Understanding Voice over IP Protocols

Cisco Systems—Service Provider Solutions Engineering February, 2002

4426_02_2002_c1

© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Topics to Discuss
• History of VoIP • VoIP—Early Adopters • VoIP—Standards and Standards Bodies • VoIP—Making Sense of the Protocols • “The Great Voice Myth” • VoIP—Protocol Challenges • Summary

4426_02_2002_c1

© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Why Move to VoIP?

• Cost savings—toll bypass • Open standards—H.323, SIP, MGCP • Multi-vendor interoperability • Integrated IP voice and data networks

4426_02_2002_c1

© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Cisco Packet Voice Architecture
Open Service Application Layer TDM/ Circuit Switch
Switching Network
Line Concentration Call Control Connection Control Features

(JAIN, AIN, TAPI, JTAPI, XML etc.)

Open/Standard Interface
Open Call Control Layer
(SIP, H.323, MGCP, etc.)

Digital Trunk Subsystem

Common Channel Signaling Complex

Administration Maintenance Billing

Open/Standard Interface
StandardsStandards-Based Packet Infrastructure Layer
(IP, ATM)

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© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Topics to Discuss • History of VoIP • VoIP—Early Adopters • VoIP—Standards and Standards Bodies • VoIP—Making Sense of the Protocols • “The Great Voice Myth” • VoIP—Protocol Challenges • Summary 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Inc. All rights reserved. 5 . Cisco Systems.

Early Adopters— Advanced Services and Toll-Bypass • Regulatory opportunities allowed for toll-bypass • PC-to-phone. All rights reserved. calling-card and international fax services • Cisco-based carriers used standard protocols. Cisco Systems. Inc. 6 . but not all carriers implemented standards • Inter-carrier connections had protocol interoperability challenges 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

Cisco Systems. 7 . Inc. All rights reserved.Topics to Discuss • History of VoIP • VoIP—Early Adopters • VoIP—Standards and Standards Bodies • VoIP—Making Sense of the Protocols • “The Great Voice Myth” • VoIP—Protocol Challenges • Summary 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

Making the Rules for VoIP • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) The community of engineers that standardizes the protocols that define how the Internet and Internet Protocols work.ietf.org/ • ITU (International Telecommunications Union) An international organization within the United Nations System where governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services. http://www.int/home/index. Inc.html 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. 8 . Cisco Systems.itu. http://www. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.248 is the result of a joint-collaborate with the IETF. H.248 defines a centralized architecture. H. Cisco Systems. MGCP defines a centralized architecture for creating multimedia applications. Megaco defines a centralized architecture 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. including VoIP • H.248 An ITU Recommendation that defines “Gateway Control Protocol”.323 defines a distributed architecture for creating multimedia applications. 9 . H.323 An ITU Recommendation that defines “Packet-based multimedia communications systems”. and is also known as “Megaco” • Megaco Defined as IETF RFC 2885. Inc.Defining the VoIP Protocols • H. including VoIP • SIP Defined as IETF RFC 2543. SIP defines a distributed architecture for creating multimedia applications. including VoIP • MGCP Defined as IETF RFC 2705.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 10 .Topics to Discuss • History of VoIP • VoIP—Early Adopters • VoIP—Standards and Standards Bodies • VoIP—Making Sense of the Protocols • “The Great Voice Myth” • VoIP—Protocol Challenges • Summary 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

H.323 MCU Scope of H. Inc.320 Terminal Speech Terminal 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.70 Terminal H.323 Gateway PSTN ISDN V.323 e H.324 Terminal Speech Terminal H.323 Gatekeeper Packet Network H.323 Terminal H.323 Components GK H. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 11 .

323 Recommendation Video I/O Equipment Video Codec H. Inc.225. G. G. G.728. H.263 Audio I/O Equipment User Data Applications T.245 Control IP TCP System Control User Interface Call Control H.225 Layer System Control H.120.722.225. All rights reserved.729 Receive Pain Delay (Sync) RTP UDP RTCP H. G.723. Cisco Systems. Audio Codec G.261.Scope of H.0 RAS Control H. 12 . etc.711.0 UDP 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

Inc.H.323 Endpoint A H. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.323 Endpoint B Setup Alerting / Connect H.245 (TCP Dynamic Port) RTP Stream RTP Stream RTCP Stream Media (UDP) 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. 13 .323 Signaling V V H.225 (TCP Port 1720) Capabilities Exchange / MSD Open Logical Channel Open Logical Channel Acknowledge H.

