COM

**Chapter 1 Systems of Measurement
**

Conceptual Problems

*1 • Determine the Concept The fundamental physical quantities in the SI system include mass, length, and time. Force, being the product of mass and acceleration, is not a fundamental quantity. (c) is correct. 2 • Picture the Problem We can express and simplify the ratio of m/s to m/s2 to determine the final units. Express and simplify the ratio of m/s to m/s2:

m 2 s = m ⋅ s = s and (d ) is correct. m m ⋅s 2 s

3 • Determine the Concept Consulting Table 1-1 we note that the prefix giga means 109. (c ) is correct. 4 • Determine the Concept Consulting Table 1-1 we note that the prefix mega means 106. (d ) is correct. *5 • Determine the Concept Consulting Table 1-1 we note that the prefix pico means 10−12. (a ) is correct. 6 • Determine the Concept Counting from left to right and ignoring zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit, the last significant figure is the first digit that is in doubt. Applying this criterion, the three zeros after the decimal point are not significant figures, but the last zero is significant. Hence, there are four significant figures in this number.

(c) is correct.

1

2

Chapter 1

7 • Determine the Concept Counting from left to right, the last significant figure is the first digit that is in doubt. Applying this criterion, there are six significant figures in this number. (e) is correct. 8 • Determine the Concept The advantage is that the length measure is always with you. The disadvantage is that arm lengths are not uniform; if you wish to purchase a board of ″two arm lengths″ it may be longer or shorter than you wish, or else you may have to physically go to the lumberyard to use your own arm as a measure of length. 9 • (a) True. You cannot add ″apples to oranges″ or a length (distance traveled) to a volume (liters of milk). (b) False. The distance traveled is the product of speed (length/time) multiplied by the time of travel (time). (c) True. Multiplying by any conversion factor is equivalent to multiplying by 1. Doing so does not change the value of a quantity; it changes its units.

**Estimation and Approximation
**

*10 •• Picture the Problem Because θ is small, we can approximate it by θ ≈ D/rm provided that it is in radian measure. We can solve this relationship for the diameter of the moon. Express the moon’s diameter D in terms of the angle it subtends at the earth θ and the earth-moon distance rm: Find θ in radians:

D = θ rm

θ = 0.524° ×

2π rad = 0.00915 rad 360°

Substitute and evaluate D:

D = (0.00915 rad )(384 Mm )

= 3.51 × 106 m

Systems of Measurement

3

*11 •• Picture the Problem We’ll assume that the sun is made up entirely of hydrogen. Then we can relate the mass of the sun to the number of hydrogen atoms and the mass of each. Express the mass of the sun MS as the product of the number of hydrogen atoms NH and the mass of each atom MH: Solve for NH:

M S = NHM H

NH =

MS MH

1.99 × 1030 kg = 1.19 × 1057 1.67 × 10 −27 kg

Substitute numerical values and evaluate NH:

NH =

12 •• Picture the Problem Let P represent the population of the United States, r the rate of consumption and N the number of aluminum cans used annually. The population of the United States is roughly 3×108 people. Let’s assume that, on average, each person drinks one can of soft drink every day. The mass of a soft-drink can is approximately 1.8 ×10−2 kg. (a) Express the number of cans N used annually in terms of the daily rate of consumption of soft drinks r and the population P: Substitute numerical values and approximate N:

N = rP∆t

⎛ 1can ⎞ 8 N =⎜ ⎜ person ⋅ d ⎟ 3 × 10 people ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ d⎞ × (1 y )⎜ 365.24 ⎟ ⎜ y⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

≈ 1011 cans

(b) Express the total mass of aluminum used per year for soft drink cans M as a function of the number of cans consumed and the mass m per can:

M = Nm

4

Chapter 1

Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

**M = 1011 cans/y 1.8 × 10−2 kg/can ≈ 2 × 109 kg/y
**

Value = ($1 / kg )M = ($1 / kg ) 2 × 109 kg/y = $2 × 10 / y

9

(

)(

)

(c) Express the value of the aluminum as the product of M and the value at recycling centers:

(

)

= 2 billion dollars/y

13 •• Picture the Problem We can estimate the number of words in Encyclopedia Britannica by counting the number of volumes, estimating the average number of pages per volume, estimating the number of words per page, and finding the product of these measurements and estimates. Doing so in Encyclopedia Britannica leads to an estimate of approximately 200 million for the number of words. If we assume an average word length of five letters, then our estimate of the number of letters in Encyclopedia Britannica becomes 109. (a) Relate the area available for one letter s2 and the number of letters N to be written on the pinhead to the area of the pinhead: Solve for s to obtain:

Ns 2 =

π

4

d 2 where d is the diameter of the

pinhead.

s=

πd 2

4N

1 π ⎢(16 in )⎜ 2.54

Substitute numerical values and evaluate s:

⎡ ⎣

s=

cm ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎟ in ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ ≈ 10−8 m 9 4 10

2

( )

(b) Express the number of atoms per letter n in terms of s and the atomic spacing in a metal datomic: Substitute numerical values and evaluate n:

n=

s d atomic

n=

10 −8 m ≈ 20 atoms 5 × 10 −10 atoms/m

*14 •• Picture the Problem The population of the United States is roughly 3 × 108 people. Assuming that the average family has four people, with an average of two cars per

Systems of Measurement

family, there are about 1.5 × 108 cars in the United States. If we double that number to include trucks, cabs, etc., we have 3 × 108 vehicles. Let’s assume that each vehicle uses, on average, about 12 gallons of gasoline per week. (a) Find the daily consumption of gasoline G: Assuming a price per gallon P = $1.50, find the daily cost C of gasoline: (b) Relate the number of barrels N of crude oil required annually to the yearly consumption of gasoline Y and the number of gallons of gasoline n that can be made from one barrel of crude oil: Substitute numerical values and estimate N:

5

G = 3×108 vehicles (2 gal/d ) = 6 ×108 gal/d

(

)

C = GP = 6 × 108 gal/d ($1.50 / gal) = $9 × 108 / d ≈ $1 billion dollars/d Y G∆t = n n

(

)

N=

(6 ×10 N=

**gal/d (365.24 d/y ) 19.4 gal/barrel
**

8

)

≈ 1010 barrels/y

15 •• Picture the Problem We’ll assume a population of 300 million (fairly accurate as of September, 2002) and a life expectancy of 76 y. We’ll also assume that a diaper has a volume of about half a liter. In (c) we’ll assume the disposal site is a rectangular hole in the ground and use the formula for the volume of such an opening to estimate the surface area required. (a) Express the total number N of disposable diapers used in the United States per year in terms of the number of children n in diapers and the number of diapers D used by each child in 2.5 y: Use the daily consumption, the number of days in a year, and the estimated length of time a child is in diapers to estimate the number of diapers D required per child:

N = nD

D=

3 diapers 365.24 d × × 2.5 y d y

≈ 3 × 103 diapers/child

6

Chapter 1

⎛ 2 .5 y ⎞ 6 n=⎜ ⎜ 76 y ⎟ 300 × 10 children ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 7 ≈ 10 children

Use the assumed life expectancy to estimate the number of children n in diapers:

(

)

Substitute to obtain:

N = 107 children

(

× 3 × 10 diapers/child

3

(

)

)

≈ 3 × 1010 diapers

(b) Express the required landfill volume V in terms of the volume of diapers to be buried: Substitute numerical values and evaluate V:

V = NVone diaper

**V = 3 × 1010 diapers (0.5 L/diaper ) ≈ 1.5 × 107 m 3
**

V = Ah

(

)

(c) Express the required volume in terms of the volume of a rectangular parallelepiped: Solve and evaluate h:

**V 1.5 × 107 m 3 A= = = 1.5 × 106 m 2 10 m h A = 1.5 × 106 m 2 × ≈ 0.6 mi 2
**

1 mi 2 2.590 km 2

Use a conversion factor to express this area in square miles:

16 ••• Picture the Problem The number of bits that can be stored on the disk can be found from the product of the capacity of the disk and the number of bits per byte. In part (b) we’ll need to estimate (i) the number of bits required for the alphabet, (ii) the average number of letters per word, (iii) an average number of words per line, (iv) an average number of lines per page, and (v) a book length in pages. (a) Express the number of bits Nbits as a function of the number of bits per byte and the capacity of the hard disk Nbytes:

N bits = N bytes (8 bits/byte) = 1.60 × 1010 bits

= (2 × 109 bytes)(8 bits/byte)

Systems of Measurement

(b) Assume an average of 8 letters/word and 8 bits/character to estimate the number of bytes required per word: Assume 10 words/line and 60 lines/page: Assume a book length of 300 pages and approximate the number bytes required: Divide the number of bytes per disk by our estimated number of bytes required per book to obtain an estimate of the number of books the 2-gigabyte hard disk can hold:

7

8

bits characters bits ×8 = 64 character word word bytes =8 word words bytes bytes ×8 = 4800 page word page bytes = 1.44 × 106 bytes page

600

300pages × 4800

N books =

2 × 109 bytes 1.44 × 106 bytes/book

≈ 1400 books

*17 •• Picture the Problem Assume that, on average, four cars go through each toll station per minute. Let R represent the yearly revenue from the tolls. We can estimate the yearly revenue from the number of lanes N, the number of cars per minute n, and the $6 toll per car C.

R = NnC = 14 lanes × 4

min h d $6 cars × 60 × 24 × 365.24 × = $177M min h d y car

Units

18 • Picture the Problem We can use the metric prefixes listed in Table 1-1 and the abbreviations on page EP-1 to express each of these quantities. (a) (c)

6

**1,000,000 watts = 10 watts = 1 MW
**

(b)

3 × 10 −6 meter = 3 µm

(d)

0.002gram = 2 × 10 g = 2 mg

−3

30,000 seconds = 30 × 103 s = 30 ks

8

Chapter 1

19 • Picture the Problem We can use the definitions of the metric prefixes listed in Table 1-1 to express each of these quantities without prefixes. (a) (c)

−6

40 µW = 40 × 10 W = 0.000040 W

(b)

**3 MW = 3 × 106 W = 3,000,000 W
**

(d)

4 ns = 4 × 10 s = 0.000000004 s

−9

25 km = 25 × 103 m = 25,000 m

*20 • Picture the Problem We can use the definitions of the metric prefixes listed in Table 1-1 to express each of these quantities without abbreviations. (a) 10 −12 boo = 1 picoboo (b) 10 9 low = 1 gigalow (c) 10 −6 phone = 1 microphone (d) 10 −18 boy = 1 attoboy (e) 106 phone = 1megaphone (f) 10 −9 goat = 1 nanogoat (g) 1012 bull = 1 terabull

21 •• Picture the Problem We can determine the SI units of each term on the right-hand side of the equations from the units of the physical quantity on the left-hand side. (a) Because x is in meters, C1 and C2t must be in meters: (b) Because x is in meters, ½C1t2 must be in meters: (c) Because v2 is in m2/s2, 2C1x must be in m2/s2: (d) The argument of trigonometric function must be dimensionless; i.e. without units. Therefore, because x

C1 is in m; C2 is in m/s

C1 is in m/s 2

C1 is in m/s 2 C1 is in m; C2 is in s −1

Systems of Measurement

is in meters: (e) The argument of an exponential function must be dimensionless; i.e. without units. Therefore, because v is in m/s:

9

C1 is in m/s; C2 is in s −1

22 •• Picture the Problem We can determine the US customary units of each term on the right-hand side of the equations from the units of the physical quantity on the left-hand side. (a) Because x is in feet, C1 and C2t must be in feet: (b) Because x is in feet, ½C1t2 must be in feet: (c) Because v2 is in ft2/s2, 2C1x must be in ft2/s2: (d) The argument of trigonometric function must be dimensionless; i.e. without units. Therefore, because x is in feet: (e) The argument of an exponential function must be dimensionless; i.e. without units. Therefore, because v is in ft/s:

C1 is in ft; C2 is in ft/s

C1 is in ft/s 2

C1 is in ft/s 2 C1 is in ft; C2 is in s −1

C1 is in ft/s; C2 is in s −1

Conversion of Units

23 • Picture the Problem We can use the formula for the circumference of a circle to find the radius of the earth and the conversion factor 1 mi = 1.61 km to convert distances in meters into distances in miles. (a) The Pole-Equator distance is one-fourth of the circumference:

c = 4 × 107 m

10

Chapter 1

(b) Use the formula for the circumference of a circle to obtain: (c) Use the conversion factors 1 km = 1000 m and 1 mi = 1.61 km:

**c 4 × 10−7 m R= = = 6.37 × 106 m 2π 2π c = 4 × 107 m ×
**

1 km 1 mi × 3 10 m 1.61km

= 2.48 × 104 mi

and

R = 6.37 × 106 m × = 3.96 × 103 mi

1 km 1 mi × 3 10 m 1.61 km

24 • Picture the Problem We can use the conversion factor 1 mi = 1.61 km to convert speeds in km/h into mi/h. Find the speed of the plane in km/s:

v = 2(340 m/s ) = 680 m/s m ⎞ ⎛ 1 km ⎞ ⎛ s⎞ ⎛ = ⎜ 680 ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜ 3600 ⎟ ⎜ 10 m ⎟ s ⎠⎝ h⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ = 2450 km/h

Convert v into mi/h:

km ⎞ ⎛ 1 mi ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ v = ⎜ 2450 ⎟⎜ h ⎠ ⎜ 1.61 km ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ = 1520 mi/h

*25 • Picture the Problem We’ll first express his height in inches and then use the conversion factor 1 in = 2.54 cm. Express the player’s height into inches:

h = 6 ft ×

12 in + 10.5 in = 82.5 in ft 2.54 cm = 210 cm in

Convert h into cm:

h = 82.5 in ×

26 • Picture the Problem We can use the conversion factors 1 mi = 1.61 km, 1 in = 2.54 cm, and 1 m = 1.094 yd to complete these conversions.

Systems of Measurement

(a)

11

100

**km km 1 mi mi = 100 × = 62.1 h h 1.61km h
**

1in = 23.6 in 2.54 cm 1m = 91.4 m 1.094 yd

(b)

60 cm = 60 cm ×

(c)

100 yd = 100 yd ×

27 • Picture the Problem We can use the conversion factor 1.609 km = 5280 ft to convert the length of the main span of the Golden Gate Bridge into kilometers. Convert 4200 ft into km:

4200 ft = 4200 ft ×

1.609 km = 1.28 km 5280 ft

*28 • Picture the Problem Let v be the speed of an object in mi/h. We can use the conversion factor 1 mi = 1.61 km to convert this speed to km/h. Multiply v mi/h by 1.61 km/mi to convert v to km/h:

v

mi mi 1.61 km =v × = 1.61v km/h h h mi

29 • Picture the Problem Use the conversion factors 1 h = 3600 s, 1.609 km = 1 mi, and 1 mi = 5280 ft to make these conversions. (a) 1.296 × 105

**km ⎛ km ⎞ ⎛ 1 h ⎞ km = ⎜1.296 × 105 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 3600 s ⎟ = 36.0 h ⋅ s h h ⎠⎝ ⎝ ⎠
**

2

**km ⎞ ⎛ 1 h ⎞ km ⎛ ⎟ (b) 1.296 × 10 2 = ⎜1.296 × 105 2 ⎟ ⎜ h ⎠ ⎜ 3600 s ⎟ h ⎝ ⎝ ⎠
**

5

⎛ 103 m ⎞ m ⎜ ⎜ km ⎟ = 10.0 s 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(c) 60

mi ⎛ mi ⎞ ⎛ 5280 ft ⎞ ⎛ 1 h ⎞ ft = ⎜ 60 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ 1 mi ⎟ ⎜ 3600 s ⎟ = 88.0 s ⎟⎜ ⎟ h ⎝ h ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ mi ⎛ mi ⎞ ⎛ 1.609 km ⎞ ⎛ 103 m ⎞ ⎛ 1 h ⎞ m = ⎜ 60 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ 1 mi ⎟ ⎜ km ⎟ ⎜ 3600 s ⎟ = 26.8 s ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ h ⎝ h ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎝

(d) 60

12

Chapter 1

30 • Picture the Problem We can use the conversion factor 1 L = 1.057 qt to convert gallons into liters and then use this gallons-to-liters conversion factor to convert barrels into cubic meters. (a) 1gal = (1gal)⎜ ⎜

**⎛ 4 qt ⎞ ⎛ 1 L ⎞ ⎟ = 3.784 L ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ gal ⎠ ⎝ 1.057 qt ⎠
**

3 −3 ⎛ 42 gal ⎞ ⎛ 3.784 L ⎞ ⎛ 10 m ⎞ 3 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎜ gal ⎟ ⎜ L ⎟ = 0.1589 m ⎟ ⎝ barrel ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠

(b) 1 barrel = (1 barrel)⎜

31 • Picture the Problem We can use the conversion factor given in the problem statement and the fact that 1 mi = 1.609 km to express the number of square meters in one acre. Multiply by 1 twice, properly chosen, to convert one acre into square miles, and then into square meters:

⎛ 1mi 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1609 m ⎞ 1acre = (1acre)⎜ ⎜ 640 acres ⎟ ⎜ mi ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ = 4050 m 2

2

32 •• Picture the Problem The volume of a right circular cylinder is the area of its base multiplied by its height. Let d represent the diameter and h the height of the right circular cylinder; use conversion factors to express the volume V in the given units. (a) Express the volume of the cylinder: Substitute numerical values and evaluate V:

V = 1 πd 2 h 4

V = 1 π (6.8 in ) (2 ft ) 4

2

⎛ 1ft ⎞ = π (6.8 in ) (2 ft )⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12 in ⎟ ⎠ ⎝

1 4 2

2

= 0.504 ft 3

(b) Use the fact that 1 m = 3.281 ft to convert the volume in cubic feet into cubic meters: (c) Because 1 L = 10−3 m3:

⎛ 1m ⎞ V = 0.504 ft ⎜ ⎜ 3.281 ft ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

3

)

3

= 0.0143 m 3

⎛ 1L V = 0.0143m 3 ⎜ − 3 3 ⎜ 10 m ⎝

(

)

⎞ ⎟ = 14.3 L ⎟ ⎠

Systems of Measurement

*33 •• Picture the Problem We can treat the SI units as though they are algebraic quantities to simplify each of these combinations of physical quantities and constants. (a) Express and simplify the units of v2/x: (b) Express and simplify the units of x a: (c) Noting that the constant factor 1 2 has no units, express and simplify the units of

1 2

13

(m s )2

m

=

m2 m = 2 2 m⋅s s

m = s2 = s m/s 2

⎛m⎞ 2 ⎛m⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟(s ) = ⎜ 2 ⎟ s = m ⎝s ⎠ ⎝s ⎠

( )

at 2 :

**Dimensions of Physical Quantities
**

34 • Picture the Problem We can use the facts that each term in an equation must have the same dimensions and that the arguments of a trigonometric or exponential function must be dimensionless to determine the dimensions of the constants. (a) x = C1 + C2 t (d) x

=

C1 cos C2

t

L

(b)

L

L T T

L

(e) v =

L

1 T

T

x =

L

(c)

1 2

C1

t

2

C1

exp( −C2 t)

L T2 T2

L T

L T

1 T

T

v 2 = 2 C1

L T2

2

x

L

L T2

35 •• Picture the Problem Because the exponent of the exponential function must be dimensionl the dimension of λ must be T −1.

14

Chapter 1

*36 •• Picture the Problem We can solve Newton’s law of gravitation for G and substitute the dimensions of the variables. Treating them as algebraic quantities will allow us to express the dimensions in their simplest form. Finally, we can substitute the SI units for the dimensions to find the units of G. Solve Newton’s law of gravitation for G to obtain: Substitute the dimensions of the variables:

G=

Fr 2 m1m2

ML 2 ×L L3 T2 G= = M2 MT 2

Use the SI units for L, M, and T:

Units of G are

m3 kg ⋅ s 2

37 •• Picture the Problem Let m represent the mass of the object, v its speed, and r the radius of the circle in which it moves. We can express the force as the product of m, v, and r (each raised to a power) and then use the dimensions of force F, mass m, speed v, and radius r to obtain three equations in the assumed powers. Solving these equations simultaneously will give us the dependence of F on m, v, and r. Express the force in terms of powers of the variables: Substitute the dimensions of the physical quantities: Simplify to obtain: Equate the exponents to obtain:

F = mavb r c

**⎛L⎞ MLT −2 = M a ⎜ ⎟ Lc ⎝T ⎠ MLT −2 = M a Lb+cT − b
**

a = 1, b + c = 1, and −b = −2 a = 1, b = 2, and c = −1

b

Solve this system of equations to obtain: Substitute in equation (1):

F = mv 2 r −1 = m

v2 r

Systems of Measurement

15

38 •• Picture the Problem We note from Table 1-2 that the dimensions of power are ML2/T3. The dimensions of mass, acceleration, and speed are M, L/T2, and L/T respectively. Express the dimensions of mav:

[mav] = M ×

[P ] = ML 3

T

2

L L ML2 × = 3 T2 T T

From Table 1-2:

Comparing these results, we see that the product of mass, acceleration, and speed has the dimensions of power.

39 •• Picture the Problem The dimensions of mass and velocity are M and L/T, respectively. We note from Table 1-2 that the dimensions of force are ML/T2. Express the dimensions of momentum:

[mv] = M × L = ML

T T

From Table 1-2:

[F ] = ML 2

T

Express the dimensions of force multiplied by time:

[Ft ] = ML × T = ML 2

T T

**Comparing these results, we see that momentum has the dimensions of force multiplied by time.
**

40 •• Picture the Problem Let X represent the physical quantity of interest. Then we can express the dimensional relationship between F, X, and P and solve this relationship for the dimensions of X. Express the relationship of X to force and power dimensionally: Solve for [ X ] :

[F ][X ] = [P]

[X ] = [P] [F ]

16

Chapter 1

ML2 T3 [X ] = ML = L T 2 T

Substitute the dimensions of force and power and simplify to obtain:

Because the dimensions of velocity are L/T, we can conclude that:

[P ] = [F ][v]

Remarks: While it is true that P = Fv, dimensional analysis does not reveal the presence of dimensionless constants. For example, if P = πFv , the analysis shown above would fail to establish the factor of π. *41 •• Picture the Problem We can find the dimensions of C by solving the drag force equation for C and substituting the dimensions of force, area, and velocity. Solve the drag force equation for the constant C: Express this equation dimensionally: Substitute the dimensions of force, area, and velocity and simplify to obtain:

C=

Fair Av 2

[C ] = [Fair ]2 [A][v]

ML 2 [C ] = T 2 = M L3 2⎛L⎞ L ⎜ ⎟ ⎝T ⎠

42 •• Picture the Problem We can express the period of a planet as the product of these factors (each raised to a power) and then perform dimensional analysis to determine the values of the exponents. Express the period T of a planet as c the product of r a , G b , and M S : Solve the law of gravitation for the constant G: Express this equation dimensionally:

c T = Cr a G b M S

(1)

where C is a dimensionless constant.

Fr 2 G= m1m2

[F ][r ]2 [G ] = [m1 ][m2 ]

Systems of Measurement

Substitute the dimensions of F, r, and m:

17

ML 2 × (L ) 2 L3 T = [G ] = M ×M MT 2

⎛ L3 ⎞ c T = (L ) ⎜ ⎜ MT 2 ⎟ (M ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

a b

Noting that the dimension of time is represented by the same letter as is the period of a planet, substitute the dimensions in equation (1) to obtain: Introduce the product of M 0 and L0 in the left hand side of the equation and simplify to obtain: Equate the exponents on the two sides of the equation to obtain:

M 0 L0T 1 = M c −b La +3bT −2b

0 = c – b, 0 = a + 3b, and 1 = –2b

Solve these equations simultaneously to obtain: Substitute in equation (1):

a = 3 , b = − 1 , and c = − 1 2 2 2

− T = Cr 3 2G −1 2 M S 1 2 =

C r3 2 GM S

**Scientific Notation and Significant Figures
**

*43 • Picture the Problem We can use the rules governing scientific notation to express each of these numbers as a decimal number. (a) 3 × 10 4 = 30,000 (b) 6.2 × 10 −3 = 0.0062 (c) 4 × 10 −6 = 0.000004 (d) 2.17 × 105 = 217,000

44 • Picture the Problem We can use the rules governing scientific notation to express each of these measurements in scientific notation. (a) 3.1GW = 3.1 × 109 W (c) 2.3 fs = 2.3 × 10 −15 s

18

Chapter 1

(d) 4 µs = 4 × 10 −6 s

(b) 10 pm = 10 × 10 −12 m = 10 −11 m

45 • Picture the Problem Apply the general rules concerning the multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction of measurements to evaluate each of the given expressions. (a) The number of significant figures in each factor is three; therefore the result has three significant figures: (b) Express both terms with the same power of 10. Because the first measurement has only two digits after the decimal point, the result can have only two digits after the decimal point: (c) We’ll assume that 12 is exact. Hence, the answer will have three significant figures: (d) Proceed as in (b):

(1.14)(9.99 × 104 ) =

1.14 × 105

(2.78 × 10 ) − (5.31 × 10 )

−8 −9

= (2.78 − 0.531) × 10−8

= 2.25 × 10−8

12π = 8.27 × 103 4.56 × 10 −3

27.6 + 5.99 × 10 2 = 27.6 + 599 = 627 = 6.27 × 10 2

(

)

46 • Picture the Problem Apply the general rules concerning the multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction of measurements to evaluate each of the given expressions. (a) Note that both factors have four significant figures. (b) Express the first factor in scientific notation and note that both factors have three significant figures.

(200.9)(569.3) =

1.144 × 105

(0.000000513)(62.3 × 107 )

= 5.13 × 10 −7 62.3 × 107 = 3.20 × 10 2

(

)(

)

Systems of Measurement

(c) Express both terms in scientific notation and note that the second has only three significant figures. Hence the result will have only three significant figures. (d) Because the divisor has three significant figures, the result will have three significant figures.

19

28401 + 5.78 × 104

( ) = (2.841 × 10 ) + (5.78 × 10 )

4 4

= (2.841 + 5.78) × 104 = 8.62 × 104

63.25 = 1.52 × 104 −3 4.17 × 10

*47 • Picture the Problem Let N represent the required number of membranes and express N in terms of the thickness of each cell membrane. Express N in terms of the thickness of a single membrane: Convert the units into SI units and simplify to obtain:

N=

1in 7 nm 1in 2.54 cm 1m 1 nm × × × −9 7 nm in 100 cm 10 m

N=

= 4 × 106

48 • Picture the Problem Apply the general rules concerning the multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction of measurements to evaluate each of the given expressions. (a) Both factors and the result have three significant figures: (b) Because the second factor has three significant figures, the result will have three significant figures: (c) Both factors and the result have three significant figures: (d) Write both terms using the same power of 10. Note that the result will have only three significant figures:

(2.00 × 10 )(6.10 × 10 ) =

4

−2

1.22 × 103

(3.141592)(4.00 × 105 ) =

1.26 × 106

2.32 × 103 = 2.00 × 10−5 8 1.16 × 10

(5.14 × 10 ) + (2.78 × 10 ) = (5.14 × 10 ) + (0.278 × 10 )

3 2 3 3

= (5.14 + 0.278) × 103 = 5.42 × 103

20

Chapter 1

(e) Follow the same procedure used in (d):

(1.99 × 10 ) + (9.99 × 10 ) = (1.99 × 10 ) + (0.000000999 × 10 )

2

−5

2

2

= 1.99 × 102

*49 • Picture the Problem Apply the general rules concerning the multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction of measurements to evaluate each of the given expressions. (a) The second factor and the result have three significant figures: (b) We’ll assume that 2 is exact. Therefore, the result will have two significant figures: (c) We’ll assume that 4/3 is exact. Therefore the result will have two significant figures: (d) Because 2.0 has two significant figures, the result has two significant figures:

3.141592654 × (23.2 ) = 1.69 × 103

2

2 × 3.141592654 × 0.76 = 4.8

4 π × (1.1)3 = 5.6 3

(2.0)5

3.141592654

= 10

General Problems

50 • Picture the Problem We can use the conversion factor 1 mi = 1.61 km to convert 100 km/h into mi/h. Multiply 100 km/h by 1 mi/1.61 km to obtain:

100

**km km 1 mi = 100 × h h 1.61km
**

= 62.1 mi/h

*51 • Picture the Problem We can use a series of conversion factors to convert 1 billion seconds into years. Multiply 1 billion seconds by the appropriate conversion factors to convert into years:

Systems of Measurement 109 s = 109 s × 1h 1day 1y × × = 31.7 y 3600 s 24 h 365.24 days

21

52 • Picture the Problem In both the examples cited we can equate expressions for the physical quantities, expressed in different units, and then divide both sides of the equation by one of the expressions to obtain the desired conversion factor. (a) Divide both sides of the equation expressing the speed of light in the two systems of measurement by 186,000 mi/s to obtain:

1=

3 × 108 m/s = 1.61 × 103 m/mi 5 1.86 × 10 mi/h

m ⎞ ⎛ 1 km ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ = ⎜1.61 × 103 ⎟⎜ mi ⎠ ⎜ 103 m ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ = 1.61 km/mi

Volume of 1.00 kg = 103 g is 103 cm3

(b) Find the volume of 1.00 kg of water: Express 103 cm3 in ft3:

**⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ (10 cm ) ⎜ 1in ⎟ ⎜ 1ft ⎟ ⎜ 2.54 cm ⎟ ⎜ 12 in ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 0.0353 ft 3
**

3

3

3

Relate the weight of 1 ft3 of water to the volume occupied by 1 kg of water: Divide both sides of the equation by the left-hand side to obtain:

1.00 kg lb = 62.4 3 3 0.0353 ft ft

lb ft 3 = 2.20 lb/kg 1= 1.00 kg 0.0353 ft 3 62.4

53 •• Picture the Problem We can use the given information to equate the ratios of the number of uranium atoms in 8 g of pure uranium and of 1 atom to its mass. Express the proportion relating the number of uranium atoms NU in 8 g of pure uranium to the mass of 1 atom:

1atom NU = 8 g 4.0 × 10−26 kg

22

Chapter 1

⎛ ⎞ 1atom N U = (8 g )⎜ ⎜ 4.0 × 10 −26 kg ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 2.0 × 10 23

Solve for and evaluate NU:

54 •• Picture the Problem We can relate the weight of the water to its weight per unit volume and the volume it occupies. Express the weight w of water falling on the acre in terms of the weight of one cubic foot of water, the depth d of the water, and the area A over which the rain falls: Find the area A in ft2:

lb ⎞ ⎛ w = ⎜ 62.4 3 ⎟ Ad ft ⎠ ⎝

⎛ 1 mi 2 ⎞ ⎛ 5280 ft ⎞ A = (1acre)⎜ ⎜ 640 acre ⎟ ⎜ mi ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ 4 2 = 4.356 × 10 ft

2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate w:

⎛ 1ft ⎞ lb ⎞ ⎛ 5 w = ⎜ 62.4 3 ⎟ 4.356 × 10 4 ft 2 (1.4 in ) ⎜ ⎜ 12 in ⎟ = 3.17 × 10 lb ⎟ ft ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

55 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of density and the formula for the volume of a sphere to find the density of iron. Once we know the density of iron, we can use these same relationships to find what the radius of the earth would be if it had the same mass per unit volume as iron. (a) Using its definition, express the density of iron: Assuming it to be spherical, express the volume of an iron nucleus as a function of its radius: Substitute to obtain:

ρ=

m V

V = 4 π r3 3

ρ=

3m 4π r 3

(1)

Systems of Measurement

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ρ:

23

ρ=

( 4π (5.4 × 10

3m 4πρ

3 9.3 × 10 −26 kg

−15

) m)

3

= 1.41 × 1017 kg/m 3

(b) Because equation (1) relates the density of any spherical object to its mass and radius, we can solve for r to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate r:

r=3

r=3

3 5.98 × 10 24 kg = 216 m 4π 1.41 × 1017 kg/m 3

( (

)

)

56 •• Picture the Problem Apply the general rules concerning the multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction of measurements to evaluate each of the given expressions. (a) Because all of the factors have two significant figures, the result will have two significant figures:

(5.6 × 10 ) (0.0000075)

−5

(5.6 × 10 ) (7.5 × 10 ) =

−5 −6

2.4 × 10 −12

2.4 × 10 −12

= 1.8 × 10 2

(b) Because the factor with the fewest significant figures in the first term has two significant figures, the result will have two significant figures. Because its last significant figure is in the tenth’s position, the difference between the first and second term will have its last significant figure in the tenth’s position: (c) Because all of the factors have two significant figures, the result will have two significant figures:

(14.2) (6.4 × 107 )(8.2 × 10−9 ) − 4.06

= 7.8 − 4.06 = 3.4

(6.1 × 10 ) (3.6 × 10 ) (3.6 × 10 )

−6 2 −11 1 2

4 3

= 2.9 × 108

24

Chapter 1

(d) Because the factor with the fewest significant figures has two significant figures, the result will have two significant figures.

(12.8 × 10 )(490 × 10 ) (6.4 × 10 ) = (12.8 × 10 ) (490 × 10 )

−3 −1 1 2 −5 1 3 −3

(0.000064)1 3

−1 1 2

= 0.45

*57 •• Picture the Problem We can use the relationship between an angle θ, measured in radians, subtended at the center of a circle, the radius R of the circle, and the length L of the arc to answer these questions concerning the astronomical units of measure. (a) Relate the angle θ subtended by an arc of length S to the distance R: Solve for and evaluate S:

θ=

S R

(1)

S = Rθ ⎛ 1 min ⎞ = (1 parsec)(1s )⎜ ⎜ 60 s ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 1° ⎞ ⎛ 2π rad ⎞ ×⎜ ⎜ 60 min ⎟ ⎜ 360° ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ = 4.85 × 10 −6 parsec

(b) Solve equation (1) for and evaluate R:

R= =

S

θ

1.496 × 1011 m ⎜ (1s ) ⎛ 1min ⎞ ⎛ 1° ⎞ ⎛ 2π rad ⎞ ⎜ 60 s ⎟ ⎜ 60 min ⎟ ⎜ 360° ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝

= 3.09 × 1016 m

(c) Relate the distance D light travels in a given interval of time ∆t to its speed c and evaluate D for ∆t = 1 y:

D = c∆t

⎛ m⎞ s⎞ ⎛ = ⎜ 3 × 108 ⎟ (1 y )⎜ 3.156 × 107 ⎟ ⎜ s⎠ y⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ = 9.47 × 1015 m

Systems of Measurement

(d) Use the definition of 1 AU and the result from part (c) to obtain:

25

⎛ ⎞ 1 AU 1c ⋅ y = 9.47 × 1015 m ⎜ ⎜ 1.496 × 1011 m ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

= 6.33 × 10 4 AU

(e) Combine the results of parts (b) and (c) to obtain:

1 parsec = 3.08 × 1016 m

(

)

⎛ ⎞ 1c ⋅ y ×⎜ ⎜ 9.47 × 1015 m ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 3.25 c ⋅ y

58 •• Picture the Problem Let Ne and Np represent the number of electrons and the number of protons, respectively and ρ the critical average density of the universe. We can relate these quantities to the masses of the electron and proton using the definition of density. (a) Using its definition, relate the required density ρ to the electron density Ne/V: Solve for Ne/V:

ρ=

m N e me = V V

Ne ρ = V me

(1)

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ne/V:

6 × 10−27 kg/m 3 Ne = 9.11 × 10−31 kg/electron V = 6.59 × 103 electrons/m 3

(b) Express and evaluate the ratio of the masses of an electron and a proton: Rewrite equation (1) in terms of protons: Divide equation (2) by equation (1) to obtain:

**me 9.11 × 10−31 kg = = 5.46 × 10 −4 −27 mp 1.67 × 10 kg Np V
**

Np V = me or N p = me ⎛ N e ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Ne V mp ⎝ V ⎠ mp V

=

ρ

mp

(2)

26

Chapter 1

Np V = 5.46 × 10 −4

Substitute numerical values and use the result from part (a) to evaluate Np/V:

(

) )

× 6.59 × 103 protons/m 3 = 3.59 protons/m 3

(

*59 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of density to relate the mass of the water in the cylinder to its volume and the formula for the volume of a cylinder to express the volume of water used in the detector’s cylinder. To convert our answer in kg to lb, we can use the fact that 1 kg weighs about 2.205 lb. Relate the mass of water contained in the cylinder to its density and volume: Express the volume of a cylinder in terms of its diameter d and height h: Substitute to obtain:

m = ρV

V = Abase h = m=ρ

π

4

d 2h

π

4

d 2h

Substitute numerical values and evaluate m:

⎛π ⎞ 2 m = 103 kg/m 3 ⎜ ⎟ (39.3 m ) (41.4 m ) ⎝4⎠ 7 = 5.02 × 10 kg

(

)

Convert 5.02 × 107 kg to tons:

m = 5.02 × 107 kg ×

= 55.4 × 103 ton

2.205 lb 1 ton × 2000 lb kg

**The 50,000 − ton claim is conservative. The actual weight is closer to 55,000 tons.
**

60 ••• Picture the Problem We’ll solve this problem two ways. First, we’ll substitute two of the ordered pairs in the given equation to obtain two equations in C and n that we can solve simultaneously. Then we’ll use a spreadsheet program to create a graph of log T as a function of log m and use its curve-fitting capability to find n and C. Finally, we can identify the data points that deviate the most from a straight-line plot by examination of the graph.

Systems of Measurement

1st Solution for (a) (a) To estimate C and n, we can n apply the relation T = Cm to two arbitrarily selected data points. We’ll use the 1st and 6th ordered pairs. This will produce simultaneous equations that can be solved for C and n. Divide the second equation by the first to obtain:

27

T1 = Cm1n

and

n T6 = Cm6

n T6 Cm6 ⎛ m6 ⎞ = =⎜ ⎟ T1 Cm12 ⎜ m1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

n

Substitute numerical values and solve for n to obtain:

1.75 s ⎛ 1 kg ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ 0.56 s ⎜ 0.1kg ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

or

n

**3.125 = 10n ⇒ n = 0.4948
**

and so a ″judicial″ guess is that n = 0.5. Substituting this value into the second equation gives:

0 T5 = Cm5 .5

so

1.75 s = C(1 kg )

0.5

Solving for C gives: 2nd Solution for (a) Take the logarithm (we’ll arbitrarily use base 10) of both sides of T = Cmn and simplify to obtain:

C = 1.75 s/kg 0.5

**log(T ) = log Cm n = log C + log m n = n log m + log C which, we note, is of the form y = mx + b .
**

Hence a graph of log T vs. log m should be linear with a slope of n and a log Tintercept log C.

(

)

The graph of log T vs. log m shown below was created using a spreadsheet program. The equation shown on the graph was obtained using Excel’s ″Add Trendline″ function. (Excel’s ″Add Trendline″ function uses regression analysis to generate the trendline.)

28

Chapter 1

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -1.0

log T = 0.4987log m + 0.2479

log T

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4 log m

-0.2

0.0

0.2

Comparing the equation on the graph generated by the Add Trendline function to log (T ) = n log m + log C , we observe:

n = 0.499

and

C = 10 0.2479 = 1.77 s/kg1 2

or

T = 1.77 s/kg1 2 m 0.499

(b) From the graph we see that the data points that deviate the most from a straight-line plot are:

(

)

m = 0.02 kg, T = 0.471 s, and m = 1.50 kg, T = 2.22 s

From the graph we see that the points generated using the data pairs (b) (0.02 kg, 0.471 s) and (0.4 kg, 1.05 s) deviate the most from the line representing the best fit to the points plotted on the graph.

Remarks: Still another way to find n and C is to use your graphing calculator to perform regression analysis on the given set of data for log T versus log m. The slope yields n and the y-intercept yields log C. 61 ••• Picture the Problem We can plot log T versus log r and find the slope of the best-fit line to determine the exponent n. We can then use any of the ordered pairs to evaluate C. Once we know n and C, we can solve T = Crn for r as a function of T.

Systems of Measurement

(a) Take the logarithm (we’ll arbitrarily use base 10) of both sides of T = Crn and simplify to obtain:

29

**log(T ) = log Cr n = log C + log r n = n log r + log C
**

Note that this equation is of the form y = mx + b . Hence a graph of log T vs. log r should be linear with a slope of n and a log T -intercept log C.

( )

The graph of log T versus log r shown below was created using a spreadsheet program. The equation shown on the graph was obtained using Excel’s ″Add Trendline″ function. (Excel’s ″Add Trendline″ function uses regression analysis to generate the trendline.)

1.0 0.8 y = 1.5036x + 1.2311 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -1.1

log T

-1.0

-0.9

-0.8

-0.7 log r

-0.6

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

From the regression analysis we observe that:

n = 1.50

and

C = 101.2311 = 17.0 y/(Gm )

or T = 17.0 y/(Gm ) (b) Solve equation (1) for the radius of the planet’s orbit: Substitute numerical values and evaluate r:

32

(

32

)r

1.50

(1)

⎛ ⎞ T ⎟ r =⎜ 32 ⎟ ⎜ 17.0 y / (Gm ) ⎝ ⎠

⎞ ⎛ 6.20 y ⎟ r =⎜ ⎜ 17.0 y/(Gm )3 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝

23

23

= 0.510 Gm

the periods should be about: T (1 m ) = 2 s and T (0.4 s g L (c) Solve equation (2) for C: C =T . substitute the dimensions to obtain: Because L does not appear on the left-hand side of the equation. we can determine an experimental value for C.5 m ) = 1.5 m. the function relating these variables. and the acceleration of gravity g as T = CLa g b and perform dimensional analysis to find the values of a and b and. we can write this equation as: Equate the exponents to obtain: Solve these equations simultaneously to find a and b: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: T = CLa g b (1) where C is a dimensionless constant. its length L. Once we’ve performed the experiment called for in part (b). [T ] = [L] a [g ] b ⎛ L ⎞ T =L⎜ 2⎟ ⎝T ⎠ a b L0T 1 = La +bT −2b a + b = 0 and − 2b = 1 a = 1 and b = − 1 2 2 T = CL1 2 g −1 2 = C L g (2) (b) If you use pendulums of lengths 1 m and 0. hence.30 Chapter 1 *62 ••• Picture the Problem We can express the relationship between the period T of the pendulum. (a) Express T as the product of L and g raised to powers a and b: Write this equation in dimensional form: Noting that the symbols for the dimension of the period and length of the pendulum are the same as those representing the physical quantities.

16 × 10 lb ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 2 . We can use this definition to express the weight w of the earth’s atmosphere as the product of the atmospheric pressure and the surface area of the earth.26 ≈ 2π 1m L g Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: T = 2π 63 ••• Picture the Problem The weight of the earth’s atmosphere per unit area is known as the atmospheric pressure.81 m/s 2 = 6.7 in 2 ⎟ = 1.Systems of Measurement Evaluate C with L = 1 m and T = 2 s: 31 C = (2 s ) 9. Using its definition. relate atmospheric pressure to the weight of the earth’s atmosphere: Solve for w: Relate the surface area of the earth to its radius R: Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate w: P= w A w = PA A = 4π R 2 w = 4π R 2 P ⎛ 103 m ⎞ ⎛ 39.37 in ⎞ ⎛ lb ⎞ 19 w = 4π (6370 km ) ⎜ ⎜ km ⎟ ⎜ m ⎟ ⎜14.

32 Chapter 1 .

in this case 2H/T. So the average velocity for any round trip must also be zero. it is safer to land against the wind. where a is the acceleration and v is the velocity. 4 • Determine the Concept The important concept here is that a = dv/dt. (d ) is correct. If the car is braking. The average velocity is defined as the change in position or displacement divided by the change in time. its velocity is positive (dx > 0). the acceleration is negative if dv is negative. the speed of the plane relative to the ground (vPG) is the sum of the speed of the wind relative to the ground (vWG) and the speed of the plane relative to the air (vPG = vWG + vPA). Under all circumstances. if the question asked for "average velocity. (a) Let’s take the direction a car is moving to be the positive direction: Because the car is moving in the direction we’ve chosen to be positive. vav = ∆y ∆t vav = ∆y 0 = = 0 ∆t ∆t *2 • Determine the Concept The important concept here is that "average speed" is being requested as opposed to "average velocity". Remarks: Because this motion involves a round trip. Thus. the acceleration is positive if dv is positive. the definition of the average speed is the ratio of the total distance traveled (H + H) to the total time elapsed.Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension Conceptual Problems 1 • Determine the Concept The "average velocity" is being requested as opposed to "average speed". 3 • Determine the Concept Flying with the wind. Because the ground speed landing against the wind is smaller than the ground speed landing with the wind. Flying into or against the wind the speed relative to the ground is the difference between the wind speed and the true air speed of the plane (vg = vw – vt). then its velocity is decreasing (dv < 0) and its acceleration (dv/dt) is negative. The change in position for any "round trip" is zero by definition." the answer would be zero. including constant acceleration. Because the car is moving in the direction (b) Consider a car that is moving to 33 .

. the right but choose the positive direction to be to the left: *5 • Determine the Concept The important concept is that when both the acceleration and the velocity are in the same direction. 7 • Determine the Concept Acceleration is the slope of the velocity versus time curve.5 t (s) 6 • Determine the Concept True. (b) (c) A graph of v as a function of t that is consistent with the conditions stated in the problem is shown below: 0 -1 v (m/s) -2 -3 -4 -5 0 0.5 2 2. if the acceleration is constant. If the car is braking.5 1 1. the speed decreases.34 Chapter 2 opposite to that we’ve chosen to be positive. We can use the definition of average velocity to express the displacement ∆x as ∆x = vav∆t. your displacement must be negative. The speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity. when the acceleration and the velocity are in opposite directions. During the last five steps gradually slow the speed of walking. until the wall is reached. On the other hand. the average velocity is also given by vav = (vi + vf)/2. v = dx/dt. (a) Because your velocity remains negative. then its velocity is increasing (dv > 0) and its acceleration (dv/dt) is positive. Define the direction of your trip as the negative direction. Note that. the speed increases. a = dv/dt. its velocity is negative (dx < 0). while velocity is the slope of the position versus time curve.

If the velocity is constant (including zero). See the graphs below.) Consider a ball moving in a circle at a constant rotation rate. In one dimension. which implies that the acceleration remains zero. (In more than one-dimensional motion. Zero acceleration implies that the velocity is constant. the speed must also be constant. or reverse direction. then the object cannot speed up. 7 6 5 position (m) 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 time (s) 15 20 25 3 2 acceleration (m/s ) 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 5 10 time (s) 15 20 25 . Remarks: The answer to (b) would be False in more than one dimension. an object can change direction while maintaining constant speed. slow down. the velocity remains constant. The speed (magnitude of the velocity) is constant while the velocity is tangent to the circle and always changing. Thus. This constitutes a change in the direction of the velocity. if the speed remains constant. if the speed remains constant.Motion in One Dimension 35 (a) True. (b) True in one dimension. *8 •• Determine the Concept Velocity is the slope of the position versus time curve and acceleration is the slope of the velocity versus time curve. The acceleration is always pointing inward and is certainly NOT zero.

6 0 5 10 time (s) 15 20 25 9 • Determine the Concept False.6 velocity (m/s) 0. *11 •• Determine the Concept Neglecting air resistance. At the time the second ball is released. and yields an incorrect nonzero value of vi. during any time interval their velocities will increase by exactly the same amount. From the constant-acceleration equation y = y0 + v0t + 1 at 2 2 we see that the only way two objects can have the same acceleration (–g in this case) and cover the same distance. the acceleration is constant.0 -0. the first ball is already moving. What can be said about the speeds of the two balls? The first ball will always be moving faster than the second ball. each with the same free-fall acceleration. Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the point of release and upward is the positive direction. The average velocity is defined (for any acceleration) as the change in position (the displacement) divided by the change in time vav = ∆x ∆t .36 Chapter 2 1. It is always valid. what happens to the separation of the two balls while they are both . vf = vi and xi = xf so vav = ∆x/∆t is zero. This being the case. For one complete cycle. the answer would be the same whether or not the acceleration is constant. Ignoring air resistance.4 -0.2 0. the balls are in free fall.2 -0. It is just easier to see for the special case of constant acceleration. ∆y = y – y0.4 0. The formula involving the mean of vf and vi cannot be applied because the acceleration is not constant. 10 • Determine the Concept This can occur if the rocks have different initial speeds. Thus. Actually. in different times would be if the initial velocities of the two rocks were different.0 0. If the acceleration remains constant the average velocity is also given by vav = vi + vf 2 Consider an engine piston moving up and down as an example of non-constant velocity.8 0. which is a constant.

(d ) best shows motion with constant positive acceleration. the velocity is negative and the acceleration is negative. The slope of curve (d) is positive and increasing. the acceleration is zero. The slope of curve (a) is negative and becomes more negative as time increases. Therefore. The slope of the slope of an x(t) curve at any point in time represents the acceleration at that instant. Therefore. The slope of curve (e) is zero. then the acceleration is positive. the velocity and acceleration are zero. Therefore. If the slope becomes less positive or more negative.″ . (a ) is correct. the velocity and acceleration are positive. The slope of curve (c) is positive and decreasing.Motion in One Dimension falling? Their separation increases. If the slope becomes less negative or more positive as time increases (as you move to the right on the time axis). Therefore. the velocity is positive and the acceleration is negative. therefore. The way the slope changes as time increases gives the sign of the acceleration. *15 • Determine the Concept Note that the ″average velocity″ is being requested as opposed to the ″average speed. 37 12 •• Determine the Concept The slope of an x(t) curve at any point in time represents the speed at that instant. We need more information to conclude that a is constant. the statement makes no sense. (b ) is correct. Therefore. *13 • Determine the Concept The slope of a v(t) curve at any point in time represents the acceleration at that instant. The slope of curve (b) is positive and constant and so the velocity is positive and constant. then the acceleration is negative. 14 • Determine the Concept No. Only one curve has a constant and positive slope. The word average implies an interval of time rather than an instant in time.

However. implies that the displacement ∆x over this interval is also zero. 16 • Determine the Concept An object is farthest from the origin when it is farthest from the time axis. it follows that v must also be zero. Because the instantaneous velocity is defined as v = lim ∆t →0 (∆x / ∆t ) . . over the round trip. Consequently. 18 • Determine the Concept Yes. a graph of position as a function of time is linear with a constant slope equal to the velocity. The average velocity in a time interval is defined as the displacement divided by the elapsed time vav = ∆x ∆t . If the velocity is constant. and back to A. it is zero. In any roundtrip. 17 • Determine the Concept No. in the following graph of x versus t. Neither is it zero on the way down.38 Chapter 2 vav (A→B→A ) = ∆x ∆xAB + ∆xBA = ∆t ∆t ∆x + (− ∆xBA ) 0 = AB = ∆t ∆t = 0 Yes. the average velocity between A and B is not generally zero. ∆t. In one-dimensional motion starting from the origin. vav = 0 for this interval. over the interval between t = 0 and t ≈ 21 s. (b) is correct. On the other hand. Its average velocity on the way up is NOT zero. Because the object’s initial position is at x = 0. A to B. the point located farthest from the time axis in a distance-versus-time plot is the farthest from its starting point. As an example. point B represents the instant that the object is farthest from x = 0. The fact that vav = 0 for some time interval. the average velocity is zero. Note that the instantaneous velocity is zero only at t ≈ 10 s. ∆x = 0. vav (A→B ) = ∆xAB ≠ 0 ∆t Remarks: Consider an object launched up in the air.

.e. the slope of the position-versus-time curve is zero. . the curve becomes horizontal). a = dv/dt. Again. But. (b) is correct. zero acceleration implies that the velocity remains constant. therefore. while velocity is the slope of the position-versus-time curve. v = dx/dt. the speed is the magnitude of the velocity and can only be positive. *20 •• Determine the Concept In one-dimensional motion. the speed is zero. the velocity is the slope of a position-versus-time plot and can be either positive or negative. the particle must be moving. (b) True. if the velocity is constant and nonzero. We’ll use v to denote velocity and the word “speed” for how fast the object is moving. the velocity is a minimum when the slope of a position-versus-time plot goes to zero (i. (a) False.. This means that the x-versus-t curve has a constant slope (i. a straight line). Zero acceleration implies that the velocity is not changing. (a) curve a: v(t 2 ) < v(t1 ) curve c: v(t 2 ) > v(t1 ) (b) curve a: speed (t 2 ) < speed (t1 ) curve c: speed(t 2 ) < speed(t1 ) curve b: v(t 2 ) = v(t1 ) curve b: speed(t 2 ) = speed(t1 ) curve d: v(t 2 ) < v(t1 ) curve d: speed(t 2 ) > speed(t1 ) 21 • Determine the Concept Acceleration is the slope of the velocity-versus-time curve. The velocity could be any constant (including zero).Motion in One Dimension 600 500 400 x (m) 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 t (s) 15 20 39 19 •• Determine the Concept In the one-dimensional motion shown in the figure. At these points.e. Note: This does not necessarily mean a zero-slope line. On the other hand.

vtop of flight = 0 and atop of flight = − g . If the acceleration were also zero. 23 • Determine the Concept In the absence of air resistance. the speed increases. On the other hand. The graph shows the velocity of a ball that has been thrown straight upward with an initial speed of 30 m/s as a function of time.40 Chapter 2 22 • Determine the Concept Yes. The average speed is defined as the total distance traveled divided by the change in time: vav = total distance traveled total time H + H 2H = = T T . the object would have to remain at rest. 24 • Determine the Concept The "average speed" is being requested as opposed to "average velocity. Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the point of release and the upward direction is positive. Remarks: It is important conceptually to note that when both the acceleration and the velocity have the same sign. Note that the slope of this graph. when the acceleration and the velocity have opposite signs. is the same at every point. Thus. If the velocity is changing the acceleration is not zero. the ball will experience a constant acceleration." We can use the definition of average speed as distance traveled divided by the elapsed time and expression for the average speed of an object when it is experiencing constant acceleration to express vav in terms of v0. including the point at which v = 0 (at the top of its flight). The velocity is zero and the acceleration is nonzero any time an object is momentarily at rest. 30 20 10 v (m/s) 0 -10 -20 -30 0 1 2 3 t (s) 4 5 6 The acceleration is the slope (–g). therefore. the speed decreases. the velocity would never change. the acceleration.

express the positions of both objects as functions of time: xA = x0.down = H = 1 v0T 4 2( 1 v0T ) v 4 = 0 T 2 Because v0 ≠ 0 .B − x0. or is moving downward with ever increasing velocity. We are told that the Porsche has a constant acceleration that is positive (the velocity is increasing). Using constant-acceleration equations. A simple geometric argument leads to the result we obtained above. Choose a coordinate system in which downward is the positive direction and use a constantacceleration equation to express the position of each object as a function of time.A = 10 m and (d ) is correct. 26 • Determine the Concept Both objects experience the same constant acceleration. Express the separation of the two objects by evaluating xB − xA: xB − xA = x0. B + v0t + 1 gt 2 2 where v0 = 0. (b) is correct. . *27 •• Determine the Concept Because the Porsche accelerates uniformly.Motion in One Dimension Find the average speed for the upward flight of the object: Solve for H to obtain: Find the average speed for the downward flight of the object: Solve for H to obtain: Substitute in our expression for vav to obtain: 41 vav. we need to look for a graph that represents constant acceleration. A + v0t + 1 gt 2 2 and xB = x0. the answer would be zero. if the question asked for ″average velocity″. Whether the ball is moving upward and slowing down. the average speed is not vav = zero. therefore we must look for a velocity-versus-time curve with a positive constant slope and a nonzero intercept. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the point of release and upward as the positive direction.up = v0 + 0 H = 1 2 2T 0 + v0 H = 1 2 2T H = 1 v0T 4 vav. 2) Another easy way to obtain this result is take the absolute value of the velocity of the object to obtain a graph of its speed as a function of time. is momentarily at the top of its trajectory. 25 • Determine the Concept In the absence of air resistance. its acceleration is constant and equal to the acceleration due to gravity. Remarks: 1) Because this motion involves a roundtrip. the bowling ball will experience constant acceleration.

The displacement of the ball halfway to its highest point is: Using a constant-acceleration equation. *28 •• Determine the Concept In the absence of air resistance. If the acceleration is not constant. during the first two seconds it falls four times the distance it falls during the first second. x = x0 + v0t + 1 at 2 2 v = v0 + at 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x vav = vi + vf 2 .707v0 2 and (c ) is correct. Express the distance D that an object. v= 30 • Determine the Concept As long as the acceleration remains constant the following constant-acceleration equations hold. in general. give correct results except by coincidence. D = 1 gt 2 2 (a ) is correct. they do not. 29 •• Determine the Concept In the absence of air resistance. the object experiences constant acceleration. released from rest. Choose a coordinate system in which the downward direction is positive. falls in time t: Because the distance fallen varies with the square of the time. the acceleration of the ball is constant.42 Chapter 2 (c ) is correct. Choose a coordinate system in which the point of release is the origin and upward is the positive y direction. relate the ball’s initial and final velocities to its displacement and solve for the displacement: Substitute v0 = 0 to determine the maximum displacement of the ball: Express the velocity of the ball at half its maximum height: ∆y = ∆ymax 2 2 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆y = v0 − 2 g∆y ∆ymax = − 2 v0 v2 = 0 2(− g ) 2 g 2 2 v 2 = v0 − 2 g∆y = v0 − 2 g 2 = v0 − g∆ymax ∆ymax 2 2 v v2 2 = v0 − g 0 = 0 2g 2 Solve for v: 2 v0 ≈ 0.

Motion in One Dimension 43 (a) False. therefore the acceleration is not zero. . From the first equation. 36 •• Determine the Concept The velocity is positive if the curve is above the v = 0 line (the t axis). Only graphs (a). Velocity is the slope of the positionversus-time curve. The acceleration and therefore the slope can be positive. (a ) is correct. At the "top" of its flight.time curve must be a straight line whose slope is the acceleration. The special expression for average velocity for constant acceleration is vav = vi + vf . For constant acceleration. The negative slope indicates a constant negative velocity. the constantacceleration equations can be used to describe its motion. or zero. 34 •• Determine the Concept The acceleration is the slope of the tangent to the velocity as a function of time curve. requires that this always be true. only graph (e) has a negative slope. 33 •• Determine the Concept The velocity is the slope of the tangent to the curve. 2 32 • Determine the Concept The constant slope of the x-versus-t graph tells us that the velocity is constant and the acceleration is zero. and the acceleration is negative if the tangent to the curve has a negative slope. A linear position versus time curve implies a constant velocity. (e ) is correct. we see that (a) is true if and only if the acceleration is constant. The acceleration is positive. 35 •• Determine the Concept The acceleration is the slope of the tangent to the velocity as a function of time curve. vav = ∆x ∆t . a velocity-versus. (c). Zero acceleration means that slope of v(t) must also be zero. the velocity is zero but it is changing (otherwise the velocity would remain zero and the rock would hover).time curve must be a straight line whose slope is the acceleration. Of these. A parabolic x(t) curve opening upward implies an increasing velocity. and (e) have positive v. (e ) is correct. negative. Consider a rock thrown straight up into the air. (b) False. and the acceleration is the rate of change of this slope. For constant acceleration. (c) True. The definition of average velocity. (c ) is correct. a velocity-versus. (c ) is correct. (d ) is correct. The fact that the velocity is constant implies that the acceleration is also constant and zero. *31 • Determine the Concept Because the acceleration of the object is constant.

38 •• Determine the Concept A linear velocity-versus-time curve implies constant acceleration. t4. and t7. The displacement from time t = 0 can be determined by integrating vversus-t — that is. (a) Negative at t4. changes. 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0. i. (c) Zero at t0. (d ) is correct. t5. t6. and t7. t3. v(0).5 1 1. Velocity (a) Negative at t0 and t1. t1. (a) Acceleration is zero and constant while velocity is not zero. Only graphs (b) and (d) have negative v. 40 •• Determine the Concept Acceleration is the slope of a velocity-versus-time curve. The acceleration of the object is the slope of v(t) . only graph (d) has a negative slope. Of these.5 t 2 2.44 Chapter 2 37 •• Determine the Concept The velocity is positive if the curve is above the v = 0 line (the t axis). and thus the slope. The average velocity of the object is given by drawing a horizontal line that has the same area under it as the area under the curve.. Because all of these quantities can be determined (e ) is correct. *39 •• Determine the Concept The velocity is the slope of a position versus time curve and the acceleration is the rate at which the velocity. and the acceleration is negative if the tangent to the curve has a negative slope. Acceleration The acceleration is positive at points where the slope increases as you move toward the right.5 3 v . (b) Positive at t2 and t6. by finding the area under the curve.e. (c) Zero at t2 and t5. The initial velocity at t = 0 can be read directly from the graph of v-versus-t as the v-intercept. (b) Positive at t3.

5 1 1.5 3 v 45 (c) Velocity and acceleration are both positive. 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0.5 t 2 2. 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 3 .Motion in One Dimension (b) Acceleration is constant but not zero.5 t 2 2.5 3 v v (d) Velocity and acceleration are both negative.5 t 2 2. 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0.

