Objectives of the article: This article focuses on the following areas. 1.
To define the meaning and concept of the 360 degree performance appraisal process. 2. To communicate or inform the participants about the weaknesses of the conventional system and how 360 degree system overcome these weak areas. 3. To provide necessary skills to plan and implement a 360-degree appraisal System in the organization. 360 Degree Appraisal System : A latest ³performance management tool´ is a 360 degree appraisal system. This process enables the individuals performance to be evaluated from an all around perspective and thereby provide more accurate information on an individual¶s performance over a stated time period. The concept of 360 degrees comes from the number of degrees in a circle. Every point at the edge of the circle provides a direction or a dimension to its centre. So providing an employee with 360 degree feedback means that feedback comes from all directions like From your boss From your peers From your customers From your team members on special projects & alsoFrom those people who report to you. This leads toward validity and reliability of the performance appraisal. CURRENT THINKING ON 360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Here we see that what factors we should keep in mind while appraising under 360 rule. 1. Do the various sources provide unique information. 2. Does 360 degree feedback result in improved performance 360 Degree Works Best When 1. Managers meet with their subordinates to discuss their upward feedback. 2. The Managers, receiving the feedback ,were initially not the top performers. 3. The Managers, receiving the feedback , initially think that they are performing better than do their subordinates. 4. The results are used for feedback rather than for decisions about compensation and promotions. NOTE The above four concluded points are the results of a research conducted by executives in the American companies. The points 1 , 2 are the findings of walker & smither , 1999. The point 3 is the finding of Johnson & feostle , 1997. The point 4 is concluded by denisik & kinger , 2000. A modern questionnaire is designed on the basis of various job dimensions. These job dimensions could vary from employee to employee. These forms are given to all the points on the edge of the circle keeping employee as a centre of that circle. CONCLUSION The process of 360 degree performance appraisal or assessment can help your employees see themselves in an entirely new light. It can assist them in gaining consensus about what they are doing right and what they still need to improve. Designing and Implementing A 360° Appraisal System The 360-degree appraisal system is the latest performance management tool currently being used by many of the Fortune 500 companies in the U.S. to evaluate and provide feedback on the performance of individuals in an organization. Unlike conventional appraisal systems, which
It also stated that 69 percent planned to introduce it in the next three years. Examples of ³verifiable performance standards´ created with these techniques. According to a survey carried out by the Human Resources consulting firm of Towers Perrin in 1998. Evaluation e. At & T. Corporate direction c. are McDonell-Douglass. Article # 2 HOW TO MEASURE WHITE COLLAR EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL This Article focuses on the following areas Reasons For Measuring White-Collar Work Why it is so difficult Techniques to identify the ³results´ and ³performance standards´ for this kind of work. where it has been judged a considerable success. The employee should know what point on the yardstick represents meeting expectations. not activities? _ Allow verification that the performance standard has
. which are presently using it. Setting standards Here we assume that each measure is a yardstick. Identifying the results This step helps to decide what to measure in a job Behavior or Results 2. Dupont. *1* Reasons to measure white-collar work a. Two kinds of measures are Numeric or Descriptive 3. Pay for performance d. Defining the measures This step decides the factors to evaluate how well a result has been done. Does the list of results: Does each performance standard: _ Describe end products. Fear .call for the evaluation and feedback to be.Lack of knowledge *3* Technique to create performance standards for white-collar work This procedure consists of three steps 1. Some of the companies. the 360degree system calls for this to be done by subordinates. Job Aid: How to Create Performance Standards Step 1 Draw a customer diagram showing the internal and external customers to whom you provide products and services Step 2 Create a list of results for your position Step 3 Decide how to measure each result Step 4 Create performance standards for each measure Step 5 Check the performance standard.Nature of work. 8 percent of major companies in the United States were using the 360-degree appraisal system. Job ROI (return on investment) *2* Reasons of difficulty in measurement a. Boeing and Intel. performance management b. peers and superiors.Creative work. provided by only an individual¶s superior.
negative communication Comparison Of Performance Appraisal System In Parco & Pakarab Fertilizers: PARCO AND PAKARAB have the various similarities and dissimilarities in their performance appraisal systems.Both have the same nature of organizations (Manufacturing). difficult to set qualitative standard Evaluation of performance appraisal accuracy up to some extent Reason for inaccurate evaluation subjective standard.been met? Can it be seen. salary decision. list of factors and what a good job looks like for each factor. or could several knowledgeable persons agree that the performance standard has been met? _ Account for 80 percent or more of your job's responsibilities? _ Have a judge. line managers. 2. personal biasness. Performance appraisal approach comparison against standards. mangers. interpersonal comparison Who does performance appraisal immediate supervisor Feedback to employee about results no Methods of appraisal rating scale (job dimension rating scale. workers Existence of Hr department yes (personal administration for executive and supervisor. salary decision. job dimension rating scale) Problems organizational influence. rate error. supervisory understanding. negative communication Analysis of Pakarab Type of organization Manufacturing Categories of employees executives. supervisors. when the measure is descriptive? _ Specify the critical results your customers need? _ Appear practical to track and monitor? _ _ Use a range when the measure is numeric? _ _ Leave room to exceed the standard. difficult to set qualitative standard Evaluation of performance appraisal accuracy up to some extent Reason for inaccurate evaluation rate error. personal biasness. or require perfection only when no errors can be tolerated? Analysis of Parco Type of organization Manufacturing Categories of employees Senior executive . These similarities and dissimilarities are the followings: Similarities: 1. direct performance measure Who does performance appraisal immediate supervisor Feedback to employee about resultsyes upto some extent Methods of appraisal rating scale(personal trait and behavior scale. Engineer and technical staff. employee development Performance appraisal approach comparison against standards. employee development. Sales force Existence of Hr department yes Purpose of performance appraisal promotion. guide to job changes. operating staff. industry relation department for workers) Purpose of performance appraisal promotion.The organogram of both the organizations is same because of having same nature of job
. forced distribution) Problems organizational influence.
3. 4. For the application of 360 degree appraisal system. 5. we become able to suggest some recommendations which are as follows: 1. 360 degree approach can measure the performance of an employee more effectively because this approach involves getting feedback about an employee from a wide variety of sources in addition to his or her manger.360 degree appraisal system should be used where investigation is required.Both have complex human resource structures. They should apply MBO technique to check performance of those employees who are having work assignments which can be quantified accurately. who have greater knowledge of descriptions of those jobs.Puroses of Performance appraisal are same in both the organizations.For evaluation accuracy. Parco communicates the results of employees to immediate supervisors but in PAKARAB FERTILIZERS this is not done usually. Post appraisal interviews should be conducted to give opportunity to employees for their justification and to create motivation in them.Thier are no formal training programs in PAKARAB as a result of performance appraisal but PARCO has.To handle these complex human resource both have their HR departments which conducts the formal appraising system. it requires cultural change in whole organization.The main difference in their performance appraisal systems is feedback of results to supervisors and employees. Dissimilarities: 1. 2. having more than 1500 employees.Description. Findings & Recommendations: In the light of the articles and our study in the organizations. 2.
. 4. for the evaluation of measured performance.They should apply 360 degree appraisal system so that appraisal biasness can be reduced to the minimum level and to improve measurement accuracy. 5.They should convert the qualitative work into measurable quantitative factors so that clear standards can be set for performance measurement. 3. skilled personnel should be appointed.