931) Alert and Connect H. Inc.Basic H.225 (Q. 14 .323 Call Gatekeeper A LRQ LCF ACF ACF Gatekeeper B RRQ/RCF ARQ IP Network H. All rights reserved.931) Setup H.225 (Q. Cisco Systems.245 RRQ/RCF ARQ V Gateway A Phone A RTP V Gateway B Phone B 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

Inc. All rights reserved. 15 .323 Networks • • • • Minimizes GK configuration Addition of new zones Addition of new NPAs Addition of new rate centers DGK GK GK GK LA GW #1 West Zone LA GW #2 Chicago GW Midwest Zone NY GW East Zone Rate Intra-LATA Rate Center #1 Toll Center #1 Local PSTN Local PSTN 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.Deploying H. Cisco Systems.

248/Megaco—Architectures Call Agent SS7 Call Agent P S T N IMT PSTN PRI Access Gateway P S T N MGCP / H. All rights reserved.248 / Megaco RTP 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. 16 .MGCP/H. Cisco Systems. Inc.

Cisco Systems. 17 .Deploying MGCP/H. Inc. All rights reserved.248/Megaco Networks OSS CA SS7 Backhaul SS7 SLT MG MG MG MGCP and ISDN Backhaul Billing and Measurement Server STP PSTN IMTs TDM Voice VoIP ISDN/PRI Service Provider's TDM Network Service Provider's Packet Network NAS/VoIP Traditional TDM Traffic Modem Dial-up Traffic 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

Registrar & Redirect Servers SIP SIP SIP SIP User Agents (UA) PSTN CAS or PRI RTP (Media) Legacy PBX © 2002. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 18 .SIP Architecture I N T E L L I G E N T S E R V I C E S 4426_02_2002_c1 Application Services eMail LDAP Oracle XML CPL CPL 3pcc SIP Proxy.

Cisco Systems.SIP Signaling PSTN SIP VoIP Network Calling Party INVITE 100 Trying INVITE 100 Trying 180 Ringing 200 OK ACK 180 Ringing 200 OK ACK PSTN Called Party SIP Signaling and SDP Signaling (UDP or TCP) Signaling Media (UDP) Bearer Or Media RTCP Stream 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Inc. 19 . All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems. try this address” Registrar Redirect REGISTER “Here I am” SIP Proxy Proxied INVITE “I’ll handle it for you” INVITE “I want to talk to another UA SIP User Agents SIP User Agents SIP-GW 20 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Inc. All rights reserved. .SIP Servers/Services Location Database SIP Servers/ Services “Where is this name/phone#?” 3xx Redirection “They moved.

Inc. 21 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Deploying SIP Networks PSTN 312 PSTN 212 Chicago POP Central Zone NY POP East Zone IP Network West Zone SF POP PSTN 415 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 22 . Inc.Topics to Discuss • History of VoIP • VoIP—Early Adopters • VoIP—Standards and Standards Bodies • VoIP—Making Sense of the Protocols • “The Great Voice Myth” • VoIP—Protocol Challenges • Summary 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

All rights reserved.248/Megaco will all be present in VoIP networks • Networks will converge to IP 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. MGCP and H. SIP. Inc. Cisco Systems.Voice Myths Myths • Networks can only be built one way • Networks will only use one protocol • All networks will converge Facts • VoIP allows centralized or distributed architectures • H.323. 23 .

Topics to Discuss • History of VoIP • VoIP—Early Adopters • VoIP—Standards and Standards Bodies • VoIP—Making Sense of the Protocols • “The Great Voice Myth” • VoIP—Protocol Challenges • Summary 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. 24 . Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

248 Megaco 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. 25 . Inc. All rights reserved.3 SIP ? MGCP H. Cisco Systems.Interconnecting VoIP Networks 23 H.

Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.Connecting VoIP to SS7/C7 Networks IAM H.323 H.225 Setup (ANI. 26 .DN) Proceeding H.245 MGCP CRCX ACK SDP SIP INVITE ACK SDP 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

modem. Inc. Cisco Systems.VoIP Interworking Issues • Service interworking E. DTMF 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.: H.450 <-> SIP <-> MGCP • Media interworking End-to-end codec negotiation • Bearer interworking End-to-end fax. 27 .g. All rights reserved.

