actually simplifying things by selecting just two of the many possible gallons. Americans were not inclined to adopt this new. Thus the gallon. which are further divided into 2 pints each. the U. These two were the gallons that had become most common in British commerce by around 1700. with the dry units being about 1/6 larger than the corresponding liquid units. the British Parliament abolished all the traditional gallons and established a new system based on the "Imperial" gallon of 277. The corresponding gallon. In 1824. the Americans were familiar with the "Winchester bushel. is usually called the "corn gallon" in England.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 the eighteenth century. Gallons are always divided into 4 quarts.
the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM. 48 nations have now signed this treaty. attended by representatives of all the industrial countries and international scientific and engineering organizations." At the heart of the SI is a short list of base units defined in an absolute way without referring to any other units. liquid. The base units are consistent with the part of the metric system called the MKS system. pint is divided into 16 fluid ounces. metric and non-metric. To accomplish this in the different systems. The International System is called the SI. including all the major industrialized countries. and the larger British pint is divided into 20 fluid ounces. using the first two initials of its French name Système International d'Unités. are linked through a network of international agreements supporting the International System of Units. the smaller U. for Bureau International des Poids et Mesures). and British Imperial. THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI) All systems of weights and measures. which are at least roughly equal to the volume of one ounce of water. the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM.S. The 23rd CGPM met in 2007. 1875.S. "The SI is not static but evolves to match the world's increasingly demanding requirements for measurement. U.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 English "system" actually includes three different volume measurement systems: U.S. the next meeting will be in 2011. dry. and it is updated every few years by an international conference. The SI is maintained by a small agency in Paris. having signed the original document back in 1875. In all there are seven SI base units: . smaller volumes of liquid are traditionally measured in fluid ounces. The United States is a charter member of this metric club. The key agreement is the Treaty of the Meter (Convention du Mètre). for Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures). signed in Paris on May 20. On both sides of the Atlantic. As BIPM states on its web site.
They include: • • • • • the radian and steradian for plane and solid angles. the joule for energy and the watt for power. the newton for force and the pascal for pressure. the hertz for frequency of regular events and the becquerel for rates of radioactivity and other random events. This means the newton is equal to one kilogram meter per second squared. is defined to be the force that accelerates a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per second. a unit of catalytic activity used in biochemistry. the newton. ohm (resistance). and siemens (conductance). the degree Celsius for everyday measurement of temperature. are defined algebraically in terms of these fundamental units. farad (capacitance). Other SI units. the mole for amount of substance. • units for measurement of magnetism: the weber (flux). . Currently there are 22 SI derived units. respectively. the second for time. For example. so the algebraic relationship is N = kg·m·s-2. and the katal. • • the gray and sievert for radiation dose.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 • • • • • • • the meter for distance. the kelvin for temperature. tesla (flux density). called SI derived units. and the candela for intensity of light. volt (potential). • • the lumen for flux of light and the lux for illuminance. the ampere for electric current. and henry (inductance). the SI unit of force. the kilogram for mass. units for measurement of electricity: the coulomb (charge).
They include: • • • the nautical mile and knot. hour. and arcsecond)." and "their use is not encouraged. such as the decibel). In addition to the 29 base and derived units. arcminute. the SI permits the use of certain additional units. units used in physics and astronomy. a pressure unit. units traditionally used at sea and in meteorology. • • the logarithmic units bel and neper (and their multiples.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 Future meetings of the CGPM may make additions to this list. two metric units commonly used in ordinary life: the liter for volume and the tonne (metric ton) for large masses. the are and hectare. the atomic mass unit or dalton. and its commonly-used multiples such as the millibar in meteorology and the kilobar in engineering. day. • the angstrom and the barn. and three non-metric scientific units whose values represent important physical constants: the astronomical unit. common metric units of area. . The SI currently accepts the use of certain other metric and non-metric units traditional in various fields. the katal was added by the 21st CGPM in 1999." These barely-tolerated units might well be prohibited by future meetings of the CGPM. • • the traditional units of civil time (minute. the bar. These units are supposed to be "defined in relation to the SI in every document in which they are used. including: • the traditional mathematical units for measuring angles (degree. and the electronvolt. and year).