5 1 1.5 t 2 2.46 Chapter 2 (e) Velocity is positive and acceleration is negative.5 3 v .5 t 2 2.5 1 1.5 3 v (f) Velocity is negative and acceleration is positive. 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0. 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0.

v-versus-t must be a straight line. and a-versus-t must be a straight horizontal line at a = 0. (c) For constant acceleration. and (i) are the correct answers. v-versus-t must not be a straight line. (c). 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0. . v-versus-t must be a horizontal straight line.5 t 2 2. x-versus-t must be a straight line or a parabola. (a). x-versus-t must not be a straight line or a parabola. or a-versus-t must not be a horizontal straight line.versus-time curve. (e). (d). (b). (a) For constant velocity. (a). and (g) are the correct answers. (c) and (d) are the correct answers. and a-versus-t must be a horizontal straight line. and (i) are the correct answers. (f).5 3 v 41 •• Determine the Concept Velocity is the slope and acceleration is the slope of the slope of a position-versus-time curve. (f). Acceleration is the slope of a velocity. (h).5 1 1. (b) For velocity to reverse its direction x-versus-t must have a slope that changes sign and vversus-t must cross the time axis.Motion in One Dimension 47 (g) Velocity is momentarily zero at the intercept with the t axis but the acceleration is not zero. (d) For non-constant acceleration. x-versus-t must be a straight line. The acceleration cannot remain zero at all times.

48 Chapter 2 Graphs (a) and (i) are mutually consistent. It does not.00 × 107 min Substitute numerical values and evaluate the number of heartbeats: # of heartbeats = (70 beats / min ) 5. For two graphs to be mutually consistent.81 m/s 2 )(150 m ) = 54. the curves must be consistent with the definitions of velocity and acceleration. v = 2 g∆y v = 2(9. Graphs (f) and (i) are also mutually consistent. acceleration. (a) We will use an average pulse rate of 70 bpm for a seated (resting) adult. One’s pulse rate is defined as the number of heartbeats per unit time: The time required to drive 1 mi at 60 mph is (1/60) h or 1 min: Pulse rate = and # of heartbeats Time # of heartbeats = Pulse rate × Time # of heartbeats = (70 beats/min )(1 min ) = 70 beats # of heartbeats = Pulse rate × Time (b) Express the number of heartbeats during a lifetime in terms of the pulse rate and the life span of an individual: Assuming a 95-y life span.50 ×109 beats *43 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. relate Carlos’ final velocity to his initial velocity. Because all the motion is downward. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. and distance fallen and solve for his final velocity: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆y ( ) and.2 m/s . Graphs (d) and (h) are mutually consistent. Carlos’ acceleration is constant. Estimation and Approximation 42 • Picture the Problem Assume that your heart beats at a constant rate.25 d/y )(24 h/d )(60 min/ h ) = 5. calculate the time in minutes: Time = (95 y )(365. but the average is pretty stable.00 × 107 min = 3. because v0 = 0 and a = g. let’s use a coordinate system in which downward is positive and the origin is at the point at which the fall began.

because v0 = 0 and a = g.81m/s 2 1 2 ∆y = (9. This solution is probably only good to about 20% accuracy.0510 s) 2 2 = 1.55 s) 2 = 31.81m/s 2 2 ∆y = v0 ∆t + 1 a(∆t ) 2 ∆y = 1 g (∆t ) 2 ∆y = 1 2 2 2 or. we can use constantacceleration equations to find the times required for them to reach their ″upper-bound″ velocities and their distances of fall.22m ) 2 = − 123 g ( ) 2 Remarks: The final velocity we obtained in part (a).acceleration equation to get an estimate of his average acceleration: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: 2 v 2 − v0 a= 2∆y 49 − 54 m/s 2 a= = −1. approximately 121 mph. relate the skydiver’s distance of fall to the elapsed time ∆t: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆y: (b) Proceed as in (a) with vupper bound = 0. relate the upper-bound velocity to the free-fall acceleration and the time required to reach this velocity: Solve for ∆t: vupper bound = v0 + g∆t or. (9. solve the same constant.Motion in One Dimension (b) While his acceleration by the snow is not constant.55 s 9.27 cm . (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. 44 •• Picture the Problem Because we’re assuming that the accelerations of the skydiver and the mouse are constant to one-half their terminal velocities. Let’s use a coordinate system in which downward is the positive y direction. is about the same as the terminal velocity for an "average" man.5 m/s to obtain: ∆t = 25 m/s = 2.5 m/s = 0.81m/s ) (2.0510 s 9. vupper bound = g∆t ∆t = vupper bound g Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: Using a constant-acceleration equation.81m/s )(0.20 × 103 m/s 2 (1.9 m ∆t = and 0. because v0 = 0.

Choose a coordinate system in which the direction Greene is running is the positive x direction. Express the total distance covered by Greene in terms of the distances covered in the two phases of his race: Express the distance he runs getting to his maximum velocity: Express the distance covered during the rest of the race at the constant maximum velocity: 100 m = ∆x01 + ∆x12 ∆x01 = v0 ∆t01 + 1 a01 (∆t01 ) = 1 a(3 s ) 2 2 2 2 ∆x12 = vmax ∆t12 + 1 a12 (∆t12 ) 2 = (a∆t01 )∆t12 = a(3 s )(6.50 Chapter 2 45 •• Picture the Problem This is a constant-acceleration problem. During the first 3 s of the race his acceleration is positive and during the rest of the race it is zero. there is less blurring). its speed will be near zero and when the ball has just been tossed in the air its speed is near its maximum value..79 s ) 2 Substitute for these displacements and solve for a: 100 m = 1 a(3 s ) + a(3 s )(6.79 s ) 2 2 and a = 4.e. .02 m/s 2 *46 •• Determine the Concept This is a constant-acceleration problem with a = −g if we take upward to be the positive direction. What conclusion can you draw from the image of the ball near its maximum height? To estimate the initial speed of the ball: Because the ball is moving slowly its blur is relatively short (i. The pictorial representation summarizes what we know about Greene’s race. At the maximum height the ball will reach.

the average speed of the ball is a good approximation to its initial speed: f) Finally.5 m/s ∆y = 2 − v0 − (4. 51 Distance traveled = (3 diameters) × (5 cm/diameter ) = 15 cm Average speed = 15 cm = 450 cm/s 1 s 30 = 4. and Velocity 48 • Picture the Problem Think of the electron as traveling in a straight line at constant speed and use the definition of average speed. . Using the definition of average speed.03 m 2a 2 − 9. express the travel time for the nerve impulse: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: ∆t = ∆x vav 1. use the constantacceleration equation 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆y to solve for and evaluate ∆y: ∴ v0 = 4.81 m/s 2 2 ( ) Remarks: This maximum height is in good agreement with the height of the higher ball in the photograph.7 m = 14.2 ms 120 m/s ∆t = Speed.5 m/s ) = = 1.Motion in One Dimension a) Estimate how far the ball being tossed moves in 1/30 s: b) Estimate the diameter of a tennis ball: c) Now one can calculate the approximate distance the ball moved in 1/30 s: d) Calculate the average speed of the tennis ball over this distance: The ball moves about 3 ball diameters in 1/30 s.7 m and use the definition of average speed to estimate the travel time for the nerve impulse.50 m/s e) Because the time interval is very short. *47 •• Picture the Problem The average speed of a nerve impulse is approximately 120 m/s. The diameter of a tennis ball is approximately 5 cm. Assume an average height of 1. Displacement.

5 km = = 0.0833 km / min (c) Express her average velocity for the whole trip: (d) Finally.16 m = Average speed 4 × 107 m s = 4 × 10−9 s = 4. express her average speed for the whole trip: vav = ∆xround trip ∆t = 0 = 0 ∆t Average speed = distance traveled elapsed time 2(2.7 min *49 • Picture the Problem In this problem the runner is traveling in a straight line but not at constant speed . express the average speed of the electron: Solve for and evaluate the time of flight: ∆t = ∆s 0. ∆t = ∆s 0. (a) Express the total displacement of the car for the entire trip: ∆x total = ∆x1 + ∆x2 . calculate the average velocity for the first 9 min: (b) Using the definition of average velocity.5 km) = 30 min + 9 min = 0. Let’s choose a coordinate system in which her initial direction of motion is taken as the positive x direction. Let the direction of motion be the positive x direction.278 km / min ∆t 9 min ∆x − 2. calculate her average speed for the 30 min spent walking: vav = ∆x 2.16 m = Average speed 4 × 10 −5 m s = 4 × 103 s = 66.52 Chapter 2 Average speed = distance traveled time of flight ∆s = ∆t (a) Using its definition.128 km / min 50 • Picture the Problem The car is traveling in a straight line but not at constant speed.5 km = ∆t 30 min vav = = − 0.first she runs.00 ns (b) Calculate the time of flight for an electron in a 16-cm long current carrying wire similarly. then she walks. (a) Using the definition of average velocity.

tsupersonic = = sAtlantic speedsupersonic 5500 km 2(0.0 km = 260 km vav ≡ 260 km ∆xtotal = ∆ttotal 2.9(0.5 h ) = 60. tsubsonic = = sAtlantic speed subsonic 5500 km 0.1∆t1 = (80 km/h )(2. (d) Adding 2 h on both the front and the back of the subsonic trip. we obtain the average speed of the subsonic flight.00 h = 880 km h speed av. supersonic = 5500 km 2.0 km h 51 • Picture the Problem However unlikely it may seem.25 h (b) The time of flight is the ratio of the distance traveled to the speed of the subsonic jet.340 km/s )(3600 s/h ) = 2. (a) The time of flight is the ratio of the distance traveled to the speed of the supersonic jet.5 h + 1.00 h + 4. the average velocity for the total trip is given by: = 65. subsonic = 5500 km 5.00 h = 611 km h .5 h (b) As long as the car continues to move in the same direction.Motion in One Dimension Find the displacement for each leg of the trip: 53 ∆x1 = vav .99 h (c) Adding 2 h on both the front and the back of the supersonic trip.340 km/s )(3600 s/h ) = 4. we obtain the average speed of the supersonic flight. speed av.5 h ) = 200 km and ∆x2 = vav .25 h + 4. 2 ∆t2 = (40 km/h )(1.0 km Add the individual displacements to get the total displacement: ∆xtotal = ∆x1 + ∆x2 = 200 km + 60. imagine that both jets are flying in a straight line at constant speed.

(a) Using the definition of average speed.1×1013 km = 4.54 Chapter 2 *52 • Picture the Problem In free space. light travels in a straight line at constant speed.37 ×108 s = 4. c.5 × 1011 m = average speed 3 × 108 m/s = 500 s = 8. We can use this time to determine the average speed for the second 50 km interval from the definition of average speed.1×1016 m = speed of light 3×108 m s = 1. 54 • Picture the Problem The time for the second 50 km is equal to the time for the entire journey less the time for the first 50 km. Gregor does not have to pay. solve for and evaluate the time required for light to travel from the sun to the earth: average speed = and s t t= s 1.48 ×1012 km = 9. c. find the time required for the total journey: t total = total distance 100 km = = 2h average speed 50 km h .year = 9.89 ×10 mi 12 ( ) 53 • Picture the Problem In free space.33 × 10 6 y >> 1000 y. the delivery time (ttotal) will be the sum of the time for the order to reach Hoboken and the time for the pizza to be delivered to Proxima Centauri: t= distance traveled 4. Using the definition of average speed.48 ×1015 m = 9.33×106 y ≈ 4.33 y + 4.33 y + − 4 10 3 × 108 m s ( )( ) = 4.84 ×108 m = 1.33 y t total = torder to be sent to Hoboken + torder to be delivered 4. (a) Using the definition of average speed (equal here to the assumed constant speed of light).61 km ) = 5.48 ×1012 km (1 mi/1.33×106 y Since 4. solve for the time required to travel the distance to Proxima Centauri: (b) Traveling at 10-4c.28 s 3×108 m/s 1 light .33 min (b) Proceed as in (a) this time using the moon-earth distance: (c) One light-year is the distance light travels in a vacuum in one year: t= 3. light travels in a straight line at constant speed.

15 (6 m s ) .25 h 40 km h t2nd 50 km = t total − t1st 50 km = 2 h − 1. d.75 h *55 •• Picture the Problem Note that both the arrow and the sound travel a distance d.7 km h 0.15 (John' s speed ) 100 m = = 14.5 s 1. the speed of sound. the speed of the arrow. and the elapsed time to find the distance separating the archer and the target.25 h = 0.Motion in One Dimension Find the time required for the first 50 km: Find the time remaining to travel the last 50 km: Finally. use the time remaining to travel the last 50 km to determine the average speed over this distance: 55 t1st 50 km = 50 km = 1. find the time for Marcia: tMarcia = distance run Marcia' s speed distance run = 1. Express the elapsed time between the archer firing the arrow and hearing it strike the target: Express the transit times for the arrow and the sound in terms of the distance. We can use the relationship between distance traveled.8 m 56 •• Picture the Problem Assume both runners travel parallel paths in a straight line along the track.75 h Average speed 2nd 50 km = = distance traveled2nd 50 km time2nd 50 km 50 km = 66. (a) Using the definition of average speed. and their speeds: ∆t = 1s = ∆tarrow + ∆tsound ∆tarrow = and d varrow d vsound = d 40 m/s d 340 m/s ∆tsound = Substitute these two relationships in the expression obtained in step 1 and solve for d: = d d + = 1s 40 m/s 340 m/s and d = 35.

5 s ) = 87.0 m is (13 m)/(6 m/s) = 2.5 s and the difference between that distance and 100 m: 100 m − 87 m = 13.56 Chapter 2 xJohn = (6 m s )(14.1 billion years .0 m and Marcia wins by Find the distance covered by John in 14.58 × 10 −18 s −1 = 3. light travels in a straight line at constant speed c.1× 109 y = 20. that is vav = ∆x / ∆t . find the time required by John to complete the 100-m run: tJohn = distance run 100 m = = 16.2 s Alternatively.5 s = 2.90 × 10 4 m/s vb = 2 × 10 25 m 1.0 m (b) Using the definition of average speed. determine how long ago they were both located at the same place as the earth: t= r r 1 = = v rH H = 6.333 m/s vav = − 2. calculate the speed of the first galaxy: va = 5 × 10 22 m 1.17 s 57 • Picture the Problem The average velocity in a time interval is defined as the displacement divided by the time elapsed. (a) ∆xa = 0 (b) ∆xb = 1 m and ∆tb = 3 s (c) ∆xc = –6 m and ∆tc = 3 s (d) ∆xd = 3 m and ∆td = 3 s vav = 0 vav = 0.33 × 1017 s = 20.7 s – 14. (a) Using Hubble’s law. calculate the speed of the second galaxy: ( )( (c) Using the relationship between distance. and time for both galaxies.00 m/s 58 •• Picture the Problem In free space.7 s John' s speed 6 m s Marsha wins by 16. the time required by John to travel the last 13.00 m/s vav = 1.16 × 107 m/s ( )( ) ) (b) Using Hubble’s law. speed.58 × 10 −18 s −1 = 7. We can use Hubble’s law to find the speed of the two planets.

In this frame. their accelerations are zero and their average speed can be found from its definition. Find the velocity of car B relative to car A: Find the time before car B reaches car A: Find the distance traveled.03vav 60 •• Picture the Problem Perhaps the easiest way to solve this problem is to think in terms of the relative velocity of one car relative to the other. .5 h vrel 30 km/h d = (1. tcheetah = tfalcon = and tsailfish = Express the total time.Motion in One Dimension *59 •• Picture the Problem Ignoring the time intervals during which members of this relay time get up to their running speeds. ∆t: ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞ ⎟ ∆t = L⎜ + + ⎟ ⎜v ⎝ cheetah vfalcon vsailfish ⎠ Use the total distance traveled by the relay team and the elapsed time to calculate the average speed: vav = 3L = 122 km/h ⎛ ⎞ 1 1 1 L⎜ ⎜ 113 km/h + 161 km/h + 105 km/h ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Calculate the average of the three speeds: Averagethree speeds = 113 km/h + 161 km/h + 105 km/h 3 = 126 km/h = 1. by car A in 1. Solve this problem from the reference frame of car A. car A remains at rest. relative to the road.5 h )(80 km/h ) = 120 km .5 h: vrel = vB – vA = (110 – 80) km/h = 30 km/h ∆t = 45 km ∆x = = 1. relate the average speed to the total distance traveled and the elapsed time: Express the time required for each animal to travel a distance L: 57 vav = distance traveled elapsed time L vcheetah L vfalcon L vsailfish . Using its definition.

for example. the position of the slower car. one can see that the second car will "overtake" (catch up to) the first car at t = 15 s . the position of the faster car is given by: x1(t) = 20t where x1 is in meters if t is in seconds. tell how far apart the cars are at any given time by determining the length of a vertical line segment from one curve to the other. we know that the position of this car is given by a function of the form: We know that when t = 5 s. Using this information.e. Plotting these positions as functions of time allows us to visualize the motion of the two cars relative to the (fixed) ground. More importantly. (a) Letting the origin of our coordinate system be at the intersection. x1(t). or a spreadsheet to obtain the graphs of x1(t) (the solid line) and x2(t) (the dashed line) shown below: 350 300 250 x (m) 200 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 8 t (s) 10 12 14 16 (b) Use the time coordinate of the intersection of the two lines to determine the time at which the second car overtakes the first: From the intersection of the two lines.58 Chapter 2 *61 •• Picture the Problem One way to solve this problem is by using a graphing calculator to plot the positions of each car as a function of time. is given by: Because the faster car is also moving at a constant speed. graphing paper. x2(t) = 30t + b b = −150 m x2 (t ) = 30t − 150 One can use a graphing calculator.. you can convince yourself that: Thus. x2(5 s) = 0). it allows us to see the motion of the two cars relative to each other. . this second car is at the intersection (i. We can.

Express D in terms of vBG (Joe’s speed relative to the ground): Solve for vBG: D = (2 min ) vBG vBG = D 2 min Express D in terms of vBG + vSG (Sally’s speed relative to the ground): D = (1 min )(vBG + vSG ) ⎛ D ⎞ = (1 min )⎜ ⎜ 2 min + vSG ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Solve for vSG: vSG = D D D − = 1min 2 min 2 min Express D in terms of vBG + 2vSB (Sally’s speed for a fast walk relative to the ground): ⎛ D 2D ⎞ + D = tf (vBG + 2vSB ) = tf ⎜ ⎜ 2 min 2 min ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 3D ⎞ = tf ⎜ ⎜ 2 min ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Solve for tf as time for Sally's fast walk: tf = 2 min = 40. Joe’s velocity relative to the ground is the same as the velocity of the belt relative to the ground. Let D be the length of the moving sidewalk. the first car was 100 m ahead . when the second car passes the intersection.Motion in One Dimension (c) Use the position coordinate of the intersection of the two lines to determine the distance from the intersection at which the second car catches up to the first car: (d) Draw a vertical line from t = 5 s to the red line and then read the position coordinate of the intersection of this line and the red line to determine the position of the first car when the second car went through the intersection: 59 From the intersection of the two lines. From the graph.0 s 3 . 62 • Picture the Problem Sally’s velocity relative to the ground (vSG) is the sum of her velocity relative to the moving belt (vSB) and the velocity of the belt relative to the ground (vBG). one can see that the distance from the intersection is 300 m .

Express the total time for the trip: Express the times of travel with the motor running in terms of D. (a) Apply the definition of average acceleration: aav = ∆v 80.5 km/h − 48. depending on whether she is heading with or against the current. we can find the change in the car’s velocity in one second and add this change to its velocity at the beginning of the interval to find its speed one second later.7 s ∆t km = 8.60 Chapter 2 63 •• Picture the Problem The speed of Margaret’s boat relative to the riverbank ( vBR ) is the sum or difference of the speed of her boat relative to the water ( vBW ) and the speed of the water relative to the riverbank ( vWR ). we can apply the definition of average acceleration to find aav. vWR and vBW : t tot = t1 + t 2 t1 = and vBW D = 4h − vWR D + vWR t2 = Express the time required to drift distance D and solve for vWR : vBW t3 = and D = 8h vWR D 8h D D D 3D + vWR = + = 4h 4h 8h 8h vWR = From t1 = 4 h.70 h ⋅s .3 km/h = 3. In part (b). Let D be the distance to the marina. find vBW : vBW = Solve for t2: t2 = vBW D D = = 2h 3D D + vWR + 8h 8h Add t1 and t2 to find the total time: t tot = t1 + t 2 = 6 h Acceleration 64 • Picture the Problem In part (a).

5 km/h + 8.7 s ) = 80.7 km/h = 89.7 s ) = v(3.70 ⎟(1s ) h ⋅s ⎠ ⎝ = 8.5 km/h + ∆v1s km ⎞ ⎛ ∆v = aav ∆t = ⎜ 8.7 s: Find the change in the speed of the car in 1 s: v(4.00 m/s 2 dt .2 km/h Substitute and evaluate v(4. The average acceleration is defined as the change in velocity divided by the change in time: aav = ∆v (− 1m/s ) − (5m/s ) = (8s ) − (5s ) ∆t = − 2.42 m/s 2 (b) Express the speed of the car at the end of 4. (a) The average acceleration is defined as the change in velocity divided by the change in time: Determine v at t = 3 s. and t = 5 s: Find aav for the two 1-s intervals: aav = ∆v/∆t v(3 s) = 17 m/s v(4 s) = 25 m/s v(5 s) = 33 m/s aav(3 s to 4 s) = (25 m/s – 17 m/s)/(1 s) = 8 m/s2 and aav(4 s to 5 s) = (33 m/s – 25 m/s)/(1 s) = 8 m/s2 The instantaneous acceleration is defined as the time derivative of the velocity or the slope of the velocityversus-time curve: a= dv = 8.7 s): 65 • Picture the Problem Average acceleration is defined as aav = ∆v/∆t.Motion in One Dimension Convert to m/s2: 61 m ⎞⎛ 1h ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ aav = ⎜ 8.7 s ) + ∆v1s = 80.00 m/s 2 66 •• Picture the Problem The important concept here is the difference between average acceleration and instantaneous acceleration. t = 4 s.70 km/h v(4.70 × 103 ⎟⎜ h ⋅ s ⎠⎜ 3600 s ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ = 2.

(a) Find x(4 s) and x(3 s): x(4 s) = (4)2 – 5(4) + 1 = –3 m and x(3 s) = (3)2 – 5(3) + 1 = −5 m ∆x = x(4 s) – x(3 s) = (–3 m) – (–5 m) = 2m Find ∆x: Use the definition of average velocity: (b) Find x(t + ∆t): vav = ∆x/∆t = (2 m)/(1 s) = 2 m/s x(t + ∆t) = (t + ∆t)2 − 5(t + ∆t) + 1 = (t2 + 2t∆t + (∆t)2) – 5(t + ∆t) + 1 Express x(t + ∆t) – x(t) = ∆x: ∆x = (2t − 5)∆t + (∆t )2 2 where ∆x is in meters if t is in seconds. (c) From (b) find ∆x/∆t as ∆t → 0: and ∆x (2t − 5)∆t + (∆t ) = ∆t ∆t = 2t − 5 + ∆t . which we use to approximate the instantaneous velocity v.62 Chapter 2 (b) The given function was used to plot the following spreadsheet-graph of v-versus-t: 35 30 25 20 v (m/s) 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 t (s) 67 •• Picture the Problem We can closely approximate the instantaneous velocity by the average velocity in the limit as the time interval of the average becomes small. This is important because all we can ever obtain from any measurement is the average velocity. vav.

0 m/s 2 69 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of average acceleration (aav = ∆v/∆t) to find aav for the three intervals of constant acceleration shown on the graph. CE = (b) Use the formulas for the areas of trapezoids and triangles to find the area under the graph of v as a function of t. Alternatively. 63 v(t ) = dx(t ) dt = d at 2 + bt + 1 dt = 2at + b = 2t − 5 ( ) *68 •• Picture the Problem The instantaneous velocity is dx dt and the acceleration is dv dt . BC = Find aav for the interval CE: aav. (a) Using the definition of average acceleration. AB = 15 m/s − 5 m/s = 3.50m/s 2 4s aav. find aav for the interval AB: Find aav for the interval BC: aav.Motion in One Dimension v = lim ∆t →0 (∆x / ∆t ) = 2t − 5 where v is in m/s if t is in seconds.33 m/s 2 3s 15 m/s − 15 m/s = 0 3s − 15 m/s − 15m/s = − 7. we can take the derivative of x(t) with respect to time to obtain the instantaneous velocity. Using the definitions of instantaneous velocity and acceleration. . determine v and a: v= and dx d = At 2 − Bt + C = 2 At − B dt dt dv d = [2 At − B ] = 2 A dr dt [ ] a= Substitute numerical values for A and B and evaluate v and a: v = 2 8m/s 2 t − 6 m/s = and 2 ( ) (16 m/s ) t − 6m/s ( ) a = 2 8 m/s 2 = 16.

At point D. t = 8 s.versus-t curve is a straight line.64 Chapter 2 ∆x = (∆x )A→B + (∆x )B→C + (∆x )C→D + (∆x )D→E = 1 2 (5 m/s + 15 m/s)(3 s ) + (15 m/s)(3 s) + 1 (15 m/s)(2 s) + 1 (−15 m/s)(2 s) 2 2 = 75. x. t. is shown in the following figure. the graph crosses the time axis. as a function of time. the acceleration due to gravity. Constant Acceleration and Free-Fall *70 • Picture the Problem Because the acceleration is constant (–g) we can use a constantacceleration equation to find the height of the projectile. v = 0. h= From this expression for h we see that the maximum height attained is proportional to the square of the launch speed: 2 − v0 v2 = 0 2(− g ) 2 g 2 h ∝ v0 . express the height of the object as a function of its initial velocity. 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 x (m) t (s) (d) Reading directly from the figure. Using a constant-acceleration equation. we can find the time when the particle is moving the slowest. therefore. and its displacement: Solve for ∆ymax = h: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆y Because v(h) = 0.0 m (c) The graph of displacement. In the region from B to C the velocity is constant so the x.

relate the velocity to the acceleration and the displacement: Solve for and evaluate the displacement: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2 a ∆x ∆x = 2 v 2 − v0 (152 − 52 )m 2 s 2 = 2a 2 (2 m s 2 ) = 50. doubling the initial speed gives four times the height: 65 h2v 0 and (2v0 )2 = ⎛ v2 ⎞ = 4⎜ 0 ⎟ = 4hv0 ⎜ 2g ⎟ 2g ⎝ ⎠ (a ) is correct.0 m *73 • Picture the Problem Because the acceleration of the object is constant we can use constant-acceleration equations to describe its motion.Motion in One Dimension Therefore.0 m/s ∆t 10 s ( ) vav = Remarks: Because the area under a velocity-versus-time graph is the displacement of the object. Using a constant-acceleration equation. 72 • Picture the Problem Because the acceleration of the object is constant we can use constant-acceleration equations to describe its motion. 71 • Picture the Problem Because the acceleration of the car is constant we can use constantacceleration equations to describe its motion. we could solve this problem graphically. relate the velocity to the acceleration and the displacement: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2 a ∆x . (a) Uing a constant-acceleration equation.0 m s ( ) a ∆x = x − x0 = v0t + t 2 2 ∆x = 1 2 8 m s 2 (10 s ) = 400 m 2 ∆x 400 m = = 40. relate the displacement to the acceleration and the time: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆x: (c) Use the definition of vav: v = v0 + at = 0 + 8 m s 2 (10 s ) = 80. Using a constant-acceleration equation. relate the velocity to the acceleration and the time: (b) sing a constant-acceleration equation.

6 m s 2 2(4 m ) ) 74 • Picture the Problem Because the acceleration of the object is constant we can use constant-acceleration equations to describe its motion. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the point of release and the positive direction upward.08 s g 9. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.00 m/s Using the definition of average acceleration. relate the final speed of the ball to its initial speed.81m/s 2 2 2 vtop = v0 + 2a∆y or. relate the displacement of the ball to the acceleration and the time: Setting ∆y = 0 (the displacement for a round trip).500 s aav 4 m s2 75 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. the acceleration. the ball experiences constant acceleration. solve for the time: t= ∆v 3 m s − 1 m s = = 0. 2 0 = v 0 + 2(− g )H H= 2 (20 m s ) = 20. Using a constant-acceleration equation. because vtop = 0 and a = −g.66 Chapter 2 Solve for the acceleration: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a= 2 v 2 − v0 2 ∆x (15 a= 2 − 102 m 2 s 2 = 15. and its displacement: Solve for and evaluate H: ∆y = v0t + 1 at 2 2 tround trip = 2v0 2(20 m/s ) = = 4. relate the velocity to the acceleration and the displacement: Solve for and evaluate v: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2 a ∆x v= (1 m s )2 + 2 (4 m s 2 (1 m ) ) = 3.81m s 2 2 ( ) (c) Using the same constantacceleration equation with which we began part (a).4 m v0 = 2 g 2 9. solve for and evaluate the time required for the ball to return to its starting position: (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. express the displacement as a function of time: ∆y = v0t + 1 at 2 2 .

81 m s 2 (9.Motion in One Dimension Substitute numerical values to obtain: Solve the quadratic equation for the times at which the displacement of the ball is 15 m: 67 ⎛ 9.09 s (this corresponds to passing 15 m on the way down). v1 = gt1 v1 = 9. We’ll choose a coordinate system in which downward is the positive direction and apply constant-acceleration equations to find the required times.81 m/s 2 ⎞ 2 ⎟t 15 m = (20 m/s )t − ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ The solutions are t = 0. 76 •• Picture the Problem This is a multipart constant-acceleration problem using two different constant accelerations. relate the velocity at the bottom of the mountain to the acceleration and time: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v1: (c) Using a constant-acceleration equation. relate the time required to stop the mass of rock and mud to its average speed and the distance it slides: Because the acceleration is constant: t1 = v1 = v0 + a1t1 or.81 m s 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate t1: (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation.991s (this corresponds to passing 15 m on the way up) and t = 3.68 s ) = 95. h = 1 at12 2 t1 = 2h g 2(460 m ) = 9. relate the time for the slide to the distance of fall and the acceleration: Solve for t1: ∆y = y − y0 = h − 0 = v0t1 + 1 at12 2 or. because v0 = 0 and a1 = g.0 m s ( ) ∆t = ∆x vav vav = ∆t = v1 + vf v1 + 0 v1 = = 2 2 2 2∆x v1 Substitute to obtain: .68 s 9. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. because v0 = 0.

4 0.91 m s 2 t 2 ( ) The following graph of y = 6 m + (5 m s )t − 4. initial velocity.4 1.0 1.81 m s 2 ( (5 m s ) 2 ) = 1.0 m s Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: *77 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.6 t (s) (b) Relate the greatest height reached by the brick to its height when it falls off the load and the additional height it rises ∆ymax: Using a constant-acceleration equation.0 0. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.6 0.2 1. the brick experiences constant acceleration and we can use constant-acceleration equations to describe its motion. because vtop = 0.2 0.27 m . acceleration. relate the position of the brick to its initial position.8 1. 2 0 = v0 + 2(− g )∆ymax ∆ymax = 2 v0 2g Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆ymax: ∆ymax = 2 9.91 m s 2 t 2 was plotted using a spreadsheet program: 8 7 6 5 ( ) y (m) 4 3 2 1 0 0.68 Chapter 2 ∆t = 2(8000 m ) = 168 s 95. and time into its fall: y = y 0 + v 0 t + 1 (− g )t 2 2 = 6 m + (5 m s ) t − 4. Constant acceleration implies a parabolic position-versus-time curve. relate the height reached by the brick to its acceleration and initial velocity: Solve for ∆ymax: h = y0 + ∆ymax 2 2 vtop = v0 + 2(− g )∆ymax or.

relate the speed of the bolt to its initial speed. acceleration. and fall time: v = v0 + at .81 m s 2 (7.27 m Note: The graph shown above confirms this result. the acceleration of the bolt is constant. (c) Using the quadratic formula. Choose a coordinate system in which upward is positive and the origin is at the bottom of the shaft (y = 0).1 m 2 (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. initial velocity.Motion in One Dimension Substitute to obtain: 69 h = y0 + ∆ymax = 6 m + 1. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. and fall time: Solve for the position of the bolt when it came loose: Substitute numerical values and evaluate y0: ybottom = 0 = y0 + v0t + 1 (− g )t 2 2 y0 = −v0t + 1 gt 2 2 y0 = −(6 m s )(3 s ) + 1 (9.27 m = 7.708 s. we obtain: (d) Using a constant-acceleration equation. and solve for its speed: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: second solution is nonphysical. solve for t in the equation obtained in part (a): ⎛−g⎞ 2 − v0 ± v0 − 4⎜ ⎟(− ∆y ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ t= ⎛−g⎞ 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ v ⎞⎛ 2 g (∆y ) ⎞ ⎟ = ⎜ 0 ⎟⎜1 ± 1 − 2 ⎜ g ⎟⎜ v0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ t = 1. relate the position of the bolt to its initial position. Note: The With ybottom = 0 and yo = 6 m or ∆y = –6 m.73 s and t = –0. v = 2 gh v = 2 9.27 m ) = 11.81 m s 2 )(3 s ) 2 = 26. relate the speed of the brick on impact to its acceleration and displacement.9 m s ( ) 78 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.

and fall time: Solve for the fall time: ∆ylast second = 120 m − y1s before impact (1) y = y0 + v0t + 1 gt 2 2 or. Using the same constantacceleration equation. calculate the object’s position 3.81 m s 2 (3s ) = −23.4 m ∆ylast second = 120 m − 76.70 Chapter 2 v = 6 m s − 9.4 m s and Substitute numerical values and evaluate v : ( ) v = 23. a = g and y = 120 m at the bottom of the fall. the object has fallen for 3.81 m/s )(3. Using a constant-acceleration equation.6 m 80 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.95 s into its fall: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: tfall = y (3. 2 y = 1 gtfall 2 tfall = 2y g 2(120 m ) = 4. Choose a coordinate system in which downward is positive and the origin is at the point of release. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the point of release and downward as the positive direction. the object’s acceleration is constant. relate the object’s position upon impact to its initial position.4 m s *79 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. because v0 = 0. h= vf2 2g (1) .95 s.4 m = 43. one second before impact.81 m/s 2 1 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate tfall: We know that. solve for the height: 2 vf2 = v0 + 2a∆y or. Express the distance fallen in the last second in terms of the object’s position at impact and its position 1 s before impact: Using a constant-acceleration equation. relate the height to the initial and final velocities and the acceleration.95 s ) 2 2 = 76. In this coordinate system. because y0 = 0 and v0 = 0.95 s) = (9. initial velocity. the acceleration of the object is constant.95 s 9.

and displacement: Solve for the initial speed of the stone: Find the average speed in the last half second: 2 vf2 = v0 + 2a∆y v0 = vf2 + 2 g∆y vav = and (1) vf -1 2 + vf 2 = 90 m s = ∆xlast half second 45 m = 0. express the final speed of the stone in terms of its initial speed. acceleration.81 m s 2 (0.81 m s 2 ( )= 93. express the change in speed of the stone in the last half second in terms of the acceleration and the elapsed time.5 s ∆t vf -1 2 + vf = 2(90 m s ) = 180 m s ∆v = vf − vf -1 2 = g∆t = 9.81 m s vf = 76 m s + 9.5 s ) = 4.81 m/s: Add the equations that express the sum and difference of vf – 1 s and vf and solve for vf: Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate h: 71 vav = vf -1s + vf 2 = ∆y 38 m = = 38 m s ∆t 1s vf -1s + vf = 2(38 m s ) = 76 m s ∆v = vf − vf -1s = 9. solve for the change in its speed: ( ) . during 1 s of fall. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the bottom of the trajectory and the upward direction positive. find the average velocity of the object during its final second of fall: Express the sum of the final velocity and the velocity 1 s before impact: From the definition of acceleration.91 m s Using a constant-acceleration equation. is 9.Motion in One Dimension Using the definition of average velocity. the acceleration of the stone is constant.81m s = 42. Let vf -1 2 be the speed one-half second before impact and vf the speed at impact.8 m *81 • Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. Using a constant-acceleration equation.9 m s )2 2 9.9 m s 2 h= (42. we know that the change in velocity of the object.

and. acceleration. express the final velocity of the object in terms of its initial velocity. Choose a coordinate system in which downward is the positive direction and the object starts from rest. Apply constant-acceleration equations to find the average velocity of the object during its descent. express the displacement of the object during the 1st second in terms of its acceleration and the elapsed time: Solve for the displacement to obtain: Using a constant-acceleration equation. because v0 = 0.3 m ) = 15.91m s = 92. decelerates uniformly to a stop. .4 h 2 ∆y1st second h = 12. finally. Express the average velocity of the falling object in terms of its initial and final velocities: Using a constant-acceleration equation.3 m 2 vf2 = v0 + 2 g∆y or.77 m s 2 ( ) vav = 83 •• Picture the Problem This is a three-part constant-acceleration problem.81m s 2 (12. the acceleration of the object is constant.81m s 2 (− 200m ) ) = 68. 82 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.5m s )2 + 2(9.5 m s 0 + 15.1 m s Remarks: The stone may be thrown either up or down from the cliff and the results after it passes the cliff on the way down are the same.91 m = 0.72 Chapter 2 vf = 180 m s + 4. and then it travels at a constant velocity for another period of time.5 m s = 7.5 m s 2 Add the equations that express the sum and difference of vf – ½ and vf and solve for vf: Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate v0: v0 = (92. and displacement: Substitute numerical values and evaluate the final velocity of the object: Substitute in the equation for the average velocity to obtain: vav = v0 + vf 2 gt 2 = = 4. vf = 2 g∆y vf = 2 9. The pictorial representation will help us organize the information in the problem and develop our solution strategy. The bus starts from rest and accelerates for a given period of time.

Using the definition of average velocity. acceleration. solve for its displacement: Using a constant-acceleration equation.5 m/s 2 (12 s ) = 18 m/s ( ) ∆x(12 s → 37 s ) = v12 s ∆t = (18 m/s )(25 s ) = 450 m ∆x(37 s → 49s ) = 108 m ∆x total = 108 m + 450 m + 108 m = 666 m . ∆x(0 → 12 s ) = 1 at 2 = 108 m 2 v12 s = v0 + a0→12 s ∆t = 1. express the displacement of the bus during its first 12 s of motion in terms of its initial velocity. and the elapsed time. express the velocity of the bus after 12 seconds in terms of its initial velocity. and the elapsed time.Motion in One Dimension 73 (a) Express the total displacement of the bus during the three intervals of time. express the displacement of the bus during this interval in terms of its average (constant) velocity and the elapsed time: Because the bus slows down at the same rate that its velocity increased during the first 12 s of motion. solve for its velocity at the end of 12 s: During the next 25 s. the bus moves with a constant velocity. acceleration. Using a constant-acceleration equation. we can conclude that its displacement during this braking period is the same as during its acceleration period and the time to brake to a stop is equal to the time that was required for the bus to accelerate to its cruising speed of 18 m/s. because v0 = 0. Hence: Add the displacements to find the distance the bus traveled: ∆xtotal = ∆x(0 → 12 s ) + ∆x(12 s → 37 s ) + ∆x(37 s → end ) ∆x(0 → 12 s ) = v0t + 1 at 2 2 or.

.6 m s ∆t 49 s (b) Use the definition of average velocity to calculate the average velocity of the bus during this trip: Remarks: One can also solve this problem graphically.1 0.39 1. Recall that the area under a velocity as a function-of-time graph equals the displacement of the moving object. see the spreadsheet solution shown below.2 3. there are many physical situations in which it is not easy to do so and one has to rely on numerical methods.9 4.0 4.52 −0.81 t (s) 0.1 t + ∆t C6 $B$1*B6 − 0.95 3.80 3. for example.74 Chapter 2 vav = ∆xtotal 666 m = = 13.0 0.45 The graph shown below was generated from the data in the previous table.00 1.1 B C m/s m/s^2 height (m) 0.81 g B5 0 t B6 B5 + 0. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are 2 as follows: Cell Content/Formula Algebraic Form B1 20 v0 B2 9. Note that the maximum height reached is a little more than 20 m and the time of flight is about 4 s.5*$B$2*B6^2 v0t − 1 gt 2 2 (a) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 44 45 46 v0 = 20 g = 9. Because we’re neglecting the height of the release point. *84 •• Picture the Problem While we can solve this problem analytically. the position of the ball as a function of time is given by y = v0t − 1 gt 2 .

Choose the origin of the coordinate system to be where Al decides to begin his sprint. The graph should automatically update. his acceleration.5 1. constant-acceleration equations can be used to describe their motions. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. 6 5 4 height (m) 3 2 1 0 0.0 t (s) *85 •• Picture the Problem Because the accelerations of both Al and Bert are constant.0 1. change the value in cell B1 from 20 to 10. relate Al's initial velocity. the maximum height achieved is approximately 5 m and the time-of-flight is approximately 2 s. With an initial velocity of 10 m/s.5 2. and the time to reach the end of the trail to his ∆x = v0t + 1 at 2 2 .0 0.Motion in One Dimension 25 75 20 height (m) 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 t (s ) (b) In the spreadsheet.

we need to add 10.0 + vAl (t − 10. Also.0 s + 10.4 s x Bert = x Bert. t = 0.0 − d Bert runs until he meets Al d end of trail = 35 m − 7. Al’s position.75 m/s ) 86 •• Picture the Problem Generate two curves on one graph with the first curve representing Al's position as a function of time and the second curve representing Bert’s position as a function of time.0 − (0.4 s = 27. The coordinates of the intersection of the two curves give the time and place where they meet. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell Content/Formula Algebraic Form .80 m + (0. equate their position functions and solve for t: To determine the elapsed time from when Al began his accelerated run.75 m/s )(10. once he’s 2 reached the end of the trail and is running back toward Bert. x = 0 at a point 35 m from the end of the trail: Calculate Bert’s position at t = 0.75 m/s)t + 1 (0.80 m = 14. is given by xAl = v0t + 1 aAlt 2 and Bert’s position by xBert = x0. express the positions of Bert and Al as functions of time.75 m/s ) t xAl = xAl.4 s ) = 7.76 Chapter 2 displacement in reaching the end of the trail: Substitute numerical values to obtain: Solve for the time required for Al to reach the end of the trail: (b) Using constant-acceleration equations. is given by xAl = xAl. At the instant Al turns around at the end of the trail.80 m 7. At that time he has been running for 10.4 s d end of trail = 35 m − xBert.85 m/s ) t and = 35 m − (0. A spreadsheet solution is shown below.4 s: Because Bert and Al will be at the same location when they meet.4 s to this time: (c) Express Bert’s distance from the end of the trail when he and Al meet: Substitute numerical values and evaluate dend of trail: 35 m = (0.5 m − (17 s) (0.0 + (0 .85 m/s ) t xBert. as he runs toward the end of the trail.0 s tstart = 17.85 m/s )t and t = 17. Al’s position.75 m/s )t = 35 m − (0. Bert + vBertt .0 = (0.5 s ) .5 m/s 2 )t 2 2 t = 10.

75 a(Al) = 0.50 11.59 34.19 22.80 34.00 Al 0.00 10.5 v(Al) = −0.50 10.50 27.13 22.0 + vAl (t − 10.25 10.00 0.50 10.25 29.88 8.81 21.50 −0.19 0.75 27. The dashed curve shows Al’s position as a function of time for the two parts of his motion.00 11.50 29.Motion in One Dimension B1 B2 B3 B10 C10 C52 F10 (b) and (c) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 119 120 121 122 127 128 129 A B v0 = 0.99 20.00 0.86 Bert 0.44 8.25 $B$1*B10 + 0.50 *Al reaches end of trail and starts back toward Bert The graph shown below was generated from the spreadsheet.56 20.23 35.5*$B$2*B10^2 $C$51 + $B$3*(B52 − $B$51) $F$9 + $B$1*B10 v0 aAl t t + ∆t 77 xAl.75 0.50 7.00 28.78 20.95 35.25 0.20 0.63 8.85 t (s) C m/s m/s^2 m/s x (m) D E F 0.29 19.50 33.44 32.38 20.25 11. Bert + vBertt v0t + 1 aAlt 2 2 x (m) 0.85 B9 + 0. the positions of both Al and Bert were calculated as functions of time.00 0.01 34.08 18. The solid line that is linear from the origin shows Bert’s position as a function of time.44 35.06 8.75 28.38 7.63 20.00 21.69 7.75 11. .35 19.31 22.25 8.5 s ) x0.75 30.81 20.

78 Chapter 2 40 35 Position on trail (m) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 t (s) 20 25 30 Al Bert Note that the spreadsheet and the graph (constructed from the spreadsheet data) confirm the results in Problem 85 by showing Al and Bert meeting at about 14. 87 •• Picture the Problem This is a two-part constant-acceleration problem. express the altitude reached in the first stage in terms of the rocket’s initial velocity. acceleration. h.5 m from the end of the trail after an elapsed time of approximately 28 s. Choose a coordinate system in which the upward direction is positive. express the velocity of the rocket at the end of its first stage in terms of its initial velocity. acceleration. and displacement. calculate its end-of-first-stage velocity: h = ∆x1st stage + ∆x 2nd stage x1st stage = x0 + v0t + 1 a1st staget 2 2 = 1 (20 m/s 2 )(25 s) 2 2 = 6250 m v1st stage = v0 + a1st staget = (20 m/s 2 )(25 s) = 500 m/s . as the sum of its displacements during the first two stages of its flight: Using a constant-acceleration equation. (a) Express the highest point the rocket reaches. The pictorial representation will help us organize the information in the problem and develop our solution strategy. solve for the first stage altitude: Using a constant-acceleration equation. and burn time.

acceleration under free-fall.97 s ⎛ 0 + 500 m/s ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1 ∆y = v0t + 2 g (∆tdescent ) or. because v0 = 0.2 s ) = 610 m/s ( ) .2742 ×10 4 m h = 6250 m + 1. ∆y = 1 g (∆tdescent ) 2 2 ∆tdescent = 2∆y g Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆tdescent: Substitute and calculate the total time the rocket is in the air: ∆t descent 2 1.0 km ∆ttotal = ∆tpowered climb + ∆t2nd segment + ∆tdescent = 25 s + ∆t2nd segment + ∆tdescent ∆t2nd segment = Displacement Average velocity 1. and time of descent. because vhighest point = 0.Motion in One Dimension Using a constant-acceleration equation.81 m/s 2 ( ) ∆t = 25 s + 50. express the impact velocity of the rocket in terms of its initial downward velocity.90 × 10 4 m = = 62. solve for its displacement: Substitute in the expression for the total height to obtain: (b) Express the total time the rocket is in the air in terms of the three segments of its flight: Express ∆t2nd segment in terms of the rocket’s displacement and average velocity: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t2nd segment: Using a constant-acceleration equation.27 × 10 4 m = 19.2 s 9. solve for its impact velocity: vimpact = v0 + g∆tdescent and. vimpact = g∆t = 9.81 m s 2 ) = 1. and displacement. relate the fall distance to the descent time: Solve for ∆tdescent: 2 2 vhighest point = vshutoff + 2a2 nd stage ∆y2nd stage 79 and. free-fall acceleration.81 m/s 2 (62. express the final velocity of the rocket during the remainder of its climb in terms of its shut-off velocity. because v0 = 0. ∆y 2 nd stage = 2 − vshutoff (500 m s )2 = − 2g 2(9.97 s + 62.2742 × 10 4 m ∆t2nd segment = = 50.2 s = 138 s = 2 min 18 s (c) Using a constant-acceleration equation.

839 s 2(0.2 s ) 2 9. To find the distance from the ledge to the top of the window. Using a constant-acceleration equation.81 m/s 2 )(1. express the average acceleration of the glider in terms of the glider’s velocity change and the elapsed time: a = aav = ∆v ∆t . y = 1 gt 2 2 2 ytop = 1 gt top 2 ybottom = 1 g (t top + ∆t window ) 2 where ∆twindow = t top − tbottom 2 2 ∆ywindow = 1 g (t top + ∆t window ) − t top 2 2 = 1 2 [ g [2t ] 2 top ∆t window + (∆t window ) ] t top Substitute numerical values and evaluate ttop: 2∆ywindow 2 − (∆t window ) g = 2∆t window t top Substitute this value for ttop to obtain the distance from the ledge to the top of the window: 2(4 m ) 2 − (0.939 s) 2 = 18.81 m/s = = 1. first find the time ttop that it takes the pot to fall to the top of the window. express the distance y below the ledge from which the pot fell as a function of time: Express the position of the pot as it reaches the top of the window: Express the position of the pot as it reaches the bottom of the window: Subtract ybottom from ytop to obtain an expression for the displacement ∆ywindow of the pot as it passes the window: Solve for ttop: y = y0 + v0t + 1 at 2 2 Since a = g and v0 = y0 = 0. the acceleration of the flowerpot is constant. and t + ∆t the time when the pot is at the bottom of the window.2 s ) ytop = 1 (9. Choose a coordinate system in which the initial direction of the glider’s motion is the positive direction. Using the definition of acceleration.80 88 Chapter 2 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.4 m 2 *89 •• Picture the Problem The acceleration of the glider on the air track is constant. Let t = time when the pot is at the top of the window. Choose a coordinate system in which downward is positive and the origin is at the point from which the flowerpot fell. Its average acceleration is equal to the instantaneous (constant) acceleration.

because v0 = 0. a = g.45 s h= 1 2 (9. h = 1 gt 2 2 2 3 h = 1 gt 2 2 2 (1) (2) h = 1 g (t + 1s ) 2 t2 – (4 s)t – 2 s2 = 0 t = 4.88 cm/s 2 90 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. Choose a coordinate system in which the downward direction is positive and let the height of the cliff. and b) its complete fall in terms of the time required for it to fall this distance. the acceleration of the rock is constant and its motion can be described using the constant-acceleration equations.45 s ) 2 2 = 146 m . acceleration.81m/s )(5.Motion in One Dimension Using a constant-acceleration equation. express the height h of the cliff in terms of the initial velocity of the rock. express the average velocity of the glider in terms of the displacement of the glider and the elapsed time: Solve for and evaluate the initial velocity: 81 vav = ∆x v0 + v = 2 ∆t v0 = 2∆x 2(100 cm ) −v = − (−15 cm/s) ∆t 8s = 40. which equals the displacement of the rock. and ∆y = h.45 s ∆t = 4. Using a constant-acceleration equation. be represented by h.0 cm/s Substitute this value of v0 and evaluate the average acceleration of the glider: a= − 15 cm/s − (40 cm/s) 8s = − 6. Substitute equation (2) in equation (1) to obtain a quadratic equation in t: Solve for the positive root: Evaluate ∆t = t + 1 s: Substitute numerical values in equation (2) and evaluate h: ∆y = v0t + 1 at 2 2 or.45 s + 1 s = 5. express the displacement of the rock during the a) first two-thirds of its fall. and time of fall: Using this equation.

7613558 m/s ⎛ 1 mi/h ⎞ v 0 = (4.76 m/s)(0.477 m/s ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 10. acceleration.82 Chapter 2 91 ••• Picture the Problem Assume that the acceleration of the car is constant.38 m Express and evaluate the ratio of the reaction distance to the total distance: ∆xreact 2. because the final velocity is zero. relate the velocity of the car to its initial velocity.5 s )v0 ( ) + 2(− 7 m/s )(4 m) = 0 2 or 2 v0 + (7 m/s )v0 − 56 m 2 / s 2 = 0 Solve the quadratic equation for the positive root to obtain: Convert this speed to mi/h:: v0 = 4. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. The total distance the car travels while stopping is the sum of the distances it travels during the driver’s reaction time and the time it travels while braking.38 m = = 0.595 ∆xtot 4m . 2 0 = v0 + 2a∆x brk ∆xbrk = − 2 v0 2a ∆xtot = ∆xreact + ∆xbrk 2 v0 = v0 ∆treact − 2a 2 v0 − 2a∆treact v0 + 2a∆xtot = 0 2 v0 − 2 − 7 m/s 2 (0.7 mi/h (b) Find the reaction-time distance: ∆xreact = v0 ∆treact = (4.5 s) = 2. Choose a coordinate system in which the positive direction is the direction of motion of the automobile and apply a constant-acceleration equation to obtain a quadratic equation in the car’s initial speed v0. and displacement during braking: Solve for the distance traveled during braking: Express the total distance traveled by the car as the sum of the distance traveled during the reaction time and the distance traveled while slowing down: Rearrange this quadratic equation to obtain: Substitute numerical values and simplify to obtain: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆xbrk or.7613558 m/s ) ⎜ ⎜ 0.

93 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. The coordinates of the intersection of the two curves give one the time-to-passing and the distance traveled by the train on the left. as they pass: Remarks: One can also solve this problem by graphing the functions for xL and xR. position.71s xL = 1 (1. relate the positions of the two stones to their initial positions.71 s) 2 = 15. Choose a coordinate system in which the downward direction is positive and the origin is at the point of release of the stones. Take xo = 0 as the position of the train on the left at t = 0.7t 2 = 40 − 1. and acceleration: Equate xL and xR and solve for t: xL = 1 aLt 2 = 1 1. and time-of-fall: Express the difference between x1 and x2: Substitute for x1 and x2 to obtain: x1 = 1 gt 2 2 and x2 = 1 g (t − 1.4 m/s 2 )(4. Using constant-acceleration equations.6 s) 2 2 x1 − x2 = 36 m 36 m = 1 gt 2 − 1 g (t − 1.1t 2 and t = 4. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction of the motion of the train on the left is the positive direction.7 m s )t ) xR = 40 m − 1 aR t 2 2 = 40 m − 1 2. xL. the acceleration of the stones is constant.6 s ) 2 2 2 .2m s 2 t 2 2 0.6 m 2 ( ) Find the position of the train initially on the left. accelerations.Motion in One Dimension 83 92 •• Picture the Problem Assume that the accelerations of the trains are constant. relate the position of the train on the right to its initial velocity. Using a constant-acceleration equation.4m s 2 t 2 2 2 2 2 ( = (0. relate the distance the train on the left will travel before the trains pass to its acceleration and the time-to-passing: Using a constant-acceleration equation.

81 m s )(3.4 m Determine d2: Express and evaluate t2: t2 = d 2 1324.6 m = 1324. express the time of travel of the police officer: Convert 110 km/h into m/s: vcar = d caught t car tofficer = t1 + t2 v1 = (110 km/h )(103 m/km) (1 h/3600 s) = 30.3 s v1 30.6 m/s Express the time of travel of the car: tcar = 2. Choose a coordinate system such that the direction of motion of the two vehicles is the positive direction and the origin is at the stop sign.09 s − 1.6 m/s)(4.6 m/s = 4.6 s) 2 2 = 10.0 s + 4.2 s .4 m = = 43.9 m *94 •• Picture the Problem The acceleration of the police officer’s car is positive and constant and the acceleration of the speeder’s car is zero.6 m/s Express and evaluate t1: t1 = v1 amotorcycle = 30. Express the velocity of the car in terms of the distance it will travel until the police officer catches up to it and the time that will elapse during this chase: Letting t1 be the time during which she accelerates and t2 the time of travel at v1 = 110 km/h.2 m/s 2 Express and evaluate d1: d1 = 1 v1t1 = 1 (30.09 s Solve this equation for the time t at which the stones will be separated by 36 m: Substitute this result in the expression for x2 and solve for x2: x2 = 1 2 (9.6 m 2 2 d 2 = d caught − d1 = 1400 m − 75.94 s) = 75.93 s + 43.3 s = 50.84 Chapter 2 t = 3.94 s 6.

6 m 2 96 ••• Picture the Problem Assume that the acceleration of the passenger train is constant. h = 1 gt12 2 2 d 2 = v02t2 + 1 gt2 2 where t2 = t1 – 1. express the height of the cliff in terms of the initial position of the stones.6s ) 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 Solve for t1 to obtain: Substitute for t1 and evaluate h: t1 = 2. let t = 0 be the instant the passenger train begins to slow (0. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction of motion of the trains is the positive direction and use constantacceleration equations to express the positions of the trains in terms of their initial positions.Motion in One Dimension Finally. speeds. accelerations. 1 2 2 gt12 = v02t2 + 1 gt2 2 or 1 2 (9.4 s after the passenger train engineer sees the freight train ahead). and time for the first stone to hit the water: Express the displacement of the second stone when it hits the water in terms of its initial velocity.6s ) + (9.37 s h = 1 (9. Choose a coordinate system in which downward is positive and the origin is at the point of release of the stone and apply constant-acceleration equations. write expressions for the positions of the front of the passenger train and the rear of the xf = (360 m ) + (6 m/s )(t + 0. Because the stones will travel the same distances before hitting the water.9 m/s 50. and time required for it to hit the water.37 s) 2 = 27. (a) Using constant-acceleration equations.4 mi/h 95 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. Using a constant-acceleration equation. acceleration due to gravity.81m/s )t = (32m/s)(t − 1. and elapsed time. acceleration.4 s ) − 1 at 2 2 .447 m/s ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 62.9 m/s )⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.2 s ⎛ 1 mi/h ⎞ = (27.4 s) where xp and xf are in meters if t is in xp = (29 m/s )(t + 0.6 s. the acceleration of the stone is constant.81m/s ) (t − 1. find the speed of the car: 85 vcar = d caught tcar = 1400 m = 27.81 m/s 2 )(2. Let xp = 0 be the location of the passenger train engine at the moment of sighting the freight train’s end. equate h and d2 and solve for t.

8 s for the upper curve. Now we can substitute our value for t in the constant-acceleration equation for the passenger train and solve for the distance the train has moved prior to the collision: Find the speeds of the two trains: a ≤ 0.77 m/s .00 m/s = 3. xp = (29 m/s)(25. The necessary condition for real roots is that the discriminant be greater than or equal to zero: (b) Express the relative speed of the trains: Repeat the previous steps with a = 0.77 m/s and vf = vof = 6 m/s Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate the relative speed of the trains: vrel = 9. The solid straight line is for the constant velocity freight train.4 s for the lower curve and 0.86 Chapter 2 seconds.4 s. with reaction times of 0.8 s) – ( 0.8 m = 0 ( ) ⎛a⎞ 2 D = (23 m/s ) − 4⎜ ⎟(350.6. xp and xf. 1 2 freight train.6 s)2 = 518 m vp = vop + at = (29 m/s) + (–0.754 m/s 2 vrel = vpf = vp − vf 1 2 (1) (0.754 m/s )t − (23 m/s)t 2 2 + 341.5 s) = 9.4 s Note: In the graph shown below. respectively: Equate xf = xp to obtain an equation for t: Find the discriminant D = B2 − 4AC of this equation: at 2 − (23 m/s )t + 350. The quadratic equation that guarantees real roots with the longer reaction time is: Solve for t to obtain the collision times: Note that at t = 35. . the dashed curves are for the passenger train.8 s reaction time.6 s and t = 35.754 m/s2)(25.77 m/s The graph shows the location of both trains as functions of time. you will see why we keep only the smaller of the two solutions. then The equation must have real roots if it is to describe a collision.8 m ) ⎝2⎠ If (23 m/s)2 – a (701.377 m/s2)(25.754 m/s2 and a 0.6 s + 0. therefore this root is not a meaningful solution to our problem. the trains have already collided.6 m) ≥ 0.6 m = 0 t = 25.

59 km *98 • Picture the Problem This is a composite of two constant accelerations with the acceleration equal to one constant prior to the elevator hitting the roof. the acceleration of an object near the surface of the earth is constant. because v = 0 and a = −g.8 s reaction time 87 Remarks: A collision occurs the first time the curve for the passenger train crosses the curve for the freight train. Choose a coordinate system in which the upward direction is positive and apply constant-acceleration equations. because v = 0 and a = −g. The smaller of two solutions will always give the time of the collision.4 s reaction time Freight train 0. 2 0 = v0 − 2 g ∆y . relate the velocity to the acceleration and displacement: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2 a ∆y or.81 m/s 2 ( )= 4. Choose a coordinate system in which the upward direction is positive and the origin is at the surface of the earth and apply constantacceleration equations. Using a constant-acceleration equation. and equal to a different constant after crashing through it. 97 • Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.Motion in One Dimension 700 600 500 x (m) 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 t (s) 30 40 0. relate the velocity to the acceleration and displacement: Solve for the height to which the projectile will rise: Substitute numerical values and evaluate h: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆y or. 2 0 = v0 − 2 g∆y 2 v0 2g h = ∆y = h= (300 m/s)2 2 9.

