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What is technology ?

Processes & methods that transform inputs into


outputs in the organization

3 major contributions:

1) Joan Woodward

2) Charles Perrow

3) James Thompson
1) Joan Woodward
Proposed 3 types of production technology ʹ UNIT,
MASS & PROCESS

LOW TECHNOLOGY HIGH

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Complexity Low High Low

Formalization Low High Low

Centralization Low High Low

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&  
2) Charles Perrow

„ Knowledge perspective of technology

„ 2 dimensions of knowledge technology ʹ task


variability & problem analyzability
TASK VARIABILITY

FEW EXCEPTIONS MANY EXCEPTIONS

'()*  
'* #
ILL DEFINED

PROBLEM
ANALYZABILITY '* # # + ##' +

WELL DEFINED
* )  ,     ,   -  

Routine High High Wide


Engineering Low High Moderate
Craft Moderate Low Moderate- wide
Nonroutine Low Low Moderate-narrow

 ! "   .   


     ,  
3) James Thompson

Classified technology into 3


types:

„ Long-linked technology

„ Mediating technology

„ Intensive technology
 i* A B C D *i*

LONG LINKED TECHNOLOGY

„ Characterized by Sequential interdependence


TRANSFORMATION
CLIENT A PROCESS CLIENT B

MEDIATING TECHNOLOGY

„ Characterized by pooled interdependence


INPUTS
RESOURCES
A TRANSFORM-
B ATION
OUTPUT
C PROCESS
D

FEEDBACK

INTENSIVE TECHNOLOGY

„ Characterized by reciprocal interdependence


 !

1. Routineness is the common denominator underlying most


of the research on technology

2. Routine technology positively related to low complexity

3. Routine technology positively related to high formalization

4. Routine technology positively corelated with centralization


if formalization is low
p