00 100. then the balance is inaccurate. based on its range? Set A 15. 4 Average Range There are several ways to report the precision Std.38 Set B 32.01 99.88 4 100.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 ACCURACY AND PRECISION Accuracy indicates how close a measurement is to the accepted value.56 32.10 2 100.00 Range 0.55 32.53 .32 15. we'd expect a balance to read 100 grams if we placed a standard 100 g weight on the balance. Dev.05 Less precise Trial # Mass (g) 1 100. Dev.99 99. 0. A precise of results. The simplest is the range (the difference between the highest and lowest results) often reported as a deviation from the average.00 0.33 15. If it does not.09 Which of the following sets of data is more precise.48 32. Mass (g) 100.01 0. Precision indicates how close together or More precise Trial # 1 measuring instrument will give very nearly 2 3 the same result each time it is used. how repeatable the results are. For example.02 Average 100.11 Std.00 3 99.99 100.37 15.
But what if they were only 9 yards. it would be easy for the real temperature to be off by as much as a degree or more. but inaccurate. it would still be possible to get an imprecise measurement for first downs.2 oC. but you wouldn't be getting the correct accurate measurement. In science and in football. The thermometers found in high school labs are often more precise than they are accurate. If the chains were the proper ten yards long. and the error is so small you probably wouldn't even notice it. the . 35 inches? You would certainly get the same precise measurement each time you used the chains. Manufacturers will usually specify the accuracy and precision to be expected from their equipment as a uncertainty. The chains must be stretched tightly. However. our measurements should be both accurate and precise. For example. It is quite easy to read a thermometer to the nearest 0. The temperature shown on the thermometer at the right can be read to 34. Of course.35 32. Both teams would not have to go quite ten yards to get a first down.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 15. However.0 oC. However. the overall calibration can often be off by a degree or more.55 Both accuracy and precision affect how many significant digits can be reported. It is quite possible for an instrument to be precise. if the thermometer is not of high quality. even precise and accurate equipment can be used incorrectly. there probably have been football games played where one inch would have made a difference to the outcome of the game. consider the chains used to measure the first down in a football game. and they must be marked from the proper location on the yard line markers. They are supposed to be ten yards long. Iin other words.
In particular.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 temperature could really be as high as 35 or as low as 33 oC. ERRORS OF MEASUREMENT The true score theory is a good simple model for measurement. each person's mood can inflate or deflate their .0. that they hold across most or all of the members of a group? One way to deal with this notion is to revise the simple true score model by dividing the error component into two subcomponents. WHAT IS RANDOM ERROR? Random error is caused by any factors that randomly affect measurement of the variable across the sample. random error and systematic error. For instance. here. But is that reasonable? What if all error is not random? Isn't it possible that some errors are systematic. we'll look at the differences between these two types of errors and try to diagnose their effects on our research. it assumes that any observation is composed of the true value plus some random error value. but it may not always be an accurate reflection of reality. although the thermometer reads 34.
some children may be feeling in a good mood and others may be depressed. WHAT IS SYSTEMATIC ERROR? Systematic error is caused by any factors that systematically affect measurement of the variable across the sample. random error is sometimes considered noise. This means that if we could see all of the random errors in a distribution they would have to sum to 0 -there would be as many negative errors as positive ones. For instance. If mood affects their performance on the measure.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 performance on any occasion. this noise is liable to affect all of the children's scores -. if there is loud traffic going by just outside of a classroom where students are taking a test. Instead. In a particular testing. systematic errors . it pushes observed scores up or down randomly. it may artificially inflate the observed scores for some children and artificially deflate them for others.in this case. Unlike random error. The important thing about random error is that it does not have any consistent effects across the entire sample. systematically lowering them. Because of this. The important property of random error is that it adds variability to the data but does not affect average performance for the group.
if you are gathering measures using people to collect the data (as interviewers or observers) you should make sure you train them thoroughly so that they aren't inadvertently introducing error. Second. how can we reduce measurement errors. random or systematic? One thing you can do is to pilot test your instruments. REDUCING MEASUREMENT ERROR So. systematic error is sometimes considered to be bias in measurement. Fourth. when you collect the data for your study you should double-check the data thoroughly.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 tend to be consistently either positive or negative -. This means that you enter the data twice. you can use statistical procedures to adjust for measurement error. All data entry for computer analysis should be "doublepunched" and verified. getting feedback from your respondents regarding how easy or hard the measure was and information about how the testing environment affected their performance. the second time having your data entry machine check that you are typing the exact same data you did the first time.because of this. These range from rather simple formulas you can apply directly to your data to very complex modeling . Third.