2 vlaunch = 2a∆ylaunch 2 vlaunch = 2(400 ) 9.88 Chapter 2 v0 = 2 g∆y Solve for v0: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0: (b) Find the velocity of the elevator just before it crashed through the roof: Using the same constantacceleration equation.62 × 103 m/s 2 99 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the upward direction is positive.6 × 10 −2 m ( )( ) = 47. relate the beetle’s maximum height to its launch velocity.1 m 2 /s 2 h= 2 vlaunch 47.1m 2 /s 2 = = 2. relate its time of contact with the ground to its acceleration and push-off distance: Substitute numerical values and 2 evaluate vlaunch : Substitute to find the height to which the beetle can jump: 2 2 vlaunch = v0 + 2a∆ylaunch or.81 m/s 2 0. We can use a constant-acceleration equation to find the beetle’s velocity as its feet lose contact with the ground and then use this velocity to calculate the height of its jump. solve for the acceleration: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: v0 = 2 9.40 m 2g 2 9. velocity at the top of its trajectory. in order to determine the beetle’s launch velocity. and acceleration once it is airborne. this time with v0 = 0. Using a constant-acceleration equation.81m/s2 ( ) . solve for its maximum height: Because vhighest point = 0: 2 2 vhighest point = vlaunch + 2a∆yfree fall 2 = vlaunch + 2(− g )h h= 2 vlaunch 2g Now. because v0 = 0.81 m/s 2 10 4 m = 443 m/s vf = 2 × 443 m/s = 886 m/s ( )( ) v 2 = 2a∆y (886 m/s)2 a= 2(150 m ) = 267 g = 2.

67 s . height vlaunch g tmax height = For zero displacement and constant acceleration. because v = 0.41m s 2 = = −0.81m s 2 and a = − 0. relate the velocity of the beetle at its maximum height to its launch velocity.Motion in One Dimension Using a constant-acceleration equation.86 m/s ) = 1. free-fall acceleration while in the air. relate the velocity to the acceleration and displacement: Solve for the acceleration a: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2 a ∆x or. 2 0 = v0 + 2 a ∆x 2 − v0 a= 2∆x Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: − (98 km h ) (103 m km )(1 h 3600 s ) a= 2(50m ) = − 7. height = vlaunch − gtmax. Using a constant-acceleration equation.81 m/s 2 2vlaunch g 100 • Picture the Problem Because its acceleration is constant we can use the constantacceleration equations to describe the motion of the automobile. height = = 2(6. and time-to-maximum height: Solve for tmax height: 89 v = v0 + at or vmax.41m s 2 3600 s ) = 3. 0 = vlaunch − gtmax.755 g Using the definition of average acceleration.755 g 9. the time-of-flight is twice the time-to-maximum height: tflight = 2tmax. because vmax height = 0.41 m s 2 [ ] 2 Express the ratio of a to g and then solve for a: a − 7. height and.40 s 9. solve for the stopping time: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: aav = ∆v ∆v ⇒ ∆t = aav ∆t ∆t = (− 98 km h )(103 m km )(1h − 7.

we first need to find v0 and x0: x = x0 + v0t + 1 at 2 2 . Evaluate the changes in those positions in each time interval: 102 •• Picture the Problem Because the particle moves with a constant acceleration we can use the constant-acceleration equations to describe its motion. and the starting height is zero (y0 = 0). To find x at t = 6 s. 3∆t. relate the position of the falling puck to the acceleration and the time. Choose a coordinate system in which downward is positive. Evaluate the y-position at successive equal time intervals ∆t. the puck experiences constant acceleration and we can use constant-acceleration equations to describe its position as a function of time. 2∆t. Using a constant-acceleration equation. find the position x at t = 6 s. the particle starts from rest (vo = 0). y1 = ⎛−g⎞ 2 ∆y10 = y1 − 0 = ⎜ ⎟ (∆t ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛−g⎞ 2 ∆y21 = y2 − y1 = 3⎜ ⎟(∆t ) = 3∆y10 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛−g⎞ 2 ∆y32 = y3 − y2 = 5⎜ ⎟(∆t ) = 5∆y10 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛−g⎞ 2 ∆y43 = y4 − y3 = 7⎜ ⎟(∆t ) = 7 ∆y10 ⎝ 2 ⎠ etc. Using a constant-acceleration equation. A pictorial representation will help us organize the information in the problem and develop our solution strategy.90 Chapter 2 *101 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. etc: −g (∆t )2 = − g (∆t )2 2 2 −g (2∆t )2 = − g (4)(∆t )2 y2 = 2 2 −g (3∆t )2 = − g (9)(∆t )2 y3 = 2 2 −g (4∆t )2 = − g (16)(∆t )2 y4 = 2 2 etc.

x = 100 m. and then –3 m/s2 until the automobile stops). The pictorial representation will help us organize the information in the problem and develop our solution strategy. then zero for 20 s. relate the known velocities to the acceleration and displacement: Solve for a: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2 a ∆x a= 2 2 v 2 − v0 − v0 = 2 ∆x 2 ∆x Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. obtain a second equation in x0 and v0: Solve for v0 to obtain: Substitute this value for v0 in the previous equation and solve for x0: v(6 s ) = v0 + 3 m/s 2 (6 s ) ( ) v0 = −3 m/s x0 = 88 m Substitute for x0 and v0 and evaluate x at t = 6 s: x(6 s ) = 88 m + (− 3 m/s ) (6 s ) + 1 (3 m/s 2 ) (6 s ) = 124 m 2 2 *103 •• Picture the Problem We can use constant-acceleration equations with the final velocity v = 0 to find the acceleration and stopping time of the plane. v = 15 m/s.7 m/s 2 104 •• Picture the Problem This is a multipart constant-acceleration problem using three different constant accelerations (+2 m/s2 for 20 s. . (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. The final velocity is zero.Motion in One Dimension Using the information that when t = 4 s. obtain an equation in x0 and v0: 91 x(4 s ) = 100 m or = x0 + v0 (4 s ) + 1 3 m/s 2 (4 s ) 2 ( ) 2 x0 + (4 s )v0 = 76 m Using the information that when t = 6 s.33 s a − 25. relate the final and initial speeds of the plane to its acceleration and stopping time: Solve for and evaluate the stopping time: a= − (60 m s ) = − 25.7 m s 2 2(70 m ) 2 v = v0 + a∆t ∆t = v − v0 0 − 60 m s = = 2.

For now. the kinematic formulae for displacement.03c ⋅ y / y 2 ⎟ ⎠ . When one is dealing with problems of this sort.16 × 10 7 s ⎛ 1c ⋅ y ⎜ g = 9. the constant. find the first displacement: The speed is constant for the second displacement. we could solve this problem by plotting the velocity as a function of time and finding the area bounded by it and the time axis.47 km Remarks: Because the area under the curve of a velocity-versus-time graph equals the displacement of the object experiencing the acceleration.47 × 1015 m ⎟ ⎜ (1 y )2 ⎠⎝ ⎝ ( ) ( ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ = 1.92 Chapter 2 Add up all the displacements to get the total: Using constant-acceleration formulas.acceleration equations) are not quite correct. Make use of the fact that 1 c⋅y = 9. *105 •• Picture the Problem Note: No material body can travel at speeds faster than light.e. (a) This part of the problem is an exercise in the conversion of units.81m/s 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 9.. Find the displacement: ∆x 03 = ∆x01 + ∆x12 + ∆x 23 ∆x01 = v0t1 + 1 a01t12 2 = 0 + 1 (2 m/s 2 )(20 s) 2 = 400 m 2 ∆x12 = v1 (t2 − t1 ) where v1 = v0 + a01t1 = 0 + a01t1 and ∆x12 = a01t1 (t2 − t1 ) = (2 m/s 2 )(20 s)(20 s) = 800 m Find the displacement during the braking interval: 2 2 v3 = v2 + 2a23∆x23 02 − (a01t1 ) − [(2 m/s) (20 s)] ∆x23 = = 2a23 2 − 3m s 2 2 where v2 = v1 = a01t1 and v3 = 0 and 2 ( ) = 267m Add the displacements to get the total: ∆x03 = ∆x01 + ∆x12 + ∆x23 = 1467 m = 1.47×1015 m and 1 y = 3. velocity and acceleration are no longer valid.16×107 s: ⎞ ⎛ 3. ignore such subtleties. your answer to part (b) will be wrong by about 1%. Although the formulas you are using (i. and one must invoke the special theory of relativity to answer questions such as these.

acceleration equation to relate the half-distance to Mars ∆x to the initial speed. Use the constant-acceleration equation that relates the acceleration to the known variables to obtain: Solve for a: ∆y = v0t + 1 at 2 2 or.81 m/s ( ) t = 2(8.9 × 1010 m = 8. and half-trip time t1/2 : Because v0 = 0 and a = g: t = 2 t1/2 (1) 93 ∆x = v0t + 1 at12 2 2 t1 / 2 = 2∆x a The distance from Earth to Mars at closest approach is 7. Then the total trip time is: Use a constant. 106 • Picture the Problem Because the elevator accelerates uniformly for half the distance and uniformly decelerates for the second half. separately. Find expressions for the distances traveled. we can use constant-acceleration equations to describe its motion Let t1/2 = 40 s be the time it takes to reach the halfway mark. considering how far Mars is and how low the acceleration is.Motion in One Dimension (b) Let t1/2 represent the time it takes to reach the halfway point.8 × 1010 m.78 × 105 s ≈ 2 d Remarks: Our result in part (b) seems remarkably short. we can describe the motions of the train using constant-acceleration equations.92 × 104 s 2 9.0228 g 107 •• Picture the Problem Because the acceleration is constant. acceleration.281ft ) 2 = 0. ∆y = 1 at 2 2 2 ∆y t12/ 2 2( 1 )(1173 ft )(1 m/3. .223 m/s 2 2 (40 s ) a= Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a= = 0. by the train and the passenger.92 × 10 4 s ) = 1. Substitute numerical values and evaluate t1/2 : Substitute for t1/2 in equation (1) to obtain: t1 / 2 = 2 3. because v0 = 0. When are they equal? Note that the train is accelerating and the passenger runs at a constant minimum velocity (zero acceleration) such that she can just catch the train.

ctc 2 vp. and xp. c = = ∆t 0 + tc tc vtrain.0 s after the train departs.c (tc − ∆t ) = or tc − ∆t = tc 2 vtrain. The straight dashed line is passenger's position xp(t) if she arrives at ∆t = 6. c ).c. c = vtrain. c vtrain. vp.94 Chapter 2 xtrain. Using the subscripts ″train″ and ″p″ to refer to the train and the passenger and the subscript ″c″ to identify ″critical″ conditions. c = xp. Express the train’s average velocity.c and tc. c vav (0 to tc ) = vav ≡ xp. combine steps 1 and 5 and solve for vtrain. c = 2 2 ∆x 0 + xp. Do you see why? . express the position of the train and the passenger: Express the critical conditions that must be satisfied if the passenger is to catch the train: 2.c = vp. Finally. When the passenger catches the train.c (tc ) = atrain 2 tc 2 1.c (tc ) = vp. c and xtrain. 4. express vav in terms of xp. c xp. 5. Combine steps 1 and 4 and solve for tc. The parabolic solid curve is the graph of xtrain(t) for the accelerating train. c.c = atrain tc = (0.4 m/s 2 )(12 s ) = 4. Combine steps 2 and 3 and solve for xp. Using the definition of average velocity.c (tc − ∆t ) vtrain. our graph shows that her speed and that of the train must be equal ( vtrain.ctc 2 and tc = 2 ∆t = 2 (6 s) = 12 s 6. 3.c = 0 + vtrain.80 m/s The graph shows the location of both the passenger and the train as a function of time. c = vp.

tc and v0. Solving the equations for the unknowns gives: Substitute the expression for tc into the equation for yA to obtain the height at collision: tc = 2h 3 gh and v0 = 3g 2 ⎛ 2h ⎞ 2h yA = h − 1 g ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3g ⎠ . We now have two equations and two unknowns. express the positions of both balls as functions of time. At the ground y = 0. Using constant-acceleration equations.Motion in One Dimension 50 45 40 35 30 x (m) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 4 8 t (s) 12 16 Train Passenger 95 108 ••• Picture the Problem Both balls experience constant acceleration once they are in flight. The conditions at collision are that the heights are equal and the velocities are related: yA = h − 1 gt 2 2 and yB = v0t − 1 gt 2 2 yA = yB and v A = − 2v B Express the velocities of both balls as functions of time: vA = − gt and vB = v0 − gt h − 1 gtc2 = v0tc − 1 gtc2 2 2 and − gtc = −2(v0 − gtc ) Substituting the position and velocity functions into the conditions at collision gives: where tc is the time of collision. When the balls collide they are at the same height above the ground. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the ground and the upward direction positive.

so the collision takes place at 2/3 the height of the building. 109 ••• Picture the Problem Both balls are moving with constant acceleration. The distance that A falls is the area of the lower triangle. Because ball A starts from rest its velocity is given by v A = − gt .versustime for both balls. Take the origin of the coordinate system to be at the ground and the upward direction to be positive. The height of the building is the sum of the sum of the distances traveled by the balls.96 Chapter 2 Remarks: We can also solve this problem graphically by plotting velocity. which is (1/3) vB0T. the ratio of the distance fallen by A to the height of the building is 1/3. Using constant-acceleration equations. The velocities at collision are related by vA = 4vB. When the balls collide they are at the same height above the ground. which is vB0T. Therefore. The graphs of these equations are shown below with T representing the time at which they collide. express the positions of both balls as functions of time: The conditions at collision are that the heights are equal and the velocities are related: yA = h − 1 gt 2 2 and y B = v0t − 1 gt 2 2 yA = yB and vA = 4vB Express the velocities of both balls as functions of time: vA = − gt and v B = v0 − gt . Ball B initially moves with an unknown velocity vB0 and its velocity is given by v B = v B0 − gt . Thus. the height of the building equals the area of the parallelogram. Each of these distances is equal to the magnitude of the area ″under″ the corresponding v-versus-t curve.

and last for 30 s. this part of its graph will also be linear but with a negative slope. the first part of its velocity graph will be linear. 2 ∆x = 1 a (∆t ) 2 2∆x a 2 ∆t = Substitute numerical values and evaluate the time-to-midpoint ∆t: ∆t = 2(450 m ) = 30. The graph of v as a function of t is shown below. because v0 = 0. pass through the origin. Solving the equations for the unknowns gives: Substitute the expression for tc into the equation for yA to obtain the height at collision: tc = 4h 3gh and v 0 = 3g 4 ⎛ 4h ⎞ h yA = h − 1 g ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3g ⎠ *110 •• Determine the Concept The problem describes two intervals of constant acceleration. Because it slows down uniformly and at the same rate for the second half of its journey. We now have two equations and two unknowns.0 s 1 m/s 2 Because the train accelerates uniformly and from rest. tc and v0. and the time-to-midpoint ∆t: Solve for ∆t: ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) 2 or. and a second when it is decreasing. . relate the half-distance ∆x between stations to the initial speed v0. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. one when the train’s velocity is increasing.Motion in One Dimension Substitute the position and velocity functions into the conditions at collision to obtain: 97 h − 1 gtc2 = v0t c − 1 gt c2 2 2 and − gtc = 4(v0 − gtc ) where tc is the time of collision. the acceleration a of the train.

. note that when the train has been in motion for 10 s. it will have traveled a distance of 1 2 (10 s )(10 m/s) = 50 m and that this distance is plotted above 10 s on the following graph. 111 •• Picture the Problem This is a two-stage constant-acceleration problem. Looking at the velocity graph. The pictorial representation summarizes what we know about the motion of the speeder’s car and the patrol car. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction of the motion of the cars is the positive direction.98 Chapter 2 30 25 20 v (m/s) 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 t (s) 40 50 60 (b) The graph of x as a function of t is obtained from the graph of v as a function of t by finding the area under the velocity curve. 900 800 700 600 x (m) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 t (s) Selecting additional points from the velocity graph and calculating the areas under the curve will confirm the graph of x as a function of t that is shown.

relate the displacement of the patrol car to its displacement while accelerating and its displacement once it reaches its maximum velocity: Using a constant-acceleration equation.7 m/s .02 = ∆xS. that their displacements will be the same: Using a constant-acceleration equation.01 + ∆xP.01 52.8 m/s − 0 = 23.8 m/s h h 3600 s ∆xP. 0 = aP.01 = = ∆vP.22 m/s 2 .1 (t 2 − t1 ) ∆xS.01 vP . h h 3600 s 8 and 190 (a) Express the condition that determines when the police car catches the speeder.1 − vP.7 m/s ) t 2 ∆t P. h ⋅s h ⋅ s 3600 s km km 1h 125 = 125 × = 34.02 ∆t02 = (34.Motion in One Dimension 99 Convert the speeds of the vehicles and the acceleration of the police car into SI units: km km 1h =8 × = 2.8 s 2..22 m/s 2 .02 = vS. relate the displacement of the speeder to its constant velocity and the time it takes the patrol car to catch it: Calculate the time during which the police car is speeding up: km km 1h = 190 × = 52.12 = ∆xP.02 = ∆xP.e.02 ∆xP.01 + vP .01 aP. i.

S. The straight line (solid) represents xS(t) and the parabola (dashed) represents xP(t).20 km (c) The graphs of xS and xP are shown below.100 Chapter 2 Express the displacement of the patrol car: 2 ∆xP.7 m/s )(34.8 m/s)(t2 – 23.01 + 1 aP . of the speeder during the catch: ∆xS. (a) The collision will not occur if. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction of motion of the cars is the positive direction. 01 2 = 0 + 1 2.01 = vP. the displacements of the two cars differ by less than 100 m.01 + vP .1 (t 2 − t1 ) = 629 m + (52. during braking. ∆x02.01∆tP .8 s ) 2 = 629 m ( ) 2 Equate the displacements of the two vehicles: ∆xP.7 s (b) The distance traveled is the displacement. and the origin is at the initial position of the police car. ∆xP − ∆xS < 100 m.8 s) Solve for the time to catch up to obtain: (34.7 m/s) t2 = 629 m + (52.02 ∆t02 = (34.8 m/s ) (t2 − 23.7 s ) = 1.12 = ∆xP.22 m/s 2 (23.02 = vS.0 ∆tP. 1400 1200 Speeder 1000 x (m) 800 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 t (s) 30 40 Officer 112 •• Picture the Problem The accelerations of both cars are constant and we can use constant-acceleration equations to describe their motions.8 s) ∴ t 2 = 34. .01 + ∆xP.02 = ∆xP.

A pictorial representation will help organize the given information and plan the solution. Let t1 be the time when the brake is applied. L1 the distance traveled from t = 0 to t = t1.8 m/s ) ∆xP = = 232 m 2 − 6 m/s 2 ( ) 232 m − 100 m = 132 m Because this difference is greater than 100 m.7 m/s )t − 3 m/s 2 t 2 and xP = (52. substitute these displacements into the inequality that determines whether a collision occurs: (b) Using constant-acceleration equations. ∆xp = 2 − v0. ∆xs = 2 − v0. accelerations. relate the speeder’s initial and final speeds to its displacement and acceleration and solve for the displacement: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆xs: Using a constant-acceleration equation. Let tfin be the time when Lou's car comes to rest at a distance L from the starting line.s + 2as ∆xs or. xS = 100 m + (34. assuming vp = 0. . the collision will occur sooner and be more severe. because vs = 0.7 m/s) t – (3 m/s2) t2 = (52. p + 2ap ∆xp or.8 m/s )t − 3 m/s 2 t 2 100 m + (34. p 2ap 2 − (52.52 s If you take the reaction time into account. relate the positions of both vehicles to their initial positions. relate the patrol car’s initial and final speeds to its displacement and acceleration and solve for the displacement: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆xp: Finally. initial velocities. (c) 113 •• Picture the Problem Lou’s acceleration is constant during both parts of his trip.Motion in One Dimension 101 Using a constant-acceleration equation. and time in motion: Equate these expressions and solve for t: 2 vs2 = v0.8 m/s) t – (3m/s2) t2 and ( ) ( ) t = 5.7 m/s ) = 100 m 2 − 6 m/s 2 2 ( ) 2 2 vp = v0.s 2as ∆xS = − (34. the cars collide .

acceleration. 01 = vav. v12 L1 ∆x12 = = 4a 2 L = ∆x01 + ∆x12 = L1 + 1 L1 = 3 L1 2 2 and L1 = (b) Using the fact that the acceleration was constant during both legs of the trip. ∆x12: Express the final velocity over the first portion of the course in terms of the initial velocity. use this result to express ∆t01 (= t1) in terms tfin: 2 L 3 t= 2 3 fin t . solve for the displacement: Substitute for ∆x01 and ∆x12 to obtain: 2 v2 = v12 + 2a12 ∆x12 or. solve for the displacement: L = ∆x01 + ∆x12 2 v12 = v0 + 2a01∆x01 or. L. and the distance over which he will be braking. because v0 = 0. and displacement. ∆x01 = L1.01 vmax ∆t01 ∝ L1 = Having just shown that the time required for the first segment of the trip is proportional to the length of the segment. ∆x01 = L1 = 2 v12 vmax = 2a 2a Express the final velocity over the second portion of the course in terms of the initial velocity. express Lou’s average velocity over each leg: Express the time for Lou to reach his maximum velocity as a function of L1 and his maximum velocity: 2 3 L vav.12 = vmax 2 ∆t01 = and ∆x01 2 L1 = vav. acceleration. ∆x01. of the course in terms of the distance over which Lou will be accelerating. and a01 = a. because v2 = 0 and a12 = −2a. and displacement.102 Chapter 2 (a) Express the total length.

(a) The graphs of a(t) (dashed lines) and v(t) (solid lines) are shown below.Motion in One Dimension 103 114 •• Picture the Problem There are three intervals of constant acceleration described in this problem.8 m/s . express her speed in terms of her acceleration and the elapsed time.81 m/s 2 (8 s ) = 78. 20 v (m/s) and a (m/s^2) 0 -20 -40 Velocity -60 Acceleration -80 0 2 4 6 8 t (s) 10 12 14 16 (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. solve for her speed after 8 s of fall: (c) Using the same constantacceleration equation that you used in part (b).90 s (d) Find her average speed as she slows from 78.5 m/s ) ∆ t12 = 2 1 = a12 15 m/s 2 = 4.5 m/s ( ) v2 = v1 + a12 ∆t12 v −v − 5 m/s − (− 78. determine the duration of her constant upward acceleration: v1 = v0 + a01t1 = 0 + 9.5 m/s to 5 m/s: vav = v1 + v2 78. A pictorial representation will help organize the details of the problem and plan the solution.5 m/s + 5 m/s = 2 2 = 41. Choose a coordinate system in which the upward direction (shown to the left below) is positive.

8 m/s )(4.9 s + = 24.3 s 57.90 s: ∆y12 = vav ∆t12 = (41.104 Chapter 2 Use this value to calculate how far she travels in 4.90 s) = 204 m She travels 204 m while slowing down. (e) Express the total time in terms of the times for each segment of her descent: We know the times for the intervals from 0 to 1 and 1 to 2 so we only need to determine the time for the interval from 2 to 3. calculate her average velocity: vav = ∆x − 1500 m = = − 7.0 m t total = t01 + t12 + t23 = 8 s + 4.0 m 5 m/s (f) Using its definition.5 m/s ⎞ = 575 m − ⎜ ⎟(8 s ) − 204 m 2 ⎝ ⎠ = 57. Add the times to get the total time: t total = ∆t 01 + ∆t12 + ∆t 23 ∆y23 = ∆ytotal − ∆y01 − ∆y12 ⎛ 78.18 m/s ∆t 209 s Integration of the Equations of Motion *115 • Picture the Problem The integral of a function is equal to the "area" between the curve for that function and the independent-variable axis. (a) The graph is shown below: 35 30 25 v (m/s) 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 t (s) . We can calculate ∆t23 from her displacement and constant velocity during that segment of her descent.

separate the ∆x2 s to 3 s = 3.5m/s3 dt so ( ) .2 m = 4. x(t ) = ∫ v(t ') dt ' 0 t t = ∫ 6 m/s 2 t '+(3 m/s ) dt ' 0 [( ) ] and x(t ) = 3 m/s 2 t 2 + (3 m/s )t ( ) Now evaluate x(t) at 0 s and 5 s respectively and subtract to obtain ∆x: ∆x = x(5 s ) − x(0 s ) = 90 m − 0 m = 90.4 m = = 2. (a) Find the area of the shaded gridbox: (b) Find the approximate area under curve for 1 s ≤ t ≤ 2 s: Area = (1 m/s )(1 s ) = 1 m per box ∆x1 s to 2 s = 1.20 m/s ∆t1 s to 3 s 2s dx = 0.5 m/block) = 90 m or ⎛ 33 m/s + 3 m/s ⎞ A=⎜ ⎟(5 s − 0 s ) = 90 m 2 ⎝ ⎠ There are approximately 36 blocks each having an area of (5 m/s)(0. You can accomplish this easily because the shape of the area under the curve is a trapezoid.2 m ∆x1 s to 3 s = 1. express and evaluate vav: (d) Because the velocity of the particle is dx/dt.4 m vav = ∆x1 s to 3 s 4.5 m. The integral of a function is equivalent to the "area" between the curve for that function and the independent-variable axis.2 m Find the approximate area under curve for 2 s ≤ t ≤ 3 s: (c) Sum the displacements to obtain the total in the interval 1 s ≤ t ≤ 3 s: Using its definition. we integrate the velocity function v(t) over the time interval in question: A = (36 blocks)(2. (b) To find the position function x(t). Count the grid boxes.5 s) = 2.0 m 116 • Picture the Problem The integral of v(t) over a time interval is the displacement (change in position) during that time interval.2 m + 3. Alternatively. we could just count the blocks and fractions thereof.Motion in One Dimension 105 The distance is found by determining the area under the curve.

106 Chapter 2 variables and integrate over the interval 1 s ≤ t ≤ 3 s to determine the displacement in this time interval: ∆x1s→3s = ∫ dx' = 0.5 m/s v(1 s) + v(3 s) 0. calculate the average value of the velocities at t = 1 s and t = 3 s: vav (1s− 3s) = ∆x1s− 3s ∆t1s− 3s = 4. The displacement of the particle is found by integration.50 m/s This average is not equal to the average velocity calculated above.5m/s ⎢ ⎥ = 4.5m/s x0 x ( 3 )∫ t ' 1s 3s 2 dt ' ⎡ t ′3 ⎤ = 0. the acceleration is not constant.33m ⎣ 3 ⎦1s ( 3 ) 3s This result is a little smaller than the sum of the displacements found in part (b). *117 •• Picture the Problem Because the velocity of the particle varies with the square of the time. Remarks: The fact that the average velocity was not equal to the average of the velocities at the beginning and the end of the time interval in part (d) is a consequence of the acceleration not being constant.5 m/s + 4.5 m/s 3 (1s ) = 0.5 m/s )(3 s ) 3 v(1s ) = 0.17m/s 2s 2 ( ) v(3 s ) = (0. Express the velocity of a particle as the derivative of its position function: Separate the variables to obtain: Express the integral of x from xo = 0 to x and t from t0 = 0 to t: Substitute for v(t′) to obtain: v(t ) = dx(t ) dt dx(t ) = v(t )dt x(t ) = x (t ) t0 =0 ∫ dx' = ∫ v(t ') dt ' t0 = 0 t x(t ) = = t0 =0 ∫ [(7 m/s )t ' −(5 m/s)]dt ' t 3 2 ( 7 3 m/s 3 t 3 − (5 m/s ) t ) .5 m/s = 2 2 = 2.33m = 2. Calculate the average velocity over the 2-s interval from 1 s to 3 s: Calculate the initial and final velocities of the particle over the same interval: Finally.5 m/s 2 = 4.

The integral of a function equals the "area" between the curve for that function and the independent-variable axis.7 boxes)[(0.22 m/s and . we can make use of the slope-intercept form of the equation of a straight line to find the relationship between these variables.25 m/s)/box] = 3. evaluate C: 0 = (50 m/s )(0) − 5 m/s 2 (0) + C and C=0 2 ( ) Substitute to obtain: x(t ) = (50 m/s ) t − 5 m/s 2 t 2 Note that this expression is quadratic in t and that the coefficient of t2 is negative and equal in magnitude to half the constant acceleration.9 boxes)[(0. For the velocities at the other times. (a) Find the area of the shaded grid box in Figure 2-37: (b) We start from rest (vo = 0) at t = 0.5 m/s2)(0.250 m/s per box Examples: v(1 s) = (3. count boxes and multiply by the 0. We can then differentiate v(t) to obtain a(t) and integrate v(t) to obtain x(t). ( ) Remarks: We can check our result for x(t) by evaluating it over the 10-s interval shown and comparing this result with the area bounded by this curve and the time axis.925 m/s v(2 s) = (12. Find the acceleration (the slope of the graph) and the velocity at time 0 (the v-intercept) and use the slopeintercept form of the equation of a straight line to express vx(t): Find x(t) by integrating v(t): a = −10 m/s 2 v x (t ) = 50 m/s + (−10 m/s 2 )t x(t ) = ∫ − 10 m/s 2 t + 50 m/s dt = (50 m/s )t − 5 m/s 2 t 2 + C [( ) ] ( ) Using the fact that x = 0 when t = 0.Motion in One Dimension 107 118 •• Picture the Problem The graph is one of constant negative acceleration. 119 ••• Picture the Problem During any time interval.25 m/s)/box] = 0. the integral of a(t) is the change in velocity and the integral of v(t) is the displacement.5 s) = 0. Because vx = v(t) is a linear function of t.25 m/s per box that we found in part (a): Area = (0.

0 m ) / box ] 120 •• Picture the Problem The integral of v(t) over a time interval is the displacement (change in position) during that time interval.0 m/s)(1. Examples: ⎛ 0.15 m/s (c) The graph of v as a function of t is shown below: 7 6 5 v (m/s) 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.0 m .5 m per box. (a) To obtain the data for x(t).0 boxes )⎜ ⎟ + 5m ⎝ box ⎠ = 29.5 2 2.5 s) = 0.0 m per box Count the boxes under the v(t) curve to find the distance traveled: x(3 s ) = ∆x(0 → 3 s ) = 7. we must estimate the accumulated area under the v(t) curve at each time interval: Find the area of a shaded grid box in Figure 2-38: We start from rest (vo = 0) at to= 0.25 m/s)/box] = 6. For the position at the other times. and that boxes below the v = 0 line are counted as negative: A = (1 m/s)(0.5 m per box that we found above.5 m ⎞ x(5 s ) = (48.6 boxes)[(0. xo = 5 m. Because acceleration is the slope of a velocity versus time curve.00 m = (7 boxes )[(1.5 m ⎞ x(3 s ) = (25. count boxes and multiply by the 0. The derivative of a function is equal to the "slope" of the function at that value of the independent variable.5 1 1.5 3 t (s) Area = (1. The integral of a function equals the "area" between the curve for that function and the independent-variable axis. this is a non-constant-acceleration problem.0 s) = 1.8 boxes )⎜ ⎟ + 5m ⎝ box ⎠ = 17.108 Chapter 2 v(3 s) = (24.9 m ⎛ 0. Remember to add the offset from the origin.

5 m ⎞ x(10 s ) = (51.25 s ) − v(0.0 boxes )⎜ ⎟ + 5m ⎝ box ⎠ = 12.2 m/s 2 0.5 m ⎞ − (36.7 m/s − 0.5 s = − 1.75 s ) a (6 s ) = 0 .5 s 4.5 s v(6.4 m/s = −4.75 s ) 0 .5 m A graph of x as a function of t follows: 35 30 25 x (m) 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 t (s) (b) To obtain the data for a(t).9 m/s − 3.5 s . we must estimate the slope (∆v/∆t) of the v(t) curve at each time.0 m/s = 3. A good way to get reasonably reliable readings from the graph is to enlarge several fold: Examples: a (1s ) = = v(1.Motion in One Dimension 109 ⎛ 0.0 boxes )⎜ ⎟ ⎝ box ⎠ ⎛ 0.8 m/s 2 0.25 s ) − v(5.

Your graph should closely resemble the graph shown below. at the extreme values and where the graph crosses the t axis). Your graph should closely resemble the following graph. and measure their slopes. the acceleration is not constant.110 Chapter 2 A graph of a as a function of t follows: 6 4 2 a (m/s^2) 0 -2 -4 -6 0 2 4 6 8 10 t (s) *121 •• Picture the Problem Because the position of the body is not described by a parabolic function. Plot these slopes above the times at which you measured the slopes.. In doing this.4 0.8 1 1.2 1. 8 6 4 2 v 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0 0. . you are evaluating v = dx/dt at these points. In doing this.6 0. at the extreme values and where the graph crosses the t axis).4 t Select a series of points on the graph of v(t) (e.g. draw tangent lines at those points..2 0. draw tangent lines at those points. Select a series of points on the graph of x(t) (e.g. Plot these slopes above the times at which you measured the slopes. and measure their slopes. you are evaluating a = dv/dt at these points.

5 1 1. can be determined from the initial conditions.5 m/s 2 1 3 3m/s 2 (5s ) = 62.Motion in One Dimension 111 15 10 5 a 0 -5 -10 -15 0 0. (a) Integrate a(t) to find v(t): v(t ) = ∫ a(t ) dt = b ∫ t dt = 1 bt 2 + C 2 where C. it is not constant and integration of this function is required to determine the rocket’s velocity and position as functions of time.5 m 6 ( ) x(5 s ) = ( ) 123 •• Picture the Problem The acceleration is a function of time. Integrate v(t) to find x(t): x(t ) = ∫ v(t ) dt = ∫ 1 bt 2 + C dt 2 = 1 bt 3 + Ct + D 6 where D is a second constant of integration. The conditions on x and v at t = 0 are known as initial conditions. find the constants C and D: v(0 ) = 0 ⇒ C = 0 and ∴ x(t ) = 1 bt 3 6 x(0 ) = 0 ⇒ D = 0 (b) Evaluate v(5 s) and x(5 s) with C = D = 0 and b = 3 m/s2: v(5 s ) = and 1 2 3m/s 2 (5s ) = 37.5 t 122 •• Picture the Problem Because the acceleration of the rocket varies with time. The instantaneous velocity can be determined by integration of the acceleration and the average velocity from the displacement of the particle during the given time interval. [ ] Using the initial conditions. . the constant of integration. therefore it is not constant.

(a) Starting from to = 0. and average velocity. it is not constant.23 m/s ∆t 5s 124 • Determine the Concept Because the acceleration is a function of time. dv a(t ) = ⇒ v(t ) = ∫ dv' = ∫ a(t ')dt ' dt v0 =0 t0 = 0 v (t ) t v(t ) = 0.1m/s3 ( )t3 3 ∆x = x(7 s) − x(2 s) ⎡ (7 s )3 − (2 s)3 ⎤ = 0. Hence we’ll need to integrate the acceleration function to find the velocity as a function of time and integrate the velocity function to find the position as a function of time.1m/s3 and ( ) ∫ t' t t0 =0 2 dt ' = 0.1m/s3 ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎦ = 11. integrate the velocity to find ∆x.1 m/s3 )t 2 x (t ) t (b) To calculate the average velocity. acceleration. Calculate the instantaneous velocity using the acceleration given. integrate the acceleration to find the instantaneous velocity v(t).2 m = = 2. vav = ∆x 11. The important concepts here are the definitions of velocity.2 m/s and ( 3 ) ∫ t ' dt ' t t0 =0 v(t ) = (0. we need the displacement: Because the velocity is the derivative of the displacement.2 m ( ) Using the definition of the average velocity.112 Chapter 2 (a) Because the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity. calculate vav. integrate the instantaneous acceleration to obtain the instantaneous velocity as a function of time: dv dt it follows that From a = v0 ∫ dv' = ∫ (a0 + bt ')dt ' 0 v t and v = v0 + a0t + 1 bt 2 2 (b) Now integrate the instantaneous velocity to obtain the position as a function of time: From v = dx dt it follows that . dx v(t ) ≡ ⇒ x(t ) = ∫ dx' = ∫ v(t ')dt ' dt x0 = 0 t0 =0 x(t ) = 0.

and displacement: Solve for vf: Let v1 be the velocity the ball has reached when it has fallen 0. Express the percent difference between the accepted and experimental values for the acceleration due to gravity: Using a constant-acceleration equation. the acceleration is the experimental value gexp.Motion in One Dimension 113 x0 ∫ dx' = ∫ v(t ') dt ' t0 = 0 t x t b ⎞ ⎛ = ∫ ⎜ v9 + a0t '+ t '2 ⎟dt ' 2 ⎠ t0 ⎝ and x = x0 + v0t + 1 a0t 2 + 1 bt 3 6 2 (c) The definition of the average velocity is the ratio of the displacement to the total time elapsed: Note that vav is not the same as that due to constant acceleration: vav ≡ and ∆x x − x0 v0t + 1 a0t 2 + 1 bt 3 2 6 = = t − t0 t ∆t vav = v0 + 1 a0t + 1 bt 2 6 2 (v constant acceleration av ) = v0 + v 2 v + v0 + a0t + 1 bt 2 2 = 0 2 1 = v0 + 2 a0t + 1 bt 2 4 ( ) ≠ vav General Problems 125 ••• Picture the Problem The acceleration of the marble is constant.005 m ) = 0. Because the motion is downward. the displacement of the 2 2 marble is 1 m. because v0 = 0 and a = g.313 m/s ( ) . The equation gexp = (1 m)/(∆t)2 originates in the constant-acceleration equation ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) . and the equation simplifies to gexp = (1 m)/(∆t)2. express the velocity of the marble in terms of its initial velocity. Because the motion starts from rest. % difference = g accepted − g exp g accepted 2 vf2 = v0 + 2a∆y or. acceleration.5 cm.81 m/s 2 (0. vf2 = 2 g∆y vf = 2 g∆y v1 = 2 9. choose a coordinate system with downward as the positive direction.

.5 m ) = 3. The instantaneous velocity. v = dx/dt can only be obtained by differentiation. vav = ∆x/∆t. express v2 in terms of v1. Use this ratio to obtain an approximate value for the slope at the origin: The tangent line appears to. pass through the point (5.81m/s 2 1m = 12. 4).114 Chapter 2 and v2 be the velocity the ball has reached when it has fallen 0. (a) The graph of x versus t is shown below: 8 6 4 v (m/s) 2 0 -2 -4 -6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 t (s) (b) Draw a tangent line at the origin and measure its rise and run.13 m/s 2 2 (0.81 m/s 2 (0. Using the origin as the second point.81 m/s 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: Calculate the experimental value of the acceleration due to gravity from gexp = (1 m)/(∆t)2: Finally.13 m/s − 0.2872 s 9. calculate the percent difference between this experimental result and the value accepted for g at sea level.13 m/s 2 9.81 m/s 2 − 12.313 m/s = 0.2872 s ) 9.6 % *126 ••• Picture the Problem We can obtain an average velocity.5 m to obtain. at least approximately.13 m/s v 2 = v1 + g∆t ( ) ∆t = v2 − v1 g 3. g and ∆t: Solve for ∆t: and v2 = 2 9. ∆t = g exp = % difference = = 23. Using a constant-acceleration equation. over fixed time intervals.

25 x0 (cm) 0 0 0 0 0 0 x (cm) 4.71 0. the acceleration of the object is not constant. For ∆t = 0.835 0.219 vav=∆x/∆t (m/s) 0. becomes small.871 0.871 0.5 0.34 2.5 0. the slope of the tangent line and the velocity of the body as it passes through the origin is approximately: ∆t = 5 s – 0 = 5 s v(0) = rise ∆x 4 cm = = = 0.871 0. The important concepts here are the definitions of acceleration and velocity. they agree to three significant figures.25 s.800 cm/s run ∆t 5s (c) Calculate the average velocity for the series of time intervals given by completing the table shown below: t0 (s) 0 0 0 0 0 0 t (s) 6 3 2 1 0.25 ∆t (s) 6 3 2 1 0.857 0. 127 ••• Determine the Concept Because the velocity varies nonlinearly with time. (a) The acceleration of the object is the derivative of its velocity with respect to time: a= = ω v max cos (ωt ) dv d = [v max sin (ωt )] dt dt .Motion in One Dimension 115 ∆x = 4 cm – 0 = 4 cm and Therefore. We can find the acceleration of the object by differentiating its velocity with respect to time and its position function by integrating the velocity function.723 0.437 0.05 m ) 0.71 0.175 s −1 dx at t = 0: dt ( ) = 0.34 2.875 (d) Express the time derivative of the position: Substitute numerical values and evaluate dx = Aω cos ωt dt dx = Aω cos 0 = Aω dt = (0.437 0.51 1.874 0.51 1. the value for the average velocity approaches that for the instantaneous velocity obtained in part (d). and thus ∆x.875 cm/s (e) Compare the average velocities from part (c) with the instantaneous velocity from part (d): As ∆t.219 ∆x (cm) 4.

x = 3 m. b =2 s–2 and evaluate the speed: 2 2 v = v0 + (2 s − 2 )(x 2 − x0 ) v = ± (2 s − 2 ) (3 m ) − (1m ) 2 [ 2 ] and v = 4. x(0 s) = x0. we must integrate to find v(t). Because a is given as a function of x. vdv = 2 s −2 xdx ( ) v0 = 0 ∫ v'dv' = ∫ (2 s )x'dx' v x −2 x0 and 2 2 v 2 − v0 = 2 s −2 x 2 − x0 ( )( ) Solve for v to obtain: Now set vo = 0. (a) Because a = dv/dt. 128 ••• Picture the Problem Because the acceleration of the particle is a function of its position. it is not constant. we’ll separate them with v on the left side of the equation and x on the right: Integrate from xo and vo to x and v: a= dv dv dx dv = = v = 2 s−2 x dt dx dt dx ( ) or.116 Chapter 2 Because a varies sinusoidally with time it is not constant.00m/s . we’ll need to change variables in order to carry out the integration. xo = 1 m. upon separating variables. as given in the problem statement. Changing the variable of integration in the definition of acceleration will allow us to determine its velocity and position as functions of position. Once we’ve changed variables. (b) Integrate the velocity with respect to time from 0 to t to obtain the change in position of the body: x0 ∫ dx' = ∫ [v t0 x t max sin (ωt ')]dt ' t and ⎡− v ⎤ x − x0 = ⎢ max cos (ωt ')⎥ ⎦0 ⎣ ω = or − vmax ω cos (ωt ) + vmax ω x = x0 + vmax ω [1 − cos(ωt )] Note that.

Thus. and integrate to get an expression for t: v( x ) = and t dx dt x ∫ dt ' = ∫ v(x′) 0 x0 dx′ To evaluate this integral we first must find v(x). where b = 1 s.Motion in One Dimension 117 (b) Using the definition of v. v0 is zero and a0 is positive. so the object moves in the direction of increasing x.25 s 129 ••• Picture the Problem The acceleration of this particle is not constant. so the velocity also remains positive.) t = ∫ dt' = 0 t x0 ∫ v(x′) dx′ x 2 2 − x0 x dx′ = = = Evaluate this expression with xo = 1 m and x = 3 m to obtain: x0 ∫ (2 s )(x′ −2 x ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (2 s 1 1 −2 )∫ dx′ 2 x′2 − x0 x0 (2 s ) −2 ⎛ x + x2 − x2 0 ln⎜ ⎜ x0 ⎝ t = 1. a = (2 s–2 )x and x0 = 1 m. (It can be found in standard integral tables. (2 s )(x −2 2 2 − x0 for v ) and evaluate the integral. v= Substitute (2 s )(x −2 2 2 − x0 ) . (a) Write the definition of velocity: v= dx dt We are given that x = bv. x0 is positive. Separating variables and integrating will allow us to express the particle’s position as a function of time and the differentiation of this expression will give us the acceleration of the particle as a function of time. Substitute for v and separate variables to obtain: Integrate and solve for x(t): dx x dx = ⇒ dt = b dt b x t0 ∫ dt ' = b ∫ t ⎛ x⎞ dx′ ⇒ (t − t0 ) = b ln⎜ ⎟ ⎜x ⎟ x′ ⎝ 0⎠ x0 x and . Show that the acceleration is always positive and use this to find the sign of v(x). separate the variables. As x increases the acceleration remains positive. so a0 is also positive.

is one. v. Choose a coordinate system in which downward is positive and the origin at the point of release of the rock. it is not constant. the numerical values of a.118 Chapter 2 x(t ) = x0e (b) Differentiate twice to obtain v(t) and a(t): (t − t 0 ) / b v= and (t −t0 ) / b dx 1 = x0 e dt b (t −t0 ) / b dv 1 = 2 x0 e dt b a= Substitute the result in part (a) to obtain the desired results: v(t ) = and a(t ) = so 1 x(t ) b 1 x(t ) b2 1 1 v(t ) = 2 x(t ) b b a(t ) = Because the numerical value of b. expressed in SI units. Separate variables in a(t) = dv/dt = ge−bt to obtain: Integrate from to = 0. 130 ••• Picture the Problem Because the acceleration of the rock is a function of time. and x are the same at each instant in time. yo = 0 to some later time t and position y: −bt ' ∫ dy' = ∫ vterm (1 − e )dt ' y t 0 0 . vo = 0 to some later time t and velocity v: dv = ge − bt dt v t v = ∫ dv' = ∫ ge −bt ' dt ' = 0 0 g −bt ' e −b [ ] ) t 0 = g 1 − e −bt = vterm 1 − e −bt b g b ( ) ( where vterm = Separate variables in v = dy dt = vterm 1 − e obtain: ( − bt ) to dy = vterm 1 − e − bt dt ( ) Integrate from to = 0.

Motion in One Dimension 119 ⎡ 1 ⎤ y = vterm ⎢t '+ e −bt ' ⎥ ⎣ b ⎦0 = vtermt − vterm 1 − e −bt b t ( ) This last result is very interesting. v on the left. vterm. just as the velocity of the object asymptotically approaches vterm. Rewrite a = g – bv explicitly as a differential equation: dv = g − bv dt Separate the variables. differentiate this expression with respect to time to obtain an expression for the acceleration and dv = ge −bt dt . *131 ••• Picture the Problem Because the acceleration of the rock is a function of its velocity. Choose a coordinate system in which downward is positive and the origin is at the point of release of the rock. It says that throughout its free-fall. y (tlarge ) → vtermt − v → vtermt b This should not be surprising because in the expression above. therefore it has not fallen as far at any given time as it would have if it were falling at the constant velocity. the object experiences drag. the first term grows linearly with time while the second term approaches a constant and therefore becomes less important with time. t on the right: dv = dt g − bv dv' ∫ g − bv' = ∫ dt ' 0 0 and v Integrate the left-hand side of this equation from 0 to v and the righthand side from 0 to t: t 1 ⎛ g − bv ⎞ ⎟=t − ln⎜ b ⎜ g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Solve this expression for v. v= a= g 1 − e − bt b ( ) Finally. On the other hand. the distance it has covered during its free-fall as a function of time asymptotically approaches the distance it would have fallen if it had fallen with vterm throughout its motion. it is not constant.

(cg)−1/2 will have units of time. with v on the left. therefore it is not constant. and then integrating will give her velocity as a function of time. (a) Rewrite a = g – cv2 explicitly as a differential equation: dv = g − cv 2 dt dv = dt g − cv 2 dv dv = g ⎡ ⎛ v g − 2 v2 g ⎢1 − ⎜ vT ⎜ ⎢ ⎝ vT ⎣ or dv ⎛ v 1− ⎜ ⎜v ⎝ T ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Separate the variables. and t on the right: Eliminate c by using c = g : 2 vT ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ = dt = gdt Integrate the left-hand side of this equation from 0 to v and the righthand side from 0 to t: ∫ 0 v dv' ⎛ v' 1− ⎜ ⎜v ⎝ T ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 = g ∫ dt ' = gt 0 t The integral can be found in integral tables: vT tanh −1 (v / vT ) = gt or tanh -1 (v / vT ) = ( g / vT )t Solve this equation for v to obtain: ⎛g v = vT tanh⎜ ⎜v ⎝ T i. T = (cg)−1/2 ⎞ ⎟t ⎟ ⎠ Because c has units of m−1. Let’s represent this expression with the time-scale factor T: . Expressing her acceleration as the derivative of her velocity.. 132 ••• Picture the Problem The skydiver’s acceleration is a function of her velocity.120 Chapter 2 complete the proof.e. and g has units of m/s2. separating the variables.

25 0.00 0.73 54.83 54.93 .00 12.49 54.25 t + 0.25 v (m/s) 0.71 T B7 B6 + 0.32 9. Using this definition.00 12.61 54.35 54.00 13.Motion in One Dimension 121 The skydiver falls with her terminal velocity when a = 0.71 54.75 1.25 12.45 4. relate her terminal velocity to the acceleration due to gravity and the constant c in the acceleration equation: Convince yourself that T is also equal to vT/g and use this relationship to eliminate g and vT in the solution to the differential equation: 2 0 = g − cvT and vT = g c ⎛t⎞ v(t ) = vT tanh⎜ ⎟ ⎝T ⎠ (b) The following table was generated using a spreadsheet and the equation we derived in part (a) for v(t).00 2. The cell formulas and their algebraic forms are: Cell Content/Formula Algebraic Form D1 56 vT D2 5.50 12.89 7.25 C7 $B$1*TANH(B7/$B$2) ⎛t⎞ vT tanh⎜ ⎟ ⎝T ⎠ D A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 54 55 56 57 58 59 vT = 56 T= 5.50 0.75 13.71 B m/s s C E time (s) 0.

but then it approaches the terminal velocity as the acceleration decreases..122 Chapter 2 60 50 40 v (m/s) 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 t (s) 8 10 12 14 Note that the velocity increases linearly over time (i. with constant acceleration) for about time T.e. .

) Now. r 123 . That is. N is the magnitude of the net displacement. Suppose we take a trip along some path and consider the trip as a sequence of many very small displacements. the displacement is 0 but the distance traveled is 2πRe. N ≤ ∆r0.″ we have r r r r r r r r r ∆r0. (For this to be exactly true we have to take the limit as N goes to infinity and each displacement magnitude goes to zero.Chapter 3 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions Conceptual Problems *1 • Determine the Concept The distance traveled along a path can be represented as a sequence of displacements. Hence. 2 • Determine the Concept The displacement of an object is its final position vector minus r r r its initial position vector ( ∆r = rf − ri ). N .. 2 + ∆r2. using ″the shortest distance between two points is a straight line. Then.1 + ∆r1. where ∆r0. Suppose the path is one complete trip around the earth at the equator. 2 + ∆r2... N where N is the number of very small displacements. we have shown that the magnitude of the displacement of a particle is less than or equal to the distance it travels along its path. total distance = ∆r0.3 + . and the total distance traveled is the sum of the magnitudes of the very small displacements. The net displacement is the vector sum of the very small displacements. + ∆rN −1.1 + ∆r1..3 + . The displacement can be less but never more than the distance traveled. + ∆rN −1.

showing by counterexample that the statement is false. r r ∆r 0 vav = = =0 ∆t ∆t The displacement for any trip around the track is zero. Their sum is zero. Vectors are quantities with magnitude and direction that can be added and subtracted like displacements. Express AS in terms of A and θ : AS = A cosθ ⎜AS⎜ = ⎜A cosθ ⎜ = A⎜cosθ ⎜ and ⎜cosθ ⎜= Take the absolute value of both sides of this expression: AS A . 4 • False. Consider two vectors that are equal in magnitude and oppositely directed. as opposed to average speed. Thus we see that no matter how fast the race car travels. 5 • Determine the Concept We can answer this question by expressing the relationship r between the magnitude of vector A and its component AS and then using properties of the cosine function. the average velocity is always zero at the end of each complete circuit. The average velocity is defined as the displacement divided by the elapsed time. vav ≡ total distance ∆t For one complete circuit of any track.124 Chapter 3 3 • Determine the Concept The important distinction here is that average velocity is being requested. the total distance traveled will be greater than zero and the average is not zero. What is the correct answer if we were asked for average speed? The average speed is defined as the distance traveled divided by the elapsed time.

of ∆v ∆t . *6 • Determine the Concept The diagram r shows a vector A and its components Ax and Ay. If a vector is equal to zero. Consider the special case in which B = − A . 2 2 Suppose that A is equal to zero. then C = 0 and the magnitudes of the components of A and B are larger than the components of C . We can relate the magnitude of r A is related to the lengths of its components through the Pythagorean theorem. r 2 2 But Ax + Ay = 0 ⇒ Ax = Ay = 0. r r r r r r False. No. 7 • r r Determine the Concept No. substitute for⎟cosθ ⎜to obtain: 0< AS ≤ 1 or 0 < AS ≤ A A No.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 125 Using the fact that 0 < ⎟cosθ ⎜≤ 1. Thus. Consider a ball that has been thrown upward near the surface of the earth and is slowing down. Then A2 = Ax + Ay = 0. The direction of its motion is upward. then the magnitude of the vector and its component are equal. each of its components must be zero too. The diagram shows the ball’s velocity vectors at two instants of r time and the determination of ∆v . the acceleration vector is in the same direction as ∆v . . If the angle θ shown in the figure is equal to 0° or multiples of 180°. r Note that because ∆v is downward so is the acceleration of the ball. as ∆t r r approaches zero. If B = − A ≠ 0. The magnitude of a component of a vector must be less than or equal to the magnitude of the vector. *8 • Determine the Concept The instantaneous acceleration is the limiting value.

Given our choice of coordinate system. 11 • Determine the Concept The change in the velocity is in the same direction as the acceleration. r (d ) is correct. (a) We can calculate ∆r from the given information and ∆t is known. Because the acceleration is proportional to the change in velocity. the ball is still traveling horizontally even though its vertical velocity is momentarily zero. the x component of a is negative and so v will r r decrease. The nature of its acceleration near the highest point of its flight can be understood by analyzing the vertical components of its velocity on either side of this point. r r (c) is correct. (e) is correct. *12 • r Determine the Concept The average velocity of a particle. (a ) is correct. downward-pointing vector. the instantaneous velocity and acceleration vectors are unrelated. Choose an x-y coordinate system with east being the positive x direction and north the positive y direction. of ∆v ∆t and is in the same direction as ∆v . The y component of a is positive and so v will increase toward the north. The figure to the right shows the vertical components of the ball’s velocity just before and just after it has reached its highest point. (b) We do not have enough information to calculate ∆v and cannot compute the r r . At the highest point of its flight. Remarks: Note that vx is nonzero and vy is zero. it must also be nonzero. Knowing the direction of the velocity at one instant tells one nothing about how the velocity is changing at that instant. as ∆t r r approaches zero. vav . 10 • Determine the Concept The changing velocity of the golf ball during its flight can be understood by recognizing that it has both horizontal and vertical components.126 Chapter 3 9 • Determine the Concept The instantaneous acceleration is the limiting value. while ax is zero and ay is nonzero. The change in velocity during this short interval is a non-zero. Other than through the definition of a. is the ratio of the particle’s displacement to the time required for the displacement.

(d) We would need to know how the particle’s velocity varies with time in order to compute its instantaneous acceleration. (a) A car moving along a straight road while braking. (c) A particle moving around a circular track at constant speed. hence. is tangent to the path. 14 • Determine the Concept An object experiences acceleration whenever either its speed changes or it changes direction. tangent to the path. as a consequence of always being in the direction of motion. the car is accelerated. *15 • r r Determine the Concept The velocity vector is defined by v = dr / dt . either the magnitude or the direction of the velocity vector is changing and. (c) We would need to know how the particle’s velocity varies with time in order to compute its instantaneous velocity. while the r r acceleration vector is defined by a = dv / dt. A particle moving at constant speed in a circular path is accelerating because the . (b) is correct. thus. (b) A car moving along a straight road while speeding up.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 127 particle’s average acceleration. 13 •• Determine the Concept The velocity vector is always in the direction of motion and. (b) A sketch showing two velocity vectors for a particle moving along a path is shown to the right. 16 • Determine the Concept A particle experiences accelerated motion when either its speed or direction of motion changes. In the other examples. The acceleration of a car moving in a straight path at constant speed is zero. (a) The velocity vector.

(c) The acceleration vector is in the direction of the change in the velocity vector … and hence is downward as shown the right: *18 •• Determine the Concept The acceleration vector is in the same direction as the change in r velocity vector. it is not accelerating. ∆v . (b) The sketch for the falling dart is shown to the right. the acceleration vector is in the direction of the change in the r velocity vector ∆v . The acceleration vector is in the direction of the change in the r velocity vector ∆v . . ∆v . (a) The sketch for the dart thrown upward is shown to the right. 19 •• Determine the Concept The acceleration vector is in the same direction as the change in r velocity vector. ∆v . The sketch is shown to the right. 17 •• Determine the Concept The acceleration vector is in the same direction as the change in r velocity vector. If a particle is moving at constant velocity.128 Chapter 3 direction of its velocity vector is changing. The drawing is shown to the right. Again.

maintain its position relative to the bank. (c) The speed is the same at A and E. Because both projectiles have initial vertical velocities of zero. the vertical component of its velocity decreases and the change in its velocity is a downward pointing vector. In the absence of air resistance. 25 • Determine the Concept Speed is a scalar quantity. the horizontal component of the velocity remains constant throughout the flight. while facing directly upstream. (d ) is correct. (b) The speed is least at point C. 23 • Determine the Concept In the absence of air resistance. 24 • Determine the Concept In the absence of air resistance. The vertical component has its maximum values at launch and impact. *21 • Determine the Concept True. the horizontal component of the projectile’s velocity is constant for the duration of its flight. (d ) is correct. 22 • Determine the Concept In the absence of air resistance. As the ball moves along its trajectory between points A and C. Give up. (a) The speed is greatest at A and E. equal to the rate of change of velocity. There is no change in the horizontal component of the velocity. whereas acceleration. The speed of the stream is equal to the maximum speed of the boat in still water. both projectiles experience the same downward acceleration. The horizontal components are equal at these points but the vertical components are oppositely directed. is a vector quantity. the acceleration of the ball depends only on the change in its velocity and is independent of its velocity. Consider a ball on the end of a string. (a) False. The vertical component is zero at the highest point. (e) is correct. The best the boat can do is. The ball can move with constant speed .Motion in One and Two Dimensions 129 20 • Determine the Concept We can decide what the pilot should do by considering the speeds of the boat and of the current. their vertical motions must be identical. Between points C and E. the vertical component of its velocity increases and the change in its velocity is also a downward pointing vector. At the highest point. the speed is the horizontal component of the initial velocity.

if the acceleration is zero. in the case of a circle. the particle must be undergoing circular motion (i. must be the speed. it is at a constant distance from some origin).130 Chapter 3 (a scalar) even though its acceleration (a vector) is always changing direction. it could in the case of uniform circular motion. as shown to the right. ∆A is shown in the diagram below. 26 • r r Determine the Concept The average acceleration vector is defined by aav = ∆v / ∆t. The speed of the particle is constant. r r r r r (b) If A represents the position of a particle. The acceleration vector in this case is r . The direction of v BA = v B − v A is shown to the right. dA / dt is perpendicular to A. (c) Yes. The velocity vector is tangent to the particle’s trajectory. Therefore.e. Note that ∆A is nearly perpendicular r r r r to A(t ) . but its heading is changing constantly. the velocity must be constant and so. From its definition. it is perpendicular to the circle’s radius. ∆A and A(t ) are perpendicular to one another. The direction of aav is that of r r r r ∆v = vf − vi .. therefore. r r r *28 •• (a) The vectors A(t ) and A(t + ∆t ) are of equal length but point in slightly different directions. (b) True. 27 • r r r Determine the Concept The velocity of B relative to A is v BA = v B − v A . For very small time intervals.

(a) Path AB BC CD DE EF (c) Direction of velocity vector north northeast east southeast south (b) Path AB BC CD DE EF Direction of acceleration vector north southeast 0 southwest north The magnitudes are comparable. we can then establish the condition under which they will have the same vertical position at a given time and. Choose a coordinate system in which the y direction is north and the x direction is east.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 131 always perpendicular to the velocity vector. *30 •• Determine the Concept We’ll assume that the cannons are identical and use a constantacceleration equation to express the displacement of each cannonball as a function of time. Express the displacement of the cannonball from cannon A at any time t after being fired and before any collision: Express the displacement of the cannonball from cannon A at any time t′ after being fired and before any collision: r r r ∆r = v0t + 1 gt 2 2 r r r ′ ∆r ′ = v0t ′ + 1 gt ′2 2 . Having done so. collide. 29 •• Determine the Concept The velocity vector is in the same direction as the change in the position vector while the acceleration vector is in the same direction as the change in the velocity vector. but larger for DE since the radius of the path is smaller there. hence. The modified diagram shown below shows the displacements of both cannonballs.

either of them could (a) represent the velocity of the stone. and the monkey begins to fall when the guns are fired. r r Let the vectors A(t ) and B (t + ∆t ) be of equal length but point in slightly different directions as the stone moves around the circle. ∆A and A(t ) are r r perpendicular to one another. Remarks: This is the ″monkey and hunter″ problem in disguise. If you imagine a monkey in the position shown below. t = t ' and the balls are the same distance 1 2 gt 2 below the line of sight at all times. These two r r vectors and ∆A are shown in the diagram above. 32 • Determine the Concept r r Because A and D are tangent to the path of the stone. and the two guns are fired simultaneously. Because you have the same horizontal velocity as the ship does. then the monkey and the two cannonballs will all reach point P at the same time. Because of this. it is also moving horizontally with the same velocity as the rest of the ship. Therefore. . you see the same thing as if the ship were standing still. it falls into the vessel. dA/dt is perpendicular to A and r only the vector E could represent the acceleration of the stone. For very small time intervals. During the time the droplet is in the air. Therefore. which has the same horizontal velocity. they should fire the guns simultaneously.132 Chapter 3 If the guns are fired simultaneously. 31 •• Determine the Concept The droplet leaving the bottle has the same horizontal velocity as the ship. Note that ∆A is nearly r r r (b) perpendicular to A(t ).

and initial velocity components: Obviously. that is. the tangential acceleration is nonzero.81 m/s2 directed downward. We can find the flight time from the vertical part of the motion. 34 •• Picture the Problem In the diagram. 35 • Determine the Concept The principle reason is aerodynamic drag. so there is no centripetal acceleration. how far you throw the ball will depend on how fast you can throw it. Assume that you can throw a ball at two-thirds that speed to obtain: v0 = 60 mi/h × 0. Estimation and Approximation *36 •• Picture the Problem During the flight of the ball the acceleration is constant and equal to 9.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 133 33 • Determine the Concept True. the ball's acceleration will depend strongly on its velocity. However. initial and final positions. at an extremum of motion. A major league baseball pitcher can throw a fastball at 90 mi/h or so. because the velocity is reversing direction.8 m/s 1 mi/h . This makes sense because. v = 0. Make a sketch of the motion. When moving through a fluid. An object accelerates when its velocity changes. such as the atmosphere. when either its speed or its direction changes. Include coordinate axes. and then use the horizontal part of the motion to find the horizontal distance. We’ll assume that the release point of the ball is 2 m above your feet. When an object moves in a circle the direction of its motion is continually changing.447 m/s = 26. The acceleration of the bob is in the direction of r r r the change in the velocity ∆v = v f − v i and is tangent to the pendulum trajectory at the point of reversal of direction. (a) shows the pendulum just before it reverses direction and (b) shows the pendulum just after it has reversed its direction.

