P. 1
class notes Bloomfield

class notes Bloomfield

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Published by Nandhu Matta

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Published by: Nandhu Matta on Apr 17, 2011
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(the opening lines of Chapter 1) y Language plays a great part in our life.

Perhaps because of its familiarity we rarely observe it taking it rather for granted, as we do breathing or walking. y Though language is a natural process some educated are conscious as to how to speak or pronounce their language. y Analogists= who believed that language was natural and logical (etymology) Anamologist= pointed out irregularities of linguistic structures. y The Greeks studied no language but their own. They did not go deep into the nuances of languages,but only in the eighteenth century generalizations were solved by theories like: - Man s attempt to imitate noises (bow wow theory) - His natural sound producing impulses (ding dong theory) - His violent outcries and exclamations ( pooh- pooh theory) y The Romans constructed the Latin grammars on the Greek model. They contributed much less than the ancients. The studied the distinction between the nouns and adjectives and differences between the concord government and apposition. y For the medieval scholar language meant classical Latin. Hebrew and Arabic added later. y The era of exploration brought a superficial knowledge of many languages. Travelers brought back vocabularies; missionaries translated religious books. y The increase of commerce and travel led to the compilation of grammars and dictionaries for languages closer at hand. y Mithridates J C Adelung & J S Vater which contained the lord s prayer in nearly five hundred languages. y Eighteenth century scholars analyzed grammatical features of the language in philosophical terms and took no account of structural differences between languages.

The nomenclature emerged as some related languages are born due to people speaking some . Also Sanskrit. Latin. y Languages of Europe fell in three categories (see table on page 9). Lettish. Albanian. Baltic languages such as Lithuanian. and Arabia) had developed linguistic doctrines chiefly on antiquarian basis (study based on antics old traditions). y Similarities of Sanskrit and some European languages are a good example for study. In time systematic arrangement of grammar and lexicon was worked out. Japan. y Mata = mother y Dvau = two y Trayah= three y The Hindu grammar taught Europeans to analyse speech forms. y This linguistic decay affected the study of modern languages. y In India. Old Prussian.y In modern languages like English speech forms of the upper classes remained at purer level and vulgarisms of the common people branched off as corruptions by a process of linguistic decay.This became a main concern in the nineteenth century. Greek came from one prehistoric language as stated by William Jones (1746-1794) led to the study of Indo European languages (as they are now called). and Armenian were also studied as Indo European languages.C. Panini s grammar around 350-250 BC is one of the greatest monuments of human intelligence. Brahmin religion (?!) guarded the ancient collections of hymns (esoterically) in Rig Veda 1200 B. all in Sanskrit. y The study of Indo European languages became focused in the nineteenth century though knowledge of Sanskrit grammar was not very much sufficient on the part of the scholars of language. Outside Europe several nations (like China.

read p 13). (to know the rest.base languages in different parts of the world. y A lot of other studies also emerged in the nineteenth century (see pp-1417). y The first great book of general linguistics (in 1836) was a treatise on the varieties of human speech by Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835).A lot of other studies and books followed till date especially till the first quarter of the twentieth century (see pages 18-20) . Spanish. The root of all the languages must have been one Primitive Indo European (parent language) Franz Bopp (1791-1867) Rasmus Kristian Rask (1787-1832) made comparative study of IELs. French. Portuguese and so on are some examples.

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