shape and mutual position of surfaces of individual parts of mechanical engineering products are kept within a certain accuracy to achieve their correct and reliable functioning. Actual surfaces of the produced parts therefore differ from ideal surfaces prescribed in drawings. one of the best things you can do to deal with measurement errors. LIMITS FITS AND TOLERANCES BASIC TERMS It is necessary that the dimensions. Deviations of actual surfaces are divided into four groups to enable assessment. you will be able to triangulate across the multiple measures and get a more accurate sense of what's going on. Especially if the different measures don't share the same systematic errors. Routine production processes do not allow maintenance (or measurement) of the given geometrical properties with absolute accuracy. is to use multiple measures of the same construct.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 procedures for modeling the error and its effects. especially systematic errors. prescription and checking of the permitted inaccuracy during production: • • • • Dimensional deviations Shape deviations Position deviations Surface roughness deviations This toll includes the first group and can therefore be used to determine dimensional tolerances and deviations of machine parts. Finally. .
The production accuracy is prescribed with regards to the functionality of the product and to the economy of production as well. limits of size for the shaft . limits of size for the hole dmax . Dmin . where: d=D . It is quite sufficient that the actual dimension of the part is found between two limit dimensions and a permissible deviation is kept with production to ensure correct functioning of engineering products... basic size Dmax .. it is principally impossible to produce machine parts with absolute dimensional accuracy. dmin . A coupling of two parts creates a fit whose functional character is determined by differences of their dimensions before their coupling.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 As mentioned above. The required level of accuracy of production of the given part is then given by the dimensional tolerance which is prescribed in the drawing. it is not necessary or useful.. In fact...
. This paragraph can be used to choose a fit and determine tolerances and deviations of machine parts according to the standard ISO 286:1988. hole lower deviation es . shaft lower deviation Depending on the mutual position of tolerance zones of the coupled parts.. hole upper deviation EI . 3 types of fit can be distinguished: A.. Interference fit ISO 286: ISO system of limits and fits.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 ES .... This standard is identical with the European standard EN 20286:1993 and defines an internationally recognized system of . Clearance fit B.. Transition fit C. shaft upper deviation ei ..
Similarly. the basic size of both connected elements must be the same. TOLERANCE OF A BASIC SIZE FOR SPECIFIC TOLERANCE GRADE. The standard ISO 286 is used as an international standard for linear dimension tolerances and has been accepted in most industrially developed countries in identical or modified wording as a national standard (JIS B 0401. the term "hole" can be used for specification of all inner elements regardless of their shape. Also. The term "shaft". fits of keys in grooves). In case of a fit.). the system can be used for coupling (fits) of cylindrical parts and for fits with parts having two parallel surfaces (e. The system of tolerances and fits ISO can be applied in tolerances and deviations of smooth parts and for fits created by their coupling. including those elements which do not have cylindrical shapes. Note: All numerical values of tolerances and deviations mentioned in this paragraph are given in the metric system and relate to parts with dimensions specified at 20 °C.g. deviations and fits only for basic sizes up to 3150 mm. DIN ISO 286. Tolerances and deviations in this standard can also be applied in smooth parts of other sections. etc. deviations and fits. BS EN 20286. Attention: The standard ISO 286 defines the system of tolerances. CSN EN 20286.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 tolerances. used in this standard has a wide meaning and serves for specification of all outer elements of the part. . It is used particularly for cylindrical parts with round sections. BASIC SIZE It is the size whose limit dimensions are specified using the upper and lower deviations.
IT18). TOLERANCE ZONES The tolerance zone is defined as a spherical zone limited by the upper and lower limit dimensions of the part. Field of use of individual tolerances of the system ISO: IT01 IT6 IT5 IT12 IT11 IT16 IT16 IT18 IT11 to For production of gauges and measuring instruments to For fits in precision and general engineering to For production of semi-products to For structures to For specification of limit deviations of non-tolerated IT18 dimensions Note: When choosing a suitable dimension it is necessary to also take into account the used method of machining of the part in the production process. Each of the tolerances of this system is marked "IT" with attached grade of accuracy (IT01..METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 The tolerance of a size is defined as the difference between the upper and lower limit dimensions of the part.. The system ISO defines 28 classes of basic deviations for holes. the system ISO implements 20 grades of accuracy. The position of the tolerance zone. related to the basic size (zero line). The tolerance zone is therefore determined by the amount of the tolerance and its position related to the basic size. is determined in the ISO system by a so-called basic deviation. These classes are marked by . IT0. In order to meet the requirements of various production branches for accuracy of the product. The dependency between the tolerance and modification of the surface can be found in the table in paragraph . IT1 .