8 m/s )cos 0° = 26. express the vertical position of the ball as a function of time: (a) For θ = 0 we have: x = v0 xt (1) y = h + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 (2) v0 x = v0 cosθ 0 = (26.8 m/s ) cos 45° = 19. y = 0 and x = R: ( ) y = 2m − 4.0 m/s )t + 1 − 9.8 m/s and v0 y = v0 sin θ 0 = (26.81 m/s 2 t 2 2 Eliminate t between these equations to obtain: At impact.0 m/s )t Substitute in equations (1) and (2) to obtain: and y = 2 m + (19.905 m/s 2 2 x (19.8 m/s )sin 0° = 0 x = (26.8 m/s)2 0 = 2m − Solve for R to obtain: (b) Using trigonometry.0 m/s x = (19.8 m/s ) sin 45° = 19.1 m v0 x = v0 cos θ 0 = (26.91 m/s 2 2 x (26.0 m/s)2 ( ) Eliminate t between these equations to obtain: y = 2m + x − .81 m/s 2 t 2 2 4.0 m/s and v0 y = v0 sin θ 0 = (26.8 m/s)2 4.91 m/s 2 2 R (26.8 m/s )t Substitute in equations (1) and (2) to obtain: and y = 2 m + 1 − 9. Express the horizontal position of the ball as a function of time: Assuming that the release point of the ball is a distance h above the ground. solve for v0x and v0y: R = 17. so the horizontal motion is one of constant velocity.134 Chapter 3 There is no acceleration in the x direction.

0 m/s )t and y = 14 m + (19.8 m/s)2 4. y = 0 and x = R: 0 = 14 m + R − R = 85.0 m/s)2 Solve for R (you can use the ″solver″ or ″graph″ function of your calculator) to obtain: .0 m/s ) t + 1 (− 9. solve for v0x and v0y: Substitute in equations (1) and (2) to obtain: x = (19. y = 0 and x = R: ( ) y = 14 m − 4.8 m/s )t and y = 14 m + 1 − 9.905 m/s 2 2 R (19.905 m/s 2 2 x (26.81 m/s 2 )t 2 2 4.0 m/s)2 or R 2 − (73.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 135 At impact.6 m 4.6 m Solve for R (you can use the ″solver″ or ″graph″ functions of your calculator) to obtain: (c) Solve for v0x and v0y: v0 x = v0 = 26.3 m v0x = v0 y = 19.905 m/s 2 2 R 0 = 14 m − (26.0 m/s)2 Eliminate t between these equations to obtain: At impact.8 m/s and v0 y = 0 Substitute in equations (1) and (2) to obtain: x = (26.81 m/s 2 t 2 2 Eliminate t between these equations to obtain: At impact. Hence: 4.905 m/s 2 2 y = 14 m + x − x (19.8 m/s)2 R = 45.0 m / s Solve for R to obtain: (d) Using trigonometry.2 m 2 = 0 R = 75. y = 0 and x = R.905 m/s 2 2 R 0 = 2m + R − (19.60 m )R − 147.

Vectors. The diagram shows an appropriate coordinate system and the brick when it is at point P with coordinates (x. and A and B be the position vectors for the minute and hour hands. vy = 0. v0 x = Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0x: v0 x = (9. because x0 = 0 and ax = 0. y).5 m ) = 2 2 tan 45° 14. because y0 = 0 and ay = −g. The . at the brick’s highest point. Because the velocity of the brick at the highest point of its flight is equal to the horizontal component of its initial velocity. Using a constant-acceleration equation. we can use constant-acceleration equations to relate this velocity to the brick’s x and y coordinates at impact. y = v0 y t − 1 gt 2 2 Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: y = (tan θ 0 )x − 0 = (tan θ 0 )R − gR 2 tan θ 0 g 2 x 2 2v0 x g 2 R 2 2v0 x Use the brick’s coordinates when it strikes the ground to obtain: Solve for v0x to obtain: where R is the range of the brick.81m/s )(44.8 m/s Note that. the positive x direction r r be to the right. express the x coordinate of the brick as a function of time: Express the y coordinate of the brick as a function of time: x = x0 + v0 x t + 1 ax t 2 2 or. x = v0 xt y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or. and Coordinate Systems 38 • Picture the Problem Let the positive y direction be straight up.136 Chapter 3 37 •• Picture the Problem We’ll ignore the height of Geoff’s release point above the ground and assume that he launched the brick at an angle of 45°. Vector Addition.

while the hour hand is at an angle of (6. .25 m )cos105° = −0.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 137 pictorial representation below shows the orientation of the hands of the clock for parts (a) through (d).241m ) ˆ j (d) At 7:15.241m By = (0.25 m )sin 195° = −0. while the hour hand is at an angle of (7.5 h)/12 h × 360° = 195°. (a) The position vector for the minute hand at12:00 is: The position vector for the hour hand at 12:00 is: r A12:00 = r B12:00 = (0. while the hour hand is at an angle of (3. The position vector for the minute hand is: Find the x-component of the vector representing the hour hand: Find the y-component of the vector representing the hour hand: The position vector for the hour hand is: r A3:30 = − (0.0647 m )i − (0.0647 m r B3:30 = (0.25 h)/12 h × 360° = 218°.25 m )sin 105° = 0. measured clockwise from the top.241m )iˆ − (0. the minute hand is positioned along the +x axis. measured clockwise from the top.25 m )cos195° = −0. the minute hand is positioned along the −y axis.25 m ) ˆ j (b) At 3:30.5 m ) ˆ j (0. the minute hand is positioned along the −y axis.241m r ˆ B6:30 = − (0. The position vector for the minute hand is: Find the x-component of the vector representing the hour hand: Find the y-component of the vector representing the hour hand: The position vector for the hour hand is: r A6:30 = − (0.0647 m By = (0. measured clockwise from the top.5 h)/12 h × 360° = 105°.5 m ) ˆ j Bx = (0.5 m ) ˆ j Bx = (0.0647 m ) ˆ j (c) At 6:30.

241 m ) i − (0.5 m ) iˆ Bx = (0.435 m ) ˆ Find A − B at 6:30: r r r r A − B = −(0.152 m ) iˆ + (0.697 m ) ˆ j *39 • Picture the Problem The resultant displacement is the vector sum of the individual displacements.197 m r ˆ B7:15 = − (0.5 m ) ˆ j ˆ j − − (0.0647 m ) ˆ Find A − B at 3:30: r r r r A − B = −(0.0647 m ) i − (0.259 m ) ˆ Find A − B at 7:15: r r r r A − B = (0.197 m ) ˆ j r r A − B = (0.241 m ) ˆ [ [ ˆ j = − (0. The two displacements of the bear and its resultant displacement are shown to the right: .138 Chapter 3 The position vector for the minute hand is: Find the x-component of the vector representing the hour hand: Find the y-component of the vector representing the hour hand: The position vector for the hour hand is: (e) Find A − B at 12:00: r A7:15 = (0.0647 m ) i − (0.5 m ) ˆ j [ ] ] ] ˆ j = − (0.25 m ) ˆ j ˆ j − (0.152 m ) i − (0.5 m ) ˆ j ˆ j − (0.25 m )sin 218° = −0.241m ) i − (0.197 m ) ˆ = (0.154 m By = (0.25 m ) ˆ j j = r r (0.154 m ) i − (0.25 m )cos 218° = −0.5 m ) ˆ − (0.

(a) (b) .5° 40 • Picture the Problem The resultant displacement is the vector sum of the individual displacements.5° and the angle with the horizontal is 45° − 22.2 m Using the law of sines. His initial and final positions are the same as in (a). (a) Using the endpoint coordinates for her initial and final positions.5° = 22. solve for the resultant displacement: R 2 = (12 m ) + (12 m ) 2 2 − 2(12 m )(12 m )cos135° and R = 22. *41 • Picture the Problem Use the standard rules for vector addition. draw the student’s initial and final position vectors and construct her displacement vector. so his displacement is also 5 2 @ 135°. solve for α: sin α sin 135° = 12 m 22. Find the magnitude of her displacement and the angle this displacement makes with the positive x-axis: (b) Her displacement is 5 2 m @ 135°.2 m ∴ α = 22.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 139 Using the law of cosines. Remember that changing the sign of a vector reverses its direction.

3 km .4 km = 1 rad = 57. (c) Express the total distance as the sum of the three parts of his walk: dtot = deast + darc + dtoward camp Substitute the given distances to find the total: dtot = 2.5 km = 6.3° His direction from camp is 1 rad north of east.4 km = radius 2. The length of path A is 2.4 km + 1.9 km θradians = arc length 2.4 km + 2.5 km: (a) Express the distance from the campsite to the end of path C: (b) Determine the angle θ subtended by the arc at the origin (campsite): 2.5 km = 0.4 km.4 km – 1.4 km.140 Chapter 3 (c) (d) (e) 42 • Picture the Problem The figure shows the paths walked by the Scout. and the length of path C is 1. the length of path B is 2.

and y-components of each vector.81 and (d ) is correct. Vector x-component y-component r 6 −3 A r 4 −3 B r r r r r r adding the components of A. B. Let D be the sum of vectors A. 45 • Picture the Problem The components of the given vector can be determined using righttriangle trigonometry.9 km = Total distance walked 6. A table such as the one shown to the right is useful in organizing the r information in this problem.5 m/s ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ 5.06 km 5 km .5° ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ The vector is in the fourth quadrant and (b) is correct.54 m 3.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 141 Express the ratio of the magnitude of his displacement to the total distance he walked and substitute to obtain a numerical value for this ratio: Magnitude of his displacement 0. B.66 m 3. r C r D 2 5 Determine the components of D by Dx = 5 and Dy = 6 Use the Pythagorean Theorem to r calculate the magnitude of D : 2 D = Dx2 + D y = (5)2 + (6)2 = 7.54 m 6. (a) (b) (c) (d) A 10 m 5m 7 km 5 km θ 30° 45° 60° 90° Ax 8. r and C .50 km 0 Ay 5m 3. 44 • Picture the Problem The components of the resultant vector can be obtained from the components of the vectors being added. and C . Use the trigonometric relationships between the magnitude of a vector and its components to calculate the x. ⎛ − 3.3 km = 1 7 43 • Picture the Problem The direction of a vector is determined by its components.5 m/s ⎟ = −32. The magnitude of the resultant vector can then be found by using the Pythagorean Theorem.

83 r and. ⎛A ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ y ⎟ = 31.8m ) ˆ j (− 17.8 m r ˆ ∴ A = (6. Write A in component form: r Ax = (8 m) cos 37° = 6.50 km/s (f) 10 m/s 240° −5.2 r and.0° ⎜B ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ ˆ ˆ (c) C = −2 i − 3 ˆ + 4k j r 2 C = C x2 + C y + C z2 = 5.0 km/s 7.3 m ) i − (2.6m ) iˆ + (23.39 θ = cos −1 ⎜ where θ is the polar angle measured from the positive z-axis and ⎛ Cz ⎞ ⎟ = 42.8m ) ˆ j (− 3.4m ) iˆ − (9.4 m ) i + (4.66 m/s (g) 8 m/s2 270° 0 −8. (b).and y-components: r D= r E= r F= (0. because B is in the 4th quadrant. because A is in the 1st quadrant.9 m ) ˆ j ( ) 47 •• Picture the Problem The magnitude of each vector can be found from the Pythagorean theorem and their directions found using the inverse tangent function.8m ) ˆ j (d) Solve for G and add components to obtain: r r r 1 r r G = − A + B + 2C 2 ˆ = (1.0° ⎜A ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ A= ˆ j (b) B = 10 i − 7 ˆ r 2 B = Bx2 + B y = 12.1° ⎝C⎠ .00 m/s −8.4 m Ay = (8 m) sin 37° = 4.8 m ) ˆ j (a).00 m/s2 *46 • Picture the Problem Vectors can be added and subtracted by adding and subtracting their components.4m ) iˆ + (7.142 Chapter 3 (e) 15 km/s 150° −13. ˆ j (a) A = 5 i + 3 ˆ r 2 Ax2 + Ay = 5. (c) Add (or subtract) x. ⎛B ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ y ⎟ = − 35.

θ = 71. because C is in the 3rd quadrant.7° ⎜B ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ r r r ˆ C = A + B = −i − 9 ˆ j 2 C = C x2 + C y = 9.0° B = 6. ˆ j (a) A = −4i − 7 ˆ r 2 Ax2 + Ay = 8. .06 r and.32 . ⎛A ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ y ⎟ = 240° ⎜A ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ A= r ˆ B = 3i − 2 ˆ j 2 B = Bx2 + B y = 3.61 r and. In parts (a) and (b). θ = 33. because B is in the 4th quadrant.7° 49 • Picture the Problem The components of these vectors are related to the magnitude of each vector through the Pythagorean Theorem and trigonometric functions. θ = − 76. ⎛C ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ y ⎟ = 264° ⎜C ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ (b) Follow the same steps as in (a). because A is in the 3rd quadrant.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 143 φ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎛ Cx ⎞ −1 ⎛ − 2 ⎞ ⎟ = 112° ⎟ = cos ⎜ ⎝C ⎠ ⎝ 29 ⎠ 48 • Picture the Problem The magnitude and direction of a two-dimensional vector can be found by using the Pythagorean Theorem and the definition of the tangent function.12 .6° C = 3. ⎛B ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ y ⎟ = − 33. calculate the rectangular components of each vector and then express the vector in rectangular form.61 . A = 4.06 r and.

54 m and Ay = (5 m) sin 225° = −3. the simplest are those which lie along the coordinate axes. Determine the magnitude of A : Write three vectors of the same magnitude as A : The vectors are shown to the right: r A= 2 Ax2 + Ay = 32 + 4 2 = 5 r r r r ˆ ˆ B1 = 5i .144 Chapter 3 (a) Express v in rectangular form: Evaluate vx and vy: r r ˆ v = vx i + v y ˆ j vx = (10 m/s) cos 60° = 5 m/s and vy = (10 m/s) sin 60° = 8.54 m ) ˆ j r ˆ r = (14m )i − (6m ) ˆ j Picture the Problem While there are infinitely many vectors B that can be constructed such that A = B. B2 = −5i .66 m/s) ˆ j r ˆ A = Ax i + Ay ˆ j Ax = (5 m) cos 225° = −3.66 m/s Substitute to obtain: (b) Express v in rectangular form: Evaluate Ax and Ay: r ˆ v = (5 m/s)i + (8. and B3 = 5 ˆ j .54 m )i + (− 3.54 m r Substitute to obtain: (c) There is nothing to calculate as we are given the rectangular components: 50 • r ˆ A = (− 3.

its displacement will be the same for all of them.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 145 *51 •• Picture the Problem While there are several walking routes the fly could take to get from the origin to point C.20 m *52 • Picture the Problem The diagram shows the locations of the transmitters relative to the ship and defines the distances separating the transmitters from each other and from the ship. We can find the distance between the ship and transmitter B using trigonometry. Relate the distance between A and B to the distance from the ship to A and the angle θ: Solve for and evaluate the distance from the ship to transmitter B: tan θ = DAB DSB DSB = DAB 100 km = = 173 km tan θ tan 30° . One possible route is shown in the figure. Express the fly’s r displacement D during its trip from the origin to point C and find its magnitude: r r r r D = A+ B +C ˆ ˆ = (3 m )i + (3 m ) ˆ + (3 m )k j and D= (3 m )2 + (3 m )2 + (3 m )2 = 5.

1 km ) ˆ j Substitute for ∆r and ∆t to find the average velocity. r r (14.1 km )i + (− 14. Express the average velocity: Determine the position vectors: r r ∆r vav = ∆t r r1 = (− 10 km ) ˆ j and r ˆ r2 = (14.1km ) ˆ j vav = 1h ˆ = (14.66m .1 km )i + (− 4.146 Chapter 3 Velocity and Acceleration Vectors 53 • Picture the Problem For constant speed and direction.1km )iˆ + (− 4. (a) The average velocity is: Find the position vectors and the displacement vector: vav = ∆r ∆t r ˆ r0 = (2m )i + (3m ) ˆ j r ˆ r2 = (6m )i + (7m ) ˆ j and r r r ˆ ∆r = r2 − r1 = (4 m )i + (4 m ) ˆ j ∆r02 = Find the magnitude of the displacement vector for the interval between t = 0 and t = 2 s: (4m )2 + (4m )2 = 5.1 km/h )i + (− 4.1 km/h ) ˆ j 54 • Picture the Problem The average velocity is the change in position divided by the elapsed time. Take the origin to be the location of the stationary radar and construct a pictorial representation. the instantaneous velocity is identical to the average velocity.1 km ) ˆ j Find the displacement vector: r r r ∆r = r2 − r1 ˆ = (14.

66 m = 2. j ∆r05 = (11 m ) + (11 m ) = 15.11 m/s .0 s ) ˆ j ˆ = (4. respectively. j r r r ˆ ∆r05 = r5 − r0 = (11 m )i + (11 m ) ˆ . This is a constant-acceleration problem.0 m/s ) i + 3.83 m/s 2s ⎛ 4m ⎞ ⎟ = 45.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 147 Substitute to determine vav: vav = and 5.0 m/s ) i + (6.0 m/s 2 (2. (a) The magnitudes of r r v W and v N are 40 m/s and 30 m/s.0 m/s)2 = 7. (b) Repeat (a).0 m/s ) ˆ j v= ( ) Find the magnitude of v : r (4. 56 • Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which north coincides with the positive y direction and east with the positive x direction.6 m .0° measured 4m ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ from the positive x axis. 5s 2 2 and θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 11 m ⎞ ⎟ = 45.0° measured ⎟ ⎝ 11 m ⎠ from the positive x axis. this time using the displacement between t = 0 and t = 5 s to obtain: r ˆ r5 = (13 m )i + (14 m ) ˆ . Expressing the west and north r r velocity vectors is the first step in determining ∆v and a av . *55 • Picture the Problem The magnitude of the velocity vector at the end of the 2 s of acceleration will give us its speed at that instant. Find the final velocity vector of the particle: r ˆ ˆ v = vx i + v y ˆ = vx 0 i + a y tˆ j j ˆ = (4.0 m/s)2 + (6.21 m/s and (b) is correct.6 m vav = = 3. The change in the magnitude of the particle’s velocity during this time is: ∆v = vN − vW = − 10 m/s . 15.

57 • Picture the Problem The initial and final positions and velocities of the particle are given. We can find the average velocity and average acceleration using their definitions ˆ by first calculating the given displacement and velocities using unit vectors i and ˆ.148 Chapter 3 (b) The change in the direction of the velocity is from west to north.7 m/s) ˆ j r r aav = ∆v ∆t .9° 40 m/s r r (40 m/s ) iˆ + (30 m/s) ˆ j aav ≡ ∆v ∆t = 5s 2 ˆ 2 ˆ = 8 m/s i + 6 m/s j ( ) ( 2 2 ) The magnitude of this vector is: aav = (8 m/s ) + (6 m/s ) 2 2 = 10 m/s 2 and its direction is θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 6 m/s 2 ⎞ ⎟ = 36. j (a) The average velocity is: The displacement of the particle during this interval of time is: Substitute to find the average velocity: r r vav ≡ ∆r ∆t r ˆ ∆r = (100 m )i + (80 m ) ˆ j r (100 m ) iˆ + (80 m ) ˆ j vav = 3s = (b) The average acceleration is: (33.3 m/s ) iˆ + (26. (c) The change in velocity is: The change in direction is 90° r r r ˆ ∆v = v N − v W = (30 m/s ) ˆ − (− 40 m/s ) i j ˆ = (40 m/s ) i + (30 m/s ) ˆ j ∆v = and Calculate the magnitude and r direction of ∆v : (40 m/s )2 + (30 m/s)2 = 50 m/s θ + x axis = tan −1 (d) Find the average acceleration during this interval: 30 m/s = 36.9° measured 2 ⎟ ⎝ 8 m/s ⎠ from the positive x axis.

Differentiate r with respect to time: r r r dr d (30t )iˆ + 40t − 5t 2 ˆ v= = j dt dt ˆ = 30i + (40 − 10t ) ˆ j [ ( )] .3 m/s ) i + (28. (a) The velocity of the particle. because r is in the 4th quadrant.77 m/s ) ˆj 2 2 *58 •• Picture the Problem The acceleration is constant so we can use the constant-acceleration equations in vector form to find the velocity at t = 2 s and the position vector at t = 4 s.30 m/s ) ˆ j Using ∆t = 3 s. as a function of time. is given by: Substitute to find the velocity at t = 2 s: r r r v = v0 + at r ˆ v = (2 m/s) i + (−9 m/s) ˆ j ˆ + (4 m/s 2 ) i + (3 m/s 2 ) ˆ (2s ) j [ ] ˆ = (10 m/s) i + (−3 m/s) ˆ j (b) Express the position vector as a function of time: Substitute and simplify: r r r r r = r0 + v0t + 1 at 2 2 r ˆ r = (4 m) i + (3 m) ˆ j ˆ + (2 m/s) i + (-9 m/s) ˆ (4 s ) j 2 ˆ + 1 (4 m/s 2 ) i + (3 m/s 2 ) ˆ (4 s ) j [ 2 [ ] ] ˆ = (44 m) i + (−9 m) ˆ j Find the magnitude and direction of r r at t = 4 s: = 44.3 m/s ) ˆ j and r ˆ v 2 = (19.0 m/s ) ˆ j r ˆ ∴ ∆v = (− 9. v 2 . and ∆v : r r v r ˆ v1 = (28.00 m/s ) i + (− 5. find the average acceleration: r aav = (− 3.3 m/s ) i + (23.6° ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ r (4 s) = (44 m )2 + (− 9 m )2 59 •• Picture the Problem The velocity vector is the time-derivative of the position vector and the acceleration vector is the time-derivative of the velocity vector.00 m/s )iˆ + (− 1.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 149 Find v1 .9 m r and. ⎛ −9m ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ 44 m ⎟ = − 11.

In the second part. Note that the path in the xy plane is a straight line. we can eliminate the parameter t from the constant-acceleration equations and express y as a function of x.150 Chapter 3 where v has units of m/s if t is in seconds. Differentiate v with respect to time: r r r r dv d ˆ a= = j 30i + (40 − 10t ) ˆ dt dt = − 10 m/s 2 ˆ j [ ] ( ) 60 •• Picture the Problem We can use the constant-acceleration equations in vector form to solve the first part of the problem. (a) Use v = v0 + at with v0 = 0 to r r r r r find v : r ˆ v = 6m/s 2 i + 4m/s 2 ˆ t j [( ) ( )] r r r r r r ˆ Use r = r0 + v0t + 1 at 2 with r0 = (10 m )i to find r : 2 r ˆ r = (10m ) + 3m/s 2 t 2 i + 2m/s 2 t 2 ˆ j (b) Obtain the x and y components of the path from the vector equation in (a): Eliminate the parameter t from these equations and solve for y to obtain: [ ( ) ] [( and ) ] x = 10 m + (3 m/s 2 )t 2 y = (2 m/s 2 )t 2 y= 20 2 x− m 3 3 Use this equation to plot the graph shown below. 20 18 16 14 12 y (m) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 x (m) .

r ˆ ∆r = (600m ) ˆ + (− 600m ) i j = (600m )(− iˆ + ˆ ) j .Motion in One and Two Dimensions 151 61 ••• Picture the Problem The displacements of the boat are shown in the figure. f = aN ∆t N = 60 m/s so r 2 ˆ ∆r = 1 aN (∆t N ) ˆ − (60 m/s )∆t W i j 2 ˆ = (600m ) ˆ − (600m ) i j Substitute to find the average velocity: r ˆ j r ∆r (600m ) − i + ˆ vav = = 30s ∆t r r r r ∆r vf − vi aav = = ∆t ∆t (− 60 m/s) iˆ − 0 = = 30 s ( ) = (20m/s )(− iˆ + ˆ ) j (b) The average acceleration is given by: (− 2 m/s )iˆ 2 (c) The displacement of the boat from the dock at the end of the 30-s trip was one of the intermediate results we obtained in part (a). We need to determine each of the displacements in order to calculate the average velocity of the boat during the 30s trip. (a) Express the average velocity of the boat: Express its total displacement: r r ∆r vav = ∆t r ∆r = r ∆rN + 2 = 1 a N ∆t N 2 To calculate the displacement we first have to find the speed after the first 20 s: ( ) r ∆rW ˆ + v ∆t − i j W W ˆ ( ) v W = vN.

yi) are: r rM = vM t ˆ = (8t ) ˆ j j r where rM is in miles if t is in hours. the positive x direction to the east. and the positive y direction to the north. 22. Let t = 0 at 9:00 a. Express Mary’s position as a function of time: Note that Robert’s initial position coordinates (xi. and θ be the angle between Robert’s velocity vector and the easterly direction and let ″M″ and ″R″ denote Mary and Robert. Equating their north and east coordinates yields: Solve equation (1) for cosθ : East: –13 + 6t cosθ – 6 cosθ = 0 (1) r r ˆ rR = [ xi + (vR cosθ )(t − 1)]) i + [ yi + (vR sinθ )(t − 1)] ˆ j ˆ = [−13 + {6(t − 1) cos θ }] i + [22.5 ⎤ ⎡ 13 ⎤ sin θ + cos θ = 1 = ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 6(t − 1) ⎦ ⎣ 6(t − 1) ⎦ 2 2 2 Simplify to obtain a quadratic equation in t: Solve (you could use your calculator’s ″solver″ function) this 28t 2 − 288t + 639 = 0 t = 3. You can express the positions of Mary and Robert as functions of time and then equate their north (y) and east (x) coordinates at the time they rendezvous. yi) = (−13 mi.5 + 6t sinθ – 6 sinθ = 8t (2) cos θ = 13 6(t − 1) 8t − 22.m. When Mary and Robert rendezvous.5 mi) Express Robert’s position as a function of time: where rR is in miles if t is in hours. respectively.5 6(t − 1) 2 (3) Solve equation (2) for sinθ : sin θ = (4) Square and add equations (3) and (4) to obtain: ⎡ 8t − 22.5 + {6(t − 1) sin θ }] ˆ j North: 22.152 Chapter 3 *62 ••• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system with the origin at Petoskey. their coordinates will be the same.24 h = 3 h 15 min . (xi.

9 mi Finally.e. (a) From the diagram one can see that: Solve for and evaluate θ : vAG cos 45° = vPA sinθ θ = sin −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 56. Let θ be the angle between north and the direction of the plane’s heading.7° ⎣ 6(t − 1) ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ and so Robert should head 14. i.1° + (80 km/h) sin 45° . The velocity of the plane relative r to the ground.24 h for t yields: θ = cos −1 ⎢ ⎤ ⎡ 13 ⎤ 13 −1 ⎡ ⎥ = cos ⎢ 6(3. Remarks: Another solution that does not depend on the components of the vectors utilizes the law of cosines to find the time t at which Mary and Robert meet and then uses the law of sines to find the direction that Robert must head in order to rendezvous with Mary.24 h ) = 25.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 153 equation for the smallest value of t (both roots are positive) to obtain: Now you can find the distance traveled due north by Mary: rM = vM t = (8 mi/h )(3. Relative Velocity 63 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which north is the positive y direction and east is the positive x direction.1° west of north (b) Because the plane is headed due north. solving equation (3) for θ and substituting 3.7° north of east. v PG .24 − 1)⎥ = 14. r v PA . r r r r v PG = v PA + v AG The pilot must head in such a direction that r the east-west component of v PG is zero in order to make the plane fly due north.6 km/h ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 250 km/h ⎠ = 13. and the velocity of the air relative to the ground. add the north components of r v PG = (250 km/h) cos 13. is the sum of the velocity of the plane relative to the air. vAG ..

6 m/s ) = 0. (a) The triangles shown in the figure are similar right triangles.8 m/s ⎞ ⎟ = 30.8 m/s)2 = 1.154 Chapter 3 r r v PA and v AG to determine the plane’s ground speed: 64 •• r Picture the Problem Let vSB represent the velocity of the swimmer relative to the r bank. and v WB the velocity of the water relative to the shore. = 300 km/h r r r r vSB = vSW + v WB The current of the river causes the swimmer to drift downstream.79 m/s (c) The swimmer should head in a direction such that the upstream component of her velocity is equal to the speed of the water relative to the shore: Use a trigonometric function to evaluate θ: θ = sin −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 0..6 m/s)2 + (0. Set up a proportion between their sides and solve for the speed of the water relative to the bank: (b) Use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve for the swimmer’s speed relative to the shore: vWB 40 m = vSW 80 m and vWB = 1 2 (1.6 m/s ⎠ . i. vSW the velocity of the swimmer relative to the water.e.800 m/s 2 2 vSB = vSW + v WS = (1.0° ⎟ ⎝ 1.

The pilot must head so that the east-west component r of vPG is zero in order to make the plane fly due north. find the time of flight: t flight = = distance travelled vPG 520 km = 2. and the velocity of the air relative to the ground by r v AG . the velocity of the plane relative to the air by v PA .47° ⎦ ⎣ 240 km/h Add the north components of v PA plane relative to the ground: r and v AG to find the velocity of the vPG + vAGsin45° = vPAcos8. the positive x direction to the east.47° and vPG = (240 km/h)cos 8. and the positive y direction to the north. This must be satisfied if the plane is to stay on its northerly course.47° − (50 km/h)sin 45° = 202 km/h Finally.57 h 202 km/h . θ is the angle between north and the direction of the plane’s heading. Use the diagram to express the condition relating the eastward r component of v AG and the westward component of v PA . Then r r r r v PG = v PA + v AG (1) Choose a coordinate system with the origin at point A. [Note: this is equivalent to equating the xcomponents of equation (1).Motion in One and Two Dimensions 155 *65 •• Picture the Problem Let the velocity of the plane relative to the ground be r represented by v PG .] Now solve for θ to obtain: (50 km/h) cos 45° = (240 km/h) sinθ r θ = sin −1 ⎢ r ⎡ (50 km/h )cos45° ⎤ ⎥ = 8.

r v ag be the velocity of the air relative to the ground.18 km/h r r r r v ag .156 Chapter 3 66 •• Picture the Problem Let v BS be the velocity of the boat relative to the shore. and v WS represent the velocity of the water relative to the shore. (Only the positive root is physically meaningful. Then. Independently of whether the boat is going upstream or downstream: r r r r r v BS = v BW + v WS Going upstream. the speed of the boat relative to the shore is reduced by the speed of the water relative to the shore. The wind will affect the flight times . v pg = v pa + differently along these two paths.) 67 •• r Picture the Problem Let v pg be the velocity of the plane relative to the ground. Going downstream. the speed of the boat relative to the shore is increased by the same amount. 2 vBW − vBW = 5. and v pa the velocity of the plane relative to the air. r v BW be the velocity of the boat relative to the water. For the upstream leg of the trip: For the downstream leg of the trip: Express the total time for the trip in terms of the times for its upstream and downstream legs: vBS = vBW − vWS vBS = vBW + vWS ttotal = tupstream + tdownstream = L L + vBW − vWS vBW + vWS 2L 2 vBW − vWS = 0 t total Multiply both sides of the equation by (v BW − v WS )(v BW + v WS ) (the product of the denominators) and rearrange the terms to obtain: Solve the quadratic equation for vBW.

relative to the ground.NS = t northbound + tsouthbound = radius of the circle radius of the circle + vpg.southbound 103 m 103 m = + = 150 s (15 m/s) − (5 m/s) (15 m/s) + (5 m/s) Because troundtrip.westbound 2 × 103 m = 141 s 14.1m/s Use the distances and velocities for the two legs to express and evaluate the time for the north-south roundtrip: troundtrip.northbound vpg.EW = teastbound + t westbound = radius of the circle vpg. on its eastbound leg is equal to its velocity on its westbound leg. The given quantities are the direction of the velocity of the plane relative to the ground and the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the air relative to the ground.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 157 The velocity of the plane.5° 150 kts Az = (011. Using v PG = v PA + v AG . Asked for is the direction of the velocity of the air relative to the r r r ground.EW < troundtrip.5°) .1m/s troundtrip.eastbound + = radius of the circle vpg. Using the diagram. draw a vector addition diagram and solve for the unknown quantity. you should fly your plane across the wind. find the velocity of the plane relative to the ground for both directions: Express the time for the east-west roundtrip in terms of the distances and velocities for the two legs: 2 2 vpg = vpa − vag = (15 m/s)2 − (5 m/s)2 = 14. Calculate the heading the pilot must take: Because this is also the angle of the plane's heading clockwise from north. it is also its azimuth or the required true heading: θ = sin −1 30 kts = 11. 68 • Picture the Problem This is a relative velocity problem.NS .

and rAB : r r r r rB = 40m − 1 (2m/s 2 )t 2 ˆ j 2 r ˆ rA = [(20m/s )t ]i and [ ] r r r rAB = rB − rA ˆ = [(− 20m/s ) t ] i + 40m − 1 2m/s 2 t 2 ˆ j 2 Evaluate rAB at t = 6 s: (b) Find v AB = drAB dt : [ ( ) ] r r r r ˆ rAB (6 s) = (120 m) i + (4 m) ˆ j r r r drAB d {(− 20 m/s)t}i v AB = = dt dt j + {40 m − 1 (2 m/s 2 )t 2 }ˆ 2 ˆ = (−20 m/s) i + (−2 m/s 2 ) t ˆ j [ ] Evaluate v AB at t = 6 s: (c) Find a AB = dv AB dt : r r v AB (6 s ) = (− 20 m/s)iˆ − (12 m/s ) ˆ j r r r d ˆ (−20 m/s) i + (−2 m/s 2 ) t ˆ aAB = j dt = − 2 m/s 2 ˆ j r Note that a AB is independent of time. and the positive y direction to the north.. i. .and post-collision speeds of the ball to its drop and rebound heights. the positive x direction to the east. Let v and v′ represent the speeds with which the ball strikes the racket and rebounds from it.158 Chapter 3 *69 •• Picture the Problem The position of B relative to A is the vector from A to B. r r r rAB = rB − rA The velocity of B relative to A is r r v AB = drAB dt and the acceleration of B relative to A is r r a AB = dv AB dt Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the intersection. rA . [ ] ( ) *70 ••• Picture the Problem Let h and h′ represent the heights from which the ball is dropped and to which it rebounds.e. (a) Find rB . respectively. We can use a constant-acceleration equation to relate the pre.

v = 2 gh v 2 = v' 2 − 2 gh' or because v = 0. Circular Motion and Centripetal Acceleration 71 • Picture the Problem We can use the definition of centripetal acceleration to express ac in terms of the speed of the tip of the minute hand.64h = 0. Express the acceleration of the tip of the minute hand of the clock as a function of the length of the hand and the speed of its tip: Use the distance the minute hand travels every hour to express its speed: ac = v2 R v= 2πR T . the ball's speed is: v' = V + 0. it will have speed 0. Note that this result tells us that the ball is moving significantly faster than the racket. v' = 2 gh' Divide the second of these equations by the first to obtain: Substitute for h′ and evaluate the ratio of the speeds: v' = v v' = v 2 gh' 2 gh = h' h 0. moving toward the racket. because v0 = 0.8 V. relate the impact speed of the ball to the distance it has fallen: Relate the rebound speed of the ball to the height to which it rebounds: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2 gh or. After it "bounces" from the racket. the ball initially has speed V.8 ⇒ v' = 0.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 159 (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.8v h (b) Call the speed of the racket V. In the reference frame where the racket is moving and the ball initially unmoving. we need to add the speed of the racket to the speed of the ball in the racket's rest frame.8V = 45 m/s ≈ 100 mi/h This speed is close to that of a tennis pro’s serve.8V = 1. We can find the tangential speed of the tip of the minute hand by using the distance it travels each revolution and the time it takes to complete each revolution. the ball can never move more than twice as fast as the racket. In a reference frame where the racket is unmoving. (c) From the result in part (b). moving away from the racket. Therefore.

81m/s g 72 • Picture the Problem The diagram shows the centripetal and tangential accelerations experienced by the test tube. (a) Express the acceleration of the centrifuge arm as a function of the length of its arm and the speed of the test tube: Use the distance the test tube travels every revolution to express its speed: Substitute to obtain: ac = v2 R v= 2πR T 4π 2 R T2 4π 2 (0. The tangential acceleration can be found from the change in the tangential speed as the centrifuge is spinning up.55 × 10− 7 2 9. We can find the tangential speed of the test tube by using the distance it travels each revolution and the time it takes to complete each revolution.52 × 10−6 m/s 2 = = 1.52 × 10− 6 m/s 2 2 (3600 s ) ac 1. We can use the definition of centripetal acceleration to express ac in terms of the speed of the test tube.160 Chapter 3 Substitute to obtain: 4π 2 R ac = T2 ac = Substitute numerical values and evaluate ac: Express the ratio of ac to g: 4π 2 (0. The centripetal acceleration increases as the tangential speed of the centrifuge increases.15 m ) ⎛ 1 min 60 s ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 15000 rev × min ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ac = ac = Substitute numerical values and evaluate ac: = 3.70 × 105 m/s 2 . The tangential acceleration will be zero when the centrifuge reaches its maximum speed.5 m ) = 1.

. we can calculate the accelerations they require from the speeds and radii associated with the two circular motions. and the force on the object due to the orbital motion of the earth about the sun.37 × 10−2 m/s 2 = 3.15 m ) ⎛ 1 min 60 s ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 15000 rev × min ⎟(75 s ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 3. r FR . Because these are centripetal forces.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 161 (b) Express the tangential acceleration in terms of the difference between the final and initial tangential speeds: Substitute numerical values and evaluate aT: 2πR −0 2πR vf − vi T = = at = ∆t ∆t T∆t at = 2π (0. r Fo .44 × 10−3 g Note that this effect gives rise to the wellknown latitude correction for g.14 m/s 2 73 • Picture the Problem The diagram includes a pictorial representation of the earth in its orbit about the sun and a force diagram showing the force on an object at the equator that is due to the earth’s rotation. Express the radial acceleration due to the rotation of the earth: Express the speed of the object on the equator in terms of the radius of the earth R and the period of the earth’s rotation TR: Substitute for vR in the expression for aR to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate aR: 2 vR R 2πR vR = TR aR = aR = 4π 2 R TR2 4π 2 6370 × 103 m ⎡ ⎛ 3600 s ⎞⎤ ⎢(24 h )⎜ ⎜ 1 h ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ aR = ( ) 2 = 3.

3 d × ⎟ d h ⎠ ⎝ = 2.84×108 m.3 d and that its mean distance from the earth is 3. From tables of astronomical data.95 × 10−3 m/s 2 = 6. we find that the sidereal period of the moon is 27.72 × 10 −3 m/s 2 = 2.5 × 1011 m ao = ( ) 2 ⎡ ⎛ 24 h ⎞ ⎛ 3600 s ⎞⎤ ⎢(365 d )⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ 1d ⎟ ⎜ 1 h ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎠⎝ ⎝ ⎣ = 5. Express the centripetal acceleration of the moon: Express the orbital speed of the moon: Substitute to obtain: ac = v= v2 r 2πr T 4π 2 r ac = 2 T ac = 4π 2 3. Its orbital speed can be expressed in terms of its distance from the earth and its orbital period.07 × 10−4 g 74 •• Picture the Problem We can relate the acceleration of the moon toward the earth to its orbital speed and distance from the earth.162 Chapter 3 Express the radial acceleration due to the orbital motion of the earth: Express the speed of the object on the equator in terms of the earth-sun distance r and the period of the earth’s motion about the sun To: Substitute for vo in the expression for ao to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ao: 2 vo ao = r vo = 2π r To ao = 4π 2 r To2 4π 2 1.84 × 108 m Substitute numerical values and evaluate ac: ( ) 2 24 h 3600 s ⎞ ⎛ × ⎜ 27.78 × 10 −4 g .

Express the number of revolutions per minute made by the ball in terms of the circumference c of the circle and the distance x the ball travels in time t: Relate the centripetal acceleration of the ball to its speed and the radius of its circular path: Solve for the speed of the ball: Express the distance x traveled in time t at speed v: Substitute to obtain: The distance traveled per revolution is the circumference c of the circle: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: n= x c (1) v2 ac = g = R v = Rg x = vt x = Rg t c = 2π R n= Rg t 1 = 2π R 2π 1 2π g t R Substitute numerical values and evaluate n: n= 9. we can use this relationship to express its speed.8 m Remarks: The ball will oscillate at the end of this string as a simple pendulum with a period equal to 1/n.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 163 Remarks: Note that ac radius of earth = (ac is just the acceleration g distance from earth to moon due to the earth’s gravity evaluated at the moon’s position). Projectile Motion and Projectile Range 76 • Picture the Problem Neglecting air resistance. We can use the horizontal motion to determine the time-of-flight and then use this information to determine the distance the ball drops. Because the ball’s centripetal acceleration is related to its speed. and the horizontal .81m/s 2 (60 s ) = 33. Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the point of release of the ball. This is Newton’s famous ″falling apple″ observation. 75 • Picture the Problem We can find the number of revolutions the ball makes in a given period of time from its speed and the radius of the circle along which it moves.4 min −1 0. the accelerations of the ball are constant and the horizontal and vertical motions of the ball are independent of each other. downward is the positive y direction.

473 s: ∆y = (9. we can use constant-acceleration equations to relate the impact speed of the projectile to its components. because ay = −g and ∆y = −h. in the absence of air resistance.81m/s )(0. .473 s (140 km/h )(1000 m/km) 1 2 Substitute to find the vertical displacement in 0. a = −g. Find the time of flight from vx = ∆x/∆t: ∆t = = (18. the maximum height achieved by a projectile depends on the vertical component of its initial velocity.164 Chapter 3 direction is the positive x direction.473 s ) 2 2 = 1.10 m 77 • Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. because v0y = 0 and ay = g. Because. and ∆y = h to obtain: v0y = v0 sinθ0 2 v 2 = v0 y + 2a y∆y y h= (v0 sin θ 0 )2 2g *78 •• Picture the Problem Choose the coordinate system shown to the right. Express the vertical displacement of the ball: ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 ∆y = 1 g (∆t ) 2 ∆x vx 2 2 or. The horizontal and vertical velocity components are: Using a constant-acceleration equation. The vertical component of the projectile’s initial velocity is: Use the constant-acceleration equation: Set vy = 0. the horizontal and vertical speeds are independent of each other.4 m )(3600 s/h ) = 0. relate the vertical v0x = vx= v0cosθ and v0y = v0sinθ 2 2 v y = v0 y + 2a y ∆y or.

2 m ) = 1. Then: Use the fact that the horizontal velocity is constant to determine v0: h = 1 gt 2 2 t= 2h g 2(11.51s ) = 33.51s 9. Using a constant-acceleration equation. relate the monkey’s fall distance to the fall time: Solve for the time for the monkey to fall to the ground: Substitute numerical values and evaluate t: Let θ be the angle the barrel of the dart gun makes with the horizontal.2 v0. and simplify to obtain: Substitute for v: Set v = 1.3° . h = 40 m and solve for v0: 2 v y = (v0 sin θ ) + 2 gh 2 2 2 2 v 2 = vx + v y = (v0 cos θ ) + v y 2 2 = v0 sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ + 2 gh ( ) = v + 2 gh 2 0 (1. What initial speed does the dart need in order to just reach the monkey’s line of fall? First.2 m/s Remarks: Note that v is independent of θ. we will calculate the fall time of the monkey.3° ⎟ ⎝ 50 m ⎠ t= θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ v0 = (50 m 1. 79 •• Picture the Problem Example 3-12 shows that the dart will hit the monkey unless the dart hits the ground before reaching the monkey’s line of fall.2v0 )2 = v02 + 2 gh v0 = 42. substitute for the components.81 m/s 2 ⎛ 10 m ⎞ ⎟ = 11. and then we will calculate the horizontal component of the dart’s velocity.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 165 component of the velocity to the vertical displacement of the projectile: Express the relationship between the magnitude of a velocity vector and its components.8 m/s vx = cos θ cos11. This will be more obvious once conservation of energy has been studied.

the motion of the ball is uniformly accelerated and its horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other. We can use the constant-acceleration equations to express the x and y coordinates of the projectile along its trajectory as functions of time. In the absence of air resistance. h) to obtain: Equate R and h and solve the resulting equation for θ : x = (v0 cos θ )t and y = (v0 sin θ )t − 1 gt 2 2 y = (tan θ )x − g x2 2 2v cos θ 2 0 (1) R= 2 2v0 sin θ cos θ g (v0 sin θ )2 h= 2g θ = tan −1 (4) = 76. Choose the coordinate system shown in the figure to the right and use constant-acceleration equations to relate the x and y components of the ball’s initial velocity. the projectile experiences constant acceleration in both the x and y directions.166 Chapter 3 80 •• Picture the Problem Choose the coordinate system shown in the figure to the right.0° Remarks: Note that this result is independent of v0. 0) and (R/2. Use the components of v0 to express θ in terms of v0x and v0y: θ = tan −1 v0 y v0 x (1) . 0) to obtain: Evaluate equation (1) at (R/2. The elimination of the parameter t will yield an expression for y as a function of x that we can evaluate at (R. Express the position coordinates of the projectile along its flight path in terms of the parameter t: Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: Evaluate equation (1) at (R. Solving these equations simultaneously will yield an expression for θ. 81 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. h).

express the vertical speed of the projectile as a function of its initial upward speed and time into the flight: Because vy = 0 halfway through the flight (at maximum elevation): Determine v0x: 2 2 v0 = v0 x + v0 y (2) vy= v0y+ ay t v0y = (9.0 m/s)2 = 20.2° ⎟ ⎝ 16.0 m/s v0x = v0 = ∆x 40 m = = 16.81 m/s2)(1..0 m/s ⎞ ⎟ = 36..4 m/s ∆t 2. The squares of the vertical and horizontal components of the object’s velocity are: The relationship between these variables is: Substitute and simplify to obtain: 2 2 v y = v0 sin 2 θ − 2 gh and 2 2 vx = v0 cos 2 θ 2 2 v 2 = vx + v y 2 v 2 = v0 − 2 gh Note that v is independent of θ . the acceleration of the ball is constant and we can use the constantacceleration equations to describe its motion. . vx.3 m/s Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate θ : θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 12.44 s Substitute in equation (2) and evaluate v0: (16. and vy are related through the Pythagorean Theorem.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 167 Use the Pythagorean relationship between the velocity and its components to express v0: Using a constant-acceleration equation.22 s) = 12.4 m/s)2 + (12. The figure shows the launch conditions and an appropriate coordinate system.4 m/s ⎠ *82 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of friction. The speeds v. as was to be shown.

168 Chapter 3 83 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. Write the equation 2 2 v y = v0 y + 2a∆y. The x component of the velocity remains constant. Square both sides and express this using the components of the velocity. 2. tan θ = v0 y v0 x (1) 2 ∆y = h ⇒ 0 = v0 y − 2 gh ∆y = h h 2 2 ⇒ v y = v0 y − 2 g 2 2 2 2 y (2) ⎛3⎞ 2 2 v + v = ⎜ ⎟ v0 x + v0 y ⎝4⎠ where we have used v x = v 0x . to solve for the ratio (v0y/v0x) of two of the unknowns. vy. the projectile experiences constant acceleration during its flight and we can use constant-acceleration equations to relate the speeds at half the maximum height and at the maximum height to the launch angle θ of the projectile. v0y/v0x. To solve for any of these unknowns. That is 2 because dividing both sides of each equation by v 0x gives three equations and three 2 unknowns vy/v0x. Solve equation 2 for gh and substitute in equation 1: Substitute for v y in equation 3: 2 v 2 0y = 2(v − v )⇒ v = 2 0y 2 h 2 y 2 2 v0 y 2 1 2 ⎛3⎞ 2 2 v + v0 y = ⎜ ⎟ v0 x + v0 y 2 4⎠ ⎝ 2 0x ( ) . and 3 constitute three equations and four unknowns v0x. The angle the initial velocity makes with the horizontal is related to the initial velocity components. the three equations are sufficient. v0y. and h/ v 0 x . However. we first need a fourth equation. for ∆y = h/2: We are given vy = (3/4)v0. for ∆y = h and vy = 0: Write the equation 2 2 v y = v0 y + 2a∆y. 2 0x ( ) (3) (Equations 1. and h.

i. relate the vertical displacement of the crate ∆y to the time of fall ∆t: Solve for ∆t: ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 g (∆t ) 2 or. in the absence of air resistance. is constant and equal to the speed of the cargo plane. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction the plane is moving is the positive x direction and downward is the positive y direction and apply the constant-acceleration equations to describe the crate’s displacements at any time during its flight.3° ⎟ ⎝ v0 x ⎠ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ( ) 84 • Picture the Problem The horizontal speed of the crate. it will be directly over the crate when it hits the ground.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 169 Divide both sides by v 0 x and solve for v0y/v0x to obtain: 2 1+ 2 2 1 v0 y 9 ⎛ v0 y ⎞ = ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ 2 2 v0 x 16 ⎜ v0 x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ and v0 y v0 x Using tan θ = v0y/v0x. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. 2 ∆y = 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 ∆t = 2∆y g 2(12 × 103 m ) = 49.5 s ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 12. ∆y = 12.5 s 9. because v0y = 0. solve for θ : = 7 ⎛ v0 y ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 7 = 69.81m/s 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: (b) The horizontal distance traveled in 49.5 s is: ∆t = R = ∆x = v0 x ∆t ⎛ 1h ⎞ = (900 km/h )⎜ ⎜ 3600 s ⎟(49.0 km . the distance to the aircraft will be the elevation of the aircraft.4 km (c) Because the velocity of the plane is constant..e.

81m/s2 ) sin 30° θ 0 = sin −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜v ⎟ 2 ⎝ 0 ⎠ 1 ⎛ Rg ⎞ θ 0 = sin −1 ⎢ = 13.0 m/s )2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) . (a) Using constant-acceleration equations.0 m/s (16. the accelerations of both Wiley Coyote and the Roadrunner are constant and we can use constant-acceleration equations to express their coordinates at any time during their leaps across the gorge.0° 1 2 ⎡ (14.81 m/s 2 ⎤ (18.5 m ) 9. express the y coordinate of the Roadrunner while it is in flight across the gorge: x = x0 + v0 x t + 1 a xt 2 2 or. because y0 = 0. solve equation (1) for his launch angle: Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ0: Rg = v0 = sin 2θ 0 = 18.170 Chapter 3 *85 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. express the x coordinate of the Roadrunner while it is in flight across the gorge: Using constant-acceleration equations. ay =−g and v0y = v0 sinθ0. y = (v0 sin θ 0 ) t − 1 gt 2 2 Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: y = (tan θ 0 )x − g x2 2v cos 2 θ 0 2 0 (1) Letting R represent the Roadrunner’s range and using the trigonometric identity sin2θ = 2sinθ cosθ. solve for and evaluate its launch speed: (b) Letting R represent Wiley’s range.5 m )(9. x = (v0 cos θ 0 ) t y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or. because x0 = 0. ax = 0 and v0x = v0 cosθ0. we can obtain an expression that relates their y coordinates to their x coordinates and that we can solve for their launch angles. By eliminating the parameter t between these equations.

29 km (b) The total flight time is: ∆t = tup + tdn = 2tup =2 v0 y g = 2(212 m/s ) = 43. we can use constantacceleration equations to express the ball’s position and velocity as functions of time and acceleration. In the absence of air resistance.81m/s 2 ) (212 m/s)2 = 2. in the absence of air resistance. The maximum height of the ball and its time-of-flight are related to the components of its launch velocity.and y-axes are as shown in the figure to the right. relate h to the initial and final speeds of the cannonball: 2 v 2 = v0 y + 2a y ∆y or.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 171 86 • Picture the Problem Because. the vertical and horizontal accelerations of the cannonball are constant. because v = 0 and ay = −g.2 s ) = 9.16 km 87 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the base of the tower and the x.2 s: x = v0 x ∆t = (v0 cosθ )∆t x = [(300 m/s )cos45°](43.81 m/s 2 (c) Express the x coordinate of the ball as a function of time: Evaluate x (= R) when ∆t = 43. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.2 s 9. . the horizontal speed of the stone will remain constant during its fall and a constant-acceleration equation can be used to determine the time of fall. The final velocity of the stone will be the vector sum of its x and y components. 2 0 = v0 y − 2 g∆y Find the vertical component of the firing speed: Solve for and evaluate h: v0y = v0sinθ = (300 m/s)sin 45° = 212 m/s 2 v0 y h= 2g = 2(9.

express the horizontal displacement of the projectile as a function of time: Using a constant-acceleration equation. ∆x = (v0 cosθ )∆t 2 ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 or.81 m/s2)(2. because v0y = v0sinθ and ay = −g.14 m / s ∆t 2. We can use constant-acceleration equations to express the horizontal and vertical displacements of the projectile in terms of its time-of-flight. the acceleration of the projectile is constant and its horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other.21 s) = −21.81m/s 2 vx = v0 x ≡ ∆x 18 m = = 8.7 m/s 2 2 v = vx + v y Express v in terms of its components: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= (8. express the vertical displacement of the stone (the height of the tower) as a function of the fall time: Solve for and evaluate the time of fall: Use the definition of average velocity to find the velocity with which the stone was thrown from the tower: (b) Find the y component of the stone’s velocity after 2.81 m/s 2 )(∆t ) 2 2 ∆t = 13.2 m/s 88 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.6 s . Using a constant-acceleration equation. express the vertical displacement of the projectile as a function of time: Substitute numerical values to obtain the quadratic equation: Solve for ∆t: ∆x = v0 x ∆t + 1 a x (∆t ) 2 or. 2 ∆y = (v0 cos θ )∆t − 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 − 200 m = (60m/s )(sin 60°)∆t − 1 (9.21s v y = v0 y − gt = 0 − (9.172 Chapter 3 (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. because v0y = 0 and a = −g.21 s: ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 ∆y = − 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 2 or. because v0x = v0cosθ and ax = 0.14 m/s)2 + (− 21. ∆t = − 2∆y 2(− 24 m ) = − = 2.7 m/s)2 = 23.21s g 9.

because v0y = 0 and ay = −g.acceleration equations to describe both the horizontal and vertical displacements of the cannonball. Choose the origin of the coordinate system to be at the base of the cliff and the axes directed as shown and use constant. the acceleration of the cannonball is constant and its horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other.4° ⎟ ⎝ vx ⎠ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ 90 • Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. Set ∆x = −∆y (R = −h) to obtain: Solve for vx: ∆x = vx ∆t = 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 vx = ∆x 1 = g∆t ∆t 2 Find the y component of the projectile as it hits the ground: Substitute and evaluate θ : v y = v0 y + a∆t = − g∆t = −2vx ⎛ vy ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 (− 2 ) = − 63.6 s) = 408 m θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ vy ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ vx ⎠ 2 ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 ∆y = − 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 or.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 173 Substitute for ∆t and evaluate the horizontal distance traveled by the projectile: 89 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. Use a coordinate system in which up is the positive y direction and horizontal is the positive x direction and use constant-acceleration equations to describe the horizontal and vertical displacements of the projectile as functions of the time into the flight. . Express the direction of the velocity vector when the projectile strikes the ground: Express the vertical displacement using a constant-acceleration equation: ∆x = (60 m/s)(cos60°)(13. the vertical and horizontal motions of the projectile experience constant accelerations and are independent of each other.

174 Chapter 3 (a) Use a constant-acceleration equation to express the horizontal displacement of the projectile as a function of time: Evaluate this expression when ∆t = 6 s: (b) Use a constant-acceleration equation to express the vertical displacement of the projectile as a function of time: Evaluate this expression when ∆t = 6 s: ∆x = v0 x ∆t = (v0 cosθ )∆t ∆x = (300 m/s )(cos60°)(6 s ) = 900 m ∆y = (v0 sin θ )∆t − 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 ∆y = (300 m/s )(sin60°)(6 s ) − 1 9. because v0x = v0cosθ and ax = 0. − 40 m = (42.81 m/s 2 (6 s ) = 1. and v0y = v0sinθ. ∆x = (v0 cosθ )∆t 2 ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 2 or. a = −g. Using a constant-acceleration equation. express the horizontal displacement of the cannonball as a function of time: Using a constant-acceleration equation. express the vertical displacement of the cannonball as a function of time: ∆x = v0 x ∆t + 1 a x (∆t ) 2 or. the acceleration of the projectile is constant and the horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other.73 s R = ∆x = (42.38 km 2 2 ( ) 91 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.73 s ) = 209 m . Choose the coordinate system shown in the figure with the origin at the base of the cliff and the axes oriented as shown and use constant-acceleration equations to find the range of the cannonball.2 m/s )(sin 30°)∆t − 1 9. because y = −40 m.2 m/s )(cos30°)(5.81 m/s 2 (∆t ) 2 ( ) 2 Solve the quadratic equation for ∆t: Calculate the range: ∆t = 5.

In (b). we’ll find the launch speed and angle as viewed by an observer who is at rest on the ground and then use these results to find the arrow’s range when the horse is moving at 12 m/s. Let the positive x direction be to the right and the positive y direction be upward. (a) Use constant-acceleration equations to express the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the arrow’s motion: Solve the x-component equation for time: Eliminate time from the y-component equation: R = ∆x = x − x0 = v0 xt and y = h + v0 y t + 1 (− g )t 2 2 where v0 x = v0 cosθ and v0 y = v0 sin θ t= R R = v0 x v0 cosθ 2 R 1 ⎛ R ⎞ ⎟ − g⎜ y = h + v0 y v0 x 2 ⎜ v0 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ and.25 m ) ⎞ ⎟ = 81.81 m/s 2 ) (45 m/s) (sin 10°) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (45 m/s)2 .Motion in One and Two Dimensions 175 *92 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at ground level.6 m sin 20°⎜1 + 1 + 2 2 ⎜ 2(9. at (R. Eliminating the parameter will leave us with a quadratic equation in R.81 m/s 2 )(2. We can apply constantacceleration equations to obtain parametric equations in time that relate the range to the initial horizontal speed and the height h to the initial upward speed. 0). g R2 0 = h + (tan θ )R − 2 2 2v0 cos θ R= 2 ⎛ 2 gh v0 sin 2θ ⎜1 + 1 + 2 2 ⎜ 2g v0 sin θ ⎝ Solve for the range to obtain: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate R: R= ⎛ 2(9. the solution to which will give us the range of the arrow.

3 m/s)2 + (7. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.8 m/s)2 Remarks: An alternative solution for part (b) is to solve for the range in the reference frame of the archer and then add to it the distance the frame travels.9°) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (56. Solve for and evaluate the flight time ∆t: ∆t = − 2∆y 2(− 1.3 m/s ⎟ = 7. relative to the earth.81 m/s 2 ) (56.81m/s θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ vy ⎞ ⎛ 7. because v0y = 0 and ay = −g. during the time of flight.8° ⎜ 2(9.81m/s 2 = 0.81 m/s ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ 56.8 m/s Substitute numerical values and evaluate R: 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜1 + 1 + 2(9.81 m/s)2 = 56.81 m/s )(2. 93 • Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.90° ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ vx ⎠ 2 2 v0 = v x + v y = (56.452 s . the horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other.3 m/s = (45 m/s )cos10° + 12 m/s v y = (45 m/s )sin10° = 7.176 Chapter 3 (b) Express the speed of the arrow in the horizontal direction: Express the vertical speed of the arrow: Express the angle of elevation from the perspective of someone on the ground: Express the arrow’s speed relative to the ground: v x = varrow + varcher = 56.00 m ) = − g 9.25 m ) ⎟ = 104 m R= sin15.8 m/s)2 (sin 2 7. Choose a coordinate system oriented as shown in the figure to the right and apply constant-acceleration equations to find the time-of-flight and the range of the spudplug. express the vertical displacement of the plug: ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 ∆y = − 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 2 or.

