Steganography

Khan, Mohammed Minhajuddin

Stegosaurus: a covered lizard (but not a type of cryptography)   . This can be achieve by concealing the existence of information within seemingly harmless carriers or cover arrier: text. etc.What is Steganography? Greek Words: STEGANOS ± ³Covered´ GRAPHIE ± ³Writing´  Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. video. audio. image.

with the embedded data providing copyright protection. May be considered complementary and orthogonal (unrelated).Steganography. The existence of a watermark is often declared openly. Any attempt to remove or invalidate the embedded content renders the host useless. Cryptography. Once the presence of hidden information is revealed or even suspected. Steganography and Watermarking Watermarking:    Communication in watermarking is the host signal. the purpose of steganography is defeated. and Watermarking There are two major branches of information hiding. Scrambles the data to prevent eavesdroppers understanding the content. Cryptography:     Doesn t conceal the communication. . Cryptography involves various methods and implementations.

Since the microdot could be placed at the end of a sentence or above a j or an i. ejecting suets and vegetable oils. Histiaeus. After his hair had grown the message was hidden. who shaved the head of his most trusted slave and tattooed a message on it. Microdot Technology Shrinking messages down to the size of a dot became a popular method.History of Steganography Steganography ancient origins can be traced back to 440 BC. Sent by a German Spy in WWII. Isman hard hit. from the Histories of Herodotus Demeratus sent a warning about a forthcoming attack to Greece by writing it on a wooden panel and covering it in wax. Blockade issue affects pretext for embargo on by products. . World War II Invincible inks Null ciphers (unencrypted messages): Apparently neutral's protest is thoroughly discounted and ignored. The purpose was to instigate a revolt against the Persians. by taking the second letter in each word the following message emerges: Pershing sails from NY June 1.

The purpose is different from traditional steganography since it is adding an attribute to the cover image thus extending the amount of information presented. .Modern Steganography Techniques Masking and Filtering: Is where information is hidden inside of a image using digital watermarks that include information such as copyright. or licenses. ownership. Algorithms and Transformations: This technique hides data in mathematical functions that are often used in compression algorithms. The idea of this method is to hide the secret message in the data bits in the least significant coefficients. This technique works best when the image file is larger then the message file and if the image is grayscale. Thus the overall image distortion is kept to a minimum while the message is spaced out over the pixels in the images. Least Significant Bit Insertion: The most common and popular method of modern day steganography is to make use of the LSB of a picture s pixel information.

Basics of Modern Steganography fE: steganographic function "embedding" fE-1: steganographic function "extracting" cover: cover data in which emb will be hidden emb: message to be hidden key: parameter of fE stego: cover data with the hidden message .

Important Requirement for Steganographic System  Security of the hidden communication size of the payload Robustness against malicious and unintentional attacks   .

Steganography Tools .

Detection of Steganographic Content/Countermeasures The detection of steganographically encoded packages is called Steganalysis. .  Visual Analysis tries to reveal the presence of secret communication through inspection. Statistical (Algorithmic) Analysis reveals tiny alterations in an image's statistical behavior caused by steganographic embedding.   The nominally universal methods developed to detect embedded stego-data are generally less effective than the steganalytic methods aimed at specific types of embedding. either with the naked eye or with the assistance of a computer.

Steganography Sample Website  Here is the link for Sample Steganographic tool Website: http://mozaiq.org/ .

The key for passing is studying. We have an exam PO Box in Tallahassee. The Florida Society of Math and Cryptography is proud to present you with an small exam for qualification into our society. Robertson of CIS 5371. Cryptography is rigorous and only those with patience in themselves pass. Salutations.My Questions 1. Mr. But please submit by 12/12. .

The Florida Society of Math and Cryptography is proud to present you with an small exam for qualification into our society. The Cryptography exam key is in PO Box 1212. Cryptography is rigorous and only those with patience in themselves pass. The key for passing is studying. . Mr. But please submit by 12/12.Answer Salutations. We have an exam PO Box in Tallahassee. Robertson of CIS 5371.

Name three methods by which Modern day Steganography is accomplished? Answer:  Masking and Filtering  Algorithms and Transformations  Least Significant Bit Insertion .My Questions 2.