37 DTMF (relay/passthru) • Service translation issues Call deflection Park/hold • Signal issues SDP H.VoIP Interworking • Bearer level Modem (relay/passthru) Fax (relay/passthru) T. 28 .245 • Media level Codec (negotiation. selection) 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.38 T.

Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 29 .Fax and Modem Passthru Mechanisms • Modem and fax are control mechanisms based on PLL (Phase Locked Loops) • They are both time sensitive • Highly sensitive to packet network impairments: Jitter Packet loss Delay • Susceptible to clock slew (clock sync differences between gateways) 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.

729 4426_02_2002_c1 30 © 2002.729 IP Cloud Voice Gateway G. All rights reserved.711µ DSP PCM G. . Inc. Cisco Systems.711µ G.Passthru Simplified Voice Gateway PCM G.711µ DSP G.711µ G.

31 . Cisco Systems. error correction and compression) through a packet network using PCM encoded packets 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Inc.What Is Modem Passthru? • It is the transport of modem signals (modulation. All rights reserved.

90) • Switchover signaling • No VAD • EC off • RTP payload redundancy (10ms packetization) RFC2198 (optional) 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Inc.Modem Passthru (Cont. Cisco Systems.) • Modem tone detection (<= V. All rights reserved. 32 .

All rights reserved. 33 . Inc.Modem Passthru Issues • Consecutive packet drops (loss) cause retrain • Consecutive drops during retrain causes disconnect • Variation of delay (jitter) has quite an effect • Jitter (at 10%) is a conservative estimate— Since jitter mostly impacts performance with packet loss 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Cisco Systems.

34 . Inc. Cisco Systems.What Is Modem Relay? • Modem relay involves demodulating the modem signal at ingress gateway • Passing this data as packet data to terminating gateway • Re-modulating the data and passes it to the receiving modem 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. All rights reserved.

38 T.30 UDP T. Inc. 35 . All rights reserved.30 PSTN PSTN IP • Real-time • Also called demod/remod • Can be used in H. Cisco Systems.Fax Relay—T.4 into packets 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.30 and T.323/MGCP/SIP signaling • Delivers fax data over UDP streams (uses same RTP port)— reuses voice UDP ports • Fallback to proprietary mode • Method of encoding the T.

DTMF • What is DTMF • Why is it required? and where is it used? • How do you transport it in IP? • DTMF implementation 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. All rights reserved. 36 . Cisco Systems. Inc.

anything sent on that circuit is an untouched stream of bits. Cisco Systems. and DTMF digits) • DSP codecs designed to interpret human speech. modem tones. 37 . (e. Inc. voice speech. fax tones.g. All rights reserved.) • In TDM world. can distort DTMF tones (machine-tones) • High b/w codecs less likely to distort • Distortion causes problems with voicemail and IVR systems 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. all voice traffic is sent as uncompressed 64Kbs PCM streams..DTMF (Cont.

H. H. AVT Tones RFC2833 In-Band Out-ofBand Cisco RTP.RFC2833 RFC2833 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.245 Signal.245 Alphanum.248. 38 . NTE. Megaco In-Band SIP In-Band In-Band Cisco RTP. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. NSE. Inc.323 MGCP.DTMF Schemes with VoIP Protocols H. H.

Topics to Discuss • History of VoIP • VoIP—Early Adopters • VoIP—Standards and Standards Bodies • VoIP—Making Sense of the Protocols • “The Great Voice Myth” • VoIP—Protocol Challenges • Summary 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. 39 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.

40 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Summary • Understand the possibilities and the issues • Avoid protocol/product based bias • Decide on application • Consider market and business drivers • Deploy what’s possible today • Choose signaling protocol depending on services intended to be offered • Many possibilities—stay tuned 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Inc.

Crystal Ball on VoIP • All three protocols (or its variations) are here for the long run • Changes/enhancements will be made • IP will be the core 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. 41 .

org www.itu.Reference URLs • ITU: • IETF: • SIP: www.softswitch.columbia.org www.asp?page=techlibrary 4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002.cs. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 42 .edu/~hgs/sip/ • H. Inc.org/asp/techlibrary _protocol.packetizer.323: www.com/iptel/h323/ • MGCP:www.ietf.

4426_02_2002_c1 © 2002. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 43 .

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