Evaluate dR/dθ0: 2 2 dR v0 d [sin (2θ 0 )] = 2v0 cos(2θ 0 ) = dθ 0 g dθ 0 g Set dR/dθ0= 0 for extrema and solve for θ0: 2 2v0 cos(2θ 0 ) = 0 g and θ 0 = 1 cos −1 0 = 45° 2 Determine whether 45° is a maximum or a minimum: d 2R 2 dθ 0 2 = − 4(v0 g )sin 2θ 0 [ ] θ0 =45° θ0 =45° ∴ R is a maximum at θ0 = 45° 95 • Picture the Problem We can use constantacceleration equations to express the x and y coordinates of a bullet in flight on the moon as a function of t.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 177 (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. x = (v0 cos θ 0 ) t .e.452 s ) = 22. express the horizontal displacement of the plug: Substitute numerical values and evaluate R: ∆x = v0 x ∆t + 1 a x (∆t ) 2 2 or. because ax = 0 and v0x = v0. a maximum or a minimum) of a function is determined by setting the appropriate derivative equal to zero. ax = 0 and v0x = v0cosθ0. Whether the extremum is a maximum or a minimum can be determined by evaluating the second derivative at the point determined by the first derivative. The necessity that the centripetal acceleration of an object in orbit at the surface of a body equal the acceleration due to gravity at the surface will allow us to determine the required muzzle velocity for orbital motion. express the x coordinate of a bullet in flight on the moon: <0 x = x0 + v0 xt + 1 a xt 2 2 or. ∆x = v0 ∆t ∆x = R = (50 m/s )(0. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.. Eliminating this parameter will yield an expression for y as a function of x that we can use to find the range of the bullet.6 m 94 •• Picture the Problem An extreme value (i. because x0 = 0.

because y0 = 0. Differentiate the range equation with respect to g: 2 ⎞ dR d ⎛ v0 v2 ⎜ sin 2θ 0 ⎟ = − 02 sin 2θ 0 = ⎟ dg dg ⎜ g g ⎝ ⎠ =− R g .70 km/s (1. y = (v0 sin θ 0 )t − 1 g moont 2 2 Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: y = (tan θ 0 )x − g moon x2 2 2v cos θ 0 2 0 When y = 0 and x = R: 0 = (tan θ 0 )R − and 2 v0 g moon R2 2 2v cos θ 0 2 0 R= Substitute numerical values and evaluate R: g moon sin 2θ 0 (900 m/s)2 sin90° = 4. ay = −gmoon and v0y = v0sinθ0.67 m/s 2 = 485 km This result is probably not very accurate because it is about 28% of the moon’s radius (1740 km). express the y coordinate of a bullet in flight on the moon: y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or.85 × 105 m R= 1. (b) Express the condition that the centripetal acceleration must satisfy for an object in orbit at the surface of the moon: Solve for and evaluate v: ac = g moon v2 = r v = g moon r = = 1.74 × 10 m ) 2 6 96 ••• Picture the Problem We can show that ∆R/R = –∆g/g by differentiating R with respect to g and then using a differential approximation. This being the case. we can no longer assume that the ground is ″flat″ because of the curvature of the moon.178 Chapter 3 Using a constant-acceleration equation.67 m/s )(1.

for small changes in the launch velocity ( v0 ≈ v0 ± ∆v0 ). Write the constant-acceleration equations for the horizontal and vertical parts of the projectile’s x = v0 xt and .. the fractional change in R is twice the fractional change in v0. This is as it must be because R is inversely proportional to g. Separate the variables to obtain: Remarks: This tells us that as launch velocity increases. We can apply constant-acceleration equations to obtain parametric equations in time that relate the range to the initial horizontal speed and the height h to the initial upward speed. Let the positive x direction be to the right and the positive y direction be upward. the range will increase twice as fast.e.e. Differentiate the range equation with respect to v0: 2 ⎞ 2v dR d ⎛ v0 ⎜ sin 2θ 0 ⎟ = 0 sin 2θ 0 = ⎜g ⎟ dv0 dv0 ⎝ g ⎠ =2 Approximate dR/dv0 by ∆R/∆v0: R v0 ∆R R =2 v0 ∆v0 ∆R ∆v =2 0 R v0 i. and vice versa. the fractional change in R is linearly opposite to the fractional change in g. the range will decrease. Separate the variables to obtain: Remarks: This tells us that as gravity increases. for small changes in gravity ( g ≈ g ± ∆g ).Motion in One and Two Dimensions 179 Approximate dR/dg by ∆R/∆g: ∆R R =− g ∆g ∆R ∆g =− R g i. Eliminating the parameter will leave us with a quadratic equation in R.. 97 ••• Picture the Problem We can show that ∆R/R = 2∆v0/ v0 by differentiating R with respect to v0 and then using a differential approximation. and vice versa. the solution to which is the result we are required to establish. 98 ••• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the base of the surface from which the projectile is launched.

We can use a constant-acceleration equation to express the maximum height reached by the projectile in terms of its launch angle and speed. because vy = 0 and v0y = v0sinθ. 2 v0 sin 2 θ = 2 gh h= v2 sin 2 θ 2g . solve for the range to obtain: t= y = h + (tan θ ) x − 0 = h + (tan θ )R − g R2 2 2v cos θ 2 0 2 ⎞ v0 ⎟ ⎟ 2 g sin 2θ 0 ⎠ ⎛ 2 gh R = ⎜1 + 1 + 2 2 ⎜ v0 sin θ 0 ⎝ *99 •• Picture the Problem We can use trigonometry to relate the maximum height of the projectile to its range and the sighting angle at maximum elevation and the range equation to express the range as a function of the launch speed and angle.180 Chapter 3 motion: y = h + v0 y t + 1 (− g ) t 2 2 where v0 x = v0 cosθ and v0 y = v0 sin θ x x = v0 x v0 cosθ g x2 2v cos 2 θ 2 0 Solve the x-component equation for time: Using the x-component equation. eliminate time from the y-component equation to obtain: When the projectile strikes the ground its coordinates are (R. 0) and our equation becomes: Using the plus sign in the quadratic formula to ensure a physically meaningful root (one that is positive). Combining these relationships will allow us to conclude that tan φ = 1 tan θ . relate the maximum height of a projectile to the vertical component of its launch speed: Solve for the maximum height h: tan φ = h R2 R= v2 v2 sin( 2θ ) = 2 sin θ cosθ g g 2 2 v y = v0 y − 2 gh or. 2 Referring to the figure. relate the maximum height of the projectile to its range and the sighting angle φ: Express the range of the rocket and use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ to rewrite the expression as: Using a constant-acceleration equation.

express the vertical displacement of the projectile as a function of its time of flight: Solve for v0y: ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 or.acceleration equations to express the x and y coordinates of the stone while it is in flight. v0 x = v x = ∆x 3000 m = = 150 m/s ∆t 20 s . so: *101 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. the horizontal and vertical displacements of the projectile are independent of each other and describable by constant-acceleration equations. 2 ∆y = v0 y ∆t − 1 g (∆t ) 2 ∆y + 1 g (∆t ) 2 ∆t 2 2 v0 y = Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0y: v0 y 450 m + 1 (9.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 181 Substitute for R and h and simplify to obtain: v2 2 sin 2 θ 2g tan φ = = 2 v 2 sin θ cos θ g 1 2 tan θ 100 • Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.81 m/s 2 )(20 s ) 2 = 20 s = 121 m/s 2 (b) The horizontal velocity remains constant. because ay = −g. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the throwing location and the axes oriented as shown in the figure and use constant. the acceleration of the stone is constant and the horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. Choose the origin at the firing location and with the coordinate axes as shown in the figure and use constant-acceleration equations to relate the vertical displacement to vertical component of the initial velocity and the horizontal velocity to the horizontal displacement and the time of flight.

express the relationship between θ. The equation of the cannonball’s trajectory is given in the text: Relate the x and y components of a point on the ground to the angle φ: Express the condition that the cannonball hits the ground: ⎛ ⎞ 2 g y ( x) = (tan θ 0 ) x − ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2v cos 2 θ ⎟ x ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ 0 y( x ) = (tan φ ) x (tan φ )x = (tan θ 0 ) x − ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ⎞ 2 g ⎟x 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2v cos θ 0 ⎠ 2 0 .182 Chapter 3 Using a constant-acceleration equation. v0x = v0 and ax = 0. y = 1 gt 2 2 tan θ = y x gt 2 g = t 2v0t 2v0 tan θ = t= 2v0 tan θ g y tan θ Referring to the diagram. We can relate the coordinates of the point of impact (x. express the x coordinate of the stone in flight: Using a constant-acceleration equation. express the y coordinate of the stone in flight: Referring to the diagram. y and x at impact: Substitute for y to obtain: x = L cos θ = gt 2 = L cosθ 2g Substitute for t and solve for L to obtain: L= 2 2v0 tan θ g cosθ 102 ••• Picture the Problem The equation of a particle’s trajectory is derived in the text so we’ll use it as our starting point in this derivation. L. v0y = 0 and ay = g. y) to the angle φ and use this relationship to eliminate y from the equation for the cannonball’s trajectory. because x0 = 0. y and x at impact: Substitute for x and y and solve for the time to impact: Solve for t to obtain: x = x0 + v0 xt + 1 axt 2 2 or. x = v0t y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or. We can then solve the resulting equation for x and relate the horizontal component of the point of impact to the cannonball’s range. because y0 = 0. express the relationship between θ.

Find the horizontal and vertical components of v0: Using a constant-acceleration equation. the acceleration of the rock is constant and the horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other.799v0 )∆t − 1 g (∆t ) 2 ∆t = 2 2 20 m 0.799v0 ∆x = 20 m = v0 x ∆t = (0.602v0 )∆t ∆y = −20 m = v0 y ∆t − 1 g (∆t ) 2 = (0. express the vertical displacement of the projectile: Solve the x-displacement equation for ∆t: Substitute ∆t into the expression for ∆y: Solve for v0 to obtain: Find ∆t at impact: v0x = v0 cos53° = 0.91 m/s 2 (∆t ) v0 = 10.602v0 − 20 m = (0.8 m/s)cos53° .602v0 v0y = v0 sin53° = 0. Choose the coordinate system shown in the figure with the origin at the base of the building and the axes oriented as shown and apply constant-acceleration equations to relate the horizontal and vertical displacements of the rock to its time of flight. express the horizontal displacement of the projectile: Using a constant-acceleration equation.799v 0 )∆t − 4.08 s (10.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 183 Solve for x to obtain: 2 2v0 cos 2 θ 0 (tan θ 0 − tan φ ) x= g Relate the range of the cannonball’s flight R to the horizontal distance x: Substitute to obtain: x = R cos φ 2 2v0 cos 2 θ 0 (tan θ 0 − tan φ ) g R cos φ = Solve for R: R= 2 2v0 cos 2 θ 0 (tan θ 0 − tan φ ) g cos φ 103 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.8 m/s ( ) 2 ∆t = 20 m = 3.

50 m/s) i + (−21. We can eliminate the parameter t between these equations and solve for the launch velocity of the pebble. except during its collision with the wall. the acceleration of the pebble is constant.184 Chapter 3 Using constant-acceleration equations. Using a constant-acceleration equation.2 m Hitting Targets and Related Problems 105 • Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.6 m/s) ˆ j 104 •• Picture the Problem The ball experiences constant acceleration. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the point of release. the positive x axis to the right.22 s ( ) 2 ∆x = (10 m/s) (2. and the positive y axis upward. the time of flight can be found using the horizontal component of the initial velocity. Choose the coordinate system shown in the diagram and use constantacceleration equations to express the coordinates of the pebble in terms of the time into its flight. find vy and vx at impact: vx = v0 x = 6.22 s) = 22. . We can determine the launch angle from the sighting information and. so we can use the constant-acceleration equations in the analysis of its motion. ∆y = −2 m: Solve for the time of flight: Find the horizontal distance traveled in this time: The distance from the wall is: ∆y = v0 y ∆t − 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 − 2 m = (10 m/s ) ∆t − 1 9.81 m/s 2 (∆t ) 2 t flight = ∆t = 2. express the vertical displacement of the ball as a function of ∆t: When the ball hits the ground.2 m ∆x – 4 m = 18.50 m/s and v y = v0 y − g∆t = −21 m/s Express the velocity at impact in vector form: r ˆ v = (6. once the range is known.

91° ⎟ ⎝ 40 m ⎠ x = x0 + v0 xt + 1 axt 2 2 or.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 185 Referring to the diagram. express θ in terms of the given distances: Use a constant-acceleration equation to express the horizontal position of the pebble as a function of time: θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 4.85 m ⎞ ⎟ = 6.6 m/s)cos6. because y0 = 0. v0y = v0sinθ. Express the horizontal displacement of the ball as a function of time: ∆x = v0 x ∆t + 1 a x (∆t ) 2 2 .91° *106 •• Picture the Problem The acceleration of the ball is constant (zero horizontally and – g vertically) and the vertical and horizontal components are independent of each other.992 s (40.6 m/s sin 13. and ay = −g. Choose the coordinate system shown in the figure and assume that v and t are unchanged by throwing the ball slightly downward.8° R = (v0 cos θ ) t flight tflight = 40 m = 0. v0x = v0cosθ.81 m/s 2 ) = 40. and ax = 0. y = 0 and x = R: 0 = (tan θ )R − Rg sin 2θ g R2 2v cos 2 θ 2 0 Solve for v0 to obtain: v0 = Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0: Substitute in equation (1) to relate R to tflight: Solve for and evaluate the time of flight: v0 = (40 m)(9. x = (v0 cosθ )t (1) Use a constant-acceleration equation to express the vertical position of the pebble as a function of time: y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or. y = (v0 sin θ )t − 1 gt 2 2 Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: y = (tan θ )x − g x2 2 2v cos θ 2 0 At impact. because x0 = 0.

4 m ∆x = = 0. ∆x = v0 x ∆t Solve for the time of flight if the ball were thrown horizontally: Using a constant-acceleration equation.92° Remarks: One can readily show that 2 2 vx + v y = 37. Using a constant-acceleration equation for the motion in the y direction.62 m in 0.26 m/s ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ 37.491s ⎛ vy ⎞ ⎛ − 1.62 m before it gets to home plate.81 m/s 2 (0. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the point of contact with the puck and the coordinate axes as shown in the figure and use constant-acceleration equations to relate the variables v0y.5 – 1. the time t to reach the wall.5 m/s ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ vx ⎠ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ = − 1. v0.62 m = −1.186 Chapter 3 or.18 m 2 2 ( ) y = (2. express v0y as a function of the puck’s displacement ∆y: 2 2 v y = v0 y + 2a y ∆y or. so the assumption that v and t are unchanged by throwing the ball downward at an angle of 1. because ax = 0.5 m/s 2 ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 ∆y = − 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 or.93° is justified. express the distance the ball would drop (vertical displacement) if it were thrown horizontally: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆y: The ball must drop an additional 0.26 m 0. because v0y = 0 and ay = −g.491 s ) = −1. 2 0 = v0 y − 2 g∆y .491 s: Find the angle with horizontal: ∆t = 18.18) m = 1. 107 •• Picture the Problem The acceleration of the puck is constant (zero horizontally and –g vertically) and the vertical and horizontal components are independent of each other. and θ0.32 m above ground vy = − 0. ∆y = − 1 9.491 s v0 x 37.5 m/s to within 1%. v0x. Calculate the initial downward speed the ball must have to drop 0. because vy= 0 and ay = −g.

9 m/s ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ v0 x ⎠ = 25.41 m/s Find t from the initial velocity in the y direction: Use the definition of average velocity to find v0x: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0: t= v0 y g = 7. x = (v0 cos θ ) t y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or.41 m/s ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ 15.5 m/s Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ v0 y ⎞ ⎛ 7.756 s t 2 2 v0 = v0 x + v0 y = (15.41m/s )2 = 17.0° 108 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 187 Solve for and evaluate v0y: v0 y = 2 g∆y = 2(2.9 m/s )2 + (7. and ax = 0. v0x = v0cosθ. because x0 = 0.756 s 9. v0y = v0sinθ.41 m/s = 0. because y0 = 0.9 m/s 0. Eliminating the parameter t between these equations will yield y as a function of x … an equation we can use to decide whether he can jump the creek bed as well as to find the minimum speed required to make the jump.81m/s 2 ) = 7. the acceleration of Carlos and his bike is constant and we can use constant-acceleration equations to express his x and y coordinates as functions of time. (a) Use a constant-acceleration equation to express Carlos’ horizontal position as a function of time: Use a constant-acceleration equation to express Carlos’ vertical position as a function of time: x = x0 + v0 xt + 1 axt 2 2 or.81 m/s 2 v0 x = vx = ∆x 12. y = (v0 sin θ )t − 1 gt 2 2 .80 m )(9. and ay = −g.0 m = = 15.

1m/s) sin 20° v0 sin (2θ 0 ) = 9. and ax = 0. because y0 = 0. and ay = −g. min = Rg sin (2θ 0 ) v0. x = (v0 cosθ )t Use a constant-acceleration equation to express the bullet’s vertical position as a function of time: y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or.81 m/s 2 g = 4.min: v0. because x0 = 0. v0x = v0cosθ.min = (7m )(9.2m/s = 51.81m/s2 ) sin20° = 14. the bullet experiences constant acceleration along its parabolic trajectory. v0y = v0sinθ. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the end of the barrel and the coordinate axes oriented as shown in the figure and use constant-acceleration equations to express the x and y coordinates of the bullet as functions of time along its flight path.0 km/h 109 ••• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.30 m He should apply the brakes! (b) Solve the equation we used in the previous step for v0. Use a constant-acceleration equation to express the bullet’s horizontal position as a function of time: x = x0 + v0 xt + 1 axt 2 2 or.188 Chapter 3 Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: y = (tan θ )x − g x2 2v cos 2 θ 2 0 Substitute y = 0 and x = R to obtain: 0 = (tan θ )R − g R2 2 2v cos θ 2 0 2 Solve for and evaluate R: R= 2 (11. y = (v0 sin θ )t − 1 gt 2 2 Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: y = (tan θ )x − g x2 2 2v cos θ 2 0 . evaluate v0.min: Letting R = 7 m.

500 0. (a) The table to the right r summarizes the components of A r and B .50° ⎜S ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ . Vector r A r B Vector x component (m) 0. The magnitude and direction of a vector can be found from its components.207 (b) The table to the right shows the r components of S .450° Note: A second value for θ0. relate h to θ0 and solve for and evaluate h: tan θ 0 = and h 100 m h = (100 m ) tan (0. r A r B r S Determine the magnitude and r direction of S from its components: 2 S = S x2 + S y = 1.866 x component (m) 0.59 m r and.57 y component (m) 0.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 189 Let y = 0 when x = R to obtain: 0 = (tan θ )R − g R2 2v cos 2 θ 2 0 Solve for the angle above the horizontal that the rifle must be fired to hit the target: Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ0: θ 0 = 1 sin −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2 ⎜v ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎡ (100 m ) 9.450°) = 0.785 m General Problems 110 • Picture the Problem The sum and difference of two vectors can be found from the components of the two vectors.6° is ⎛ Rg ⎞ θ 0 = 1 sin −1 ⎢ 2 ( ) physically unreasonable. Referring to the diagram.707 0.81 m/s 2 ⎤ (250 m/s)2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 0. 89.500 y component (m) 0.866 1.707 −0.707 0.707 −0. because S is in the 1st ⎛S ⎞ θ S = tan −1 ⎜ y ⎟ = 7.

707 −0. 113 • Picture the Problem We can plot the path of the particle by substituting values for t and r evaluating rx and ry coordinates of r .500 1.190 Chapter 3 (c) The table to the right shows the components of D : r Vector r A r B r D Determine the magnitude and r direction of D from its components: x component (m) 0.5° ⎜D ⎟ ⎝ x⎠ *111 • Picture the Problem A vector quantity can be resolved into its components relative to any coordinate system. because D is in the 2nd quadrant. cosθ A = 1 for the cosθ B condition to be satisfied.707 0.21 2 D = Dx2 + D y = 1. The velocity vector is the time derivative of the position vector. ∴ A/B = Ax/Bx if and only if A and B are parallel (θA = θB) or on opposite sides of the x-axis (θA = –θB).22 m r and. co-planar vectors that (as drawn) do not satisfy the condition that A/B = Ax/Bx. In this example.866 −0. The x and y components of g are related to g through the sine and cosine functions: r gx = gsin30° = 4.91 m/s 2 and gy = gcos30° = 8. The path is shown in the following graph: r r . the axes are orthogonal and the components of the vector can be found using trigonometric functions.159 y component (m) 0. Because Ax = A cos θ A and Bx = B cosθ B .50 m/s 2 112 • Picture the Problem The figure shows two arbitrary. y) that lie on the path of the particle. ⎛D ⎞ θ D = tan −1 ⎜ y ⎟ = 97. (a) We can assign values to t in the parametric equations x = (5 m/s)t and y = (10 m/s)t to obtain ordered pairs (x.

y = h + (v0 sin θ ) t − 1 gt 2 2 . because x0 = 0. and ax = 0. v0x = v0cosθ0. Choose a coordinate system with the origin and coordinate axes as shown in the figure and use constant-acceleration equations to describe the x and y coordinates of the hammer along its trajectory.2 m/s x = x0 + v0 xt + 1 axt 2 2 or. and ay = −g. the hammer experiences constant acceleration as it falls. because y0 = h. x = (v0 cosθ 0 )t Using a constant-acceleration equation.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 191 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 x (m) 8 10 12 y (m) (b) Evaluate dr dt : r r r dr d (5 m/s)t iˆ + (10m/s)t ˆ v= j = dt dt ˆ j = (5 m/s ) i + (10m/s ) ˆ [ ] Use its components to find the r magnitude of v : 114 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. v0y = v0sinθ. Using a constant-acceleration equation. We’ll use the equation describing the vertical motion to find the time of flight of the hammer and the equation describing the horizontal motion to determine its range. express the y coordinate of the hammer as a function of time: y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or. express the x coordinate of the hammer as a function of time: 2 2 v = v x + v y = 11.

81 m/s 2 ) t 2 2 t = 1.acceleration equations to express the x and y coordinates of Zacchini’s motion as functions of time. Eliminating the parameter t between these equations will leave us with an equation we can solve forθ.192 Chapter 3 Substitute numerical values to obtain: Substitute the conditions that exist when the hammer hits the ground: Solve for the time of fall to obtain: Use the x-coordinate equation to find the horizontal distance traveled by the hammer in 1. x = (v0 cos θ ) t Use a constant-acceleration equation to express Zacchini’s vertical position as a function of time: y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or.29 m 115 •• Picture the Problem We’ll model Zacchini’s flight as though there is no air resistance and. v0x = v0cosθ. because y0 = 0. because x0 = 0. Because the maximum height along a parabolic trajectory occurs (assuming equal launch and landing elevations) occurs at half range. y = (v0 sin θ ) t − 1 gt 2 2 y = (tan θ )x − Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: g x2 2v cos 2 θ 2 0 Use Zacchini’s coordinates when he lands in a safety net to obtain: 0 = (tan θ )R − g R2 2 2v cos θ 2 0 . and ax = 0.24 s R = (4 m/s )(cos30°)(1. hence.24 s ) = 4.81 m/s 2 t 2 2 ( ) 0 = 10 m − (4 m/s ) sin 30° t − 1 (9. the acceleration is constant. we can use this same expression for y as a function of x to find h.24 s: y = 10 m + (4 m/s )(sin 30°) t − 1 9. Then we can use constant. and ay = −g. Use a constant-acceleration equation to express Zacchini’s horizontal position as a function of time: x = x0 + v0 xt + 1 axt 2 2 or. v0y = v0sinθ.

(a) The average velocity is given by: 2 r r r r ∆r r2 − r1 = v av = ∆t ∆t ˆ + (−2.81 m/s 2 ⎤ ⎥ = 31.5 m/s 2 ) ˆ j Substitute numerical values to obtain: (b) The acceleration of the particle is given by: (c) The velocity of the particle as a function of time is: r r r ˆ v (t ) = v1 + at = [(1 m/s) + (2 m/s 2 )t ] i + [(1 m/s) + (−3.5 m/s 2 )t ] ˆ j (d) Express the position vector as a function of time: r r r r r (t ) = r1 + v1t + 1 at 2 2 .Motion in One and Two Dimensions 193 Solve for his launch angle θ : θ = 1 sin −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2 ⎜v ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ θ = 1 sin −1 ⎢ 2 ⎡ (53 m ) 9. we can use the constantacceleration equations in vector form and the definitions of average velocity and average (instantaneous) acceleration to solve this problem.3° 2 ⎣ (24.06 m 2 2 2 2(24.5 m/s) ˆ = (3 m/s)i j r r r v1 + v 2 vav = 2 and The average velocity can also be expressed as: r r r v1 = 2vav − v 2 r ˆ v1 = (1 m/s) i + (1 m/s) ˆ j r r r r ∆v v 2 − v1 = a= ∆t ∆t ˆ = (2 m/s 2 ) i + (−3.3°) − ⎜ ⎟ = 8.81 m/s 2 ⎛ 53 m ⎞ h = (tan 31.2 m/s ) cos 31.3° ⎝ 2 ⎠ 116 •• Picture the Problem Because the acceleration is constant.2 m/s ) ⎦ 2 ⎛ Rg ⎞ Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : Use the fact that his maximum height was attained when he was halfway through his flight to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate h: ( ) R g ⎛R⎞ h = (tan θ ) − 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 2v0 cos θ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 53 m 9.

y) be a point on the path of the ball. x = v0t y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or. because y0 = 0.10 m is the 4th step. and ay = g.0° ⎟ ⎝ 0.10 m 9. with respect to the horizontal. the x direction to the right.194 Chapter 3 Substitute numerical values and evaluate r (t ) : r r ˆ r (t ) = [(4 m) + (1 m/s)t + (1 m/s 2 )t 2 ] i + [(3 m) + (1 m/s)t + − 1. The angle of the steps. the steel ball will experience constant acceleration. and the y direction downward. find an expression for the time of flight of the ball. Choose a coordinate system with its origin at the initial position of the ball. . we can use constant-acceleration equations to express both x and y as functions of time and. Knowing its time of flight. we can find its range and identify the step it strikes first. because x0 = 0 and ay = 0.3 m ⎠ x = x0 + v0t + 1 a y t 2 2 or. v0y = 0. using the geometry of the staircase. In this coordinate system y0 = 0 and a = g.81 m/s 2 2 The first step with x > 1. is: Using a constant-acceleration equation.18 m ⎞ ⎟ = 31. express the y coordinate of the steel ball in its flight: ( ) θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 0. y = 1 gt 2 2 y gt = tan θ = x 2v0 t= The equation of the dashed line in the figure is: Solve for the flight time: 2v0 tan θ g 2v 2 y = 0 tan θ tan θ g Find the x coordinate of the landing position: Substitute the angle determined in the first step: x= x= 2(3 m/s ) tan31° = 1. Letting (x. express the x coordinate of the steel ball in its flight: Using a constant-acceleration equation.75 m/s 2 t 2 ] ˆ j *117 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance.

y = x0 + (v0 sin θ )t − 1 gt 2 (2) 2 Eliminate the parameter t to obtain: y = x0 + (tan θ )x − g x2 2 2v cos θ 2 0 For the throw while standing on level ground we have: 0 = (tan θ )x0 − and g 2 x0 2v cos 2 θ 2 0 x0 = Solve for v0: 2 v0 v2 v2 sin 2θ = 0 sin 2(45°) = 0 g g g v0 = gx0 At impact equation (2) becomes: 0 = x0 + ( 2 gx0 sin θ tflight − 1 gtflight 2 ) Solve for the time of flight: tflight = x0 sin θ + sin 2 θ + 2 g ( ) . v0y = v0sinθ. x = (v0 cosθ )t (1) Use a constant-acceleration equation to express the ball’s vertical position as a function of time: y = y0 + v0 y t + 1 a y t 2 2 or. and ay = −g. and ax = 0. Use a constant-acceleration equation to express the ball’s horizontal position as a function of time: x = x0 + v0 xt + 1 axt 2 2 or. the acceleration of the ball is constant once it has left your hand and we can use constant-acceleration equations to express the x and y coordinates of the ball. Elimination of the parameter t will yield an equation from which we can determine v0. v0x = v0cosθ. v0. because y0 = x0.θ and the time of flight. because x0 = 0. We can then use the y equation to express the time of flight of the ball and the x equation to express its range in terms of x0.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 195 118 •• Picture the Problem Ignoring the influence of air resistance.

73 x0 and x(45°) = 1. x tanθ − h > 0.196 Chapter 3 Substitute in equation (1) to express the range of the ball when thrown from an elevation x0 at an angle θ with the horizontal: R= ( =( gx0 cosθ tflight gx0 0 ) x (sin θ + cosθ ) g sin 2 θ + 2 ) = x0 cosθ sin θ + sin 2 θ + 2 ( ) Substitute θ = 0°.. 30°. ⎛ ⎞ g y ( x ) = (tanθ ) x − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ x 2 ⎜ 2v cos θ ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ vmin > x cosθ g 2( x tan θ − h) vmin > 26.e. Solving for v0. h < y(x).0 m/s or 58. i. we find: (b) Use the values given to obtain: (c) In order for our expression for vmin to be real valued. and 45°: x(0°) = 1. . No matter what the initial speed of the bike. With this choice of coordinate system we can relate the x and y coordinates of the motorcycle (which we’re treating as a particle) using Equation 3-21.62 x0 119 ••• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system with its origin at the point where the motorcycle becomes airborne and with the positive x direction to the right and the positive y direction upward.41x0 x(30°) = 1.0 mph ∴ hmax < x tanθ The interpretation is that the bike "falls away" from traveling on a straight-line path due to the free-fall acceleration downwards. to predict values for vmin that are physically meaningful. (a) The path of the motorcycle is given by: For the jump to be successful. it must fall a little bit before reaching the other side of the pit.

Let v BW be the velocity of the boat relative to the water.4° to obtain: vWS 1.41 km ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ Because the boat has drifted south.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 197 120 ••• Picture the Problem Let the origin be at the position of the boat when it was engulfed by the fog. r respectively.4° or 241.4°) = 0.41 km/h − vx 3 = = cos θ cos(241.982 km/h at θ = 241.4° − 1. Take the x and y directions to be east and north. r and v WS be the velocity of the water with respect to the shore.6 km ) t − 4 km} ˆ j Find the coordinates of the boat at t = 3 h: rx = [(10 km/h ) cos135° + vWS cos θ ](3 h ) and ry = [(10 km/h )sin 135° + vWS sin θ ](3 h ) Simplify the expressions involving rx and ry and equate these simplified expressions to the x and y components of the position vector of the boat: Divide the second of these equations by the first to obtain: 3vWS cosθ = −1. use θ = 241. Then r r r r v BS = v BW + v WS . (a) Find the position vector for the boat at t = 3 h: r ˆ rboat = {(32 km )(cos 135°)t}i + {(32 km )(sin135°) t − 4 km} ˆ j ˆ = {(− 22.41 km/h and 3vWS sinθ = −2.586 km − 1. v BS be the velocity of the boat relative to the shore.586 km/h tan θ = or − 2.4° .6 km )t}i + {(22. r θ is the angle of v WS with respect to the x (east) direction.41 km ⎛ − 2.586 km ⎞ ⎟ = 61.

3°) vBS.6° or 140.982 km/h) sin(241.y = (10 km/h) sinφ + (0. which was derived from the constant-acceleration equations.y sinφ + cosφ = 0.84 km/h and vBS = vBx /cos135° = 9.x = (10 km/h) cosφ + (0.133.3°) vBS. vBS. square both sides of the equation.0177 φ = 129. Express the range of the projectile as a function of its initial speed and angle of launch: Let θ0= 45° ± θ: R= 2 v0 sin 2θ 0 g 2 v0 sin (90° ± 2θ ) g 2 v0 cos(± 2θ ) g R= = Because cos(–θ) = cos(+θ) (the cosine function is an even function): R(45° + θ ) = R(45° − θ ) . the boat must head more northerly than 135°: (c) Find vBS: vBS.982 km/h) cos(241.x = –6.6°. and simplify the expression to obtain the equations: Solve for φ: Because the current pushes south. the correct heading is 39.31 h = 3 h 18 min To find the time to travel 32 km.68 km/h t = (32 km)/(9.68 km/h) = 3. We can use the equation giving the range of a projectile for equal initial and final elevations to evaluate the ranges of launches that exceed or fall short of 45° by the same amount. sin2φ + cos2φ + 2 sinφ cosφ = 0.0177.4° Using 129. divide the distance by the boat’s actual speed: *121 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. and 1 + sin(2φ) = 0.x = –vBS. express the components of the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore: For the boat to travel northwest: Substitute the velocity components. the acceleration of the projectile is constant and the equation of a projectile for equal initial and final elevations. is applicable.6° west of north .198 Chapter 3 (b) Letting φ be the angle between east and the proper heading for the boat.

Independently of whether a ball is thrown upward at the angle α or downward at β.Motion in One and Two Dimensions 199 122 •• Picture the Problem In the absence of air resistance. Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the base of the cliff and the coordinate axes oriented as shown and use constant-acceleration equations to relate the x and y components of the ball’s speed. the acceleration of both balls is that due to gravity and the horizontal and vertical motions are independent of each other. the vertical motion is described by: The horizontal component of the motion is given by: Find v at impact from its components: 2 2 v y = v0 y + 2a∆y 2 = v0 y − 2 gh vx = v0x 2 2 2 2 v = v x + v y = v0 x + v0 y − 2 gh = 2 v0 − 2 gh .

200 Chapter 3 .

Yes. and with any velocity relative to the initial frame. You are in a noninertial frame when the driver of the car in which you are riding steps on the gas and you are pushed back into your seat. Because the object is moving at constant velocity. its acceleration is zero. During the period in which the force is acting. The only conclusion one can draw is that the net force acting on the object is zero. its velocity is always changing. 2 •• Determine the Concept A reference frame in which the law of inertia holds is called an inertial reference frame. the velocity can only be obtained by integrating the acceleration. in the direction of the net force. According to Newton’s 1st and 2nd laws. Thus. the object must have an acceleration relative to the inertial frame of reference. Yes. If there is ″only a single nonzero force. *4 • Determine the Concept An object accelerates when a net force acts on it.″ then this force is the net force. but its velocity cannot remain zero because it must continue to accelerate.. with constant velocity) relative to the reference frame. (c ) is correct. 201 . the net force acting on it is zero. If the net force acting on an object is zero. is inertial. The fact that an object is accelerating tells us nothing about its velocity other than that it is always changing. relative to any inertial reference frame. In an inertial frame. 5 • Determine the Concept No. 6 • Determine the Concept An object in an inertial reference frame accelerates if there is a net force acting on it. A reference frame with acceleration a relative to the initial frame. Consider sitting at rest in an accelerating train or plane.e. Predicting the direction of the subsequent motion correctly requires knowledge of the initial velocity as well as the acceleration. a dropped ball lands at your feet. While the acceleration can be obtained from the net force through Newton’s 2nd law. If an object with no net force acting on it is at rest or is moving with a constant speed in a straight line (i. then the reference frame is an inertial reference frame. an object must accelerate.Chapter 4 Newton’s Laws Conceptual Problems *1 •• Determine the Concept A reference frame in which the law of inertia holds is called an inertial reference frame. 3 • Determine the Concept No. the object may be momentarily at rest. The train or plane is not an inertial reference frame even though you are at rest relative to it. the object’s velocity may be momentarily zero.

Newton’s 3rd law states that objects exert equal and opposite forces on each other. The scale reading (the force the scale exerts on you) is your apparent weight. . That is. and so each will feel as if he or she is standing still. each will experience no net force acting on them. Therefore. wapp . 10 •• Determine the Concept Newton's 2nd law tells us that forces produce changes in the velocity of a body. she will experience an additional acceleration relative to her space vehicle that is proportional to the net force required producing that acceleration and inversely proportional to her mass. r Choose the coordinate system shown in the free-body diagram and apply ∑ F = ma r ∑F or y = wapp − mg = ma y r to the scale: wapp = mg + ma y So. Note that if the gravitational field is zero then the gravitational force is also zero. each traveling at a constant velocity. when the surface on which you are standing has an acceleration a such that a y is positive: a y > 0 . 11 • Determine the Concept Neither block is accelerating so the net force on each block is zero. your apparent weight would be greater than your true weight when observed from a reference frame that is accelerating upward. and the force the scale exerts on you. *8 • Determine the Concept If there is a force on her in addition to the gravitational force. is on a platform accelerating upward with an acceleration a. Imagine yourself standing on a scale that. She could do an experiment in which she uses her legs to push off from the wall of her space vehicle and measures her acceleration and the force exerted by the wall. She could calculate her mass from the ratio of the force exerted by the wall to the acceleration it produced. in turn. The freebody diagram shows the force the r gravitational field exerts on you. the mass of the object would not change and wgrav = mg local . If two observers pass each other. *9 • Determine the Concept One’s apparent weight is the reading of a scale in one’s reference frame.202 Chapter 4 7 • Determine the Concept The mass of an object is an intrinsic property of the object whereas the weight of an object depends directly on the local gravitational field. mg.

= (m1 + m2 )g FnT2 = FnT2 + m2 g = m1 g + m2 g and the normal force that the table exerts on body 2 is FnT2 = (m1 + m 2 )g From Newton’s 3rd law of motion we know that the force that block 2 exerts on the table is equal to. because a2 = 0. (c) and (d) Draw the free-body diagram for the forces acting on block 2: r r Fn21 = − Fn12 ⇒ Fn12 = m1 g Apply ∑ F = ma to block 2: r r ∑F 2y = FnT2 − Fn12 − m2 g = m2 a2 or. the force that block 2 exerts on block 1.Newton’s Laws 203 (a) and (b) Draw the free-body diagram for the forces acting on the block of mass m1: Apply ∑ F = ma to the block 1: r r ∑F y = Fn21 − m1 g = m1a1 or. Fn21 − m1 g = 0 Fn21 = m1 g Therefore. because a1 = 0. r r FnT2 = − Fn2T ⇒ Fn2T = (m1 + m2 ) g . but opposite in direction. the force that the table exerts on block 2. but opposite in direction. the magnitude of the force that block 2 exerts on block 1 is given by: From Newton’s 3rd law of motion we know that the force that block 1 exerts on block 2 is equal to.

*17 • Determine the Concept The force diagrams will need to include the ceiling. and earth if we are to show all of the reaction forces as well as the forces acting on the object. It is important to remember that the action and reaction forces act on different bodies. 15 • Determine the Concept We know from Newton’s 3rd law of motion that the reaction to the force that the bat exerts on the ball is the force the ball exerts on the bat and is equal in magnitude but oppositely directed.5-kg object are its weight W. object. These forces are equal in magnitude. and the tension T1. string. act in opposite directions. The bird’s weight is a gravitational field force exerted by the earth on the bird. Its reaction force is the gravitational force the bird exerts on the earth. The action-reaction pair consists of the force with which the bat hits the ball and the force the ball exerts on the bat. 16 • Determine the Concept The statement of Newton’s 3rd law given in the problem is not complete. (a) The forces acting on the 2. these are action-reaction forces and therefore must be equal in magnitude.204 Chapter 4 *12 • (a) True. According to the 3rd law description of the interaction of two objects. By definition. The reaction forces are W ' acting on the earth and r r r r T1 ' acting on the string. 14 • Determine the Concept According to Newton’s 3rd law the reaction force to a force exerted by object A on object B is the force exerted by object B on object A. The reaction force does not cancel out because it does not act on the same body as the external force. (b) is correct. action-reaction force pairs cannot act on the same object. . Action equals reaction independent of any motion of the two objects. 13 • Determine the Concept Newton’s 3rd law of motion describes the interaction between the man and his less massive son. (c) is correct. (b) False. (b) is correct. in the string.

the direction of the gravitational force acting on it is downward. While the net force acting on it is zero (it is not accelerating). 19 • Determine the Concept In considering these statements. (a) True. the weight of the block acts directly downward. the weight of the object. Consider an object moving with constant velocity on a frictionless horizontal surface. gravitational and normal forces are acting on it. the force the incline exerts on the block must be normal to the surface. one needs to decide whether they are consistent with Newton’s laws of motion. (d) False. the force exerted by the ceiling. The magnitude of the normal force is less than that of the weight because it supports only a portion of the weight. and F. the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by her body on the earth is equal and opposite to the force exerted by the earth on her. r r r T1 acting on the string and F ' acting 18 • Determine the Concept Identify the objects in the block’s environment that are exerting forces on the block and then decide in what directions those forces must be acting if the block is sliding down the inclined plane. A good strategy is to try to think of a counterexample that would render the statement false. hence. The second object capable of exerting a force on the block is the earth and its force. 20 • Determine the Concept In considering these alternatives. The forces shown in FBD (c) satisfy these conditions. The reaction forces are on the ceiling. the net force acting on it must be zero and. (c) False. While it is still rising. If there are no forces acting on an object. (b) False. (a ) is correct. one needs to decide which alternatives are consistent with Newton’s 3rd law of motion. . The mass of an object is an intrinsic property that is independent of its location (the gravitational field in which it happens to be situated). the acceleration must be zero. According to Newton’s 3rd law. Consider an object that has been thrown vertically upward. Because the incline is frictionless.Newton’s Laws 205 (b) The forces acting on the string are its weight.

the magnitudes of T1 and T2 are the same. is the person’s apparent weight. . the velocity of the elevator has no effect on the person' s apparent weight. use Newton’s 2nd law to determine the force exerted by the seat belt.206 Chapter 4 *21 • Determine the Concept In considering these statements. wapp . the tension in the line must have a vertical component equal to the towel’s weight. In the absence of a net force. one needs to decide whether they are consistent with Newton’s laws of motion. (d ) is correct. 23 • Determine the Concept The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on a person in a descending elevator. The upward force exerted by the scale on the r person. an object moves with constant velocity. 22 • Determine the Concept Draw the freebody diagram for the towel. To support the towel. r r No. The force the seat belt exerts on the driver is given by: Fnet = ma. Because the towel is hung at the center of the line. Thus θ > 0. Estimation and Approximation 24 •• Picture the Problem Assuming a stopping distance of 25 m and a mass of 80 kg. Remarks: Note that a nonconstant velocity will alter the apparent weight. where m is the mass of the driver. Apply ∑F y = ma y to the person and solve for wapp: wapp – mg = may or wapp = mg + may = m(g + ay) Because wapp is independent of v.

5 m/s 2 Substitute for a and evaluate Fnet: Fnet = (80 kg ) − 12.5 m/s 2 = − 1.57° = 782 N Substitute to determine Fn: Apply ∑F x = ma x to you and your bicycle and solve for Ft.81 m/s2) cos4. because there is no acceleration in the y direction.Newton’s Laws 207 Using a constant-acceleration equation. ∴ Fn = mg cosθ tanθ = 0. . relate the velocity of the car to its stopping distance and acceleration: Solve for a: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x or. 2 − v0 = 2a∆x 2 − v0 2∆x 2 a= Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: ⎛ km 1h 103 m ⎞ ⎜ 90 ⎟ × × ⎜ h 3600 s km ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ a=− 2(25 m ) = −12. Assume a combined mass (you plus your bicycle) of 80 kg. The magnitude of the normal force acting on you and your bicycle is equal to the component of your weight in the y direction and the magnitude of the tangential force is the x component of your weight. *25 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on you and your bicycle as you are either ascending or descending the grade. because v = 0.08 and θ = tan−1(0. because there is no acceleration in the x direction. (a) Apply ∑F y = ma y to you and your bicycle and solve for Fn: Determine θ from the information concerning the grade: Fn – mg cosθ = 0.08) = 4.57° Fn = (80 kg)(9. the tangential force exerted by the road on the wheels: Ft – mg sinθ = 0.00 kN ( ) Fnet is negative because it is opposite the direction of motion.

81 m/s2) sin4. The mass of the particle and its acceleration are related to the net force through Newton’s second law of motion.57° = 62.6 N (b) Because there is no acceleration.00 kg (25. Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the mass of the particle to the net force acting on it and its acceleration: Because the force is constant.208 Chapter 4 Evaluate Ft: Ft = (80 kg)(9. (a) Use Newton’s 2nd law of motion to calculate the acceleration of the object: a= Fnet 2 F0 = m m = 2 3 m/s 2 = 6.5 m) (15. and Force 26 • Picture the Problem The acceleration of the particle can be found from the stopping distance by using a constant-acceleration equation.0 N) = 3. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction the particle is moving is the v r positive x direction and apply Fnet = ma. use a constant-acceleration equation with vx = 0 to determine a: m= Fnet ax 2 2 vx = v0 x + 2ax ∆x and 2 − v0 x ax = 2∆x Substitute to obtain: m= 2∆xFnet 2 v0 x 2(62. Inertia. 27 • Picture the Problem The acceleration of the object is related to its mass and the net force acting on it by Fnet = F0 = ma. the forces are the same going up and going down the incline. Newton’s First and Second Laws: Mass.00 m/s 2 ( ) .0 m/s)2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate m: m= and (b) is correct.

Apply ∑ F = ma r r to express the Fwood = ma force exerted on the bullet by the wood: Using a constant-acceleration 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x . a1 be the acceleration of the ship when the net force acting on it is F1. Using Newton’s 2nd law. The ratio of the two masses is found from Newton’s 2nd law: (c) The acceleration of the two-mass system is the net force divided by the total mass m = m1 + m2: 1 m2 F0 a2 a1 3 m/s 2 = = = = 2 3 m1 F0 a1 a2 9 m/s a= = Fnet F0 = m m1 + m2 F0 m1 a1 = 1 + m2 m1 1 + 1 3 = 3 a1 = 2.25 m/s 2 4 28 • Picture the Problem The acceleration of an object is related to its mass and the net force acting on it by Fnet = ma .Newton’s Laws 209 (b) Let the subscripts 1 and 2 distinguish the two objects. we can use a constant-acceleration equation to determine its acceleration and Newton’s 2nd law of motion to find the average resistive force that brings it to a stop. express the net force acting on the ship when its acceleration is a1: Express the net force acting on the ship when its acceleration is a2: Divide the second of these equations by the first and solve for the ratio F2/F1: F1 = ma1 F1 + F2 = ma2 F1 + F2 ma1 = F1 ma2 and F2 a2 = −1 F1 a1 Substitute for the accelerations to determine the ratio of the accelerating forces and solve for F2: F2 (16 km/h ) (10 s ) = −1 = 3 (4 km/h ) (10 s ) F1 or F2 = 3F1 *29 •• Picture the Problem Because the deceleration of the bullet is constant. and a2 be its acceleration when the net force is F1 + F2 . Let m be the mass of the ship.

initial speed. We can determine the net force acting on the cart using Newton’s 2nd law and our knowledge of its acceleration. *30 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation summarizes what we know about the motion.210 Chapter 4 equation. relate the displacement of the cart to its acceleration. express the final velocity of the bullet in terms of its acceleration and solve for the acceleration: Substitute to obtain: and 2 2 v 2 − v0 − v0 = 2∆x 2∆x a= Fwood = − Fwood = − 2 mv0 2∆x Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fwood: (1. The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the cart as it accelerates along the air track. 2 .75 kN where the negative sign means that the direction of the force is opposite the velocity. We can find the acceleration of the cart by using a constant-acceleration equation. because v0 = 0.06 m ) −3 ) 2 = − 3. (a) Apply ∑F x = ma x to the cart F = ma to obtain an expression for the net force F: Using a constant-acceleration equation. and travel time: ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) 2 or.8 ×10 kg (500 m/s ) 2(0.

Newton’s Laws 211 ∆x = 1 a (∆t ) 2 Solve for a: 2 a= 2∆x (∆t )2 2∆x 2m∆x = (∆t )2 (∆t )2 Substitute for a in the force equation to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate F: (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation.0514 N (4.5 m ) = 6.5 m ) = 0. the net force on the cart is still 0. ∆x = 1 a ' (∆t ) 2 2 ∆t = 2∆x a' If we assume that air resistance is negligible.0713 m/s 2 31 • Picture the Problem The acceleration of an object is related to its mass and the net force acting on it according to Fnet = ma. Because both force and acceleration are vector quantities.722 kg ∆t = 2(1. and travel time: Solve for ∆t: F =m F= 2(0.55 s )2 2 ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a ' (∆t ) 2 or. relate the displacement of the cart to its acceleration. initial speed. Let m be the mass of the object and choose a coordinate system in which the direction of 2F0 in (b) is the positive x and the direction of the left-most F0 in (a) is the positive y direction. find the resultant force in each case and then find the resultant acceleration.0514 N = 0. because v0 = 0.355 kg )(1.49 s 0. (a) Calculate the acceleration of the object from Newton’s 2nd law of motion: Express the net force acting on the object: r r r r Fnet a= m r ˆ ˆ Fnet = Fx i + Fy ˆ = F0 i + F0 ˆ j j and Find the magnitude and direction of this net force: Fnet = Fx2 + Fy2 = 2 F0 and .0514 N and its acceleration is: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: a' = 0.0713 m/s 2 0.

212 Chapter 4 θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ Use this result to calculate the magnitude and direction of the acceleration: ⎛ Fy ⎝ Fx ⎛F ⎞ ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ 0 ⎟ = 45° ⎜F ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎠ a = Fnet 2 F0 = = 2 a0 m m = 2 (3 m/s 2 ) 4.6° from 2F0 a= Fnet F = 2.00 m/s ) ˆj 2 2 .4° ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ r = 14.80(3 m/s ) ⎛ Fy ⎝ Fx Use this result to calculate the magnitude and direction of the acceleration: r = 8.00 m/s ) iˆ − (2. Apply a = Fnet m to the object to obtain: r r r r r ˆ r Fnet (6 N ) i − (3 N ) ˆ j a= = m 1. (b) Calculate the acceleration of the object from Newton’s 2nd law of motion: Express the net force acting on the object: r r a = Fnet /m r ˆ Fnet = Fx i + Fy ˆ j ˆ = (− F0 sin 45°)i + (2 F0 + F0 cos 45°) ˆ j Find the magnitude and direction of this net force: Fnet = Fx2 + Fy2 = and (− F0 sin 45°)2 + (2 F0 + F0 cos 45°)2 = 2.80a0 m m 2 = 2.0° from each = force.80 F0 θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎞ ⎛ 2 F + F0 cos 45° ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎜ − F sin 45° ⎟ = −75.5 kg = (4.24 m/s 2 @ 45.6° from 2F0 32 • Picture the Problem The acceleration of an object is related to its mass and the net force acting on it according to a = Fnet m .80 0 = 2.40 m/s 2 @ 14.

The free-body diagrams to the right show the forces acting on Al and Bert. Because the force is constant. The mass is related to the net force and the acceleration by Newton’s 2nd law: Because the force is constant.200 m/s 2 Using a constant-acceleration equation.5 s: v = v0 + a∆t = 0 + (−0.Newton’s Laws 213 Find the magnitude of a : r 2 2 a = ax + a y = (4.00 m/s ) 2 2 2 2 = 4. (a) Apply ∑ Fx = ma x to Bert and solve for his acceleration: − FAl on Bert = mBert aBert aBert = − FAl on Bert mBert = − 20 N 100 kg = −0. speed after 1.5 s) = − 0.0 kg *34 • Picture the Problem The speed of either Al or Bert can be obtained from their accelerations. The forces that Al and Bert exert on each other are action-and-reaction forces.5 s. Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is the direction of motion of the particle.200 m/s2)(1. and acceleration and solve for his speed at the end of 1. the acceleration is constant.300 m/s . in turn.00 m/s ) + (2. where v0 x = 0. 2 2 so ax = 2∆x (∆t )2 2 2 Substitute this result into the first equation and solve for and evaluate the mass m of the particle: (12 N )(6 s ) F F (∆t ) = m= x = x 2∆x 2(18 m ) ax = 12. relate Bert’s speed to his initial speed.47 m/s 2 33 • Picture the Problem The mass of the particle is related to its acceleration and the net force acting on it by Newton’s 2nd law of motion. Use a constant-acceleration equation to find the acceleration: r ∑ F Fx m= r = a ax ∆x = v0 x t + 1 a x (∆t ) . they can be obtained from Newtons 2nd law applied to each person. we can use constant-acceleration formulas to calculate the acceleration.

Because the ice is frictionless. Additional applications of Newton’s 2nd law to the sum and difference of the masses will lead us to values for the accelerations of these combinations of mass.5 s) = 0. speed after 1.5 s. Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the forces acting on Al and solve for his acceleration: Using a constant-acceleration equation. relate Al’s speed to his initial speed. We can apply Newton’s second law to the forces acting on the blocks and eliminate F to obtain a relationship between the masses. and acceleration. ∑F and x . Al speeds off in the opposite direction.375 m/s (a) Apply blocks: ∑F x = ma x to the two ∑F and x .214 Chapter 4 (b) From Newton's 3rd law.40 m/s 2 . Al = FBert on Al = mAl aAl aAl = FBert on Al 20 N = mAl 80 kg = 0.2 Eliminate F between the two equations and solve for m2: Express and evaluate the acceleration of an object whose mass is m2 – m1 when the net force acting on it is F: (b) Express and evaluate the acceleration of an object whose mass is m2 + m1 when the net force acting on it is F: m2 = a1 12 m/s 2 m1 = m1 = 4m1 a2 3 m/s 2 a= F F F = = m2 − m1 4m1 − m1 3m1 = 1 a1 = 1 12 m/s 2 = 4. an equal but oppositely directed force acts on Al while he pushes Bert. solve for his speed at the end of 1.00 m/s 2 3 3 a= = F F = m2 + m1 4m1 + m1 F = 1 a1 = 1 (12 m/s 2 ) 5 5 5m1 ( ) = 2.5 s: 35 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams show the forces acting on the two blocks.250 m/s2)(1.1 = F = m1 a1 = F = m2 a 2 ∑F x.250 m/s 2 v = v0 + a∆t = 0 + (0.

express the velocity of the object as a function of time and solve for its velocity when t = 3 s: ( ) ( ) r r r v = v0 + at ˆ = 0 + 1.50 m/s 2 i + − 3.50 m/s) iˆ + (− 10. the net force and the acceleration are constant.50 m/s 2 i + − 3.75 m ) iˆ + (− 15.50 m/s 2 ˆ (3 s ) j = [( ) ( )] (4. hence. Because both forces are constant. (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the object to obtain: r r r r Fnet F1 + F2 a= = m m ˆ + (− 14 N ) ˆ (6 N ) i j = 4 kg ˆ = 1.Newton’s Laws 215 36 • Picture the Problem Because the velocity is constant.5 m/s) ˆ j (c) Express the position of the object in terms of its average velocity and evaluate this expression at t = 3 s: r r r = vavt r = 1 vt 2 = (6.8 m ) ˆ j . the net force acting on the log must be zero. Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is the direction of motion of the log.50 m/s 2 ˆ j (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. (a) Apply ∑F x = ma x to the log Fpull – Fres = max = 0 when it is moving at constant speed: Solve for and evaluate Fres: Fres = Fpull = 250 N Fpull – Fres = max (b) Apply ∑F x = ma x to the log when it is accelerating to the right: Solve for and evaluate Fpull: Fpull = Fres + max = 250 N + (75 kg) (2 m/s2) = 400 N 37 • Picture the Problem The acceleration can be found from Newton’s 2nd law. we can use the constant-acceleration equations to answer questions concerning the motion of the object at various times. The freebody diagram shows the forces acting on the log when it is accelerating in the positive x direction.

Express the mass of the astronaut in terms of his weight on earth and the gravitational field at the surface of the earth: m= wearth 600 N = = 61.1 m ) = 60.45 N/lb ) = 734 N m= w 734 N = = 74. and Fn is the normal force exerted by the horizontal surface.0 N . Fk is the force exerted by the spring.2 kg g earth 9. (a) The weight of the girl is: w = mg = (54 kg )(9. Because the block is resting on a surface. (a) Calculate the force exerted by the spring on the block: Fx = kx = (600 N/m )(0.45 N/lb 40 • Picture the Problem The mass of an object is related to its weight and the gravitational field.81 N/kg ) = 530 N (b) Convert newtons to pounds: w= 530 N = 119 lb 4. r r r r W = mg is the weight of the block. out in deep space.81 N/kg and (c) is correct.81 N/kg Contact Forces *41 • Picture the Problem Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the block. Fk + Fn = W. for that matter.216 Chapter 4 Mass and Weight *38 • Picture the Problem The mass of the astronaut is independent of gravitational fields and will be the same on the moon or. Find the weight of the man in newtons: Calculate the mass of the man from his weight and the gravitational field: 165 lb = (165 lb )(4. 39 • Picture the Problem The weight of an object is related to its mass and the gravitational field through w = mg.8 kg g 9.

the net force acting on it must be zero.. sum the forces acting on the block and solve for Fn: r F = 0 ⇒ Fk + Fn − W = 0 ∑ and Fn = W − Fk Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn: Fn = (12 kg)(9. We can use Newton’s 2nd law and the expression for the force exerted by a stretched (or compressed) spring to express the acceleration of the box in terms of its mass m.7 N 42 • Picture the Problem Let the positive x direction be the direction in which the spring is stretched. Free-Body Diagrams: Static Equilibrium 43 • Picture the Problem Because the traffic light is not accelerating.81 N/kg) − 60 N = 57.Newton’s Laws 217 (b) Choosing the upward direction to be positive.04 m ) 6 kg = − 5. i. r r r Construct a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the knot and choose the coordinate system shown: . Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the box to obtain: Express the force exerted on the box by the spring: Substitute to obtain: a= ∑F m F = − kx a= − kx m Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a=− (800 N/m )(0. the stiffness constant of the spring k. T1 + T2 + mg = 0. and the distance the spring is stretched x.33 m/s 2 where the minus sign tells us that the box’s acceleration is toward its equilibrium position.e.

(b).625 m . ∑ From the FBD. it is clear that T1 supports the full weight mg = 418 N.218 Chapter 4 Apply ∑F x = ma x to the knot: T1cos30° − T2cos60° = max = 0 Solve for T2 in terms of T1: cos 30° T1 = 1.81 m/s 2 = 418 N and (b) is correct. and (c) are shown below. In both cases. use trigonometry to determine θ : θ = cos −1 0. (a) and (b) (c) (a) Referring to the FBD for part (a).9° 0. the block is in equilibrium under the influence of the forces and we can use Newton’s 2nd law of motion and geometry and trigonometry to obtain relationships between θ and the tensions.6 kg ) 9.5 m = 36. Apply obtain: ∑F y = 0 to the lamp to T1 − w = 0 T1 = w = mg Solve for T1: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T1: T1 = (42. ( ) *45 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams for parts (a).73T1 cos 60° ∴ T2 is greater than T1 T2 = 44 • Picture the Problem Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the lamp and apply Fy = 0 .

2915 m Find the distance d: Express θ in terms of d and solve for its value: θ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎜ = 45.43 N .2915 m ⎞ d ⎟ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.250-kg T3 sin θ − mg = 0 since a = 0.9° 4.417 m 3 d= 1 m − 0.08 N 1.500-kg block ∑ 2T sin θ − mg = 0 since a = 0 and and solve for the tension T: T= mg 2 sin θ Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: (c) The length of each segment is: T= (0.5 kg )(9.7° ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 0.43 N ) cos 45. apply Fy = ma y to the 0. and block and solve for the tension T2: T2 = T3 cosθ Substitute numerical values and evaluate T2: By symmetry: T2 = (3.43 N ∑F x = ma x to the 0.7° 3.81m/s2 ) = sin45.417 m ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Apply ∑F y = ma y to the 0.7° = 2.81m/s2 ) = 2sin36.25 m = 0.417m 2 = 0.25 kg )(9.40 N T1 = T3 = 3.417 m ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 0. and block and solve for the tension T3: T3 = Substitute numerical values and evaluate T3: Apply mg sin θ T3 = (0.Newton’s Laws 219 (b) Noting that T = T′.250-kg T3 cos θ − T2 = 0 since a = 0.