. which consists of a letter marking of the basic deviation and a numerical marking of the tolerance grade (e. ZC) and tolerance grades (IT1 . . The tolerance zones not included in this table are considered special zones and their use is recommended only in technically well-grounded cases. B. etc. IT18) can be used for prescriptions of hole tolerance zones by their mutual combinations. H8.). ZC). This paragraph includes graphic illustrations of all tolerance zones of a hole which are applicable for the specified basic size [1. D5.1] and the tolerance grade IT chosen from the pop-up list. C.. Prescribed hole tolerance zones for routine use (for basic sizes up to 3150 mm): A9 B8 B9 A10 B10 A11 B11 A12 A13 B12 B13 C12 C13 C8 C9 C10 C11 CD6 CD7 CD8 CD9 CD10 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 E10 EF3 EF4 EF5 EF6 EF7 EF8 EF9 EF10 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 FG3 FG4 FG5 FG6 FG7 FG8 FG9 FG10 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10 H11 H12 H13 H14 H15 H16 H17 JS1 JS2 JS3 JS4 JS5 JS6 JS7 JS8 JS9 JS10 JS11 JS12 JS13 JS14 JS15 JS16 JS17 .. Though the general sets of basic deviations (A .. An overview of tolerance zones for general use can be found in the following table.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 capital letters (A.. H7.. in practice only a limited range of tolerance zones is used. The tolerance zone for the specified dimensions is prescribed in the drawing by a tolerance mark.g.
SHAFT TOLERANCE ZONES The tolerance zone is defined as a spherical zone limited by the upper and lower limit dimensions of the part. The tolerance zone is therefore determined by the amount of the tolerance and its position related to the basic size.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 J6 K3 K4 K5 K6 M3 M4 M5 M6 N3 P3 R3 S3 N4 P4 R4 S4 N5 P5 R5 S5 T5 U5 V5 X5 N6 P6 R6 S6 T6 U6 V6 X6 Y6 Z6 J7 K7 M7 N7 P7 R7 S7 T7 U7 V7 X7 Y7 Z7 J8 K8 M8 N8 P8 R8 S8 T8 U8 V8 X8 Y8 Z8 M9 N9 P9 R9 S9 M10 N10 P10 R10 S10 N11 U9 U10 X9 Y9 Z9 X10 Y10 Z10 Z11 ZA6 ZA7 ZA8 ZA9 ZA10 ZA11 ZB7 ZB8 ZB9 ZB10 ZB11 ZC7 ZC8 ZC9 ZC10 ZC11 Note: Tolerance zones with thin print are specified only for basic sizes up to 500 mm. tolerance zones H7. H8. related . The position of the tolerance zone. H9 and H11 are used preferably. Hint: For hole tolerances.
in practice only a limited range of tolerance zones is used. These classes are marked by lower case letters (a. An overview of tolerance zones for general use can be found in the following table. h6. zc)... h7. is determined in the ISO system by a so-called basic deviation. which consists of a letter marking of the basic deviation and a numerical marking of the tolerance grade (e.g.. The system ISO defines 28 classes of basic deviations for shafts. g5.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 to the basic size (zero line). c. IT18) can be used for prescriptions of shaft tolerance zones by their mutual combinations. b. etc... The tolerance zones not included in this table are considered special zones and their use is recommended only in technically well-grounded cases.1] and the tolerance grade IT chosen from the pop-up list. Though the general sets of basic deviations (a . The tolerance zone for the specified dimensions is prescribed in the drawing by a tolerance mark. This paragraph includes graphic illustrations of all tolerance zones of a shaft which are applicable for the specified basic size [1. Prescribed shaft tolerance zones for routine use (for basic sizes up to 3150 mm): a9 b9 a10 b10 a11 b11 a12 a13 b12 b13 c12 c8 c9 c10 c11 cd5 cd6 cd7 cd8 cd9 cd10 d5 e5 d6 e6 d7 d8 d9 d10 d11 d12 d13 e7 e8 e9 e10 ef3 ef4 ef5 ef6 ef7 ef8 ef9 ef10 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 f8 f9 f10 fg3 fg4 fg5 fg6 fg7 fg8 fg9 fg10 g3 g4 g5 g6 g7 g8 g9 g10 . .).. zc) and tolerance grades (IT1 .