. i. T45 . Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is the same as that of F1 and the positive y direction is to the right. and therefore equal to. the vertical component of T45 must be exactly balanced by. it must be true that F3 + F1 + F2 = 0. If the system is to remain in static equilibrium. Choose a coordinate system with the positive x direction to the right and the positive y direction upward. Apply the conditions for translational equilibrium to determine the tension in the horizontal cord.220 Chapter 4 46 • Picture the Problem The suspended body is in equilibrium under the influence of the r r r forces Th . Add the two forces to determine the net force and then use Newton’s 2nd law to find the acceleration of the object. the tension in the string suspending the 100-N body: Express the horizontal component of T45: Because T45 sin45° = T45 cos45°: Tv = T45 sin45° = mg r r r Th = T45 cos45° Th = mg = 100 N 47 • Picture the Problem The acceleration of any object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it. If F3 brings the system into equilibrium. (a) Find the components of F1 and r r r r r r r F2 : r ˆ F1 = (20 N) i r ˆ F2 = {(−30 N) sin 30°}i + {(30 N) cos 30°} ˆ j ˆ = (−15 N)i + (26 N) ˆ j Add F1 and F2 to find Ftot : r r r r ˆ Ftot = (5 N) i + (26 N) ˆ j . Th + T45 + mg = 0 Draw the free-body diagram of the forces acting on the knot just above the 100-N body. and mg.e.

the vectors T and r T ' have the same magnitude T. Choose a coordinate system in which upward is the positive y direction. it must be true that: r r r F3 + F1 + F2 = 0 and r r r F3 = − F1 + F2 = ( ) (− 5.2 m/s 2 49 •• Picture the Problem The picture is in equilibrium under the influence of the three forces r shown in the figure. apply the condition for translational equilibrium in the vertical direction and solve for T: ∑F and y =2T sin θ − w = 0 w 2 sin θ T= . (a) Apply object: Solve this equation for a as a function of T: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ay: ∑F y = ma y to the T – w = T – mg = may ay = ay = T −g m 5N − 9. Apply the condition for translational equilibrium to obtain an expression for T as a function of θ and w. Due to the symmetry of the support system. divided by the mass.500 m/s 2 ) i + (2. Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the forces acting on this body to find the acceleration of the object as a function of T.00 N ) iˆ + (− 26.81 m/s 2 5 kg (b) Proceed as in (a) with T = 10 N: (c) Proceed as in (a) with T = 100 N: a = − 7.81m/s 2 a = 10.0 N ) ˆ j *48 • r r Picture the Problem The acceleration of the object equals the net force.Newton’s Laws 221 Apply r r F = ma to find the ∑ acceleration of the object: r r Ftot a= m ˆ = (0. (a) Referring to Figure 4-37. Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is to the right and the positive y direction is upward. T − mg .81 m/s 2 = − 8.60 m/s 2 ) ˆ j (b) Because the object is in equilibrium under the influence of the three forces.

(a) Apply ∑F y = 0 to the balloon: F + Ti sin θ i − Ti −1 sin θ i −1 = 0 F = Ti −1 sin θ i −1 − Ti sin θ i Solve for F to obtain: (b) By symmetry. *50 ••• Picture the Problem In part (a) we can apply Newton’s 2nd law to obtain the given expression for F.222 Chapter 4 Tmin occurs when sinθ is a maximum: Tmax occurs when sinθ is a minimum. As θ gets small. Therefore. T gets large without limit. because the tangent function is odd: (c) Using TH = Ti cosθi = Ti−1cosθi−1. divide both sides of our result in (a) by TH and simplify to obtain: Using this result. each support must balance half of the force acting on the entire arch. Therefore. the vertical component of the force on the support must be NF/2. θN+1 = − θ0. therefore it is not possible. In (b) we can use a symmetry argument to find an expression for tan θ0. Because the function is undefined when sinθ = 0. The horizontal component of the tension must be TH.6 N Remarks: θ = 90° requires wires of infinite length. Express tanθ0 in terms of NF/2 and TH: By symmetry. In (c) we can use our results obtained in (a) and (b) to express xi and yi. we can conclude that: (b) Substitute numerical values in the result in (a) and evaluate T: θ = sin −1 1 = 90° T → Tmax as θ → 0° (2 kg )(9. express tan θ1: Substitute for tan θ0 from (a): tan θ 0 = NF 2 NF = TH 2TH tan θ 0 = − tan θ N +1 = NF 2TH F Ti −1 sin θ i −1 Ti sin θ i = − TH Ti −1 cos θ i −1 Ti cos θ i = tan θ i −1 − tan θ i F tan θ1 = tan θ 0 − TH tan θ1 = NF F F − = (N − 2) 2TH TH 2TH .81m/s2 ) = T= 2sin30° 19.

Newton’s Laws 223 Generalize this result to obtain: tan θ i = (N − 2i ) F 2TH Express the length of rope between two balloons: Express the horizontal coordinate of the point on the rope where the ith balloon is attached.474 0.72 N I 0 1 2 3 4 tan(thetai) sin(thetai) cos(thetai) xi yi 1.000 1.670 2.395 0. in terms of xi−1 and the length of rope between two balloons: Sum over all the coordinates to obtain: l between balloons = L N +1 xi = xi −1 + L cos θ i −1 N +1 xi = L i −1 ∑ cosθ j N + 1 j =0 L i −1 ∑ sin θ j N + 1 j =0 Proceed similarly for the vertical coordinates to obtain: yi = (d) A spreadsheet program is shown below.344 0.075 0.396 .881 1.729 0.269 0.966 2.538 0.628 0.966 0.732 0.802 0.806 0.869 1.543 0.260 0.778 1.681 0. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell C9 D9 E9 F10 Content/Formula ($B$2-2*B9)/(2*$B$4) SIN(ATAN(C9)) COS(ATAN(C9)) F9+$B$1/($B$2+1)*E9 Algebraic Form (N − 2i ) ( ) cos(tan θ ) sin tan −1 θ i −1 i F 2TH G10 G9+$B$1/($B$2+1)*D9 L cos θ i −1 N +1 L yi −1 + cos θ i −1 N +1 xi −1 + D E F G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A L= N= F= TH= B C 10 m 10 1 N 3.597 0. xi.000 0.162 1.

729 0. Choose the upward direction to be the positive y direction.396 1.597 3.260 −0.224 Chapter 4 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0.81 kN (b) Because the crane is lifting the . there must be a net force in that direction.966 0.136 6.000 (e) A horizontal component of tension 3.966 1.81 m/s 2 ) = 11.269 −0.681 0.632 2. We also know that.000 0.63 m high. 3.802 1. the arch is 2.843 7.806 −1.075 −1.462 8.344 0.005 2.548 4. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to each part of the problem to relate the tension in the cable to the acceleration of the load. A free-body diagram for part (a) is shown to the right.778 0.632 2.628 −0.5 0.8 kN T = mg = 9.000 −0.474 −0.881 0.0 2. if the load is accelerating in a particular direction.395 0.5 2.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 xi 51 •• Picture the Problem We know. tall enough for someone to walk through.5 1.0 0.72 N gives a spacing of 8 m.732 −0.457 5.000 −0. because the speed of the load is changing in parts (a) and (c).538 −0. (a) Apply ∑F y = ma y to the load and solve for T: T – mg = ma and T = ma y + mg = m(a y + g ) (1) Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = (1000 kg )(2 m/s 2 + 9.335 6. that it is accelerating.0 yi 1. At this spacing.

(a) ΣFx = T1cos60° − 30 N = 0 and T1 = (30 N)/cos60° = 60.0 N ΣFy = T1sin60° − T2 = 0 and T2 = T1sin60° = 52.71 kg (c) ΣFx = −T1cos60° + T3cos60° = 0 and T1 = T3 ΣFy = 2T1sin60° − mg = 0 and T1 = T3 = (58.9 N)/(2sin60°) = 34.0 N ∴ m = T2/g = 5.2 N m = T2/g = 4.81 m/s2 − 2 m/s2) = 7. a is negative.Newton’s Laws 225 load at constant speed. a = 0: (c) Because the acceleration of the load is downward. Apply Fy = ma y to the load: T – mg = may ∑ Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate T: T = (1000 kg)(9.81kN 52 •• Picture the Problem Draw a free-body diagram for each of the depicted situations and use the conditions for translational equilibrium to find the unknown tensions.0 N .2 N)cos60° = 46.30 kg (b) ΣFx = (80 N)cos60° − T1sin60° = 0 and T1 = (80 N)cos60°/sin60° = 46.2 N ΣFy = (80 N)sin60° − T2 − T1cos60° = 0 T2 = (80 N)sin60° − (46.

We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the rope to relate the tension to F. apply Fy = ma y to the car: ∑ Solve for and evaluate T: T= T= 400 N F = = 3. 2Tsinθ − F = may = 0 because the car’s acceleration is zero. Apply ∑F x = ma x to the box: F cos θ = ma x ax = ax = F cos θ m Solve for ax: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ax: (250 N )cos35° = 20 kg 10.30 kN 2 sin 4° (b) Proceed as in part (a): Free-Body Diagrams: Inclined Planes and the Normal Force *54 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the box as the man pushes it across the frictionless floor. (a) Noting that T1 = T2 = T. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to the box to find its acceleration.46 kg 53 •• Picture the Problem Construct the freebody diagram for that point in the rope at r which you exert the force F and choose the coordinate system shown on the FBD.2 m/s 2 .82 kN 2 sin θ 2 sin 3° 600 N = 4.226 Chapter 4 ∴ m = T1/g = 3.

0 N 56 • Picture the Problem Forces always occur in equal and opposite pairs. 57 • Picture the Problem Because the block whose mass is m is in equilibrium. and the normal reaction force of the r inclined plane on the box. r r r r W. Construct the free-body diagram for this object. F A. Apply ∑F x = ma x to the box as it Fmin cos(40° − θ ) − mg sin θ = 0 moves up the incline with constant speed: Solve for Fmin: Fmin = mg sin θ cos (40° − θ ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fmin: Fmin = (20 kg )(9. A on object B. use the coordinate system shown on the free-body diagram. T. Apply r r r ∑F x = ma x to the block on the incline: T – mgsin40° = max = 0 because the system is in equilibrium. the sum of the forces Fn .Newton’s Laws 227 55 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the box as the man pushes it up the frictionless incline. The reaction forces are the forces the box exerts on the inclined plane and the gravitational force the box exerts on the earth. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to the box to determine the smallest force that will move it up the incline at constant speed. . and mg must be zero. B = − FB . A is exerted by object B on object A. FB . The reaction forces are indicated with primes. If object A exerts a force. an equal but opposite force. Fn . The forces acting on the box are its weight. and apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion.81m/s2 ) = cos25° 56.

81m/s 2 = 98. *58 • Picture the Problem The balance(s) indicate the tension in the string(s).1 N ( ) .5 kg. (a) ∑F and y = T − mg = 0 T = mg = (10 kg ) 9. T = T ' = mg = (10 kg ) 9.1 N ( ) (c) ∑F and y = 2T − mg = 0 T = 1 mg 2 = 1 2 (10 kg )(9. (d ) is correct.1 N (d) ∑F and x T = mg sin 30° = (10 kg ) 9.228 Chapter 4 Solve for m: m= T g sin 40° The tension must equal the weight of the 3. Draw free-body diagrams for each of these systems and apply the condition(s) for equilibrium.81m/s2 ) = = T − mg sin 30° = 0 49. because T ′= mg.5-kg block because that block is also in equilibrium: T = (3.5 kg)g and m= (3.81 m/s 2 sin 30° = 49. Remarks: Because the object whose mass is m does not hang vertically.81 m/s 2 = 98.5 kg = g sin 40° sin 40° Because this expression is not included in the list of solution candidates.1 N ( ) (b) ∑F x = T − T '= 0 or.5 kg) g 3. its mass must be greater than 3.

Newton’s Laws 229

Remarks: Note that (a) and (b) give the same answers … a rather surprising result until one has learned to draw FBDs and apply the conditions for translational equilibrium. 59 •• Picture the Problem Because the box is held in place (is in equilibrium) by the forces acting on it, we know that

r r r T + Fn + W = 0

Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is in the direction of r T and the positive y direction is in the direction of F n . Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the block to obtain expressions for

r

r r T and Fn .

(a) Apply

∑F

x

= ma x to the box:

T − mg sin θ = 0

Solve for T: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: Apply

T = mg sin θ

T = (50 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 sin 60° = 425 N Fn − mg cos θ = 0 Fn = mg cos θ

(

)

∑F

y

= ma y to the box:

Solve for Fn: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn:

**Fn = (50 kg )(9.81m/s 2 )cos 60° = 245 N
**

T90° = mg sin 90° = mg

and

(b) Using the result for the tension from part (a) to obtain:

T0° = mg sin 0° = 0

230 Chapter 4

60 •• Picture the Problem Draw a free-body diagram for the box. Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x-axis is parallel to the inclined plane and the positive y-axis is in the direction of the normal force the incline exerts on the block. Apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to both the x and y directions.

(a) Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the block:

Fn − mg cos 25° − (100 N )sin 25° = 0 Fn = mg cos 25° + (100 N )sin 25°

Solve for Fn: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn:

Fn = (12 kg ) (9.81 m/s 2 )cos25° + (100 N )sin 25° = 149 N

(b) Apply

∑F

x

= ma x to the block:

**(100 N )cos 25° − mg sin 25° = ma
**

a= a=

Solve for a:

**(100 N )cos 25° − g sin 25°
**

m

Substitute numerical values and evaluate a:

**(100 N )cos 25° − (9.81m/s2 )sin 25°
**

12 kg

= 3.41 m/s 2

*61 •• Picture the Problem The scale reading (the boy’s apparent weight) is the force the scale exerts on the boy. Draw a free-body diagram for the boy, choosing a coordinate system in which the positive x-axis is parallel to and down the inclined plane and the positive y-axis is in the direction of the normal force the incline exerts on the boy. Apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion in the y direction.

Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the boy to

Fn − W cos 30° = 0

find Fn. Remember that there is no acceleration in the y direction:

**Newton’s Laws 231
**

Substitute for W to obtain: Solve for Fn: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn:

Fn − mg cos 30° = 0 Fn = mg cos 30°

Fn = (65 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 cos 30° = 552 N

(

)

62 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram for the block sliding up the incline is shown to the right. Applying Newton’s 2nd law to the forces acting in the x direction will lead us to an expression for ax. Using this expression in a constantacceleration equation will allow us to express h as a function of v0 and g.

The height h is related to the distance ∆x traveled up the incline: Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the final speed of the block to its initial speed, acceleration, and distance traveled: Solve for ∆x to obtain:

h = ∆xsin θ

2 v 2 = v0 + 2a x ∆x

or, because v = 0,

2 0 = v0 + 2a x ∆x 2 − v0 2a x

∆x =

Apply

∑F

x

= ma x to the block and

− mg sin θ = ma x

and ax = −g sinθ

2 ⎛ v0 ⎞ h = ∆x sin θ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 g sin θ ⎟ sin θ ⎠ ⎝

solve for its acceleration: Substitute these results in the equation for h and simplify:

=

2 v0 2g

which is independent of the ramp’s angle θ.

232 Chapter 4

**Free-Body Diagrams: Elevators
**

63 • Picture the Problem Because the elevator is descending at constant speed, the object is in equilibrium and T + mg = 0. Draw a free-body diagram of the object and let the upward direction be the positive y direction. Apply Newton’s 2nd law with a = 0. Because the downward speed is constant, the acceleration is zero. Apply Fy = ma y and solve for T – mg = 0 ⇒ T = mg and

r

r

∑

(a ) is correct.

T: 64 • Picture the Problem The sketch to the right shows a person standing on a scale in a descending elevator. To its right is a freebody diagram showing the forces acting on the person. The force exerted by the scale r on the person, wapp , is the person’s apparent weight. Because the elevator is slowing down while descending, the acceleration is directed upward.

Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the person:

wapp − mg = ma y wapp = mg + ma y > mg

Solve for wapp:

The apparent weight will be higher. Because an upward acceleration is required to "slow" a downward velocity, the normal force exerted on you by the scale (your apparent weight ) must be greater than your weight.

*65 • Picture the Problem The sketch to the right shows a person standing on a scale in the elevator immediately after the cable breaks. To its right is the free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the person. The force exerted by the scale on r the person, wapp , is the person’s apparent weight.

**Newton’s Laws 233
**

From the free-body diagram we can see that wapp + mg = ma where g is the local gravitational field and a is the acceleration of the reference frame (elevator). When the r r r r r r elevator goes into free fall ( a = g ), our equation becomes wapp + mg = ma = mg. This tells us that wapp = 0. (e) is correct. 66 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the 10kg block as the elevator accelerates upward. Apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to the block to find the minimum acceleration of the elevator required to break the cord. Apply

r

r

r

r

r

r

∑F

y

= ma y to the block:

T – mg = may

Solve for ay to determine the minimum breaking acceleration: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ay: 67 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the 2-kg block as the elevator ascends at a constant velocity. Because the acceleration of the elevator is zero, the block is in equilibrium under the influence of

ay = ay =

T − mg T = −g m m 150 N − 9.81 m/s 2 = 5.19 m/s 2 10 kg

r r T and mg. Apply Newton’s 2nd law of

motion to the block to determine the scale reading. (a) Apply to obtain: For motion with constant velocity, ay = 0: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: (b) As in part (a), for constant velocity, a = 0:

∑F

y

= ma y to the block

T − mg = ma y T − mg = 0 and T = mg

(1)

T = (2 kg ) 9.81m/s 2 = 19.6 N

(

)

T − mg = ma y

and

T = (2 kg ) (9.81 m/s 2 ) = 19.6 N

234 Chapter 4

(c) Solve equation (1) for T and simplify to obtain:

T = mg + ma y = m(g + a y )

(2)

Because the elevator is ascending and its speed is increasing, we have ay = 3 m/s2. Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: (d) For 0 < t < 5 s: ay = 0 and

T = (2 kg ) (9.81 m/s 2 + 3m/s 2 ) = 25.6 N

T0→5 s = 19.6 N

Using its definition, calculate a for 5 s < t < 9 s: Substitute in equation (2) and evaluate T:

a=

∆v 0 − 10 m/s = = −2.5 m/s 2 ∆t 4s

T5 s→9 s = (2 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 − 2.5m/s 2

= 14.6 N

(

)

**Free-Body Diagrams: Ropes, Tension, and Newton’s Third Law
**

68 • Picture the Problem Draw a free-body diagram for each object and apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion. Solve the resulting simultaneous equations for the ratio of T1 to T2. Draw the FBD for the box to the left and apply Fx = max :

∑

T1 = m1a1 Draw the FBD for the box to the Fx = ma x : right and apply

∑

T2 − T1 = m2a2 The two boxes have the same acceleration: Divide the second equation by the first: a1 = a2

T1 m = 1 T2 − T1 m2

**Newton’s Laws 235
**

Solve for the ratio T1/T2 :

T1 m1 = and ( d ) is correct. T2 m1 + m2

69 •• Picture the Problem Call the common acceleration of the boxes a. Assume that box 1 moves upward, box 2 to the right, and box 3 downward and take this direction to be the positive x direction. Draw free-body diagrams for each of the boxes, apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion, and solve the resulting equations simultaneously. (a) (b) (c)

(a) Apply

∑F

x

x

= max to the box

T1 – w1 = m1a

whose mass is m1: Apply

∑F

= max to the box

T2 – T1 = m2a

whose mass is m2: Noting that T2 = T2' , apply w3 – T2 = m3a

∑F

x

**= ma x to the box whose mass
**

w3 − w1 = (m1 + m2 + m3)a

is m3: Add the three equations to obtain: Solve for a:

a=

(m3 − m1 )g

m1 + m2 + m3

Substitute numerical values and evaluate a:

a=

(2.5 kg − 1.5 kg )(9.81m/s2 )

1.5 kg + 3.5 kg + 2.5 kg

= 1.31m/s 2

(b) Substitute for the acceleration in the equations obtained above to find the tensions: T1 = 16.7 N and T2 = 21.3 N

236 Chapter 4

*70 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is to the right and the positive y direction is upward. Let F2,1 be the contact force exerted by m2 on m1 and F1, 2 be the force exerted by m1 on m2. These forces are equal and opposite so F2,1 = − F1, 2 . The freebody diagrams for the blocks are shown to the right. Apply Newton’s 2nd law to each block separately and use the fact that their accelerations are equal. (a) Apply block: Apply block: Add these equations to eliminate F2,1 and F1,2 and solve for a = a1 = a2: Substitute your value for a into equation (1) and solve for F1,2:

r

r

r

r

∑F

x

x

= ma x to the first

F − F2,1 = m1a1 = m1a F1, 2 = m2 a2 = m2 a

∑F

= ma x to the second

(1)

a=

F m1 + m2 Fm2 m1 + m2

F1,2 =

(b) Substitute numerical values in the equations derived in part (a) and evaluate a and F1,2:

a=

and

3.2 N = 0.400 m/s 2 2 kg + 6 kg

F1,2 =

(3.2 N )(6 kg ) =

2 kg + 6 kg

2.40 N

Remarks: Note that our results for the acceleration are the same as if the force F had acted on a single object whose mass is equal to the sum of the masses of the two blocks. In fact, because the two blocks have the same acceleration, we can consider them to be a single system with mass m1 + m2.

**Newton’s Laws 237
**

71 • Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is to the right and the positive y direction is upward. Let F2,1 be the contact force exerted by m2 on m1 and F1, 2 be the force exerted by m1 on m2. These forces are equal and opposite so F2,1 = − F1, 2 . The freebody diagrams for the blocks are shown. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to each block separately and use the fact that their accelerations are equal. (a) Apply block: Apply block: Add these equations to eliminate F2,1 and F1,2 and solve for a = a1 = a2: Substitute your value for a into equation (1) and solve for F2,1:

r

r

r

r

∑F

x

x

= ma x to the first

F − F1, 2 = m2 a2 = m2 a F2,1 = m1a1 = m1a

∑F

= ma x to the second

(1)

a=

F m1 + m2

F2,1 =

Fm1 m1 + m2

(b) Substitute numerical values in the equations derived in part (a) and evaluate a and F2,1:

a=

and

3.2 N = 0.400 m/s 2 2 kg + 6 kg

F2,1 =

(3.2 N )(2 kg ) =

2 kg + 6 kg

0.800 N

Remarks: Note that our results for the acceleration are the same as if the force F had acted on a single object whose mass is equal to the sum of the masses of the two blocks. In fact, because the two blocks have the same acceleration, we can consider them to be a single system with mass m1 + m2. 72 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams for the boxes and the ropes are below. Because the vertical forces have no bearing on the problem they have not been included. Let the numeral 1 denote the 100-kg box to the left, the numeral 2 the rope connecting the boxes, the numeral 3 the box to the right and the numeral 4 the rope to which the force

r r r F is applied. F3, 4 is the tension force exerted by m3 on m4, F4,3 is the tension force r r exerted by m4 on m3, F2,3 is the tension force exerted by m2 on m3, F3, 2 is the tension

238 Chapter 4

force exerted by m3 on m2, F1, 2 is the tension force exerted by m1 on m2, and F2,1 is the tension force exerted by m2 on m1. The equal and opposite pairs of forces are F2,1 = − F1, 2 , F3, 2 = − F2,3 , and F4,3 = − F3, 4 . We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to each box and rope separately and use the fact that their accelerations are equal.

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

Apply

**∑ F = ma to the box whose ∑ F = ma to the rope ∑ F = ma to the box whose ∑ F = ma to the rope
**

r r r r r r

r

r

F2,1 = m1a1 = m1a F3, 2 − F1, 2 = m2 a2 = m2 a F4,3 − F2,3 = m3a3 = m3a F − F3, 4 = m4 a4 = m4 a F = (m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 )a

(1)

mass is m1: Apply (2)

whose mass is m2: Apply (3)

mass is m3: Apply

whose mass is m4: Add these equations to eliminate F2,1, F1,2, F3,2, F2,3, F4,3, and F3,4 and solve for F: Use equation (1) to find the tension at point A: Use equation (2) to find the tension at point B:

= (202 kg )(1.0 m/s 2 ) = 202 N

**F2,1 = (100 kg ) 1.0 m/s 2 = 100 N F3, 2 = F1, 2 + m2 a
**

= 101 N

(

)

= 100 N + (1 kg ) 1.0 m/s 2

(

)

Use equation (3) to find the tension at point C:

F4,3 = F2,3 + m3a

= 201 N

= 101 N + (100 kg ) 1.0 m/s 2

(

)

**Newton’s Laws 239
**

73 •• Picture the Problem Because the distribution of mass in the rope is uniform, we can express the mass m′ of a length x of the rope in terms of the total mass of the rope M and its length L. We can then express the total mass that the rope must support at a distance x above the block and use Newton’s 2nd law to find the tension as a function of x. Set up a proportion expressing the mass m′ of a length x of the rope as a function of M and L and solve for m′: Express the total mass that the rope must support at a distance x above the block: Apply

M m' M x = ⇒ m' = L x L

m + m' = m +

M x L

∑F

y

= ma y to the block

and a length x of the rope:

M ⎞ ⎛ T − w = T −⎜m + x ⎟g L ⎠ ⎝ M ⎞ ⎛ = ⎜m + x⎟ a L ⎠ ⎝

T=

Solve for T to obtain:

(a + g )⎛ m + M ⎜

⎝

⎞ x⎟ L ⎠

*74 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system with the positive y direction upward and denote the top link with the numeral 1, the second with the numeral 2, etc.. The free-body diagrams show the forces acting on links 1 and 2. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to each link to obtain a system of simultaneous equations that we can solve for the force each link exerts on the link below it. Note that the net force on each link is the product of its mass and acceleration. (a) Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the top

F − 5mg = 5ma

and

link and solve for F:

F = 5m ( g + a )

240 Chapter 4

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F:

F = 5(0.1kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 + 2.5 m/s 2 = 6.16 N

F1 link = m1 link a = (0.1 kg ) 2.5 m/s 2

= 0.250 N

(

)

(b) Apply link:

∑F ∑F

y

= ma y to a single

(

)

(c) Apply

y

= ma y to the 1st

through 5th links to obtain:

F − F2 − mg = ma , F2 − F3 − mg = ma ,

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

F3 − F4 − mg = ma , F4 − F5 − mg = ma , and F5 − mg = ma

Add equations (2) through (5) to obtain: Solve for F2 to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate F2:

F2 − 4mg = 4ma F2 = 4mg + 4ma = 4m(a + g )

F2 = 4(0.1kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 + 2.5 m/s 2 = 4.92 N

F3 = 3.69 N and F4 = 2.46 N

(

)

Substitute for F2 to find F3, and then substitute for F3 to find F4: Solve equation (5) for F5: Substitute numerical values and evaluate F5:

F5 = m( g + a ) F5 = (0.1 kg ) 9.81m/s 2 + 2.5 m/s 2 = 1.23 N

(

)

75 • Picture the Problem A net force is required to accelerate the object. In this problem the net force is the difference between T and W (= mg ). The free-body diagram of the object is shown to the right. Choose a coordinate system in which the upward direction is positive. Apply obtain: Solve for the tension in the lower portion of the rope: T = Fnet + mg = ma + mg = m(a + g)

r

r

r

∑ F = ma to the object to

r

r

Fnet = T – W = T – mg

**Newton’s Laws 241
**

Using its definition, find the acceleration of the object: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: 76 • Picture the Problem A net force in the downward direction is required to accelerate the truck downward. The net r r force is the difference between Wt and T . A free-body diagram showing these forces acting on the truck is shown to the right. Choose a coordinate system in which the downward direction is positive. a ≡ ∆v/∆t = (3.5 m/s)/(0.7 s) = 5.00 m/s2 T = (40 kg)(5.00 m/s2 + 9.81 m/s2) = 592 N and (a ) is correct.

Apply obtain:

∑F

y

= ma y to the truck to

T − mt g = mt a y T = mt g + mt a y = mt (g + a y ) T = mt (g − 0.1g ) = 0.9mt g

and (c) is correct.

Solve for the tension in the lower portion of the cable: Substitute to find the tension in the rope:

77 •• Picture the Problem Because the string does not stretch or become slack, the two objects must have the same speed and therefore the magnitude of the acceleration is the same for each object. Choose a coordinate system in which up the incline is the positive x direction for the object of mass m1 and downward is the positive x direction for the object of mass m2. This idealized pulley acts like a piece of polished pipe; i.e., its only function is to change the direction the tension in the massless string acts. Draw a free-body diagram for each of the two objects, apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to both objects, and solve the resulting equations simultaneously. (a) Draw the FBD for the object of mass m1:

Apply

∑F

x

= max to the object

T – m1gsinθ = m1a

whose mass is m1:

242 Chapter 4

Draw the FBD for the object of mass m2:

Apply

∑F

x

= max to the object

m2g − T = m2a

whose mass is m2: Add the two equations and solve for a:

a=

g (m2 − m1 sin θ ) m1 + m2 gm1m2 (1 + sin θ ) m1 + m2

Substitute for a in either of the equations containing the tension and solve for T: (b) Substitute the given values into the expression for a: Substitute the given data into the expression for T:

T=

a = 2.45 m/s 2 T = 36.8 N

78 • Picture the Problem The magnitude of the accelerations of Peter and the counterweight are the same. Choose a coordinate system in which up the incline is the positive x direction for the counterweight and downward is the positive x direction for Peter. The pulley changes the direction the tension in the rope acts. Let Peter’s mass be mP. Ignoring the mass of the rope, draw free-body diagrams for the counterweight and Peter, apply Newton’s 2nd law to each of them, and solve the resulting equations simultaneously. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate Peter’s displacement to her acceleration and descent time:

∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) 2

or, because v0 = 0,

2

∆x = 1 a (∆t ) 2

2

Solve for the common acceleration of Peter and the counterweight: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a:

a=

2∆x (∆t )2 2(3.2 m ) = 1.32 m/s 2 (2.2 s )2

a=

**Newton’s Laws 243
**

Draw the FBD for the counterweight:

Apply

∑F

x

= max to the

T – mg sin50° = ma

counterweight: Draw the FBD for Peter:

Apply

∑F

x

= max to Peter:

mPg – T = mPa

Add the two equations and solve for m: Substitute numerical values and evaluate m:

m=

mP ( g − a ) a + g sin 50°

m=

1.32 m/s 2 + (9.81m/s 2 ) sin50°

(50 kg )(9.81m/s2 − 1.32 m/s2 )

= 48.0 kg

(b) Substitute for m in the force equation for the counterweight and solve for T:

T = m(a + g sin 50°)

(b) Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

**T = (48.0 kg ) 1.32 m/s 2 + (9.81m/s 2 ) sin50° = 424 N
**

79 •• Picture the Problem The magnitude of the accelerations of the two blocks are the same. Choose a coordinate system in which up the incline is the positive x direction for the 8-kg object and downward is the positive x direction for the 10-kg object. The peg changes the direction the tension in the rope acts. Draw free-body diagrams for each object, apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to both of them, and solve the resulting equations simultaneously.

[

]

244 Chapter 4

(a) Draw the FBD for the 3-kg object:

Apply

∑F

x

= ma x to the 3-kg block:

T – m8g sin40° = m3a

Draw the FBD for the 10-kg object:

Apply

∑F

x

= ma x to the 10-kg block:

m10g sin50° − T = m10a

Add the two equations and solve for and evaluate a:

a=

g (m10 sin 50° − m8 sin 40°) m8 + m10

= 1.37 m/s 2

Substitute for a in the first of the two force equations and solve for T: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

T = m8 g sin 40° + m8 a

T = (8 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 sin 40° + 1.37 m/s 2 = 61.4 N

[(

]

)

(b) Because the system is in equilibrium, set a = 0, express the force equations in terms of m1 and m2, add the two force equations, and solve for and evaluate the ratio m1/m2:

T – m1g sin40° = 0 m2g sin50°− T = 0 ∴ m2g sin50°– m1g sin40° = 0 and

m1 sin 50° = = 1.19 m2 sin 40°

**Newton’s Laws 245
**

80 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representations shown to the right summarize the information given in this problem. While the mass of the rope is distributed over its length, the rope and the 6-kg block have a common acceleration. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction of the 100-N force is the positive x direction. Because the surface is horizontal and frictionless, the only force that influences our solution is the 100-N force. (a) Apply

∑F

x

= ma x to the

100 N = (m1 + m2)a

objects shown for part (a): Solve for a to obtain:

a=

100 N m1 + m2 100 N = 10.0 m/s 2 10 kg

Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: (b) Let m represent the mass of a length x of the rope. Assuming that the mass of the rope is uniformly distributed along its length:

a=

4 kg m m2 = = x Lrope 5 m and

⎛ 4 kg ⎞ m=⎜ ⎜ 5m ⎟x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Let T represent the tension in the rope at a distance x from the point at which it is attached to the 6-kg Fx = ma x to the block. Apply T = (m1 + m)a

∑

⎡ ⎛ 4 kg ⎞ ⎤ 2 = ⎢6 kg + ⎜ ⎜ 5 m ⎟ x ⎥ 10 m/s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣

(

)

system shown for part (b) and solve for T: *81 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which upward is the positive y direction and draw the free-body diagram for the frame-plus- painter. Noting that

= 60 N + (8 N/m )x

r r F = −T, apply Newton’s 2nd law of

motion.

(a) Letting mtot = mframe + mpainter,

2T – mtotg = mtota and

246 Chapter 4

apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the frame-

T=

plus-painter and solve T: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

mtot (a + g ) 2

T=

(75 kg )(0.8 m/s 2 + 9.81m/s 2 )

2

= 398 N

Because F = T: F = 398 N

(b) Apply to obtain:

∑F

y

= ma y with a = 0

2T – mtotg = 0

Solve for T: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

T = 1 mtot g 2

T=

1 2

(75 kg )(9.81m/s 2 ) =

368 N

82 ••• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which up the incline is the positive x r r direction and draw free-body diagrams for each block. Noting that a20 = −a10 , apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to each block and solve the resulting equations simultaneously. Draw a FBD for the 20-kg block:

Apply obtain:

∑F

x

= ma x to the block to

T – m20gsin20° = m20a20

Draw a FBD for the 10-kg block. Because all the surfaces, including the surfaces between the blocks, are frictionless, the force the 20-kg block exerts on the 10-kg block must be normal to their surfaces as shown to the right.

Apply obtain:

∑F

x

= ma x to the block to

T – m10gsin20° = m10a10

**Newton’s Laws 247
**

Because the blocks are connected by a taut string: Substitute for a20 and eliminate T between the two equations to obtain: a20 = −a10

a10 = 1.12 m/s 2

and

a20 = − 1.12 m/s 2

Substitute for either of the accelerations in the force equations and solve for T:

T = 44.8 N

83 ••• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is to the right and draw free-body diagrams for each block. Because of the pulley, the string exerts a force of 2T. Apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to both blocks and solve the resulting equations simultaneously. (a) Noting the effect of the pulley, express the distance the 20-kg block moves in a time ∆t: (b) Draw a FBD for the 20-kg block:

∆x20 = 1 ∆x5 = 2

1 2

(10 cm) =

5.00 cm

Apply obtain:

∑F

x

= ma x to the block to

2T = m20a20

Draw a FBD for the 5-kg block:

Apply obtain:

∑F

x

= ma x to the block to

m5g − T = m5a5

Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the displacement of the 5-kg block to its acceleration

∆x5 = 1 a5 (∆t ) 2

2

248 Chapter 4

and the time during which it is accelerated: Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the displacement of the 20-kg block to its acceleration and the time during which it is accelerated: Divide the first of these equations by the second to obtain:

∆x20 = 1 a20 (∆t ) 2

2

1 a (∆t ) ∆x5 a = 2 5 = 5 2 ∆x20 1 a20 (∆t ) a20 2 2

Use the result of part (a) to obtain: Let a20 = a. Then a5 = 2a and the force equations become:

a5 = 2a20

2T = m20a and m5g – T = m5(2a)

Eliminate T between the two equations to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a20 and a5:

a = a20 =

m5 g 2m5 + 1 m20 2

a20 =

and

(5 kg )(9.81m/s2 ) = 2(5 kg ) + 1 (20 kg ) 2

2.45 m/s 2

a5 = 2 2.45 m/s 2 = 4.91 m/s 2

Substitute for either of the accelerations in either of the force equations and solve for T:

(

)

T = 24.5 N

**Free-Body Diagrams: The Atwood’s Machine
**

*84 •• Picture the Problem Assume that m1 > m2. Choose a coordinate system in which the positive y direction is downward for the block whose mass is m1 and upward for the block whose mass is m2 and draw free-body diagrams for each block. Apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion to both blocks and solve the resulting equations simultaneously. Draw a FBD for the block whose mass is m2:

**Newton’s Laws 249
**

Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to this block:

T – m2g = m2a2

Draw a FBD for the block whose mass is m1:

Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to this block:

m1g – T = m1a1 a = a1 = a2

Because the blocks are connected by a taut string, let a represent their common acceleration: Add the two force equations to eliminate T and solve for a:

m1 g − m2 g = m1 a + m2 a

and

a=

Substitute for a in either of the force equations and solve for T:

m1 − m2 g m1 + m2 2m1m2 g m1 + m2

T=

85 •• Picture the Problem The acceleration can be found from the given displacement during the first second. The ratio of the two masses can then be found from the acceleration using the first of the two equations derived in Problem 89 relating the acceleration of the Atwood’s machine to its masses. Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the displacement of the masses to their acceleration and solve for the acceleration: Solve for and evaluate a:

∆y = v0t + 1 a (∆t ) 2

or, because v0 = 0,

2

∆y = 1 a(∆t ) 2

2

a=

2∆y 2(0.3 m ) = = 0.600 m/s 2 2 2 (1s ) (∆t )

Solve for m1 in terms of m2 using the first of the two equations given in Problem 84: Find the second mass for m2 or m1 = 1.2 kg:

g + a 10.41 m/s 2 m1 = m2 = m2 = 1.13m2 g − a 9.21m/s 2

m2nd mass = 1.36 kg or 1.06 kg

250 Chapter 4

86 •• Picture the Problem Let Fnm be the force the block of mass m2 exerts on the pebble of mass m. Because m2 < m1, the block of mass m2 accelerates upward. Draw a freebody diagram for the pebble and apply Newton’s 2nd law and the acceleration equation given in Problem 84.

Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the pebble:

Fnm – mg = ma

Solve for Fnm: From Problem 84:

Fnm = m(a + g ) a= m1 − m 2 g m1 + m 2

Substitute for a and simplify to obtain:

⎛ m − m2 ⎞ 2m1m Fnm = m⎜ 1 ⎜ m +m g + g⎟ = m +m g ⎟ 2 1 2 ⎝ 1 ⎠

87 •• Picture the Problem Note from the free-body diagrams for Problem 89 that the net force exerted by the accelerating blocks is 2T. Use this information, together with the expression for T given in Problem 84, to derive an expression for F = 2T. From Problem 84 we have:

T=

2m1m2 g m1 + m2

4m1m2 g m1 + m2

The net force, F, exerted by the Atwood’s machine on the hanger is:

F = 2T =

If m1 = m2 = m, then:

F=

4m 2 g = 2mg … as expected. 2m

If either m1 or m2 = 0, then:

F = 0 … also as expected.

88 ••• Picture the Problem Use a constant-acceleration equation to relate the displacement of the descending (or rising) mass as a function of its acceleration and then use one of the results from Problem 84 to relate a to g. Differentiation of our expression for g will allow us to relate uncertainty in the time measurement to uncertainty in the measured value for g … and to the values of m2 that would yield an experimental value for g that is good to within 5%.

**Newton’s Laws 251
**

(a) Use the result given in Problem 84 to express g in terms of a: Using a constant-acceleration equation, express the displacement, L, as a function of t and solve for the acceleration:

g=a

∆y = L = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) 2

m1 + m2 m1 − m2

(1)

2

or, because v0 = 0 and ∆t = t,

a=

2L t2 2 L ⎛ m1 + m2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ t 2 ⎜ m1 − m2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(2)

Substitute this expression for a:

g=

(b) Evaluate dg/dt to obtain:

⎛ m + m2 ⎞ dg = −4 Lt −3 ⎜ 1 ⎜m −m ⎟ ⎟ dt 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 = − 2 ⎡ 2 L ⎤⎛ m1 + m2 ⎞ − 2 g ⎜ ⎟= t ⎢ t 2 ⎥⎜ m1 − m2 ⎟ t ⎣ ⎦⎝ ⎠

Divide both sides of this expression by g and multiply both sides by dt: (c) We have:

dg dt = −2 g t dg dt = ±0.05 and = ±0.025 g t t= a= dt 1s = = 4s 0.025 0.025 2(3 m ) = 0.375 m/s 2 2 (4 s ) g −a m1 g+a

Solve the second of these equations for t to obtain: Substitute in equation (2) to obtain:

Solve equation (1) for m2 to obtain:

m2 =

Evaluate m2 with m1 = 1 kg:

9.81m/s 2 − 0.375 m/s 2 (1kg ) m2 = 9.81 m/s 2 + 0.375 m/s 2 = 0.926 kg m1 = m2 g+a g −a

Solve equation (1) for m1 to obtain:

Substitute numerical values to obtain:

9.81 m/s2 + 0.375 m/s2 m1 = (0.926 kg ) 9.81 m/s2 − 0.375 m/s2 = 1.08 kg

252 Chapter 4

Because the masses are interchangeable:

m2 = 0.926 kg or 1.08 kg

*89 •• Picture the Problem We can reason to this conclusion as follows: In the two extreme cases when the mass on one side or the other is zero, the tension is zero as well, because the mass is in free-fall. By symmetry, the maximum tension must occur when the masses on each side are equal. An alternative approach that is shown below is to treat the problem as an extreme-value problem. Express m2 in terms of M and m1: Substitute in the equation from Problem 84 and simplify to obtain: m2 = M − m1

T=

⎛ m2 ⎞ 2 gm1 (M − m1 ) = 2 g ⎜ m1 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ m1 + M − m1 M ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Differentiate this expression with respect to m1 and set the derivative equal to zero for extreme values: Solve for m1 to obtain: Show that m1 = M/2 is a maximum value by evaluating the second derivative of T with respect to m1 at m1 = M/2:

dT ⎛ 2m ⎞ = 2 g ⎜1 − 1 ⎟ = 0 for extreme values dm1 M ⎠ ⎝

**m1 = 1 M 2 d 2T 4g =− < 0, independently of m1 2 dm1 M
**

and we have shown that

T is a maximum when m1 = m2 = 1 M . 2

Remarks: An alternative solution is to use a graphing calculator to show that T as a function of m1 is concave downward and has its maximum value when m1 = m2 = M/2. 90 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams show the forces acting on the objects whose masses are m1 and m2. The application of Newton’s 2nd law to these forces and the accelerations the net forces are responsible for will lead us to an expression for the tension in the string as a function of m1 and m2. Examination of this expression as for m2 >> m1 will yield the predicted result. (a) Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the

T1 − m1 g = m1a1 and m2 g − T2 = m2 a2

objects whose masses are m1 and m2 to obtain:

**Newton’s Laws 253
**

Assume that the role of the pulley is simply to change the direction the tension acts. Then T1 = T2 = T. Because the two objects have a common acceleration, let a = a1 = a2. Eliminate a between the two equations and solve for T to obtain: Divide the numerator and denominator of this fraction by m2:

T=

2m1m2 g m1 + m2

T=

2m1 g m 1+ 1 m2

Take the limit of this fraction as m2 → ∞ to obtain: (b) Imagine the situation when m2 >> m1:

T = 2m1 g

Under these conditions, the object whose mass is m2 is essentially in freefall, so the object whose mass is m1 is accelerating upward with an acceleration of magnitude g. T – m1g = m1g ⇒ T = 2m1g. Note that this result agrees with that obtained using more analytical methods.

Under these conditions, the net force acting on the object whose mass is m1 is m1g and:

General Problems

91 • Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the force the tree exerts on the woodpecker’s head is in the negative-x direction and determine the acceleration of the woodpecker’s head from Newton’s 2nd law of motion. The depth of penetration, under the assumption of constant acceleration, can be determined using a constant- acceleration equation. Knowing the acceleration of the woodpecker’s head and the depth of penetration of the tree, we can calculate the time required to bring the head to rest. (a) Apply

∑F

x

= ma x to the

woodpecker’s head to obtain: (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the depth-ofpenetration into the bark to the acceleration of the woodpecker’s head: Solve for and evaluate ∆x:

ax =

−6N ∑ Fx = = − 100 m/s 2 m 0.060 kg

2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x

or, because v = 0,

2 0 = v0 + 2a∆x

∆x =

2 − v0 − (3.5 m/s ) = = 6.13 cm 2a 2 − 100 m/s 2 2

(

)

254 Chapter 4

(c) Use the definition of acceleration to express the time required for the woodpecker’s head to come to rest:

∆t = ∆t =

v − v0 a v − v0 a

or, because v = 0,

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: *92 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shown to the right shows the forces acting on an object suspended from the ceiling of a car that is accelerating to the right. Choose the coordinate system shown and use Newton’s laws of motion and constant- acceleration equations in the determination of the influence of the forces on the behavior of the suspended object. The second free-body diagram shows the forces acting on an object suspended from the ceiling of a car that is braking while it moves to the right.

∆t =

− v0 − 3.5 m/s = = 35.0 ms a − 100 m/s 2

(a)

In accordance with Newton' s law of inertia, the object' s displacement will be in the direction opposite that of the acceleration.

ΣFx = Tsinθ = ma and ΣFy = Tcosθ − mg = 0

**r r components and apply ∑ F = ma
**

to the object: Take the ratio of these two equations to eliminate T and m:

(b) Resolve the tension, T, into its

T sin θ ma = T cos θ mg or a tanθ = ⇒ a = g tan θ g

(c)

Because the acceleration is opposite the direction the car is moving, the accelerometer will swing forward.

**Newton’s Laws 255
**

Using a constant-acceleration equation, express the velocity of the car in terms of its acceleration and solve for the acceleration: Solve for a:

2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x

or, because v = 0,

2 0 = v0 + 2a∆x

2 − v0 2∆x

a=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: Solve the equation derived in (b) for θ: Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : 93 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting at the top of the mast. Choose the coordinate system shown and use Newton’s 2nd and 3rd laws of motion to analyze the forces acting on the deck of the sailboat.

a=

− (50 km/h ) = − 1.61 m/s 2 2(60 m )

2

θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎛ 1.61m/s 2 ⎞ θ = tan ⎜ ⎜ 9.81 m/s 2 ⎟ = 9.32° ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

−1

⎛a⎞ ⎝g⎠

Apply mast:

∑F

x

= ma x to the top of the

TFsinθF − TBsinθB = 0

Find the angles that the forestay and backstay make with the vertical:

θ F = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜

and

⎛ 3.6 m ⎞ ⎟ = 16.7° ⎟ ⎝ 12 m ⎠ ⎛ 6.4 m ⎞ ⎟ = 28.1° 12 m ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

θ B = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜

Solve the x-direction equation for TB:

TB = TF

sin θ F sin 16.7° = (500 N ) sin θ B sin 28.1°

= 305 N

Find the downward forces that TB and TF exert on the mast: Solve for Fmast to obtain:

∑F

y

= Fmast − TF cos θ F − TB cos θ B = 0

Fmast = TF cosθ F + TB cosθ B

256 Chapter 4

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fmast:

**Fmast = (500 N ) cos16.7° + (305 N )cos 28.1° = 748 N
**

The force that the mast exerts on the deck is the sum of its weight and the downward forces exerted on it by the forestay and backstay:

Fmast on the deck = 748 N + 800 N = 1.55 kN

94 •• Picture the Problem Let m be the mass of the block and M be the mass of the chain. The free-body diagrams shown below display the forces acting at the locations identified in the problem. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law with ay = 0 to each of the segments of the chain to determine the tensions. (a) (b) (c)

(a) Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the block

Ta − mg = ma y

or, because ay = 0,

and solve for Ta:

Ta = mg

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ta: (b) Apply

Ta = (50 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 491 N

(

)

∑F

y

= ma y to the block

and half the chain and solve for Tb:

M⎞ ⎛ Tb − ⎜ m + ⎟ g = ma y 2 ⎠ ⎝

or, because ay = 0,

M⎞ ⎛ Tb = ⎜ m + ⎟ g 2 ⎠ ⎝

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Tb: (c) Apply

Tb = (50 kg + 10 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 589 N

(

)

∑F

y

= ma y to the block

Tc − (m + M )g = ma y

or, because ay = 0,

and chain and solve for Tc:

Tc = (m + M )g

**Newton’s Laws 257
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Tc:

Tc = (50 kg + 20 kg ) (9.81 m/s 2 ) = 687 N

*95 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the box as the man pushes it across a frictionless floor. Because the force is time-dependent, the acceleration will be, too. We can obtain the acceleration as a function of time from the application of Newton’s 2nd law and then find the velocity of the box as a function of time by integration. Finally, we can derive an expression for the displacement of the box as a function of time by integration of the velocity function. (a) The velocity is related to the acceleration according to: Apply

dv = a(t ) dt

F = ma

and

(1)

∑F

x

= ma x to the box and

solve for its acceleration:

a=

Because the box’s acceleration is a function of time, separate variables in equation (1) and integrate to find v as a function of time:

F (8 N/s )t = = (1 m/s3 )t 3 m 24 kg

t

v(t ) = ∫ a(t ')dt ' =

0

(

1 3

m/s3 ∫ t ' dt '

0 1 6

)

t

=

(

1 3

m/s3

) t2 = (

2

m/s3 t 2

)

Evaluate v at t = 3 s: (b) Integrate v = dx/dt between 0 and 3 s to find the displacement of the box during this time:

v(3 s ) = (1 m/s3 )(3 s ) = 1.50 m/s 6

2

∆x = ∫ v(t ')dt ' =

0

3s

(

1 6

m/s

3s

3

)∫ t '

3s 0

2

dt '

⎡ t '3 ⎤ = ⎢ 1 m/s3 ⎥ = 1.50 m 6 3 ⎦0 ⎣

(

)

(c) The average velocity is given by:

vave =

∆x 1.5 m = = 0.500 m/s ∆t 3s ∆v ∆t

(d) Use Newton’s 2nd law to express the average force exerted on the box by the man:

Fav = maav = m

258 Chapter 4

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fav:

Fav = (24 kg )

1.5 m/s − 0 m/s = 12.0 N 3s

96 •• Picture the Problem The application of Newton’s 2nd law to the glider and the hanging weight will lead to simultaneous equations in their common acceleration a and the tension T in the cord that connects them. Once we know the acceleration of this system, we can use a constant-acceleration equation to predict how long it takes the cart to travel r r 1 m from rest. Note that the magnitudes of T and T ' are equal. (a) The free-body diagrams are shown to the right. m1 represents the mass of the cart and m2 the mass of the hanging weight.

(b) Apply

∑F

x

= ma x to the cart

T − m1 g sin θ = m1a1 and m2 g − T = m2 a2

and the suspended mass:

Letting a represent the common accelerations of the two objects, eliminate T between the two equations and solve a: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a:

a=

m2 − m1 sin θ g m1 + m2 0.075 kg − (0.270 kg )sin30° 0.075 kg + 0.270 kg × 9.81 m/s 2

a=

(

)

= − 1.71 m/s 2

i.e., the acceleration is down the incline. Substitute for a in either of the force equations to obtain: (c) Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the displacement of the cart down the incline to its initial speed and acceleration: Solve for ∆t:

T = 0.863 N ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) 2

or, because v0 = 0,

2

∆x = 1 a (∆t ) 2 2∆x a

2

∆t =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t:

∆t =

2(1 m ) = 1.08 s 1.71 m/s 2

and simplify to obtain: (d) The rope sags and so F has both vertical and horizontal components. r *98 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block. the rope and the block have a common acceleration. Because the surface of the wedge is frictionless. the force it exerts on the block must be normal to its surface. with its horizontal component being r less than F . (a) Apply a = Fnet / mtot to the ropeblock system to obtain: (b) Apply r r a= F m1 + m2 ∑ F = ma to the rope. because ay = 0 and w = mg. r r substitute the acceleration of the system obtained in (a).Newton’s Laws 259 97 •• Picture the Problem Note that. and simplify to obtain: ⎛ F ⎞ Fnet = m2 a = m2 ⎜ ⎜m +m ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 m2 F = m1 + m2 ⎛ F ⎞ T = m1a = m1 ⎜ ⎜m +m ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 m1 F = m1 + m2 (c) Apply ∑ F = ma to the block. Consequently. the only force that influences our solution is F . The figure misrepresents the situation in that each segment of the rope experiences a gravitational force. a will be somewhat smaller. the combined effect of which is that the rope must sag. (a) Apply to obtain: ∑F y = ma y to the block Fn sin 30° − w = ma y or. Fn sin 30° − mg = 0 or . Because the surface is horizontal r and smooth. r r substitute the acceleration of the system obtained in (a). Choose the coordinate system shown on the diagram. while the mass of the rope is distributed over its length.

e.0 m/s 2 ( ) (b) An acceleration of the wedge greater than g cot30° would require that the normal force exerted on the body by the wedge be greater than that given in part (a). i. Under this condition.3 N 9 T0 − T = 5mg − and . there would be a net force in the y direction and the block would accelerate up the wedge.260 Chapter 4 Fn sin 30° = mg Apply (1) (2) ∑F x = ma x to the block: Fn cos 30° = max ax = cot 30° g Divide equation (2) by equation (1) to obtain: Solve for and evaluate ax: a x = g cot 30° = 9.81 m/s 2 cot 30° = 17. it follows that T0 = 5mg. 99 •• Picture the Problem Because the system is initially in equilibrium. When one washer is removed on the left side. The free-body diagrams show the forces under this unbalanced condition. Fn > mg/sin30°. Applying Newton’s 2nd law to each collection of washers will allow us to determine both the acceleration of the system and the mass of a single washer. (a) Apply masses: Apply ∑F y y = ma y to the rising T − 4mg = (4m )a 5mg − T = (5m )a (1) ∑F = ma y to the (2) descending masses: Eliminate T between these equations to obtain: Use this acceleration in equation (1) or equation (2) to obtain: Express the difference between T0 and T and solve for m: a=1g 9 T= 40 mg 9 40 mg = 0. the remaining washers will accelerate upward (and those on the right side downward) in response to the net force that results..

45 m/s 2 T= T= 15 mg 4 15 (0. The acceleration can then be found from the given data. and g. relate the distance the washers fell to their time of fall: ∆y = v0 ∆t + 1 a(∆t ) 2 or.Newton’s Laws 261 m = 0. Apply ∑F ∑F y = ma y to the rising = ma y to the T – (5 – N)mg = (5 – N)ma washers: Apply y (5 +N)mg – T = (5 + N)ma descending washers: Add these equations to eliminate T: (5 + N )mg − (5 − N )mg = (5 − N )ma + (5 + N )ma 2 Nmg = 10ma N = 5a/g Simplify to obtain: Solve for N: Using a constant-acceleration equation. because v0 = 0. a.81m/s ) = 2 2.0 g (b) Proceed as in (a) to obtain: T – 3mg = 3ma and 5mg – T = 5ma Eliminate T and solve for a: Eliminate a in either of the motion equations and solve for T to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: a=1g= 4 1 4 (9. 2 ∆y = 1 a(∆t ) 2 2 .81m/s2 4 ( ) = 2.03 N 100 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram represents the Atwood’s machine with N washers moved from the left side to the right side.0550 kg = 55.0550 kg ) 9. Application of Newton’s 2nd law to each collection of washers will result in two equations that can be solved simultaneously to relate N.

81 m/s 2 ⎟ = 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 101 •• Picture the Problem Draw the free-body diagram for the block of mass m and apply Newton’s 2nd law to obtain the acceleration of the system and then the tension in the rope connecting the two blocks.471 m ) = 5. (a) Letting T be the tension in the connecting string.89 m/s 2 ⎞ N = 5⎜ ⎜ 9.89 m/s 2 2 (0.40 s ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: Substitute in the expression for N: a= ⎛ 5.262 Chapter 4 Solve for the acceleration: a= 2∆y (∆t )2 2(0. apply Fx = ma x to the block of T – F1 = ma ∑ mass m: Apply ∑F x = ma x to both blocks F2 – F1 = (m + 2m)a = (3m)a to determine the acceleration of the system: Substitute and solve for a: Substitute for a in the first equation and solve for T: (b) Substitute for F1 and F2 in the equation derived in part (a): Evaluate this expression for T = T0 and t = t0 and solve for t0: a = (F2 – F1)/3m T= 1 3 (F2 + 2F1 ) T = (2Ct +2Ct)/3 = 4Ct/3 t0 = 3T0 4C .

The application of Newton’s 2nd law to the object whose mass is m2 will connect the acceleration of this body to tension from Problem 84. In Problem 84 it is given that. the tension in the rope and the acceleration of the masses are related according to: Replace a with a + g: T= 2m1m2 g m1 + m2 T= 2m1m2 (a + g ) m1 + m2 Apply ∑F y = ma y to the object whose mass is m2 and solve for a2: T – m2g = m2a2 and a2 = T − m2 g m2 Substitute for T and simplify to obtain: a2 = (m1 − m2 )g + 2m1a m1 + m2 The expression for a1 is the same as for a2 with all subscripts interchanged (note that a positive value for a1 represents acceleration upward): a1 = (m2 − m1 )g + 2m2a m1 + m2 .Newton’s Laws 263 *102 ••• Picture the Problem Because a constantupward acceleration has the same effect as an increase in the acceleration due to gravity. when the support pulley is not accelerating. we can use the result of Problem 89 (for the tension) with a replaced by a + g.

264 Chapter 4 .

Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the object to determine how the critical acceleration depends on its weight. the weight of the object. Of these forces. 265 . the only one that acts in the direction of the acceleration (chosen to be to the right in the free-body diagram) is the friction force. apply ΣFx = max and solve for ax: f = µsw = µsmg = max and ax = µsg Because ax is independent of m and w. also exerted by the floor of the truck. Of these forces. The forces acting on an object are the normal force exerted by the floor of the truck. Taking the positive x direction to be to the right. the only one that acts in the direction of the acceleration (chosen to be to the right in the free-body diagram) is the friction force.Chapter 5 Applications of Newton’s Laws Conceptual Problems 1 • Determine the Concept Because the objects are speeding up (accelerating). and the friction force. *2 • Determine the Concept The forces acting on an object are the normal force exerted by the floor of the truck. the weight of the object. also exerted by the floor of the truck. the critical accelerations are the same. there must be a net force acting on them. The force of friction between the object and the floor of the truck must be the force that causes the object to accelerate. and the friction force.

. the weight of the r block mg exerted by the earth. Apply ∑F x = 0 to the block: fs − mgsinθ = 0 fs = mgsinθ and (d ) is correct. r r r r r r Fn + mg + f s = 0 We can apply Newton’s 2nd law in the x direction to determine the relationship between fs and mg. and f s . We can use the definition of µs and the conditions for equilibrium to determine the relationship between µs and θ. Solve for fs: .e. i. *4 • Determine the Concept The block is in equilibrium under the influence of Fn . and the static friction force f s exerted by an external agent. Apply Apply r r ∑F ∑F x = ma x to the block: = ma y in the y fs − mgsinθ = 0 Fn − mgcosθ = 0 (1) (2) y direction: Divide equation (1) by equation (2) to obtain: Substitute for fs (≤ µsFn): tan θ = fs Fn tan θ ≤ µs Fn Fn = µs and (d ) is correct.266 Chapter 5 3 • Determine the Concept The forces acting on the block are the normal force Fn exerted by the incline. mg.

We can apply Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of fs. Apply ∑ F = ma to the motorcycle: r r ∑ Fx = Fn = m and v2 R . The centripetal force is the static friction force exerted by the roadway on the tires. max = m and 2 vmax R ∑F y = Fn − mg = 0 From the y equation we have: Express fs. keeps the cycle from sliding down the wall.707vmax ≈ 71%vmax and (b) is correct.max in terms of Fn in the x equation and solve for vmax: Fn = mg vmax = µs gR or vmax = constant µs ' Express v'max for µs = 1 µs : 2 v'max = constant µs 2 = . µsFn.max to derive an expression for vmin. *6 •• Picture the Problem The normal reaction force Fn provides the centripetal force and the force of static friction. Apply ∑ F = ma to the car: r r ∑ Fx = fs.Applications of Newton’s Laws 267 5 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on the car as it rounds a curve of radius R at maximum speed are shown on the free-body diagram to the right. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the car to derive an expression for its maximum speed and then compare the speeds under the two friction conditions described.

9 km/h 7 •• Determine the Concept As the spring is extended.max = µsFn vmin = Rg µs vmin = (6 m )(9. One interesting application of this to the real world is the bowing of a violin string: The string under tension acts like the spring. nor (d) can be correct. the block will begin to move. *10 • Determine the Concept We can analyze these demonstrations by drawing force diagrams for each situation. (a) cannot be correct. the force exerted by the spring on the block increases. and n denotes ″normal″. The velocity of an object moving in a circle is continually changing independently of whether the object’s speed is changing. decreasing the force that the spring exerts on the block. eliminate Fn between the force equations. In both diagrams. (c). and solve for vmin: Assume that R = 6 m and µs = 0.8 = 8. As this happens. m denotes ″magnetic″. while the bow acts as the block. it will shorten the length of the spring. Because the velocity of a particle moving along a circular path is continually changing.81m/s2 ) 0. 8 • True. as it accelerates.58 m/s = 30. Once that force is greater than the maximum value of the force of static friction on the block. neither (b). However. 9 • Determine the Concept A particle traveling in a vertical circle experiences a downward gravitational force plus an additional force that constrains it to move along a circular path. which starts the cycle over again.8 and solve for vmin: y = f s − mg = 0 fs = fs. Because the net force acting on the particle will vary with location along its trajectory. h denotes ″hand″. The change in the velocity vector and the acceleration vector and the net force acting on the object all point toward the center of circle.268 Chapter 5 ∑F For the minimum speed: Substitute for fs. (e) is correct. This center-pointing force is called a centripetal force. the string periodically sticks and frees itself from the bow. g denotes ″gravitational″. the force of kinetic friction can then slow the block to a stop. . so as the bow is dragged across the string.

Because the initial distance from block 1 to the pulley is the same as the initial distance of block 2 to the wall. the acceleration of block 1. The terminal speed of an object is given by vt = (mg b ) . T1 = T2. but the motion of the iron is not restrained by the table. the force exerted on the iron must be less than its (the iron’s) weight. slowing it down. to the right (T1 = T2) will always be greater than the acceleration of block 2 to the left. Note that. the magnet will catch up to the iron piece as they fall. Because of this. the net force pulling the magnet down is greater than its weight. 13 • 1n Determine the Concept The terminal speed of a sky diver is given by vt = (mg b ) . 12 • 1n True. The sky diver’s orientation as she falls . where b depends on the shape and area of the falling object as well as upon the properties of the medium in which the object is falling.Applications of Newton’s Laws 269 (a) Demonstration 1: Demonstration 2: (b) Because the magnet doesn’t lift the iron in the first demonstration. which is identical to block 2. r r The only force pulling block 2 to the left is the horizontal component of the tension. where b depends on the shape and area of the falling object as well as upon the properties of the medium in which the object is falling. This is still true when the two are falling. and the motion of the magnet is not restrained by the hand. so its acceleration will be less than g. while T1 ≠ T2 . *11 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams show the forces acting on the two objects some time after block 2 is dropped. The opposite is true for the iron: the magnetic force acts upwards. Because this force is smaller than the magnitude of the tension. implying that its acceleration is greater than g. Looking at the second diagram. block 1 will hit the pulley before block 2 hits the wall.

Point A: the weight is downward and the normal force is to the right. in the direction of the centripetal force that keeps you moving in a circle. (d ) is correct. Point D: both the weight and the normal forces are downward. and the normal force is greater than the weight so that their difference is the centripetal force. that is. Point C: the weight is downward and the normal force is to the left. Free-body diagram 3 Free-body diagram 4 Free-body diagram 5 Free-body diagram 2 . the direction of the force must point toward the center of the circular path along which you are traveling. The reason you seem to be "pushed" to the outside of the curve is that your body’s inertia "wants" . The friction between you and the seat you are sitting on supplies this force. this force is equal in magnitude to the force the moon exerts on the earth. Point B: the weight is downward. 16 • Determine the Concept The only forces acting on the block are its weight and the force the surface exerts on it. in accordance with Newton’s law of inertia. Because the loop-the-loop surface is frictionless. the force it exerts on the block must be perpendicular to its surface. tangent to the curve. (d ) is correct.270 Chapter 5 determines the surface area she presents to the air molecules that must be pushed aside. *15 • Determine the Concept The centripetal force that keeps the moon in its orbit around the earth is provided by the gravitational force the earth exerts on the moon. As described by Newton’s 3rd law. the normal force is upward. to keep it moving in a straight line–that is. 14 •• Determine the Concept In your frame of reference (the accelerating reference frame of the car).

The drag force can be inferred from the average and rolling friction forces and the drag coefficient from the defining equation for the drag force. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to calculate the average force from the rate at which the car’s speed decreases and the rolling force from its definition. Express the net force acting on the falling object: Substitute for FD under terminal speed conditions and solve for the terminal speed: Fnet = mg − FD = ma 2 mg − 1 CAρvT = 0 2 or vT = 2mg CAρ Thus. where A is the projected surface area. as the drag force increases as v2. (a) Apply ∑F x = max to the car to relate the average force acting on it to its average velocity: Fav = maav = m ∆v ∆t . An interesting point is that the average drag force acting on the rock will be larger than that acting on the feather precisely because the rock’s average speed is larger than the feather's. v is the object’s speed. From this. and thus be continually speeding up as it falls. the feather will reach its terminal velocity quickly. if not dropped from a great height. the terminal speed will be relatively high. the terminal velocity depends on the ratio of the mass of the object to its surface area. spread-out object like a feather. and C a dimensionless coefficient. For a rock.Applications of Newton’s Laws 271 17 •• Picture the Problem Assume that the drag force on an object is given by the Newtonian formula FD = 1 CAρv 2 . Estimation and Approximation *18 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces on the Tercel as it slows from 60 to 55 mph. a rock. Another issue is that the higher the terminal velocity is. and fall at an almost constant speed very soon after being dropped. the opposite is true. the longer it takes for a falling object to reach terminal velocity. This is another reminder that force is not the same thing as acceleration. for a lightweight. which has a relatively small surface area compared to its mass. will have almost the same acceleration as if it were in freefall for the duration of its fall. ρ 2 is the density of air.

r.81 m/s 2 = 200 N (b) Using its definition.5 mi mi 1.609 km = 57.7 m/s ) 3 )( ) = 0. In parts (d) and (e).91 m 2 (25.5 × h h mi 1h 103 m × × 3600 s km = 25. and v to show that. we can apply Newton’s 2nd law under terminal velocity conditions to find the terminal velocity of the sky diver near the surface of the earth and at a height of 8 km. Newton’s expression is consistent dimensionally with our result from part (b).21 kg/m 1. (a) Solve the drag force equation for b with n = 1: b= Fd v . express their relationship and solve for and evaluate the drag force: (c) Convert 57.609 × × h mi 3600 s km = 581 N 3. for n = 2.7 m/s and Using the definition of the drag force and its calculated value from (b) and the average speed of the car during this 5 mph interval.272 Chapter 5 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fav: Fav = (1020 kg ) 5 mi km 1h 1000 m × 1.02 )(1020 kg ) 9. solve for C: Substitute numerical values and evaluate C: Fdrag = 1 Cρ Av 2 ⇒ C = 2 2 Fdrag ρ Av 2 C= ( 2(381 N ) 2 1. express and evaluate the force of rolling friction: ( ) Assuming that only two forces are acting on the car in the direction of its motion.92 s f rolling = µ rolling Fn = µ rolling mg = (0.5 mi/h to m/s: Fav = Fdrag + Frolling Fdrag = Fav − Frolling = 581 N − 200 N = 381 N 57.499 19 • Picture the Problem We can use the dimensions of force and velocity to determine the dimensions of the constant b and the dimensions of ρ.

81m/s 2 2 π 0.9 m/s (e) Evaluate vt at a height of 8 km: vt = 2(56 kg ) 9. apply Fy = ma y to the sky diver: mg − 1 ρπr 2 vt2 = 0 2 ∑ Solve for and evaluate vt: vt = 2mg = ρπ r 2 2(56 kg ) 9.514 kg/m 3 (0.2 kg/m 3 (0.9 m/s .3 m ) ( ( ) ) = 56.Applications of Newton’s Laws 273 Substitute the dimensions of Fd and v and simplify to obtain: ML 2 [b] = TL = M T T and the units of b are kg/s (b) Solve the drag force equation for b with n = 2: Substitute the dimensions of Fd and v and simplify to obtain: b= Fd v2 ML 2 [b] = T 2 = M L ⎛L⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝T ⎠ and the units of b are kg/m (c) Express the dimensions of Newton’s expression: [Fd ] = [1 ρπr 2v 2 ] = ⎛ M ⎞(L )2 ⎛ L ⎞ ⎜ 3⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝L ⎠ ⎝T ⎠ = ML T2 2 2 From part (b) we have: [Fd ] = [bv 2 ] = ⎛ M ⎞⎛ L ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠⎝ T ⎠ = ML T2 (d) Letting the downward direction be the positive y direction.81 m/s 2 2 π 1.3 m ) ( ( ) ) = 86.

Using b = 1 πρ r 2 .08 × 10 kg 3 Express the relationship between vt and the weight of a falling object under terminal speed conditions and solve for vt: Use numerical values to evaluate vt.71 × 10 −7 kg/m and ( )( ) 2 bh = 1 π 1.5 × 10 −3 m ) (103 kg/m 3 ) mr = 3 −7 = 5.274 Chapter 5 20 •• Picture the Problem From Newton’s 2nd law.81 m/s 2 7. Take the radius of a raindrop rr to be 0. the equation describing the motion of falling raindrops and large hailstones is mg – Fd = ma where Fd = 1 ρπ r 2v 2 = bv 2 is the 2 drag force.r = (5.r and vt.30 m/s and vt.08 ×10 kg 9. the drag force is equal to the weight of the falling object.71× 10 −7 kg/m −7 )( ) = 3. Under terminal speed conditions (a = 0).81 m/s 2 4.0 m/s .54 × 10 −4 kg/m Express the mass of a sphere in terms of its volume and density: Using ρr = 103 kg/m3 and ρh = 920 kg/m3.24 × 10 kg and mh = 4π (2 × 10 −2 m ) (920 kg/m 3 ) 3 −2 = 3.5 mm and the radius of a golf-ball sized hailstone rh to be 2 cm.h: bvt2 = mg ⇒ vt = mg b vt.5 × 10 −3 m 2 = 4.2 kg/m 3 2 × 10 −2 m 2 = 7.2 kg/m 3 0. evaluate mr and mh: ( )( ) 2 m = ρV = 4π r 3 ρ 3 3 4π (0.54 × 10 −4 kg/m −2 )( ) = 20.24 ×10 kg 9.h = (3. evaluate br and bh: 2 br = 1 π 1.

e. Fapp . r r r Fn + mg + f k = 0 We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to determine the relationship between fk.Applications of Newton’s Laws 275 Friction *21 • Picture the Problem The block is in equilibrium under the influence of Fn . r r r r mg.e. and f k . i. express the coefficient of kinetic friction: Apply µk = fk Fn (1) ∑F x = max to the block: fk − mgsinθ = max = 0 because ax = 0 fk = mgsinθ Solve for fk: Apply ∑F y = ma y to the block: Fn − mgcosθ = may = 0 because ay = 0 Fn = mgcosθ Solve for Fn: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: µk = mg sin θ = tan θ mg cos θ and (b) is correct.. Using its definition. 22 • Picture the Problem The block is in equilibrium under the influence of Fn . r r r mg. and mg. Solve for fk: . Apply ∑F x = max to the block: Fapp − fk = max = 0 because ax = 0 fk = Fapp = 20 N and (e) is correct. r r r r Fn + mg + Fapp + f k = 0 We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to determine fk.. θ. and f k . i.

Calculate the maximum static friction force: (a) Because fs.max or T is greater.max = µsFn = µsw .0 N f = fk = µkw = (0. Apply ∑F x = max to the block: T cosθ − fk = max = 0 because ax = 0 fk = T cosθ and (b) is correct.max = µsFn = µsw = (0. We can apply the definition of the maximum static friction to decide whether fs.max: fs.8)(20 N) = 16 N f = fs = T = 15.e. f k .. r r r T + f k + mg = 0 We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to determine the relationship between T and fk . and mg.max > T: (b) Because T > fs. i.6)(20 N) = 12.0 N 24 • Picture the Problem The block is in equilibrium under the influence of the r r r forces T. Calculate the maximum static fs.276 Chapter 5 *23 • Picture the Problem Whether the friction force is that due to static friction or kinetic friction depends on whether the applied tension is greater than the maximum static friction force. Solve for fk: 25 • Picture the Problem Whether the friction force is that due to static friction or kinetic friction depends on whether the applied tension is greater than the maximum static friction force.

its acceleration is zero and it is in equilibrium under the influence of Fapp . the box does not move and : 26 • Picture the Problem Because the box is moving with constant velocity. and r r r r f . The definition of µk is: µk = fk Fn Apply ∑F ∑F y = ma y to the box: Fn – w = may = 0 because ay = 0 Fn = w = 600 N Solve for Fn: Apply x = max to the box: ΣFx = Fapp – f = max = 0 because ax = 0 Fapp = fk = 250 N Solve for fk: Substitute to obtain µk: µk = (250 N)/(600 N) = 0.417 27 • Picture the Problem Assume that the car is traveling to the right and let the positive x direction also be to the right. we can use a constant-acceleration equation to determine the least stopping distance.6)(100 kg)(9.max > Fapp.e. . Once we know the car’s maximum acceleration. w . We can use Newton’s 2nd law of motion and the definition of µs to determine the maximum acceleration of the car.Applications of Newton’s Laws 277 friction force: = (0. i.. Fn . r r r r Fapp + Fn + w + f = 0 We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to determine the relationship between f and mg.81 m/s2) = 589 N Fapp = f s = 500 N Because fs.

89 m/s 2 2 ( ) (a) Because µs > µ k .max = µs g = (0. relate the stopping distance of the car to its initial velocity and its acceleration and solve for its displacement: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆x: *28 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the drive wheels. f will be greater if the wheels do not slip. (b) Apply Apply ∑F y x = max to the car: fs = µsFn = max (1) ∑F = ma y to the car and Fn − 1 mg = ma y 2 Because ay = 0. We can use the definition of acceleration and apply Newton’s 2nd law to the horizontal and vertical components of the forces to determine the minimum coefficient of friction between the road and the tires. because v = 0.max = −µsFn = max Fn − w = may = 0 or.max: ax. the ones we’re assuming support half the weight of the car.4 m 2 − 5.89 m/s 2 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. Fn = mg (1) ∑F = ma y to the car and solve for Fn: (2) Substitute (2) in (1) and solve for ax. ∆x = 2 − v0 2a ∆x = − (30 m/s ) = 76. because ay = 0.6)(9.81 m/s 2 ) = − 5. Fn − 1 mg = 0 ⇒ Fn = 1 mg 2 2 solve for Fn: Find the acceleration of the car: ax = ∆v (90 km/h )(1000 m/km ) = 12 s ∆t = 2.08 m/s 2 .278 Chapter 5 (a) Apply Apply ∑F y x = max to the car: −fs. or.

4 Fn = . Note that the normal force is the same on either side of the book because it is not accelerating in the horizontal direction.1 N = 123 N 0. Let the horizontal direction be the x direction and upward the y direction. The normal force is the net force the student exerts in squeezing the book.81 m/s 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ax: 29 • Picture the Problem The block is in equilibrium under the influence of the forces shown on the free-body diagram.424 9. We can use Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of µs to solve for fs and Fn. µs = (a) Apply ∑F y = ma y to the block f s − mg = ma y or.Applications of Newton’s Laws 279 Solve equation (1) for µs: µs = ma x 2a x = 1 g 2 mg 2(2. The book could be accelerating downward. In part (b). We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to relate the minimum force required to hold the book in place to its mass and to the coefficients of static friction.max µs 49.81 m/s 2 ) = 49. because ay = 0.1 N (b) Use the definition of µs to express Fn: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn: 30 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the book.08 m/s 2 ) = 0. we can proceed similarly to relate the acceleration of the Fn = f s. and solve for fs: f s − mg = 0 Solve for and evaluate fs: f s = mg = (5 kg )(9.

We can use the definition of the coefficient of static friction and Newton’s 2nd law to relate the angle of the incline to the forces acting on the car.81m/s2 ) = 0.1 F + µ k.2 ∑F Noting that F1'. The friction force that the ground exerts on the tires is the force fs shown acting up the incline.1 + µs. (a) Apply ∑ F = ma to the book: r r ∑F and x = F2. solve the y equation for Fmin: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fmin: (b) Apply y Fmin = Fmin = (10.min . + µk .2 kg )(9.min − mg = 0 mg µ.min + µ s.2 F2'.min = F2' .min − F1.27 m/s 2 31 • Picture the Problem A free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the car is shown to the right.2 kg = − 4.32 + 0.16 208 N ∑F y = ma y with the ∑F y = µ k .09 (195 N ) − 9.2 + 0.280 Chapter 5 book to the coefficients of kinetic friction.81 m/s 2 10.min = 0 = µ s .2 m F−g Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a = 0.2 F − mg = ma book accelerating downward. Apply ∑ F = ma to the car: r r ∑F and x = f s − mg sin θ = 0 = Fn − mg cos θ = 0 (1) (2) ∑F Solve equation (1) for fs and equation (2) for Fn: and y f s = mg sin θ .1 F1'. to obtain: Solve for a to obtain: a= µk .

(a) Method 2 is preferable as it reduces Fn and. therefore.max = µsFn = µs(mg + Fsinθ) (1) Method 1: Apply ∑F y = ma y to the block and solve for Fn: Relate fs. increasing the normal force and the static friction force. (b) Apply ∑F x = max to the box: F cosθ − fs = Fcosθ − µsFn = 0 Fn – mg − Fsinθ = 0 ∴ Fn = mg + Fsinθ fs. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to obtain expressions that relate the maximum static r friction force to the applied force F .08) = 4.Applications of Newton’s Laws 281 Fn = mg cos θ Use the definition of µs to relate fs and Fn: Solve for and evaluate θ : µs = f s mg sin θ = = tan θ Fn mg cos θ θ = tan −1 (µs ) = tan −1 (0. reducing the normal force and the static friction force.max to Fn: Express the condition that must be satisfied to move the box by either method: Method 1: Substitute (1) in (3) and solve for F: Fn – mg + Fsinθ = 0 and Fn = mg − Fsinθ fs. Method 1 results in the box being pushed into the floor.max = Fcosθ (2) (3) F1 = µ s mg cosθ − µ s sin θ (4) .max = µsFn = µs(mg − Fsinθ) fs..57° *32 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams for the two methods are shown to the right. f s.max to Fn: Method 2: Apply ∑F y = ma y to the forces in the y direction and solve for Fn: Relate fs. Method 2 partially lifts the box.

For values of µs less than the value found in part (a) required for equilibrium.282 Chapter 5 Method 2: Substitute (2) in (3) and solve for F: Evaluate equations (4) and (5) with θ = 30°: F2 = µ s mg cosθ + µ s sin θ (5) F1 (30°) = 520 N F2 (30°) = 252 N F1 (0°) = F2 (0°) = µ s mg = 294 N Evaluate (4) and (5) with θ = 0°: 33 • Picture the Problem Draw a free-body diagram for each object. and substitute in (1): Fn. In the absence of friction. The friction force is indicated by f without subscript.3. because v0 =0. the system will accelerate and the fall time for a given distance can be found using a constantacceleration equation. it is f s for (a) and f k for (b). and the 2-kg box will move down. the 3-kg box will move to the right. which is constant: µs = m2 = 0. solve for Fn.667 m3 2 ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a(∆t ) 2 or. (a) Apply box: Apply r r r ∑F y x = max to the 3-kg T – fs = 0 because ax = 0 (1) ∑F ∑F = ma y to the 3-kg box.3 – m3g = 0 because ay = 0 and T – µs m3g = 0 m2g – T = 0 because ax = 0 (2) (3) Apply x = max to the 2-kg box: Solve (2) and (3) simultaneously and solve for µs: (b) The time of fall is related to the acceleration. ∆x = 1 a(∆t ) 2 2 Solve for ∆t: ∆t = 2 ∆x a (4) .

The pictorial representation summarizes what we know about the motion.Applications of Newton’s Laws 283 Apply ∑F x = max to each box: T – µk m3g = m3a and m2g – T = m2a (5) (6) Add equations (5) and (6) and solve for a: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a= (m2 − µk m3 )g m2 + m3 [2 kg − 0.16 m/s 2 34 •• Picture the Problem The application of Newton’s 2nd law to the block will allow us to express the coefficient of kinetic friction in terms of the acceleration of the block. A free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the block is shown to the right.36 s 2.3(3 kg )](9. Apply Apply ∑F x = max to the block: = ma y to the block and – fk = −µkFn = ma Fn – mg = 0 because ay = 0 and Fn = mg (1) ∑F y solve for Fn: (2) .81m/s2 ) a= 2 kg + 3 kg = 2. We can then use a constant-acceleration equation to determine the block’s acceleration.16 m/s 2 Substitute numerical values in equation (4) and evaluate ∆t: ∆t = 2(2 m ) = 1.

v0 = v. Under the influence of the forces shown in the free-body diagrams. the blocks will have a common acceleration a.1 – m1gcos30° = 0 (1) r r (2) (3) Using fk = µkFn. followed by the elimination of the tension T and the use of the definition of fk. 0 = v 2 + 2ad − v2 2d a= Substitute for a in equation (3) to obtain: µk = v2 2 gd *35 •• Picture the Problem We can find the speed of the system when it has moved a given distance by using a constantacceleration equation. because v1 = 0. solve for its speed: Apply Fnet = ma to the block whose mass is m1: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x and. substitute (3) in (2) to obtain: Apply T – µk m1g cos30° – m1gsin30° = m1a ∑F x = max to the block m2g – T = m2a whose mass is m2: Add the last two equations to eliminate T and solve for a to a= (m2 − µk m1 cos 30° − m1 sin 30°)g m1 + m2 . Using a constant-acceleration equation. v = 2a∆x ΣFx = T – fk – m1gsin30° = m1a and ΣFy = Fn. will allow us to determine the acceleration of the system. because v0 = 0. relate the initial and final velocities of the block to its displacement and acceleration: Solve for a to obtain: µk = −a/g 2 v12 = v0 + 2a∆x (3) or. relate the speed of the system to its acceleration and displacement. The application of Newton’s 2nd law to each block. and ∆x = d.284 Chapter 5 Substitute (2) in (1) and solve for µk: Using a constant-acceleration equation.

+ = 3. ( ) 36 •• Picture the Problem Under the influence of the forces shown in the free-body diagrams.Applications of Newton’s Laws 285 obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate v: a = 1.614 kg ∴ 0.to determine the range of values of m2 for which the system is in static equilibrium: m2 = m1 (± µs cos 30° + sin 30°) = (4 kg )[± (0. substitute (2) in (1) to obtain: Apply ΣFx = T ± fs.+ and the value of m2 with the minus sign as m2. followed by the elimination of the tension T and the use of the definition of fs.4) cos 30° + sin 30°] (5) m2. the blocks are in static equilibrium. (a) Apply ∑ F = ma to the block r r whose mass is m1: Using fs.835 m/s and (a ) is correct. While fs can be either up or down the incline. the free-body diagram shows the situation in which motion is impending up the incline.39 kg .1 – m1gcos30° = 0 (1) (2) (3) T ± µ s m1 g cos 30° − m1 g sin 30° = m1a m2g – T = 0 ∑F x = max to the block (4) whose mass is m2: Add equations (3) and (4) to eliminate T and solve for m2: Evaluate (5) denoting the value of m2 with the plus sign as m2. The application of Newton’s 2nd law to each block.max = µsFn.= 0.3 m ) = 0.16 m/s 2 v = 2 1.39 kg and m 2.max – m1gsin30° = 0 and ΣFy = Fn.. will allow us to determine the range of values for m2.614 kg ≤ m2 ≤ 3.16 m/s 2 (0..

81 m/s2) = 9. will allow us to determine the acceleration of the system. Apply ∑ F = ma to the block r r whose mass is m1: Using fk = µkFn. we can substitute for the tension in either of the motion equations to determine the acceleration of the masses.1 – m1gcos30° = 0 (1) (2) (3) T − µ k m1 g cos 30° − m1 g sin 30° = m1a m2g – T = m2a ∑F x = max to the block (4) whose mass is m2: Add equations (3) and (4) to eliminate T and solve for a to obtain: Substituting numerical values and evaluating a yields: a= (m2 − µk m1 cos 30° − m1 sin 30°)g m1 + m2 a = 2. The application of Newton’s 2nd law to each block. substitute (2) in (1) to obtain: Apply ΣFx = T – fk – m1gsin30° = m1a and ΣFy = Fn. Apply Fx = max to the block T + fs – m1gsin30° = 0 (6) ∑ whose mass is m1: Apply ∑F x = max to the block m2g – T = 0 (7) whose mass is m2: Add equations (6) and (7) and solve for and evaluate fs: fs = (m1sin30° – m2)g = [(4 kg)sin30° – 1 kg](9.36 m/s 2 .81 N 37 •• Picture the Problem Under the influence of the forces shown in the free-body diagrams. the blocks will have a common acceleration a. followed by the elimination of the tension T and the use of the definition of fk.286 Chapter 5 (b) With m2 = 1 kg. the impending motion is down the incline and the static friction force is up the incline. Finally.

∆xmin = 2 − v0 2amax r r ΣFx = – fs. solve for the stopping distance: Apply Fnet = ma to the block: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x T = 37. Assume that the truck is moving in the positive x direction and apply Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of fs.max ≡ µsFn and amax = −µsg = − (0.943 m/s2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆xmin: ∆xmin = − (80 km/h ) (1000 km/m ) (1 h/3600 s ) = 9.max to find the shortest stopping distance.3 N or. in turn. determined by the maximum value of the static friction force. Using a constant-acceleration equation.Applications of Newton’s Laws 287 Substitute for a in equation (3) to obtain: *38 •• Picture the Problem The truck will stop in the shortest possible distance when its acceleration is a maximum. The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the box as the truck brakes to a stop.81 m/s2) = −2.3)(9. The maximum acceleration is.16 m 2 − 2. since v = 0.943 m/s 2 2 2 2 ( ) .max = mamax and ΣFy = Fn – mg = 0 (1) (2) Using the definition of fs. solve equations (1) and (2) simultaneously for a: fs. relate the truck’s stopping distance to its acceleration and initial velocity.max.

6 m/s 2 . relate the final velocity of the block to its initial velocity. acceleration.2 m/s)2 − (14 m/s)2 a= 2(8 m ) = −10. (a) Draw a free-body diagram for the block as it travels up the incline: Apply ∑ F = ma to the block: r r ΣFx = – fk – mgsin37°= ma and ΣFy = Fn – mg cos37° = 0 (1) (2) Substitute fk = µkFn and Fn from (2) in (1) and solve for µk: µk = − g sin 37° − a g cos 37° a = − tan 37° − g cos 37° Using a constant-acceleration equation. the difference between the weight component and the friction force will be the net force. When it is moving down the incline.288 Chapter 5 39 •• Picture the Problem We can find the coefficient of friction by applying Newton’s 2nd law and determining the acceleration from the given values of displacement and initial velocity. the sum of the kinetic friction force and a component of the object’s weight will combine to bring the object to rest. and displacement: Solving for a yields: 2 v12 = v0 + 2a∆x (3) a= 2 v12 − v0 2∆x Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: (5. During its motion up the incline. We can find the displacement and speed of the block by using constant-acceleration equations.

6 m/s 2 µ k = − tan 37° − 9.25 m ) = 4. The friction force the road exerts on the tires and the component of the car’s weight along the incline combine to provide the net force that stops the car.25 m 2 − 10. . fk is in the positive x direction: Solve for a as in part (a): Use the same constant-acceleration equation used in part (b) to obtain: Set v0 = 0 and solve for v: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: ∆x = − (14 m/s ) = 9. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to determine the acceleration of the car and a constant-acceleration equation to obtain its stopping distance. The pictorial representation summarizes what we know about the motion of the car.21 m/s 2 (− 9.599 (b) Use the same constantacceleration equation used above but with v1 = 0 to obtain: Solve for ∆x to obtain: 2 0 = v0 + 2a∆x ∆x = 2 − v0 2a Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆x: (c) When the block slides down the incline.73 m/s ( ) 40 •• Picture the Problem We can find the stopping distances by applying Newton’s 2nd law to the automobile and then using a constant-acceleration equation.Applications of Newton’s Laws 289 Substitute for a in (3) to obtain: − 10.81m/s 2 cos37° ( ) = 0.6 m/s 2 2 ( ) ΣFx = fk – mgsin37°= ma and ΣFy = Fn – mgcos37° = 0 a = g (µ k cos 37° − sin 37°) = −1.21 m/s 2 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x v = 2a∆x v = 2 − 1.

17 m/s 2 2 ( ) .290 Chapter 5 (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. relate the final speed of the car to its initial speed. solve for its displacement: Draw the free-body diagram for the car going up the incline: 2 v12 = v0 + 2amax ∆xmin or. because v1 = 0.17 m/s 2 ∆xmin = − (30 m/s ) = 49.max = µsFn and Fn from (2) in (1) and solve for a: Substitute numerical values in the expression for ∆xmin to obtain: (b) Draw the free-body diagram for the car going down the incline: amax = − g (µ s cos 15° + sin 15°) = −9. acceleration. ∆xmin = 2 − v0 2amax Apply ∑ F = ma to the car: r r ΣFx = −fs.1 m 2 − 9. and displacement.max – mgsin15° = ma and ΣFy = Fn – mgcos15° = 0 (1) (2) Substitute fs.

7 ) 9.4mg = 0 (1) (2) Use the definition of fs.max – mgsin15° = ma and ΣFy = Fn – mgcos15° = 0 Proceed as in (a) to obtain amax: amax = g (µs cos15° − sin 15°) = 4. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to determine the acceleration of the car and a constant-acceleration equation to calculate how long it takes it to reach 100 km/h.81 m/s 2 = 2.09 m/s 2 Again.max in equation (1) and eliminate Fn between the two equations to obtain: (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. Apply r r F = ma to the car: ∑ ΣFx = fs. relate the initial and final a = 0. (a) Because 40% of the car’s weight is on its two drive wheels and the accelerating friction forces act just on these wheels.4(0.max = ma and ΣFy = Fn – 0.Applications of Newton’s Laws 291 Apply r r F = ma to the car: ∑ ΣFx = fs.75 m/s 2 ( ) v1 = v0 + a∆t .4µs g = 0. the free-body diagram shows just the forces acting on the drive wheels. The pictorial representation summarizes what we know about the motion of the car.09 m/s 2 2 ( ) 41 •• Picture the Problem The friction force the road exerts on the tires provides the net force that accelerates the car. proceed as in (a) to obtain the displacement of the car: ∆xmin = 2 (30 m/s ) = 110 m − v0 = 2amax 2 4.

µ(ma min ) − mg = 0 and amin = g µs = 9. t1 = v1 a t1 = (100 km/h )(1h/3600 s )(1000 m/km) = 2.max – mg = 0 (1) (2) Substitute µFn for fs.6 N fs. the acceleration of the cart and box must be great enough so that the static friction force acting on the box will equal the weight of the box. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to determine the minimum acceleration required. eliminate Fn between the two equations and solve for and evaluate amin: (b) Solve equation (2) for fs.max = 19. the box will not fall if a ≥ g µs .1s *42 •• Picture the Problem To hold the box in place. Let down the incline be the positive x direction. and substitute numerical values and evaluate fs.max: (c) If a is twice that required to hold the box in place.81 m/s2) = 19.max.4 m/s 2 0.max = mg = (2 kg)(9. Draw the freebody diagrams for each block and apply Newton’s second law of motion and the definition of the kinetic friction force to each block to obtain simultaneous . fs will still have its maximum value given by: µFn − mg = 0 .81 m/s 2 = 16.292 Chapter 5 velocities of the car to its acceleration and the elapsed time.75 m/s 2 10.max in equation (2). 43 •• Picture the Problem Note that the blocks have a common acceleration and that the tension in the string acts on both blocks in accordance with Newton’s third law of motion. solve for the time: Substitute numerical values and evaluate t1: or. because v0 = 0 and ∆t = t1.6 N (d) Because g µs is amin . (a) Apply ∑ F = ma to the box: r r ΣFx = Fn = mamin and ΣFy = fs.6 fs.

1m1gcosθ + T1 + m1gsinθ = m1ax (4) Apply ∑ F = ma to the block: r r ΣFx = − fk. (6).2 and Fn.Applications of Newton’s Laws 293 equations in ax and T. and (3) to obtain: Draw the free-body diagram for the block whose mass is m2: −µk.2 – T2 + m2gsinθ = m2ax and ΣFy = Fn.1 between (1).1Fn.1 = µk.1 (1) (2) (3) The relationship between fk. Draw the free-body diagram for the block whose mass is m1: Apply ∑ F = ma to the upper block: r r ΣFx = −fk.1 is: Eliminate fk.2 is: Eliminate fk.2Fn.1 + T1 + m1gsinθ = m1ax and ΣFy = Fn.1 and Fn.2m2gcosθ – T2 + m2gsinθ = m2ax (8) .2 (5) (6) (7) The relationship between fk. and (7) to obtain: −µk.1 – m1gcosθ = 0 fk.2 = µk.2 – m2gcosθ = 0 fk. (2).1 and Fn.2 between (5).2 and Fn.

1 and Fn.2 m2 ⎡ ⎤ a x = ⎢sin θ − k.1 1 cosθ ⎥ g m1 + m2 ⎣ ⎦ a x = − 0.1 between the equations for block 1 and fk. T is the force transmitted by the stick. it can be either tensile (T > 0) or compressive (T < 0). (b) Eliminate ax between equations (4) and (8) and solve for T = T1 = T2 to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: *44 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the two blocks as they slide down the incline.2 = m2 a = Fn.1 between the equations for block 2 to obtain: and y m1 a = m1 g sin θ + T − µ1 m1 g cos θ m 2 a = m2 g sin θ − T − µ 2 m 2 g cos θ . we can obtain equations in T and a from which we can eliminate either by solving them simultaneously. (a) Apply T= m1m2 (µ k. use the definition of the kinetic friction force to eliminate fk.1 )g cosθ m1 + m2 T = 0.294 Chapter 5 Noting that T2 = T1 = T. Once we have expressed T.2 − m2 g cos θ = 0 (1) (2) ∑F Apply y ∑ F = ma to block 2: r r ∑F and x ∑F Letting T1 = T2 = T. add equations (4) and (8) to eliminate T and solve for ax: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ax to obtain: µ m + µ k. Down the incline has been chosen as the positive x direction. By applying Newton’s 2nd law to these blocks.1 − m1 g cos θ = 0 = m2 g sin θ − T2 − f k.184 N ∑ F = ma to block 1: r r ∑F and x = T1 + m1 g sin θ − f k.965 m/s 2 where the minus sign tells us that the acceleration is directed up the incline.1 = m1a = Fn. the role of the stick will become apparent.2 and Fn.2 − µ k.

the stick must exert no force on either block. therefore.1Fn.1 − T = 0 and ΣFy = Fn.Applications of Newton’s Laws 295 Add equations (1) and (2) to eliminate T and solve for a: ⎛ ⎞ µ m + µ 2 m2 a = g ⎜ sin θ − 1 1 cosθ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ m1 + m2 ⎝ ⎠ a = g sin θ + and (b) Rewrite equations (1) and (2) by dividing both sides of (1) by m1 and both sides of (2) by m2 to obtain. Draw the free-body diagrams for each block and apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion and the definition of the static friction force to each block to obtain simultaneous equations in θc and T. 45 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the orientation of the two blocks on the inclined surface.1 and Fn.1 – m1gcosθc = 0 fs. Inserting a stick between them can' t change this.1 = µs. T − µ1 g cosθ m1 T − µ 2 g cos θ m2 ⎞ ⎟(µ1 − µ 2 )g cosθ ⎟ ⎠ (3) a = g sin θ − Subtracting (4) from (3) and rearranging yields: (4) ⎛ mm T= ⎜ 1 2 ⎜m −m 2 ⎝ 1 acceleration of g (sinθ − µ cosθ ).1 (1) (2) (3) The relationship between fs.1 is: . (a) Draw the free-body diagram for the lower block: If µ1 = µ 2 . T = 0 and the blocks move down the incline with the same Apply ∑ F = ma to the block: r r ΣFx = m1gsinθc – fs.

1 kg + 0.6)(0.2 between (5).1m1 + µs.2 kg ) + (0.296 Chapter 5 Eliminate fs. (2). (6).1 between (1).2 m2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ m1 + m2 ⎦ T = m1 g (sin θ C − µs.2Fn.8°) for the lower block.2 kg ⎣ ⎦ = 25.2 is: Eliminate fs.2 and Fn.2m2gcosθc = 0 (8) θ c = tan −1 ⎢ ⎡ (0.0° (b) Because θc is greater than the angle of repose (tan−1(µs.4) = 21.2 – m2gcosθc = 0 fs.1) = tan−1(0. Solve equation (4) for T: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: ⎡ µs. and (7) to obtain: Add equations (4) and (8) to eliminate T and solve for θc: T + m2gsinθc – µs.2 = µs.1m1gcosθc − T = 0 (4) Apply r r F = ma to the block: ∑ ΣFx =T + m2gsinθc – fs.1 kg )⎤ = tan −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0.2 (5) (6) (7) The relationship between fs. and (3) to obtain: Draw the free-body diagram for the upper block: m1gsinθc − µs.2 and Fn.4)(0.118 N ( ) .2 = 0 and ΣFy = Fn.1 cos θ C ) T = (0.4 )cos25°] = 0. it would slide if T = 0.2 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 [sin25° − (0.1 and Fn.

2Fn.2 = µk.2 – m2gcos20° = 0 fk.2 (5) (6) (7) Express the relationship between fk.1 – T = m1a and ΣFy = Fn.1 = µk.1: Eliminate fk.1 (1) (2) (3) Express the relationship between fk.1 and Fn.1 and Fn.1m1 g cos 20° − T = m1a (4) Apply block: ∑ F = ma to the upper r r ΣFx = T + m2gsin20° − fk.Applications of Newton’s Laws 297 46 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the orientation of the two blocks with a common acceleration on the inclined surface.1Fn. (2).2 and Fn. Draw the free-body diagrams for each block and apply Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of the kinetic friction force to each block to obtain simultaneous equations in a and T.1 − m1gcos20° = 0 fk.2 = m2a and ΣFy = Fn.2 : . and (3) to obtain: Draw the free-body diagram for the upper block: m1 g sin 20° − µ k.1 between (1). (a) Draw the free-body diagram for the lower block: Apply block: r r F = ma to the lower ∑ ΣFx = m1gsin20° − fk.

298 Chapter 5 Eliminate fk. under equilibrium conditions. The horizontal component is responsible for any tendency to move and equals the static friction force until it exceeds its maximum value. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the box.2 m2 g cos 20° = m2 a (8) ⎛ ⎞ µ m + µ 2 m2 a = g ⎜ sin 20° − 1 1 cos 20° ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ m1 + m2 ⎝ ⎠ a = 0. to relate F to θ.2 between (5). as θ approaches 90°. hence. FH approaches zero and no movement will be initiated. (2).2 and Fn. the rod is under compression. and the maximum value of the static-frictional force is proportional to the normal force FN. (b) Apply ∑ F = ma to the block: r r ΣFx =Fcosθ – fs = 0 and ΣFy = Fn + Fsinθ – mg = 0 (1) (2) Assuming that fs = fs.e. As θ increases from 0..max. If F is large enough and if θ increases from 0. then at some value of θ the block will start to move. *47 •• Picture the Problem The vertical r component of F reduces the normal force. The normal force is equal to the weight minus the vertical component FV of the force F. the static friction force between the surface and the block. i. the decrease in FN is larger than the decrease in FH.944 m/s 2 T = − 0. so the object is more and more likely to slip. Keeping the magnitude F constant while increasing θ from zero results in a decrease in FV and thus a corresponding decrease in the maximum static-frictional force fmax. However.426 N . An increase in θ results in a decrease in FH. (a) The static-frictional force opposes the motion of the object. and (7) to obtain: Add equations (4) and (8) to eliminate T and solve for a: Substitute the given values and evaluate a: (b) Substitute for a in either equation (4) or equation (8) to obtain: T + m2 g sin 20° − µ k. The object will begin to move if the horizontal component FH of the force F exceeds fmax. eliminate fs and Fn between equations (1) and (2) and solve for F: F= µ s mg cosθ + µ s sin θ .

Remarks: An alternative to manually plotting F as a function of θ or using a spreadsheet program is to use a graphing calculator to enter and graph the function. 240 235 230 225 220 215 210 205 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 F (N) theta (degrees) From the graph. we can see that the minimum value for F occurs when θ ≈ 32°. 48 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block. to relate F to θ and then set its derivative with respect to θ equal to zero to find the value of θ that minimizes F. (a) Apply r r F = ma to the block: ∑ ΣFx =Fcosθ – fs = 0 and ΣFy = Fn + Fsinθ – mg = 0 (1) (2) . We can apply Newton’s 2nd law.Applications of Newton’s Laws 299 Use this function with mg = 240 N to generate the table shown below: θ F (deg) (N) 0 240 10 220 20 210 30 206 40 208 50 218 60 235 The following graph of F(θ) was plotted using a spreadsheet program. under equilibrium conditions.

so the angle can be decreased. once the block is moving the coefficient of friction will decrease. The horizontal component is responsible for any tendency to move and equals the static friction force until it exceeds its maximum value. An analysis identical to the one above shows that the minimum force one should apply to keep the block moving should be applied at an angle given by θ min = tan −1 µ k . We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the box. .max. under equilibrium conditions. to relate F to θ. 49 •• r Picture the Problem The vertical component of F increases the normal force and the static friction force between the surface and the block. eliminate fs and Fn between equations (1) and (2) and solve for F: F= µ s mg cosθ + µ s sin θ (3) To find θmin. differentiate F with respect to θ and set the derivative equal to zero for extrema of the function: (cosθ + µs sin θ ) d (µs mg ) µs mg d (cosθ + µs sin θ ) dF dθ dθ = − dθ (cosθ + µs sin θ )2 (cosθ + µs sin θ )2 µ mg (− sin θ + µs cosθ ) = s = 0 for extrema (cosθ + µs sin θ )2 Solve for θmin to obtain: (b) Use the reference triangle shown below to substitute for cosθ and sinθ in equation (3): θ min = tan −1 µ s Fmin = µ s mg 1 1+ µ 2 s + µs µs 1 + µ s2 = µ s mg 1 + µ s2 1 + µ s2 = µs 1 + µ s2 mg (c) The coefficient of kinetic friction is less than the coefficient of static friction. Therefore.300 Chapter 5 Assuming that fs = fs.

1400 1200 1000 F (N) 800 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 theta (degrees) (a) From the graph we see that: θ min = 0° . eliminate fs and Fn between equations (1) and (2) and solve for F: F= µ s mg cosθ − µ s sin θ Use this function with mg = 240 N to generate the table shown below. (b) Apply ∑ F = ma to the block: r r ΣFx =Fcosθ – fs = 0 and ΣFy = Fn – Fsinθ – mg = 0 (1) (2) (3) Assuming that fs = fs. F increases the normal force exerted by the surface and the static friction force.Applications of Newton’s Laws 301 (a) As θ increases from zero. plotted using a spreadsheet program. one would expect F to continue to increase. As the horizontal component of F decreases with increasing θ. θ F (deg) (N) 0 240 10 273 20 327 30 424 40 631 50 1310 60 very large The graph of F as a function of θ. confirms our prediction that F continues to increase with θ.max.

1 = m1a1 and ΣFy = Fn.1: (b) Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the 100-kg mass: fk.1 = m1a1 = (20 kg)(4 m/s2) = 80.1 and the friction force fk. Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of kinetic friction forces can be used to determine the various forces and the acceleration called for in this problem. Remarks: An alternative to the use of a spreadsheet program is to use a graphing calculator to enter and graph the function. 50 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on each of these masses are shown in the freebody diagrams below. (a) Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the 20-kg mass: Apply ∑ F = ma to this mass: r r ΣFx = fk. As described by Newton’s 3rd law.1 – m1g = 0 (1) (2) Solve equation (1) for fk.2) act on both masses but in opposite directions. m1 represents the mass of the 20-kg mass and m2 that of the 100-kg mass.1 (= fk. the normal reaction force Fn.0 N Apply ∑F x = max to the 100-kg Fnet = m2 a2 object and evaluate Fnet: = (100 kg ) 6 m/s 2 = 600 N ( ) .302 Chapter 5 (b) Evaluate equation (3) for θ = 0° to obtain: (c) F= µs mg = µs mg cos 0° − µs sin 0° You should keep the angle at 0°.

238 (60 kg ) 9.80 m/s 2 m 100 kg ∑ F = ma to the 60-kg = max to the 100-kg r r ΣFx = F − fk. the normal reaction force Fn.1 = fk.1 and f k .2) act on both objects but in opposite directions.81m/s2 µk = ( ( ) ) a2 = µ k m1 g m2 .1 = µ km1g (4) µk = F − m1a1 m1 g 320 N − (60 kg ) 3 m/s 2 = 0. (a) Apply block: F = Fnet + fk.2 = fk = µ kFn.2 = 600 N + 80 N = 680 N a= Fnet 680 N = = 6.1 = m1a1 and ΣFy = Fn.Applications of Newton’s Laws 303 Express F in terms of Fnet and fk.1 (= fk.2: (c) When the 20-kg mass falls off.2 = m2a2 (1) (2) (3) Apply block: ∑F x Using equation (2).1 – m1g = 0 fk. the 680-N force acts just on the 100-kg mass and its acceleration is given by Newton’s 2nd law: 51 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on each of these blocks are shown in the freebody diagrams to the right.1 and the friction force fk. express the relationship between the kinetic r r friction forces f k . m1 represents the mass of the 60-kg block and m2 that of the 100-kg block. Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of kinetic friction forces can be used to determine the coefficient of kinetic friction and acceleration of the 100-kg block. 2 : Substitute equation (4) into equation (1) and solve for µ k: Substitute numerical values and evaluate µ k: (b) Substitute equation (4) into equation (3) and solve for a2: fk. As described by Newton’s 3rd law.

The free-body diagram for the truck climbing the incline with maximum acceleration is shown to the right.. Apply Fx = max to the truck under ∑ these conditions: Substitute equation (3) into equation (4) and solve for a: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a = − g (µs cos12° + sin 12°) a = − 9.max to obtain: Substitute equation (3) into equation (1) and solve for a: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a = g (µs cos12° − sin 12°) a = (9.2 m/s 2 . the static friction force points down the incline.max = µsmgcos12° (1) (2) (3) Solve equation (2) for Fn and use the definition of fs.81 m/s 2 )[(0.max – mgsin12° = ma and ΣFy = Fn – mgcos12° = 0 fs.81 m/s 2 ( )[(0.85)cos12° + sin 12°] = − 10.e.81m/s 2 ) 100 kg = 1. (a) Apply ∑ F = ma to the truck r r when it is climbing the incline: ΣFx = fs. its direction is reversed on the FBD.304 Chapter 5 Substitute numerical values and evaluate a2: a2 = (0.12 m/s 2 – fs.238)(60 kg )(9.40 m/s 2 *52 •• Picture the Problem The accelerations of the truck can be found by applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion. i.max – mgsin12° = ma (4) (b) When the truck is descending the incline with maximum acceleration.85) cos12° − sin 12°] = 6.

max and f s . express the relationship between the static friction forces f s . 2.1 – m1g = 0 ΣFx = F – fs.max = m2amax and ΣFy = Fn. Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of the maximum static friction force can be used to determine the maximum force acting on the 4-kg block for which the 2-kg block does not slide.m2g = 0 fs.3)(2 kg ) × 9. (a) Apply block: ∑ F = ma to the 2-kg r r r r ΣFx = fs.1. As described by Newton’s 3rd law.max = fs.2) act on both objects but in opposite directions.max = m1amax and ΣFy = Fn.1.1 .3)g = 2.1 and the friction force fs.Applications of Newton’s Laws 305 53 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on each of the blocks are shown in the freebody diagrams to the right.2.max : Substitute (5) in (1) and solve for amax: Solve equation (3) for F = Fmax: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fmax: r r amax = µsg = (0.1.7 N ( ( 2 ) ) (b) Use Newton’s 2nd law to express the acceleration of the blocks moving as a unit: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a= F m1 + m2 a= 1 2 (17.81 m/s = 17.7 N ) 2 kg + 4 kg = 1.2 – Fn.1 (= fs.2.max = µs m1g (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Apply ∑ F = ma to the 4-kg block: Using equation (2).94 m/s 2 + (0. the normal reaction force Fn.47 m/s 2 . m1 represents the mass of the 2-kg block and m2 that of the 4-kg block.94 m/s2 Fmax = m2 amax + µs m1 g Fmax = (4 kg ) 2.

96 m/s 2 ∑F x = max to relate the F − µkm1g = m2a2 acceleration of the 4-kg block to the net force acting on it: Solve for a2: a2 = F − µ k m1 g m2 2(17. for the static friction case. then m1 slips on m2 and the friction force (now kinetic) is given by: Use fs = m1a = (2 kg)(1.47 m/s2) = 2.2)g = 1.1 and the friction force fs. Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of the maximum static friction force can be used to determine the maximum acceleration of the block whose mass is m1. on the free-body diagrams to the right.81 m/s 2 4 kg Substitute numerical values and evaluate a2: a2 = ( ) = 7.1. As described by Newton’s 3rd law.94 N f = fk = µkm1g ∑F x = max to relate the acceleration of the 2-kg block to the net force acting on it and solve for a 1: Use fk = µkm1g = m1a1 and a1 = µkg = (0.7 N ) − (0.87 m/s 2 54 •• Picture the Problem Let the positive x direction be the direction of motion of these blocks.306 Chapter 5 Because the friction forces are an action-reaction pair. the normal reaction force Fn.2 )(2 kg ) 9.max = m1amax and (1) . The forces acting on each of the blocks are shown.2) act on both objects but in opposite directions.1 (= fs. (a) Apply block: ∑ F = ma to the 2-kg r r ΣFx = fs. the friction force acting on each block is given by: (c) If F = 2Fmax.

Applications of Newton’s Laws 307 ΣFy = Fn.5 kg f = fk = µkm1g (c) If m3 = 30 kg. the a2 = a3 = = (9.81m/s )[30 kg − (0.max = m2amax and ΣFy = Fn.4)(5 kg )] 2 g (m3 − µ k m1 ) m2 + m3 10 kg + 30 kg = 6. then m1 will slide on m2 and the friction force (now kinetic) is given by: Use ∑F x = max to relate the m3g – T = m3a3 (8) acceleration of the 30-kg block to the net force acting on it: Noting that a2 = a3 and that the friction force on the body whose mass is m2 is due to kinetic friction.2 – Fn.2. add equations (3) and (8) and solve for and evaluate the common acceleration: With block 1 sliding on block 2.1.max and f s .6 = 22.89 m/s 2 T = (m1 + m2) amax (6) ∑F x = ma x to express the acceleration of the blocks moving as a unit: Apply ∑F x = max to the object m3g – T = m3 amax (7) whose mass is m3: Add equations (6) and (7) to eliminate T and then solve for and evaluate m3: m3 = µs (m1 + m2 ) (0. 2.max = fs.6)g = 5.87 m/s 2 fk = µkm1g = m1a1 (1′) . express the relationship between the static r r friction forces f s .2.max : Substitute (5) in (1) and solve for amax: (b) Use amax = µsg = (0.1 – m1g = 0 Apply block: (2) (3) (4) (5) ∑ F = ma to the 4-kg r r ΣFx = T – fs.max = µs m1g Using equation (2).1.1 – m2g = 0 fs.6)(10 kg + 5 kg ) = 1 − µs 1 − 0.

81 m/s 2 ) = 88. Once we know the acceleration of the block.308 Chapter 5 friction force acting on each is kinetic and equations (1) and (3) become: Solve equation (1′) for and evaluate a 1: T – fk = T – µkm1g = m2a2 (3′) a1 = µ k g = (0. The free-body diagrams show the forces acting on both the block (M) and the counterweight (m). (a) Apply r r ∑ F = ma to the block r r ∑F and x = T1 − Mg sin θ − f k = Ma = Fn − Mg cosθ = 0 = mg − T2 = ma (1) on the incline: ∑F Apply y ∑ F = ma to the r r ∑F x counterweight: Letting T1 = T2 = T and using the definition of the kinetic friction force.3 N 55 • Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion be the positive x direction.92 m/s 2 T = m2 a2 + µ k m1 g ( ) Solve equation (3′) for T: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = (10 kg ) (6. T1 = T2. we can obtain equations in T and a from which we can eliminate the tension.81 m/s 2 = 3. By applying Newton’s 2nd law to these blocks. eliminate fk and Fn between the equations for the block on the incline to obtain: Eliminate T from equations (1) and (2) by adding them and solve for a: T − Mg sin θ − µ k Mg cos θ = Ma (2) a= m − M (sin θ + µ k cos θ ) g m+M . While T1 ≠ T2 .4 ) 9.4 )(5 kg ) (9. we can use constant-acceleration equations to determine how far it moves in coming to a momentary stop.87 m/s 2 ) + (0.

although it is still sliding up the incline. (a) and (b) Apply ∑ F = ma to the r r 10-kg block when it is experiencing its maximum acceleration: ΣFx = fs.2 – m2g = 0 (1) (2) .81m/s 2 = 0.Applications of Newton’s Laws 309 Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a= 550 kg − (1600 kg ) (sin 10° + 0.254 m/s 2 56 ••• Picture the Problem If the 10-kg block is not to slide on the bracket.15 cos10°) 9.81 m/s 2 [sin 10° + (0. Substitute in equation (3) and evaluate ∆x: (c) When the block is sliding down the incline. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of fs.max to first calculate the maximum acceleration and then the maximum value of F.489 m/s ) = 0. so it has an initial speed of : From equation (2) we can see that.163 m/s2)(3 s) = 0. the maximum r value for F must be equal to the maximum value of fs and will produce the maximum acceleration of this block and the bracket.15 m/s 2 ( ) where the minus sign indicates that the block is being accelerated down the incline.max – F = m2a2. relate the speed of the block at the instant the rope breaks to its acceleration and displacement as it slides to a stop.489 m/s a = − g (sin θ + µ k cos θ ) = − 9. because vf = 0. ∆x = − vi2 2a (3) (0.163 m/s2 550 kg + 1600 kg ( ) (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation.15) cos10°] ( ) = − 0. the kinetic friction force will be up the incline.15 m/s 2 2 ( ) a = − g (sin θ − µ k cos θ ) = − 9.max and ΣFy = Fn. when the rope breaks (T = 0) and: vf2 = vi2 + 2a∆x or. Express the block’s acceleration: − (0.81 m/s 2 [sin 10° − (0. Solve for its displacement: The block had been accelerating up the incline for 3 s before the rope broke.15)cos10°] = −3.0380 m ∆x = 2 − 3.

max (4) (5) ∑F x = max to the bracket to obtain: Because a1.max 2F – µsm2g = m1a1. Apply r r Fi = ma to the block when ∑i ∑F and x = − f k − mg V sin θ = maup = Fn − mg V cosθ = 0 (1) it is moving up the incline: ∑F Using the definition of fk.2 (3) µsm2g – F = m2a2. we can obtain expressions for the accelerations of the block up and down the incline.81m/s2 ) 5 kg + 2(10 kg ) = 1.4)(10 kg )(9.310 Chapter 5 Express the static friction force acting on the 10-kg block: Eliminate fs.max.5 N [ ( ) ] *57 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block as it is moving up the incline.81 m/s 2 − 1.4) 9. By applying Newton’s 2nd law. will lead to values for gV and µk. Eliminate F from equations (4) and (5) and solve for amax: Substitute numerical values and evaluate amax: amax = µs m2 g m1 + 2m2 amax = (0.max and Fn.57 m/s 2 = 23. eliminate Fn between the two equations to obtain: y aup = − µ k g V cos θ − g V sin θ . (2) and (3) to obtain: Apply fs.2 from equations (1).max = a2.57 m/s 2 Solve equation (4) for F = Fmax: Substitute numerical values and evaluate F: F = µs m2 g − m2 amax = m2 (µs g − amax ) F = (10 kg ) (0. Adding and subtracting these equations.max = µsFn. denote this acceleration by amax. together with the data found in the notebook.

and secondly. the block will move up the incline.8° ⎣ 3.42 glapp/plipp 2 gV = = − 8.73 glapp ⎤ ⎥ = 10.191 2 − 8. if pushed. first.82 glapp ⎦ (3) (4) Determine θ from the figure: θ = tan −1 ⎢ Substitute the data from the notebook in equation (4) to obtain: 1. We can find the range of values for m for the two situations described in the problem statement by applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion to.41glapp/plipp 2 cos10. fk is in the positive x direction. and the normal force exerted on it by the inclined surface. the conditions under which the block will not move or slide if pushed.Applications of Newton’s Laws 311 When the block is moving down the incline.8° ( ) *58 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the block sliding down the incline under the influence of a friction force.41glapp/plipp 2 − 2 sin 10. (a) Assume that the block is sliding down the incline with a constant velocity and with no hanging weight ∑F and x = − f k + Mg sin θ = 0 = Fn − Mg cosθ = 0 r r (m = 0) and apply ∑ F = ma to ∑F y .73 glapp/plipp 2 + 1. its weight. and its acceleration is: Add equations (1) and (2) to obtain: Solve equation (3) for gV: adown = µ k g V cos θ − g V sin θ (2) aup + adown = −2 g V sin θ gV = aup + adown − 2 sin θ ⎡ 0.8° Subtract equation (1) from equation (2) to obtain: Solve for µk: adown − aup = 2µ k g V cos θ µk = adown − aup 2 g V cosθ Substitute numerical values and evaluate µk: µk = − 1.73 glapp/plipp 2 = 0.42 glapp/plipp 2 − 1.

2)cos18°] = 11.9 kg Mg sinθ + µkMg cosθ < mg mmin > M (sinθ + µk cosθ) = (100 kg)[sin18° + (0.325 mmin = 0 Mgsinθ – µkMgcosθ ≥ mg mmax ≤ M (sin θ − µ k cos θ ) mmax ≤ (100 kg )[sin 18° − (0. this condition is satisfied and: To find the maximum value.9 kg Mg sinθ + µs Mg cosθ > mg mmax < M (sinθ + µs cosθ) = (100 kg)[sin18° + (0. the component of the block’s weight parallel to the incline minus the frictional force must be greater than or equal to the tension in the rope: Solve for mmax: Substitute numerical values and evaluate mmax: The range of values for m is: (b) If the block is being dragged up the incline. For the block to move down the incline.2)cos18°] = 49.312 Chapter 5 the block: Using fk = µkFn. and: Solve for and evaluate mmin: Fnet = − µ k Mg cosθ + Mg sin θ (− µ k cosθ + sin θ )Mg ≥ 0 µ k ≤ tan θ = tan 18° = 0.9 kg .9 kg ≤ m ≤ 68.9 kg If the block is not to move unless pushed: Solve for and evaluate mmax: The range of values for m is: 49. this net force must be nonnegative and: This condition requires that: Because µk = 0. the frictional force will point down the incline.9 kg 0 ≤ m ≤ 11. eliminate Fn between the two equations and solve for the net force acting on the block: If the block is moving. note that the maximum possible value for the tension in the rope is mg.4)cos18°] = 68.2.

57 N ΣFx = Fnsinθ + fscosθ = ma and ΣFy = Fncosθ – fssinθ – mg = 0 (4) (5) r r F = ma to the block: ∑ Proceed as above to obtain: amax = g sin θ + µs cosθ cosθ − µs sin θ ° ) sin35°°+ ((0.max = µsFn (1) (2) (3) Under minimum acceleration.8 sin35 Substitute numerical values and evaluate amax: amax = 9.8 sin35° = −0. (a) Apply block: r r F = ma to the 0.max.8))cos35° cos35 + 0. Express the relationship between fs.627 m/s2) = − 1. Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the block and solve the resulting equations for amin and amax.5 kg block when the acceleration is a minimum.5-kg ∑ ΣFx = Fnsinθ – fscosθ = ma and ΣFy = Fncosθ + fssinθ – mg = 0 fs.max for fs in equation (2) and solve for Fn: Substitute for Fn in equation (1) and solve for a = amin: Substitute numerical values and evaluate amin: Fn = mg cosθ + µs sin θ amin = g sin θ − µs cos θ cosθ + µs sin θ amin = 9.Applications of Newton’s Laws 313 59 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the 0. r reverse the direction of f s and apply Fmin = mtotamin = (2. Note the choice of coordinate system is consistent with the direction of r F .81m/s 2 = 33.5 m/s 2 ( .max and Fn: Substitute fs.81 m/s 2 ( ) sin35°°− ((0.5 kg)( –0.627 m/s 2 Treat the block and incline as a single object to determine Fmin: To find the maximum acceleration.8))cos35° cos35 − 0. fs = fs.