tolerance zones h6. SELECTION OF FIT This paragraph can be used to choose a recommended fit. define hole and shaft tolerance zones directly in the paragraphs.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 h7 h8 h9 h10 h11 h12 h13 h14 h15 h16 h17 h18 js1 js2 js3 js4 js5 js6 js7 js8 js9 js10 js11 js12 js13 js14 js15 js16 js17 js18 j5 j6 j7 k3 k4 k5 k6 k7 k8 k9 k10 k11 k12 k13 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 m9 n3 p3 r3 s3 n4 p4 r4 s4 n5 p5 r5 s5 t5 u5 v5 x5 n6 p6 r6 s6 t6 n7 p7 r7 s7 t7 n8 p8 r8 s8 t8 n9 p9 r9 s9 p10 r10 s10 u6 u7 u8 u9 v6 v7 v8 x6 y6 z6 x7 y7 z7 x8 y8 z8 x9 y9 z9 x10 y10 z10 z11 za6 za7 za8 za9 za10 za11 zb7 zb8 zb9 zb10 zb11 zc7 zc8 zc9 zc10 zc11 Note: Tolerance zones with thin print are specified only for basic sizes up to 500 mm. it is recommended to follow several principles: . Hint: For shaft tolerances. If you wish to use another fit than the recommended one. h9 and h11 are used preferably. When designing the fit itself. h7.
Shaft basis system The desired clearances and interferences in the fit are achieved by combinations of various hole tolerance zones with the shaft tolerance zone "h". Hint: In case you wish to find a suitable standardized fit with regard to its specific properties (a fixed amount of clearance or fit interference is required). Use hole tolerances greater or equal to the shaft tolerance. technological and economic reasons. . Tolerances of the hole and shaft should not differ by more than two grades. B. SYSTEM OF FIT Although there can be generally coupled parts without any tolerance zones. the upper deviation of the hole is always equal to zero.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 • • • Design a fit in a hole basis system in a shaft basis system. the lower deviation of the hole is always equal to zero. use the function of automatic fit design in paragraph . A. only two methods of coupling of holes and shafts are recommended due to constructional. Hole basis system The desired clearances and interferences in the fit are achieved by combinations of various shaft tolerance zones with the hole tolerance zone "H". In this system of tolerances and fits. In this system of tolerances and fits.
hole tolerance zone \\\\ . . Hint: Although both systems are equivalent in the view of functional properties. basic size //// ..METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 where: d=D . shaft tolerance zone The option of the system for the specified type of product or production is always influenced by the following factors: • • • • • • Constructional design of the product and the method of assembly... Production procedure and costs for machining the part. Machine holding of the plant... the hole basis system is used preferably. Type of semi-product and consumption of material. Costs for purchase. Options in use of standardized parts.. maintenance and storage of gauges and production tools.
Interference fit It is a fit always ensuring some interference between the hole and shaft in the coupling. B. Tolerance zones of the hole and shaft partly or completely interfere. Transition fit It is a fit where (depending on the actual sizes of the hole and shaft) both clearance and interference may occur in the coupling. 3 types of fit can be distinguished: A. The lower limit size of the hole is greater or at least equal to the upper limit size of the shaft.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 TYPE OF FIT Depending on the mutual position of tolerance zones of the coupled parts. C. Clearance fit It is a fit that always enables a clearance between the hole and shaft in the coupling. . The upper limit size of the hole is smaller or at least equal to the lower limit size of the shaft.
contamination with dust and thermal or mechanical deformations. latches. H8/d9. H9/C9. Selection of a suitable fit is important particularly in view of those measuring instruments. D9/h9. The list of recommended fits given here is for information only and cannot be taken as a fixed listing. gauges and tools which are implemented in the production. H11/c11. C11/h11. D11/h11 Fits with great clearances with parts having great tolerances. follow proven plant practices when selecting a fit. H8/d8. but also economic aspects. H9/d10. D9/h8 . local standards and national usage and last but not least. Use: Pivots. FIELDS OF USE OF SELECTED FITS (PREFERRED FITS ARE IN BOLD): Clearance fits: H11/a11. D10/h9. H9/d9. fits of parts exposed to corrosive effects. H11/c9. Properties and field of use of some selected fits are described in the following overview. H11/d11. A11/h11. When selecting a fit it is often necessary to take into account not only constructional and technological views. A sufficient fit can be selected in the pop-up list. The enumeration of actually used fits may differ depending on the type and field of production. Therefore.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 RECOMMENDED FITS. depending on the plant practices.
crankshaft journals. E9/h9. Without any noticeable clearance after assembly. parts rotating very rarely or only swinging. E8/h7 Running fits with greater clearances without any special requirements for fit accuracy.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 Running fits with greater clearances without any special requirements for accuracy of guiding shafts. H8/e8. General fits of shafts. Use: Fits of long shafts. machine tool spindles. fans and piston machines. H9/f8. bearings of pumps. H8/f7. pistons of hydraulic machines. grinding machine spindles. e. sliding gears and clutch disks. F8/h6 Running fits with smaller clearances with general requirements for fit accuracy. H11/h11. H11/h9 . regulator bearings. rods sliding in bearings. H7/f7. H7/g6. H7/e7. H8/g7. G7/h6 Running fits with very small clearances for accurate guiding of shafts. F8/h7. H8/f8. Use: Multiple fits of shafts of production and piston machines. Use: Parts of machine tools. E8/h8. H9/e9.g. Use: Main fits of machine tools. sliding rods. in agricultural machines.
H8/k7. distance rings. H7/j6. The parts can be assembled or disassembled without great force using a rubber mallet. N7/h6 . pulleys and bushings. parts of machines fixed to shafts using pins. brake disks. The parts can be assembled or disassembled manually. J7/h6 Tight fits with small clearances or negligible interference. rivets or welds. bolts. H8/h8.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 Slipping fits of parts with great tolerances. M8/h6. H7/js6. Use: Precise guiding of machines and preparations. N8/h7. H7/m6. K7/h6 Similar fits with small clearances or small interferences. after lubrication the parts can be turned and slid by hand. H7/n6. manual wheels. The parts can easily be slid one into the other and turn. Use: Easily dismountable fits of hubs of gears. roller guides. H7/h6 Sliding fits with very small clearances for precise guiding and centring of parts. H8/h9. K8/h7. Use: Demountable fits of hubs of gears and pulleys. Mounting by sliding on without use of any great force. H7/k6. retaining rings. Transition fits: H8/j7. exchangeable wheels. clutches. H8/m7. H8/n7. Use: Easily demountable parts. H8/h7. frequently removed bearing bushings. H8/p7.
H7/u6. Preferred fits are marked by asterisk "*" in the list. H7/r6. driven bushings.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 Fixed fits with negligible clearances or small interferences. H8/u7. . P7/h6. Mounting of fits using pressing and light force. H8/u8. S7/h6. flushed bolts. H8/s7. H7/p6. armatures of electric motors on shafts. Assembly using cold pressing only with use of large forces. flanges. H7/s6. U7/h6 Pressed fits with big interferences. H8/x8. bearing bushings. Use: Permanent coupling of gears with shafts. Assembly of parts using hot pressing. Assembly of the parts can be carried out using cold pressing. T7/h6 Pressed fits with medium interference. Interference fits: H8/r7. Use: Fixed plugs. H7/t6. H8/t7. R7/h6 Pressed fits with guaranteed interference. Assembly using pressing and great forces under different temperatures of the parts. bearing bushings. gear rims. Use: Hubs of clutch disks. Hint: If not in contradiction with constructional and technological requirements. U8/h7. preferably use some of the preferred fits. Use: permanent couplings of gears with shafts.
. H7/u6.1] and selected hole tolerance zone. U7/h6 HOLE TOLERANCE ZONE. C11/h11.. An overview of tolerance zones specified for general use can be found in the table in paragraph [1.3]. P7/h6. N7/h6 .. IT18) can be used for prescriptions of hole tolerance zones by their mutual combinations.Clearance fits: H11/c11. The tolerance zones which are not included in the selection are considered special zones and their use is recommended only in technically well-grounded cases. H7/s6.. D9/h9. H8/f7. Though the general sets of basic deviations (A . K7/h6. H7/g6. F8/h7. G7/h6 Transition fits: H7/k6. H7/h6.2. S7/h6. 18) in pop-up lists in this row. . H9/d9. The respective hole tolerance zone is automatically set up in the listing during selection of any of the recommended fits from the list in row [1. Limit deviations of the hole tolerance zone are calculated in this paragraph for the specified basic size [1..Interference fits: H7/p6. ZC) and a tolerance zone (1 . ZC) and tolerance grades (IT1 .. limit deviations will be equal to zero and the tolerance mark will be displayed in red. in practice only a limited range of tolerance zones is used.8]. If you wish to use another tolerance zone for the hole. H7/n6.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 Note: Preferred fits designed for preferred use in the USA are defined in ANSI B4. select the corresponding combination of a basic deviation (A ... This standard prescribes the following groups of preferred fits: . Attention: In case you select a hole tolerance zone which is not defined in the ISO system for the specified basic size.
1] and selected shaft tolerance zone. limit deviations will be equal to zero and the tolerance mark will be displayed in red.. zc) and a tolerance zone (1 .. . Parameters of the selected fit are calculated and mutual positions of tolerance zones of the hole and shaft are displayed in this paragraph. Hint: For shaft tolerances. zc) and tolerance grades (IT1 . in practice only a limited range of tolerance zones is used. SHAFT TOLERANCE ZONES. Attention: In case you select a shaft tolerance zone which is not defined in the ISO system for the specified basic size. h7. The tolerance zones which are not included in the selection are considered special zones and their use is recommended only in technically well-grounded cases... select the corresponding combination of a basic deviation (a . H9 and H11 are used preferably.3]. h9 and h11 are used preferably. An overview of tolerance zones specified for general use can be found in the table in paragraph [1.8]...METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 Hint: For hole tolerances. IT18) can be used for prescriptions of shaft tolerance zones by their mutual combinations. 18) in pop-up lists in this row. tolerance zones h6.. If you wish to use another tolerance zone for the shaft. tolerance zones H7. H8. PARAMETERS OF THE SELECTED FIT.. Limit deviations of the hole tolerance zone are calculated in this paragraph for the specified basic size [1. The respective shaft tolerance zone is automatically set up in the listing during selection of any of the recommended fits from the list in row [1. Though the general sets of basic deviations (a .
Note: Standard ANSI B4. whose dimensions are determined at 68 °F.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 Note: Dimensional data on this picture are given in mm. the basic size of both connected elements must be the same.  This paragraph can be used for selection of a preferred fit of cylindrical parts according to ANSI B4. . It is the size whose limit dimensions are specified using the upper and lower deviations. Basic size. In case of a fit.1. Tolerance of a basic size for specific tolerance grade.69 in. ANSI B4.1 defines a system of preferred fits only for basic sizes up to 16. Note: When choosing a suitable dimension it is necessary to also take into account the used method of machining of the part in the production process.1: Preferred limits and fits for cylindrical parts. This standard defines a system of dimensional tolerances and prescribes a series of those preferred fits of cylindrical part. The tolerance of a size is defined as the difference between the upper and lower limit dimensions of the part. which are specified for preferred use.1 implements 10 tolerance grades to meet the requirements of various production branches for accuracy of products. The dependency between the TOLERANCE AND MODIFICATION OF THE SURFACE CAN BE FOUND IN THE TABLE IN PARAGRAPH . Note: All numerical values of tolerances and deviations given in this paragraph are related to those parts. The standard ANSI B4. The system of tolerances is prescribed by the standard for basic sizes up to 200 in.
1 defines two basic methods of coupling of holes and shafts for the selected series of preferred fits. basic size //// . Shaft basis system In this system of tolerances and fits. the upper deviation of the hole is always equal to zero. where: d=D .. The standard ANSI B4.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 SYSTEM OF FITS. the lower deviation of the hole is always equal to zero.. Hole basis system In this system of tolerances and fits. hole tolerance zone \\\\ . shaft tolerance zone ... B. A...
maintenance and storage of gauges and production tools. the hole basis system is used preferably. Machine holding of the plant.METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION (M602) -MODULE 1 The option of the system for the specified type of product or production is always influenced by the following factors: • • • • • • Constructional design of the product and the method of assembly. Type of semi-product and consumption of material. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx . Options in use of standardized parts. Costs for purchase. Production procedure and costs for machining the part. Hint: Although both systems are equivalent in the view of functional properties.
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