Note that the acceleration of the block is opposite its direction of motion.5 N f k = µ k Fn = (1 + 2.5 kg)(33.3 ×10 0. on a horizontal surface. (a) Relate the force of kinetic friction to µk and the normal force acting on the sliding wooden object: Substitute v = 10 m/s and evaluate fk : Fmax = mtotamax = (2.5 m/s2) = 83.11 −4 v2 ) 2 mg fk = (1 + 2. the normal force acting on the sliding block is the block’s weight.11(100 kg ) 9. The acceleration and stopping distance of the blocks can be found from constant-acceleration equations.81 m/s 2 (10 m/s) 2 2 ) )= 103 N (b) Substitute v = 20 m/s and evaluate fk: fk = 0.3 ×10 ( −4 0. Because the surface is horizontal.4 to obtain: 60 • Picture the Problem The kinetic friction force fk is the product of the coefficient of sliding friction µk and the normal force Fn the surface exerts on the sliding object.5 N 61 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the block sliding from left to right and coming to rest when it has traveled a distance ∆x. Let the direction of motion of the sliding blocks be the positive x direction.75 N and Fmax = 37. Note that the direction of the motion is opposite that of the block’s acceleration.8 N Fmin = 5. .11(100 kg ) 9. we can see that.81 m/s 2 −4 (20 m/s) ( 2 2 ) ) = 90.314 Chapter 5 Treat the block and incline as a single object to determine Fmax: (b) Repeat (a) with µs = 0. By applying Newton’s 2nd law in the vertical direction. the normal force is the weight of the sliding object.3 ×10 (1 + 2.

relate the block’s stopping distance to its initial speed and acceleration.60 m/s 2 2 ( ) a=− (0. In the spreadsheet program.4(mg ) =− m (0. under the assumption that µk = 0.81m/s2 )] 0. calculate the increase in the block’s speed from its acceleration and the elapsed time and add this increase to its speed at end of the previous time interval.81m/s 2 )]0.4)[(100 kg )(9.x − f k 0.11 m/s 2 2 ( ) *62 ••• Picture the Problem The kinetic friction force fk is the product of the coefficient of sliding friction µk and the normal force Fn the surface exerts on the sliding object. we’ll find the acceleration of the block from this net force (which is velocity dependent).91 100 kg = − 2.11. introduce Konecny’s empirical expression. 2 − v0 ∆x = 2a (1) ∑F x = max to the sliding block. .4)[(10 kg )(9. on a horizontal surface.91 = =− m m m 0.91 0.91 a=− 10 kg = − 2.Applications of Newton’s Laws 315 (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.7 m 2 − 2. the normal force is the weight of the sliding object. By applying Newton’s 2nd law in the vertical direction. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law in the horizontal (x) direction to relate the block’s acceleration to the net force acting on it. solve for the stopping distance: Apply 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x or. and add this distance to its previous position to find its current position. determine how far it has moved in this time interval. using a constant-acceleration equation.11 m/s 2 Find the stopping distance as in (a): − (10 m/s ) ∆x = = 23.2 m 2 − 2. we can see that.4 Fn0. We’ll also calculate the position of the block x2.60 m/s 2 Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate the stopping distance when v0 = 10 m/s: (b) Proceed as in (a) with m = 100 kg to obtain: ∆x = − (10 m/s ) = 19. because v = 0. and solve for the block’s acceleration: Evaluate a with m = 10 kg: a= Fnet.

04 292.01 0.01 0.07 0.75 9.15 0.44 .20 0.37 66.80 mu=variable mu=constant 0.12 0.25 9.40 a 5.23 x x2 x−x2 t 0.316 Chapter 5 The spreadsheet solution is shown below.05 0.00 0.05 step= A C m/s^2 D E F G H I J kg N s t Net force 59.15 0.68 292.81 Coeff1= 0.01 0.00 0.37 10.00 0.04 0.5*5.00 0.92 5.15 0.89 1.03 0.84 6.01 0.11 Coeff2= 2.22 59.04 0.05 0.22 59.01 0.92 x 0.92 5.00 0.20 0.18 1.07 66.00 0. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell Formula/Content C9 C8+$B$6 D9 D8+F9*$B$6 E9 $B$5−($B$3)*($B$2)*$B$5/ (1+$B$4*D9^2)^2 F9 G9 K9 L9 E10/$B$5 G9+D10*$B$6 0.09 0.88 6.25 9.37 295.48 284.03 0.22 0.69 295.19 0.92 5.02 0.06 61.22 59.59 0.15 0.80 v 0.44 281.22 59.48 61.92 5.10 0.22 0.30 0.10 0.00 0.09 0.75 9.89 11.30E04 Mass= 10 Applied 70 Force= Time 0.34 ×10 Fnet / m x + v∆t 2 1 2 at x − x2 t + ∆t v + a∆t µ k mg −4 v2 ) 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 205 206 B g= 9.922*I10^2 J10-K10 Algebraic Form F− (1 + 2.

40 62.63 304.73 62.21 293.74 66.94 66. 300 250 200 x (m) 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 t (s) 6 8 10 mu = variable mu = constant The velocity of the block.15 296.63 304.00 298.97 67.70 6.42 11. with variable coefficient of kinetic friction.61 11. Because the coefficient of friction decreases with increasing particle speed. 70 60 50 v (m/s) 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 t (s) 6 8 10 .85 9.00 61.25 11.70 298. is shown below. is shown as a dotted line.07 62.10 11.89 9.85 9.Applications of Newton’s Laws 317 207 208 209 210 9.00 6.95 10.11) is shown as a solid line on the graph and for a variable coefficient of friction.53 301.69 6.69 6.28 290.91 66.90 9.95 10.79 The displacement of the block as a function of time. the particle travels slightly farther when the coefficient of friction is variable.89 287.90 9.53 301.75 307. for a constant coefficient of friction (µk = 0.75 307.

82 m/s ∆t 0.97 s to obtain: (b) Use equation (3) to find v0: y a = −µ k g ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a(∆t ) 2 2 (2) ∆x = vav ∆t = v0 + v ∆t 2 = 1 v0 ∆t since v = 0.97 s ) ) 2∆x 2(1.37 m and ∆t = 0. eliminate Fn between the two equations to obtain: Use a constant-acceleration equation to relate the acceleration of the block to its displacement and its stopping time: Relate the initial speed of the block. bring it to rest. eventually. (a) Apply of wood: ∑ F = ma to the block r r ∑F and x = − f k = ma = Fn − mg = 0 (1) ∑F Using the definition of fk. to its displacement and stopping distance: Use this result to eliminate v0 in equation (2): Substitute equation (1) in equation (4) and solve for µk: Substitute for ∆x = 1. We can relate the coefficient of kinetic friction to the stopping time and distance by applying Newton’s 2nd law and then using constantacceleration equations. The kinetic friction force will slow the block and. 2 2 (3) ∆x = − 1 a(∆t ) 2 (4) µk = µk = v0 = 2∆x 2 g (∆t ) ( 2(1. v0.37 m ) = 0.81 m/s 2 (0.97 s .318 Chapter 5 63 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block as it moves to the right.37 m ) = = 2.297 2 9.

The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell C7 D7 E7 F7 Formula/Content Algebraic Form θ a TAN(C7*PI()/180) D7/COS(C7*PI()/180) π ⎞ ⎛ tan⎜θ × ⎟ ⎝ 180 ⎠ a π ⎞ ⎛ cos⎜θ × ⎟ ⎝ 180 ⎠ E tan(theta) 0. (b) A spreadsheet solution is shown below.Applications of Newton’s Laws 319 *64 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block as it slides down an incline. if we graph a/cosθ versus tanθ.751 6 7 8 9 C theta 25 27 29 D a 1.554 F a/cos(theta) 1.104 2.691 2. (a) Apply ∑ F = ma to the block r r ∑F and x = mg sin θ − f k = ma = Fn − mg cosθ = 0 as it slides down the incline: ∑F Substitute µkFn for fk and eliminate Fn between the two equations to obtain: Divide both sides of this equation by cosθ to obtain: Note that this equation is of the form y = mx + b: y a = g (sin θ − µ k cos θ ) a = g tan θ − gµ k cos θ Thus.406 .466 0.866 2.362 2.510 0. we should get a straight line with slope g and y-intercept −gµk. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to these forces to obtain the acceleration of the block and then manipulate this expression algebraically to show that a graph of a/cosθ versus tanθ will be linear with a slope equal to the acceleration due to gravity and an intercept whose absolute value is the coefficient of kinetic friction.

7 tan(theta) 0.718 5.320 Chapter 5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 2.62 m/s 2 = 0.7681x .77 m/s 2 ⎞ ⎟ = 0.149 4.77 m/s 2 The percentage error in g from the commonly accepted value of 9.175 3.4 0.5 0.786 4.601 0.0 y = 9.735 5.326 4.81 m/s 2 ⎝ ⎠ 8 7 6 a /cos(theta) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.6 0.77 m/s2 and µ k = 2.000 3.408% 100⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 9.9981 .869 0.649 0.810 0.81 m/s 2 − 9.781 4.370 3. 9.888 3.81 m/s2 is ⎛ 9.268.933 1.338 5.489 3.2.451 7.6154 R2 = 0.8 0. g = 9.259 4.220 A graph of a/cosθ versus tanθ is shown below.700 0.106 0. From the curve fit (Excel’s Trendline was used).732 6.754 0.9 1.

85 m ) ⎦ Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : θ = sin −1 ⎢ ( ) and (c) is correct. The only forces acting on the stone are the tension in the string and the gravitational force.22 s )2 ⎤ ⎥ = 25. and θ : Eliminate T and r between equations (1). (2) and (3) and solve for v2: Express the velocity of the stone in terms of its period: Eliminate v between equations (4) and (5) and solve for θ : v 2 = gL cot θ cosθ 2πr t1 rev (4) v= (5) θ = sin −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ gt12rev ⎞ ⎟ 4π 2 L ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎡ 9. The centripetal force required to maintain the circular motion is a component of the tension.81 m/s 2 (1. L.Applications of Newton’s Laws 321 Motion Along a Curved Path 65 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the stone is superimposed on a sketch of the stone rotating in a horizontal circle. We’ll solve the problem for the general case in which the angle with the horizontal is θ by applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion to the forces acting on the stone.8° 2 ⎣ 4π (0. . Apply ∑ F = ma to the stone: r r ΣFx = Tcosθ = mac = mv2/r and ΣFy= Tsinθ – mg = 0 r = Lcosθ (1) (2) (3) Use the right triangle in the diagram to relate r.

8 m )cot 20° cos 20° 2 = 4. Apply r r F = ma to the stone: ∑ ΣFx = Tcosθ = mac = mv2/r and ΣFy= Tsinθ – mg = 0 r = Lcosθ (1) (2) (3) Use the right triangle in the diagram to relate r.50 m/s 67 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the stone is superimposed on a sketch of the stone rotating in a horizontal circle. L. The only forces acting on the stone are the tension in the string and the gravitational force.81m/s )(0. We’ll solve the problem for the general case in which the angle with the vertical is θ by applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion to the forces acting on the stone. We’ll solve the problem for the general case in which the angle with the horizontal is θ by applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion to the forces acting on the stone.322 Chapter 5 66 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the stone is superimposed on a sketch of the stone rotating in a horizontal circle. and (3) and solve for v: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v = gL cot θ cosθ v= (9. The only forces acting on the stone are the tension in the string and the gravitational force. and θ: Eliminate T and r between equations (1). (a) Apply ∑ F = ma to the stone: r r ΣFx = Tsinθ = mac = mv2/r and (1) . The centripetal force required to maintain the circular motion is a component of the tension. The centripetal force required to maintain the circular motion is a component of the tension. (2).

5 9.5g) = 9.41 m/s T= mg cosθ (b) Solve equation (2) for T: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: *68 •• Picture the Problem The sketch shows the forces acting on the pilot when her plane is at the lowest point of its dive.Applications of Newton’s Laws 323 ΣFy= Tcosθ – mg = 0 Eliminate T between equations (1) and (2) and solve for v: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: (2) v = rg tan θ v= (0.75 kg )(9. (a) Apply T= (0.81 m/s 2 ( ) = 110 m . We’ll apply Newton’s 2nd law for circular motion to determine Fn and the radius of the circular path followed by the airplane.66 kN Solve for and evaluate Fn: (b) Relate her acceleration to her velocity and the radius of the circular arc and solve for the radius: Substitute numerical values and evaluate r : ac = v2 v2 ⇒ r= r ac [(345 km/h )(1h/3600 s )(1000 m/km)] 2 r= 8.81m/s 2 )tan30° = 1.5) (50 kg) (9.35 m )(9. Fn is the force the airplane seat exerts on her.81 m/s2) = 4.5mg = (9.50 N r ∑F y = ma y to the pilot: Fn − mg = mac Fn = mg + mac = m(g + ac) = m(g + 8.81m/s2 ) = cos30° 8.

upward Solve for Fn: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn: 70 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams for the two objects are shown to the right. (a) Her acceleration is centripetal and given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ac: ac = v2 . m2. upward r 3 ac [(180 km/h )(1h/3600 s)(10 = 300 m = 8. upward ( ) ∑F y = ma y to the pilot: Fn – mg = mac Fn = mg + mac = m(g + ac) Fn = (65 kg)(9. We’ll use the definitions of centripetal acceleration and centripetal force and apply Newton’s 2nd law to calculate these quantities and the normal force acting on her.81 m/s2 + 8.33 m/s2) = 1. The application of Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of centripetal force will lead us to an expression for r as a function of m1. The hole in the table changes the direction the tension in the string (which provides the centripetal force required to keep the object moving in a circular path) acts.33 m/s . . upward 2 /km )] 2 (b) The net force acting on her at the bottom of the circle is the force responsible for her centripetal acceleration: (c) Apply Fnet = mac = (65 kg ) 8.18 kN. r Fn is the force the airplane seat exerts on her.33 m/s 2 = 541 N.324 Chapter 5 69 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the forces acting on the pilot when her plane is at the lowest point of its dive. and the time T for one revolution.

We can use Newton’s 2nd law to relate these forces to each other and to the masses and accelerations of the blocks.Applications of Newton’s Laws 325 Apply ∑F x = max to both objects and use the definition of centripetal acceleration to obtain: Because F1 = F2 we can eliminate both of them between these equations to obtain: Express the speed v of the object in terms of the distance it travels each revolution and the time T for one revolution: Substitute to obtain: m2g – F2 = 0 and F1 = m1ac = m1v2/r m2 g − m1 v2 =0 r v= 2πr T m2 g − m1 or 4π 2 r 2 =0 rT 2 4π 2 r m2 g − m1 2 = 0 T Solve for r: r= m2 gT 2 4π 2 m1 *71 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams show the forces acting on each block. Apply ∑F ∑F x = max to the block whose mass is m1: Apply x v12 T1 − T2 = m1 L1 T2 = m2 2 v2 L1 + L2 = max to the block whose mass is m2: Relate the speeds of each block to their common period and their distance from the center of the v1 = 2πL1 2π (L1 + L2 ) and v2 = T T .

34 cm/s vav = ∆r/∆t = (3. and are shown in the lower diagram.5° = 3.06 cm Find the average velocity of the particle along the chords: Using the lower diagram and the fact that the angle between r r v1 and v 2 is 45°.5° = 2. express ∆v in terms of v1 (= v2): Evaluate ∆v using vav as v1: Now we can determine a = ∆v/∆t: ∆v = 2(3. and simplify to obtain: Substitute for T2 and v1 in the first force equation to obtain: ⎛ 2π ⎞ T2 = [m2 (L1 + L2 )] ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ T ⎠ 2 ⎛ 2π ⎞ T1 = [m2 (L1 + L2 ) + m1 L1 ] ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ T ⎠ 2 *72 •• Picture the Problem The path of the particle and its position at 1-s intervals are shown.34 cm/s 2 1s .34 cm/s = 2. substitute for v2.5° a= 2.06 cm/s ∆v = 2v1sin22. The displacement vectors are also shown.06 cm)/(1 s) = 3. The velocity vectors for the average velocities in the first and second r r intervals are along r01 and r12 . r ∆ v points toward the center of the circle. Use the diagram to the right to find ∆r: ∆r = 2rsin22.326 Chapter 5 circle: Solve the first force equation for T2. respectively.5°= 2(4 cm) sin22.06 cm/s)sin22.

The force her r father exerts is F and the angle it makes with respect to the direction we’ve chosen as the positive y direction is θ.05 a 2. Applying Newton’s 2nd law as it describes circular motion will allow us to find both the direction and r magnitude of F .46 cm/s 2 r 4 cm 2 ac = ac 2.14 cm/s T 8s v 2 (3.34 cm/s 2 or ac = 1.46 cm/s 2 = = 1. We can infer her speed from the given information concerning the radius of her path and the period of her motion.14 cm/s) = = 2.Applications of Newton’s Laws 327 Find the speed v (= v1 = v2 …) of the particle along its circular path: Calculate the radial acceleration of the particle: Compare ac and a by taking their ratio: v= 2πr 2π(4 cm ) = = 3. Apply ∑ F = ma to the child: r r ΣFx = Fsinθ = mv2/r and ΣFy = Fcosθ − mg = 0 Eliminate F between these equations and solve for θ : Express v in terms of the radius and period of the child’s motion: Substitute for v in the expression for θ to obtain: θ = tan −1 ⎢ 2πr T ⎡ v2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ rg ⎦ v= θ = tan −1 ⎢ ⎡ 4π 2 r ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎣ gT ⎦ .05a 73 •• Picture the Problem The diagram to the right has the free-body diagram for the child superimposed on a pictorial representation of her motion.

328 Chapter 5 Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : Solve the y equation for F: θ = tan −1 ⎢ mg cos θ 4π 2 (0.75 m ) ⎤ = 53. solve the y equation for θ: With F = 6mg. one can see that: θ = sin −1 ⎜ ⎛ mg ⎞ −1 ⎛ mg ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 6mg ⎟ = 9. We can findθ from the y equation and the information provided about the tension.59° ⎝ F ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ v = 6rg cosθ 2π r = v 2π r 6rg cosθ T= r =Lcosθ . Apply bob: F= (25 kg )(9. by using the definition of the speed of the bob in its orbit and applying Newton’s 2nd law as it describes circular motion.81m/s2 ) = cos53.5 s ) ⎦ ⎡ ( ) F= Substitute numerical values and evaluate F: 74 •• Picture the Problem The diagram to the right has the free-body diagram for the bob of the conical pendulum superimposed on a pictorial representation of its motion.3° 2⎥ 2 ⎣ 9. we can find the period T of the motion.3° 410 N ∑ F = ma to the pendulum r r ΣFx = Fcosθ = mv2/r and ΣFy = Fsinθ − mg = 0 Using the given information that F = 6mg.81 m/s (1. The r tension in the string is F and the angle it makes with respect to the direction we’ve chosen as the positive x direction isθ. solve the x equation for v: Relate the period T of the motion to the speed of the bob and the radius of the circle in which it moves: From the diagram. Then.

we can find the magnitude of the friction force and the value of the coefficient of static friction for the two surfaces.1kg )(0.5 m = 0.max and Fn: v= 2πr T 4π 2 mr T2 fs = 4π 2 ((0.1 m ) fs = = 0.81 m/s 2 T = 2π ( ) 75 •• Picture the Problem The static friction force fs is responsible for keeping the coin from sliding on the turntable. the definition of the period of the coin’s motion. and the definition of the maximum static friction force. its speed is given by: Substitute for v in the force equation and simplify to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate fs: (b) Determine Fn from the y equation: If the coin is about to slide at r = 16 cm.395 N (1s )2 Fn = mg µs = f s .579 s 6 9. Solve for µs in terms of fs.Applications of Newton’s Laws 329 Substitute for r in the expression for the period to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = 2π L 6g 0. (a) Apply r r F = ma to the coin: ∑ ∑ Fx = f s = m and v2 r ∑F y = Fn − mg = 0 If T is the period of the coin’s motion. fs = fs.max Fn 4π 2 mr 2 4π 2 r = T = mg gT 2 .max. Using Newton’s 2nd law of motion.

16 m ) µs = = 0. The r horizontal component of T is the centripetal force.81m/s2 )(1s)2 ∑ F = ma to the tetherball: r r ∑ Fx = T sin 20° = m and v2 r ∑F y = T cos 20° − mg = 0 Solve the y equation for T: T= mg cos 20° Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: (b) Eliminate T between the force equations and solve for v: Note from the diagram that: Substitute for r in the expression for v to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: T= (0.330 Chapter 5 Substitute numerical values and evaluate µs: 76 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on the tetherball are shown superimposed on a pictorial representation of the motion. Applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion and solving the resulting equations will yield both the tension in the cord and the speed of the ball.25 kg )(9.81m/s )(1. (a) Apply 4π 2 (0.21 m/s .644 (9.61 N v = rg tan 20° r = Lsin20° v = gL sin 20° tan 20° v = (9.81m/s2 ) = cos 20° 2.2 m )sin 20° tan 20° 2 = 1.

37 × 10 m/s = 3. Express the radial acceleration due to the rotation of the earth: Express the speed of the object on the equator in terms of the radius of the earth R and the period of the earth’s rotation TR: Substitute for vR in the expression for aR to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate aR: r aR = vR = 2 vR R 2πR TR aR = 4π 2 R TR2 4π 2 (6370 km )(1000 m/km ) 2 aR = ⎡ ⎛ 3600 s ⎞⎤ ⎢(24 h )⎜ ⎜ 1 h ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ −2 2 = 3. Fo . FR .Applications of Newton’s Laws 331 *77 •• Picture the Problem The diagram includes a pictorial representation of the earth in its orbit about the sun and a force diagram showing the force on an object at the equator that is due to the earth’s rotation. and the force on the object due to the orbital motion of the earth about r the sun.44 × 10 −3 g Express the radial acceleration due to the orbital motion of the earth: Express the speed of the object on the equator in terms of the earth-sun distance r and the period of the earth’s motion about the sun To: ao = vo = 2 vo r 2π r To . we can calculate the accelerations they require from the speeds and radii associated with the two circular motions. Because these are centripetal forces.

07 × 10−4 g 78 • Picture the Problem The most significant force acting on the earth is the gravitational force exerted by the sun.. but we can calculate the net force by considering the radial acceleration of the earth in its orbit.5 × 1011 m ( ) 2 ⎡ ⎛ 24 h ⎞ ⎛ 3600 s ⎞⎤ ⎢(365 d )⎜ ⎜ 1d ⎟ ⎜ 1 h ⎟ ⎥ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ = 5.95 × 10−3 m/s 2 = 6. Similarly.496 × 1011 m 24 h 3600 s ⎞ ⎛ × ⎜ 365.98 × 10 24 kg 1.00 × 10 20 N .55 × 10 22 N (b) Proceed as in (a) to obtain: Fon moon = 4π 2 7.332 Chapter 5 Substitute for vo in the expression for ao to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ac: 4π 2 r ao = 2 To ao = 4π 2 1.844 × 108 m 24 h 3600 s ⎞ ⎛ × ⎜ 27. (a) Apply ∑F r = mar to the earth: Fon earth = m v= 2π r T v2 r Express the orbital speed of the earth in terms of the time it takes to make one trip around the sun (i. we can calculate the net force acting on the moon by considering its radial acceleration in its orbit about the earth. More distant or less massive objects exert forces on the earth as well.35 × 10 22 kg 3. its period) and its average distance from the sun: Substitute for v to obtain: Fon earth = 4π 2 mr T2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fon earth: Fon earth = 4π 2 5.e.24 d × ⎟ d h ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( )( )= 3.32 d × ⎟ d h ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( )( )= 2.

81 m/s 2 (0. Express the speed of the bead as a function of the radius of its path and its period: Using the diagram. Apply ∑ F = ma to the bead: r r ∑ Fx = Fn sin θ = m and v2 r ∑F y = Fn cosθ − mg = 0 v2 rg Eliminate Fn from the force equations to obtain: The frequency of the motion is the reciprocal of its period T. The application of Newton’s 2nd law.Applications of Newton’s Laws 333 79 •• Picture the Problem The semicircular wire of radius 10 cm limits the motion of the bead in the same manner as would a 10-cm string attached to the bead and fixed at the center of the semicircle.6° 4π 2 (0. and the relationship of the frequency of a circular motion to its period will yield the angle at which the bead will remain stationary relative to the rotating wire. the definition of the speed of the bead in its orbit. relate r to L and θ: Substitute for r and v in the expression for tanθ and solve for θ : Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : tan θ = v= 2πr T r = L sin θ θ = cos −1 ⎢ ⎡ gT 2 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 4π L ⎦ θ = cos −1 ⎢ ⎡ 9. The horizontal component of the normal force the wire exerts on the bead is the centripetal force.5 s )2 ⎤ ⎥ = 51.1 m ) ⎦ ⎣ ( ) .

the radial component r perpendicular to v . The application of Newton’s 2nd law will result in a differential equation with separable variables.334 Chapter 5 80 ••• Picture the Problem Note that the acceleration of the bead has two components. and a tangential component due to friction that is opposite r to v . Apply ∑ F = ma to the bead in the r r radial and tangential directions: ∑ Fr = Fn = m and v2 r dv dt ∑F = − f t k = mat = m Express fk in terms of µk and Fn: Substitute for Fn and fk in the tangential equation to obtain the differential equation: Separate the variables to obtain: fk = µkFn µ dv = − k v2 dt r µ dv = − k dt 2 v r 1 µ ∫ v' 2 dv' = − rk ∫ dt' 0 v0 v t Express the integral of this equation with the limits of integration being from v0 to v on the left-hand side and from 0 to t on the right-hand side: Evaluate these integrals to obtain: ⎛1 1 ⎞ ⎛µ ⎞ − ⎜ − ⎟ = −⎜ k ⎟t ⎜v v ⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ 0 ⎠ ⎝ Solve this equation for v: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ ⎟ v = v0 ⎜ ⎛ µ k v0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟t ⎟ ⎜1+ ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎠ . Its integration will lead to an expression for the speed of the bead as a function of time.

The application of Newton’s 2nd law will result in a differential equation with separable variables. Its integration will lead to an expression for the speed of the bead as a function of time.Applications of Newton’s Laws 335 81 ••• Picture the Problem Note that the acceleration of the bead has two components−the radial component r perpendicular to v . and a tangential component due to friction that is opposite r to v . (a) In Problem 81 it was shown that: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ ⎟ v = v0 ⎜ ⎛ µ k v0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟t ⎟ ⎜1+ ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ v v0 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ac = = r r ⎜ ⎛ µ k v0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟t ⎟ ⎜1+ ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎠ 2 Express the centripetal acceleration of the bead: (b) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the bead: v2 ∑ Fr = Fn = m r and ∑F = − f t k = mat = m dv dt Eliminate Fn and fk to rewrite the radial force equation and solve for at: (c) Express the resultant acceleration in terms of its radial and tangential components: at = − µ k v2 = − µ k ac r a = at2 + ac2 = 2 = ac 1 + µ k (− µ k ac )2 + ac2 .

4 9.4mg = mv2/r passenger: Solve for v: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v = 1.4 gr v = 1. Apply Fn. Applying Newton’s 2nd law to the seat at the top of the loop will establish the value of mv2/r.8 m/s ( ) .b = 3mg and (d ) is correct. Apply ∑F r = mar to the seat at the mg +Fn.b – mg = mv2/r bottom of the loop: Solve for Fn. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the net force on the passenger to the speed of the roller coaster. The radial acceleration is determined by the net radial force acting on the passenger.0 m ) = 12. ∑F radial = maradial to the mg + 0. Let ″t″ denote the top of the loop and ″b″ the bottom of the loop.336 Chapter 5 Concepts of Centripetal Force *82 • Picture the Problem The diagram depicts a seat at its highest and lowest points.b and substitute for mv2/r to obtain: 83 • Picture the Problem The speed of the roller coaster is imbedded in the expression for its radial acceleration.b.t = 2mg = mar = mv2/r top of the loop: Apply ∑F r = mar to the seat at the Fn.81 m/s 2 (12. this can then be used at the bottom of the loop to determine Fn.

Applications of Newton’s Laws 337 84 • Picture the Problem The force F the passenger exerts on the armrest of the car door is the radial force required to maintain the passenger’s speed around the curve and is related to that speed through Newton’s 2nd law of motion. (a) Apply r r Fn + f s makes an angle θ with the vertical ∑ F = ma to the bicycle: r r ∑ Fx = fs = and mv 2 r ∑F y = Fn − mg = 0 Relate Fn and fs to θ : mv 2 f v2 tan θ = s = r = Fn mg rg . direction. *85 ••• Picture the Problem The forces acting on the bicycle are shown in the force diagram. The static friction force is the centripetal force exerted by the surface on the bicycle that allows it to move in a circular path.9 m/s 70 kg and (a ) is correct. The application of Newton’s 2nd law will allow us to relate this angle to the speed of the bicycle and the coefficient of static friction. Apply ∑F x = max to the forces acting on the passenger: Solve this equation for v: F =m v2 r v= rF m Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= (80 m )(220 N ) = 15.

25 m/s ) µs = = 0. f s.536 (20 m ) 9. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the plane and eliminate the lift force in order to obtain an expression for R as a function of v and θ.25 m/s fs = 1 2 (b) Relate fs to µs and Fn: Solve for µs and substitute for fs to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate µs 86 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the forces acting on the plane as it flies in a horizontal circle of radius R.16 km R= 2 (9.max = 1 µs mg 2 2 f s 2v 2 = µs = mg rg 2(7.81m/s2 )tan15° = 7.81m/s )tan40° .81m/s2 2 ( ) Apply ∑ F = ma to the plane: r r ∑ Fx = Flift sin θ = m and v2 R ∑F y = Flift cosθ − mg = 0 v2 Rg Eliminate Flift between these equations to obtain: Solve for R: tan θ = R= v2 g tan θ 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate R: ⎛ km 1h ⎞ ⎜ 480 ⎟ × ⎜ h 3600 s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 2.338 Chapter 5 Solve for v: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v = rg tan θ v= (20 m )(9.

the only forces acting on the car are the normal force exerted by the road and the gravitational force exerted by the earth.Applications of Newton’s Laws 339 87 • Picture the Problem Under the conditions described in the problem statement. The application of Newton’s 2nd law will allow us to express θ in terms of v.81m/s2 ⎩ ⎭ ( ) *88 •• Picture the Problem Both the normal force and the static friction force contribute to the centripetal force in the situation described in this problem. r. and g. The horizontal component of the normal force is the centripetal force. Apply ∑ F = ma to the car: r r ∑ Fx = Fn sin θ = m and v2 r ∑F Eliminate Fn from the force equations to obtain: Solve for θ : y = Fn cosθ − mg = 0 v2 rg ⎡ v2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ rg ⎦ tan θ = θ = tan −1 ⎢ Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ: θ = tan −1 ⎨ ⎧ [(90 km/h )(1 h 3600 s )(1000 m/km )] 2 ⎫ ⎬ = 21. . We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to relate fs and Fn and then solve these equations simultaneously to determine each of these quantities.7° (160 m ) 9.

59 kN = 0.min = .25 kN µs.min = fs Fn 1.min in terms of fs and Fn : Substitute numerical values and evaluate µs.81m/s2 ) = = sin10° 1.25 kN )cos10° − (800 kg )(9.340 Chapter 5 (a) Apply ∑ F = ma to the car: r r ∑ Fx = Fn sin θ + f s cosθ = m and v2 r ∑F Multiply the x equation by sinθ and the y equation by cosθ to obtain: y = Fn cosθ − f s sin θ − mg = 0 f s sin θ cosθ + Fn sin 2 θ = m and v2 sin θ r Fn cos 2 θ − f s sin θ cosθ − mg cosθ = 0 Add these equations to eliminate fs: Fn − mg cosθ = m v2 sin θ r Solve for Fn: Fn = mg cosθ + m v2 sin θ r ⎛ ⎞ v2 ⎜ g cosθ + sin θ ⎟ = m⎜ ⎟ r ⎝ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn: ⎡ (85 km/h )2 (1000 m/km)2 (1h/3600 s )2 sin10°⎤ 2 Fn = (800 kg ) ⎢ 9.81 m/s cos10° + ⎥ 150 m ⎣ ⎦ ( ) = 8.193 8.25 kN (b) Solve the y equation for fs: fs = Fn cos θ − mg sin θ Substitute numerical values and evaluate fs: fs (8.59 kN (c) Express µs.min: µs.

Applications of Newton’s Laws 341 89 •• Picture the Problem Both the normal force and the static friction force contribute to the centripetal force in the situation described in this problem. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to relate fs and Fn and then solve these equations simultaneously to determine each of these quantities. (a) Apply ∑ F = ma to the car: r r v2 r ∑ Fy = Fn cosθ − f s sinθ − mg = 0 ∑ Fx = Fn sin θ + f s cosθ = m Multiply the x equation by sinθ and the y equation by cosθ : v2 sin θ r Fn cos 2 θ − f s sin θ cosθ − mg cosθ = 0 f s sin θ cosθ + Fn sin 2 θ = m Fn − mg cosθ = m v2 sin θ r Add these equations to eliminate fs: Solve for Fn: Fn = mg cosθ + m v2 sin θ r ⎛ ⎞ v2 = m⎜ g cosθ + sin θ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ r ⎝ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn: ⎡ (38 km/h )2 (1000 m/km)2 (1h/3600 s )2 sin10°⎤ 2 Fn = (800 kg )⎢ 9.832 kN (b) Solve the y equation for fs: fs = Fn cos θ − mg sin θ mg = Fn cot θ − sin θ Substitute numerical values and evaluate fs: .81 m/s cos10° + ⎥ 150 m ⎣ ⎦ ( ) = 7.

342 Chapter 5 (800 kg ) (9.max = µsFn in equation (2) and solve for and evaluate the maximum allowable value of θ: Apply θ = tan −1 (µs ) = tan −1 (0.57° r r F = ma to the car that is ∑ ∑F y = Fn cosθ − f s sin θ − mg = 0 (3) moving with speed v: ∑F x = Fn sin θ + f s cosθ = m v2 r (4) (5) Substitute fs = µsFn in equations (3) and (4) and simplify to obtain: Fn (cosθ − µs sin θ ) = mg Fn (µs cosθ + sin θ ) = m 0. the static friction force points in the opposite direction as the tendency of the moving car is to slide toward the outside of the curve.832 kN ) cot 10° − sin10° − 777 N The negative sign tells us that fs points upward along the inclined plane rather than as shown in the force diagram.9904Fn = mg v r 2 (6) Substitute numerical values into (5) . The static friction force up the incline balances the downward component of the car’s weight and prevents it from sliding. In the free-body diagram to the right.08) = 4. Apply at rest: ∑ F = ma to the car that is r r ∑F and y = Fn cosθ + f s sin θ − mg = 0 (1) = Fn sin θ − f s cosθ = 0 (2) ∑F x Substitute fs = fs.81 m/s 2 ) = f s = (7. *90 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram to the left is for the car at rest.

1610 9. Apply ∑ F = ma to a car traveling r r around the curve when the coefficient of static friction is zero: ∑ Fx = Fn sin θ = m and 2 vmin r ∑F y = Fn cosθ − mg =0 Divide the first of these equations by the second to obtain: 2 v2 −1 ⎛ v ⎞ tan θ = or θ = tan ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ rg ⎟ rg ⎝ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate the banking angle: .1610 g Substitute numerical values and evaluate r: r= (60 km/h ×1h/3600 s ×1000 m/km)2 0. the static friction force points in the opposite direction as the tendency of the car moving with the maximum safe speed is to slide toward the outside of the curve.81 m/s 2 ( ) = 176 m 91 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram to the left is for the car rounding the curve at the minimum (not sliding down the incline) speed. Application of Newton’s 2nd law and the simultaneous solution of the force equations will yield vmin and vmax. The static friction force up the incline balances the downward component of the car’s weight and prevents it from sliding. In the free-body diagram to the right.1595Fn = m r Eliminate Fn and solve for r: v2 r= 0.Applications of Newton’s Laws 343 and (6) to obtain: and v2 0.

344 Chapter 5 θ = tan −1 ⎢ Apply ⎡ (40 km/h )2 (1000 m/km )2 1h/3600 s 2 ⎤ ⎥ = 22.106rg vmin = 0.max = µsFn in the force equations and simplify to obtain: Fn (µs cosθ + sin θ ) = m and Fn (cosθ − µ s sin θ ) = mg 2 vmax r Evaluate these equations for θ = 22.1 km/h ( ) 2 vmax r Apply ∑ F = ma to the car r r traveling around the curve at maximum speed: ∑ Fx = Fn sin θ + fs cosθ = m and ∑F y = Fn cosθ − f s sin θ − mg =0 2 vmax r Substitute fs = fs.59 m/s = 20.106(30 m ) 9.3: 0.6641Fn= m and 0.81m/s 2 = 5.81m/s2 ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ) r r F = ma to the car ∑ traveling around the curve at minimum speed: 2 vmin ∑ Fx = Fn sin θ − fs cosθ = m r and ∑F y = Fn cos θ + f s sin θ − mg = 0 Substitute fs = fs.8° and µs = 0.8056Fn = mg .1102Fn= m and 1.8° and µs = 0.3: 0.038Fn = mg Eliminate Fn between these two equations and solve for vmin: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vmin: vmin = 0.8° (30 m ) 9.max = µsFn in the force equations and simplify to obtain: 2 vmin Fn (µs cosθ − sin θ ) = m r and Fn (cosθ + µs sin θ ) = mg 2 vmin r Evaluate these equations for θ = 22.

Applying terminal speed conditions will yield an expression for b that we can evaluate using the given numerical values.81m/s2 ) = 15.8243)(30 m )(9.6 m/s = 56.1 km/h Drag Forces 92 • Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the particle to obtain its equation of motion.81 m/s 2 3 × 10 −4 m/s )( ) = 3.27 ×10 −9 kg/s 93 • Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the Ping-Pong ball to obtain its equation of motion.Applications of Newton’s Laws 345 Eliminate Fn between these two equations and solve for vmax: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vmax: vmax = 0. Apply ∑F y = ma y to the Ping- mg − bv 2 = ma y Pong ball: When the Ping-Pong ball reaches its terminal speed v = vt and ay = 0: Solve for b to obtain: mg − bvt2 = 0 b= mg vt2 . Apply ∑F y = ma y to the particle: mg − bv = ma y mg − bvt = 0 When the particle reaches its terminal speed v = vt and ay = 0: Solve for b to obtain: b= mg vt Substitute numerical values and evaluate b: b= (10 −13 kg 9.8243rg vmax = (0. Applying terminal speed conditions will yield an expression for b that we can evaluate using the given numerical values.

(a) Apply diver: ∑F y = ma y to the sky Fd − mg = ma y or. mg sin θ − Fd = 0 Substitute for Fd to obtain: mg sin θ − 100 N − 1.2 N ⋅ s 2 / m 2 vt2 = 0 ( ) .3 ×10 −3 kg 9.346 Chapter 5 Substitute numerical values and evaluate b: b= (2.81 m/s 2 = 589 N ( ) bvt2 = mg b= mg Fd = 2 vt2 vt 589 N = 0. The application of Newton’s 2nd law with a = 0 and Fd equal to the given function will allow us to solve for the terminal velocity of the car. Fd = mg (1) Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fd: (b) Substitute Fd = b vt2 in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for b: Fd = (60 kg ) 9. because ay = 0.79 × 10−4 kg/m *94 • Picture the Problem Let the upward direction be the positive y direction and apply Newton’s 2nd law to the sky diver. Apply b= ∑F x = max to the car: mg sin θ − Fd = ma x or. because v = vt and ax = 0.942 kg/m (25 m/s)2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate b: 95 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the car as it descends the grade with its terminal velocity.81 m/s 2 (9 m/s)2 )( ) = 2.

We can apply Newton’s 2nd law and Stokes’ law to derive an expression for the terminal speed of the sedimentation particles.2 N ⋅ s 2 / m 2 = 24.2 N ⋅ s 2 / m 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate vt: vt = (800 kg )(9. We can then use this terminal speed to calculate the sedimentation time.42 cm/s *97 ••• Picture the Problem The motion of the centrifuge will cause the pollution particles to migrate to the end of the test tube. We’ll use the 12 cm distance .81m/s 2 )sin 6° − 100 N 1.5 m/s = 88.81 m/s 2 vt = 9 1. because ay = 0. pollution particle: mg − 6πηrvt = 0 mg 6πηr Solve for vt to obtain: vt = Express the mass of a sphere in terms of its volume: Substitute for m to obtain: ⎛ 4π r 3 ⎞ m = ρV = ρ ⎜ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ vt = 2r 2 ρg 9η Substitute numerical values and evaluate vt: 2 10 −5 m 2000 kg/m 3 9. (a) Apply ∑F y = ma y to a mg − 6πηrv = ma y or.2 km/h 96 ••• Picture the Problem Let the upward direction be the positive y direction and apply Newton’s 2nd law to the particle to obtain an equation from which we can find the particle’s terminal speed.42 cm/s (b) Use distance equals average speed times the fall time to find the time to fall 100 m at 2.13 × 103 s = 1.15 h 2.8 ×10 −5 N ⋅ s/m 2 ( )( ( 2 )( ) ) = 2.42 cm/s: t= 10 4 cm = 4.Applications of Newton’s Laws 347 Solve for vt: vt = mg sin θ − 100 N 1.

0 × 10-3 s/rev Substitute numerical values and evaluate vt: vt = 8π 2 2000 kg/m 3 (0.8 × 10−5 N ⋅ s/m 2 75 × 10 −3 s = 2. Let R represent the radius of a particle and r the radius of the particle’s circular path in the centrifuge.08 m/s 8 cm ∆x = 208 cm/s v ( ( ) )( ( ) ) 2 2 Find the time it takes the particles to move 8 cm as they settle in the test tube: ∆tsediment = = 38.5 ms .25 × 10−3 min/rev × 60 s/min = 75. Express the sedimentation time in terms of the sedimentation speed vt: Apply ∆t sediment = ∆x vt ∑F radial = maradial to a 6πηRvt = mac pollution particle: Express the mass of the particle in terms of its radius R and density ρ: Express the acceleration of the pollution particles due to the motion of the centrifuge in terms of their orbital radius r and period T: Substitute for m and ac and simplify to obtain: Solve for vt: m = ρV = 4 π R 3 ρ 3 ⎛ 2π r ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 v ⎝ T ⎠ = 4π r = ac = r r T2 ⎛ 4π 2 r ⎞ 16π 3 ρ rR 3 6πηRvt = π R ρ ⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎜ T ⎟ 3T 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 3 3 2 vt = 8π 2 ρ rR 2 9ηT 2 Find the period T of the motion from the number of revolutions the centrifuge makes in 1 second: T= 1 = 1.12 m ) 10−5 m 9 1.348 Chapter 5 from the center of the centrifuge as the average radius of the pollution particles as they settle in the test tube.25 × 10 −3 min/rev 800 rev / min = 1.

In order to use Euler’s method. Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the ball to obtain: Solve for dv/dt to obtain: mg − bv 2 = m dv b = g − v2 dt m 0=g− dv dt When the ball reaches its terminal speed: Substitute to obtain: b g b 2 = 2 vt ⇒ m vt m ⎛ v2 ⎞ dv = g ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ ⎜ v ⎟ dt t ⎠ ⎝ Express the position of the ball to obtain: Letting an be the acceleration of the ball at time tn. express its speed when t = tn + 1: xn+1 = xn + vn+1 + vn ∆t 2 vn+1 = vn + an ∆t where ⎛ v2 ⎞ a n = g ⎜1 − n ⎟ ⎜ v2 ⎟ t ⎠ ⎝ .42 cm/s. we’ll need to determine how the acceleration of the ball varies with its speed. We can do this by applying Newton’s 2nd law to the ball and using its terminal speed to express the constant in the acceleration equation in terms of the ball’s terminal speed.42 cm/s v = 3. We can then use vn+1 = vn + an ∆t to find the speed of the ball at any given time.Applications of Newton’s Laws 349 In Problem 96 it was shown that the rate of fall of the particles in air is 2.31s ∆tair/∆tsediment ≈ 100 Euler’s Method 98 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the baseball sometime after it has been thrown downward but before it has reached its terminal speed. Find the time required to fall 8 cm in air under the influence of gravity: Find the ratio of the two times: ∆tair = 8 cm ∆x = 2.

5 9.0 16.0 10.0 1.92 0.81 41.64 7. We can estimate the uncertainty in this result by halving ∆t and recalculating the speed of the ball at t = 10 s.7 41. a difference of about 0.7 22.7 41.4 18.4 m/s.17 0.7 a (m/s^2) 9.01 0.0 0.5 41.28 8.5 B 0. The graph shows the velocity of the ball thrown straight down as a function of time.01 0. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell A10 B10 Formula/Content B9+$B$1 B9+0. A spreadsheet solution is shown below.5 14.5 1.02%.6 41.84 6.4 41.5*(C9+C10)*$B$1 Algebraic Form t + ∆t xn+1 = xn + vn+1 + vn ∆t 2 C10 C9+D9*$B$1 D10 $B$4*(1−C10^2/$B$5^2) vn+1 = vn+ an∆t ⎛ v2 ⎞ a n = g ⎜1 − n ⎟ ⎜ v2 ⎟ t ⎠ ⎝ C s m m/s m/s^2 m/s v (m/s) 9.7 14.3 m/s.5 10.3 41.10 0.7 41.67 x (m) 0 6 14 25 317 337 358 524 545 566 587 608 From the table we can see that the speed of the ball after 10 s is approximately 41.01 0.5 0 9.722 9.350 Chapter 5 and ∆t is an arbitrarily small interval of time.5 15.0 15.01 0.5 16.13 0.00 D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 28 29 30 38 39 40 41 42 A ∆t= x0= v0= a0= vt= t (s) 0.6 41. Doing so yields v(10 s) ≈ 41. .

In order to use Euler’s method.3 m/s. Note that the ball will reach this speed in about 10.5 s and set v0 = 0. Ball Dropped From Rest 400 350 300 250 x (m) 200 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 t (s) 8 10 12 *99 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the baseball after it has left your hand. we’ll need to determine how the acceleration of the ball varies with its speed. We can do this by applying Newton’s 2nd law to the baseball.67 m/s is approximately 41. We can then use vn+1 = vn + an ∆t and xn +1 = xn + vn ∆t to find the speed and v (m/s) . Ninety-nine percent of 41.Applications of Newton’s Laws 351 Ball Throw n Straight Dow n 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 t (s) 15 20 Reset ∆t to 0.5 s and that the distance it travels in this time is about 322 m. The following graph shows the distance traveled by the ball dropped from rest as a function of time.

A spreadsheet solution is shown below. express its position and speed when t = tn + 1: yn+1 = yn + 1 (vn + vn−1 )∆t 2 and vn+1 = vn + an ∆t where ⎛ v v a n = − g ⎜1 + n 2 n ⎜ vt ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ and ∆t is an arbitrarily small interval of time.7 E10−$B$4* (1+E10*ABS(E10)/($B$5^2))*$B$6 0 F10+0.5*$B$4*D11^2 Algebraic Form t + ∆t v0 y0 y0 vn+1 = vn + an ∆t yn+1 = yn + 1 (vn + vn−1 )∆t 2 v0t − 1 gt 2 2 .5*(E10+E11)*$B$6 0 $E$10*D11−0. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell D11 E10 E11 F10 F11 G10 G11 Formula/Content D10+$B$6 41.352 Chapter 5 position of the ball. Apply ∑F y = ma y to the baseball: − bv v − mg = m dv dt where v = v for the upward part of the flight of the ball and v = −v for the downward part of the flight. Solve for dv/dt: dv b = −g − v v dt m 0 = −g + and Under terminal speed conditions ( v = −vt ): b 2 vt m b g = 2 m vt Substitute to obtain: ⎛ vv dv g = − g − 2 v v = − g ⎜1 + 2 ⎜ dt vt vt ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Letting an be the acceleration of the ball at time tn.

3 3.14 85.13 60.3 s is 60.8 6.18 83.81 m/s^2 vt= 41.62 56.41 0.6 6. .00 4.74 37.93 86.49 −2.26 3. The ball hits the ground at about t = 7 s −so it spends a little longer coming down than going up.06 From the table we can see that.5 3.5 s.14 81.39 60.9 7.60 60.00 4.37 −29.25 85.17 6.05 0.87 y 0.Applications of Newton’s Laws 353 A B C g= 9. The solid curve on the following graph shows y(t) when there is no drag on the baseball and the dotted curve shows y(t) under the conditions modeled in this problem.3 s.1 v 41.0 0.55 60. It reaches its peak a little earlier−at about 3.1 0. after 3.47 y no drag 0.26 84.54 60.98 54.00 82.86 −29.4 m.2 3.12 8.4 3.6 m.95 60.07 −0.1 s D E F G 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 78 79 80 81 t 0.34 −28.91 −1.89 −2.41 60.0 7. the ball reaches a height of about 60. and its height at t = 3.44 51.7 m/s ∆t= 0.0 3.01 2.2 3.87 −28.1 3.87 3.03 1.80 49.70 39.07 7.

The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: . In order to use Euler’s method.3 m − xn ) = man an = k (0. and finally when it has reached its maximum speed at xf = 0.3 m − xn ) m Solve for an: Express the position and speed of the block when t = tn + 1: xn +1 = xn + vn ∆t and vn+1 = vn + an ∆t where an = k (0. Apply ∑F x = max to the block: k (0. A spreadsheet solution is shown below. We can then use vn+1 = vn + an ∆t and xn +1 = xn + vn ∆t to find the speed and position of the block. We can do this by applying Newton’s 2nd law to the box.3 m − xn ) m and ∆t is an arbitrarily small interval of time. later as the spring accelerates it to the right.354 Chapter 5 90 80 70 60 y (m) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 t (s) 4 5 6 7 x with drag x with no drag 100 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the block in its initial position against the compressed spring. we’ll need to determine how the acceleration of the block varies with its position.

72 18.195 0. Doing so yields v(0.85 2.190 0.200 s for the spring to push the block 30 cm and that it was traveling about 2.00 0.185 0.69 18.005 0 0 50 0.44 m/s at that time.19 0.180 0.27 0. a difference of about 1.000 0.005 0.19 D D10 ($B$4/$B$5)*(0.43 2.200 B 0.00 0. We can estimate the uncertainty in this result by halving ∆t and recalculating the speed of the ball at t = 10 s.09 0.44 2.10 1.Applications of Newton’s Laws 355 Cell A10 B10 C10 Formula/Content A9+$B$1 B9+C10*$B$1 C9+D9*$B$1 Algebraic Form t + ∆t xn + vn ∆t vn + an ∆t k (0.2%.42 2.41 2.8 x (m) 0.63 2.3−B10) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 45 46 47 48 49 A ∆t= x0= v0= k= m= t (s) 0.00 0. .34 0.200 s) ≈ 2.41 m/s.44 a (m/s^2) 18.75 18.3 − xn ) m C s m m/s N/m kg v (m/s) 0.30 From the table we can see that it took about 0.00 0.010 0.58 −0.00 0.015 0.28 2.29 0.25 0.28 0.

The acceleration of the block can be determined from the distance-and-time information given in the problem. and solve for µk: Using a constant-acceleration equation.356 Chapter 5 General Problems 101 • Picture the Problem The forces that act on the block as it slides down the incline are shown on the free-body diagram to the right.81m/s ) cos28° 2 = 0.1775 m/s 2 2 (5.1775 m/s = (9. The application of Newton’s 2nd law to the block will lead to an expression for the coefficient of kinetic friction as a function of the block’s acceleration and the angle of the incline.1775 m/s2 and θ = 28°: a= µk (9.81m/s ) sin28° − 0. Fn between the two equations.4 m ) = 0.511 . Apply ∑ F = ma to the block: r r ΣFx = mgsinθ − fk = ma and ΣFy = Fn − mg = 0 Set fk = µkFn. relate the distance the block slides to its sliding time: Solve for a: µk = g sin θ − a g cosθ 2 ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) where v0 = 0 2 a= 2∆x (∆t )2 2(2.2 s ) 2 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: Find µk for a = 0.

4 kg ) (10.max is down the incline.7 m/s)2 5. The application of Newton’s 2nd law will give us the tension F in the string.7 m = 8.7 m ) = 10.2 v2 r (b) Apply airplane: ∑F x = max to the model F =m Substitute numerical values and evaluate F: *103 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the box. If the student is pushing with a force of 200 N and the box is on the verge of moving. (a) Apply F = (0. the static friction force must be at its maximum value. (a) Express the speed of the airplane in terms of the circumference of the circle in which it is flying and its period: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= 2πr T v= 2π(5. the motion is impending up the incline. In part (b).7 m/s 4 s 1.03 N ∑ F = ma to the box: r r ∑F and x = f s + F − mg sin θ = 0 = Fn − mg cosθ = 0 ∑F y . The speed of the plane can be calculated from the data concerning the radius of its path and the time it takes to make one revolution. therefore the direction of fs.Applications of Newton’s Laws 357 102 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the model airplane.

Once we have shown that it is. The x-direction force equation becomes: Solve the x-direction force equation for F: Substitute numerical values and evaluate F: f s.max from the x-direction force equation: Substitute numerical values and evaluate fs. fs.max: If the block is on the verge of sliding up the incline.max F = (800 N )sin30° + 200 N = 600 N 104 • Picture the Problem The path of the particle is a circle if r is a constant. max + F − mg sin θ = 0 F = mg sin θ + f s.max must act down the incline. eliminate Fn between the two equations.max = µsFn.max = mg sin θ − F f s. (a) and (b) Express the magnitude of r r in terms of its components: Evaluate r with rx = −10 m cos ωt and ry = 10 m sinωt: r = rx2 + ry2 r= [(− 10 m )cos ωt ] 2 + [(10 m )sin ωt ] 2 = 100 cos 2ωt + sin 2 ωt m = 10. The direction of the particle’s motion can be determined by examining two positions of the particle at times that are close to each other.max = (800 N )sin30° − 200 N = 200 N − f s. we can calculate its value from its components.0 m ( ) .358 Chapter 5 Substitute fs = fs.289 200 N (800 N )cos30° (b) Find fs. and solve for µs: Substitute numerical values and evaluate µs: µs = tan θ − F mg cosθ µs = tan 30° − = 0.

Apply T= ∑ F = ma to the crate. substituting for fk. We can determine F by applying Newton’s 2nd law to the crate. to the crate: ∑F y .0 m/s 2πr 2π (10 m ) = = πs v 20 m/s (e) Relate the period of the particle’s motion to the radius of its path and its speed: 105 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the crate of books. Because the crate is moving at constant speed in a straight line. and solving for the required force. with r r ∑F and x = F cosθ − f k − mg sin θ = 0 = Fn − F sin θ − mg cosθ = 0 both ax and ay equal to zero.Applications of Newton’s Laws 359 (c) Evaluate rx and ry at t = 0 s: rx = −(10 m ) cos 0° = −10 m ry = (10 m )sin 0° = 0 Evaluate rx and ry at t = ∆t. its acceleration is zero. where ∆t is small: rx = −(10 m )cos ω∆t ≈ −(10 m )cos 0° = −10 m ry = (10 m )sin ω∆t = ∆y where ∆y is positive and the motion is clockwise (d) Differentiate r with respect to r time to obtain v : Use the components of v to find its speed: r r r v = dr / dt ˆ = [(10ω sin ωt ) m] i + [(10ω cos ωt )m] ˆ j 2 2 v = vx + v y r [(10ω sin ωt )m] 2 + [(10ω cos ωt )m] 2 = (10 m )ω = (10 m )(2 s −1 ) = = 20. The kinetic friction force opposes the motion of the crate up the incline. eliminating the normal force.

35)cos 30°)(72 m ) = 16. Using a constant-acceleration equation.7 m/s and (d ) is correct. relate the initial and final velocities of the object to its acceleration and displacement: solve for the final velocity: Apply object: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆x Because v0 = 0. eliminate both Fn and fk from the x equation and solve for a: Substitute equation (2) in equation (1) and solve for v: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: a = g (sin θ − µ k cosθ ) v = 2 g (sin θ − µ k cosθ )∆x v = 2 9. ( ) .49 kN 106 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the object as it slides down the inclined plane.5)sin30° = 1.360 Chapter 5 Substitute µsFn for fk and eliminate Fn to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate F: F= mg (sin θ + µ k cos θ ) cos θ − µ k sin θ F= (100 kg )(9.5)cos30°) cos30° − (0.81m/s2 )(sin30° + (0.81m/s 2 (sin 30° − (0. v = 2a∆x (1) ∑ F = ma to the sliding r r ∑F and x = − f k + mg sin θ = ma = Fn − mg cosθ = 0 (2) ∑F y Solve the y equation for Fn and using fk = µkFn. We can calculate its speed at the bottom of the incline from its acceleration and displacement and find its acceleration from Newton’s 2nd law.

We’ll apply Newton’s 2nd law a second time for θ = θ1 and solve the equations simultaneously to obtain an expression for a as a function of θ0 and θ1. and use the expression for µk obtained above to obtain: a = g (sin θ 1 − tan θ 0 cosθ 1 ) 108 •• Picture the Problem The fact that the object is in static equilibrium under the influence r r r of the three forces means that F1 + F2 + F3 = 0. use fk = µkFn to eliminate both Fn and fk from the x equation. . Drawing the corresponding force triangle will allow us to relate the forces to the angles between them through the law of sines and the law of cosines. Apply ∑ F = ma to the brick r r ∑F and x = − f k + mg sin θ 0 = 0 = Fn − mg cosθ 0 = 0 when it is sliding with constant speed: Solve the y equation for Fn and using fk = µkFn.Applications of Newton’s Laws 361 *107 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the brick as it slides down the inclined plane. eliminate both Fn and fk from the x equation and solve for µk: Apply ∑F y µ k = tan θ 0 ∑ F = ma to the brick when r r ∑F and x = − f k + mg sin θ 1 = ma = Fn − mg cosθ 1 = 0 θ = θ1: ∑F y Solve the y equation for Fn. We’ll apply Newton’s 2nd law to the brick when it is sliding down the incline with constant speed to derive an expression for µk in terms of θ0.

in turn.362 Chapter 5 (a) Using the fact that the object is in static equilibrium. (a) Because the motion is at constant speed. we focus our attention on the situation at the very top of the ride when the seat belt is exerting no force on the rider. is a function of the period of the motion. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the period of the motion to the acceleration and speed of the rider. redraw the force diagram connecting the forces head-to-tail: Apply the law of sines to the triangle: F3 F1 F2 = = sin (π − θ 23 ) sin (π − θ13 ) sin (π − θ12 ) F1 F2 F3 = = sin θ 23 sin θ13 sin θ12 Use the trigonometric identity sin(π − α) = sinα to obtain: (b) Apply the law of cosines to the triangle: Use the trigonometric identity cos(π − α) = −cosα to obtain: F12 = F22 + F32 − 2 F2 F3 cos(π − θ 23 ) F12 = F22 + F32 + 2 F2 F3 cos θ 23 109 •• Picture the Problem We can calculate the acceleration of the passenger from his/her speed that. the acceleration is entirely radial and is given by: Express the speed of the motion of the ride as a function of the radius of the circle and the period of its motion: v2 ac = r 2π r T v= . To determine the longest period of the motion.

*110 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation to the right shows the cart and its load on the inclined plane.49 s 9. .3 m/s 2 2 (2 s ) r r r F = ma to the ∑ ∑F = mg = ma c passenger when he/she is at the top of the circular path and solve for ac: Relate the acceleration of the motion to its radius and speed and solve for v: Express the period of the motion as a function of the radius of the circle and the speed of the passenger and solve for Tm: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Tm: and ac = g v2 g = ⇒ v = gr r Tm = 2π r r = 2π v g Tm = 2π 5m = 4. We can then apply Newton’s 2nd law to the cart-plusload system to determine the tension in the rope when the system is experiencing its maximum acceleration.Applications of Newton’s Laws 363 Substitute in the expression for ac to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ac: (b) Apply 4π 2 r ac = 2 T ac = 4π 2 (5 m ) = 49.81 m/s 2 Remarks: The rider is ″weightless″ under the conditions described in part (b). The load will not slip provided its maximum acceleration is not exceeded. We can find that maximum acceleration by applying Newton’s 2nd law to the load.

max = µsFn.364 Chapter 5 Draw the free-body diagram for the cart and its load: Apply ∑F x = max to the cart plus T − (m1 + m2 )g sin θ = (m1 + m2 )amax (1) its load: Draw the free-body diagram for the load of mass m2 on top of the cart: Apply r r F = ma to the load on ∑ ∑F and x = f s. 2 − m2 g cosθ = 0 (2) top of the cart: ∑F y Using fs. a max = g (µ s cosθ − sin θ ) T= (m1 + m2 )gµ s cosθ . We can solve this problem by repeatedly applying Newton’s 2nd law under the conditions specified in each part of the problem.max − m2 g sin θ = m2 a max = Fn .2 between the two equations and solve for the maximum acceleration of the load: Substitute equation (2) in equation (1) and solve for T : 111 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram for the sled while it is held stationary by the static friction force is shown to the right.2. eliminate Fn.

1 = (0.max: Fn.Applications of Newton’s Laws 365 (a) Apply ∑F y = ma y to the sled: Fn.5)(143 N) = 71.1: (b) Apply ∑F x = max to the sled: f s − m1 g sin θ = 0 Solve for fs: Substitute numerical values and evaluate fs: (c) Draw the free-body diagram for the sled when the child is pulling on the rope: f s = m1 g sin θ f s = (200 N )sin 15° = 51.8 N Apply ∑ F = ma to the sled to r r ∑F and x = Fnet = F cos 30° − m1 g sin θ − f s.1: Express fs.1: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn.1 = −(100 N )sin 30° + (200 N )cos15° = 143 N fs.1 + F sin 30° − m1 g cosθ = 0 Solve the y-direction equation for Fn.1 = − F sin 30° + m1 g cosθ Fn.1: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn.5 N = −36.1 = (200 N ) cos15° = 193 N Solve for Fn.max determine whether it moves: ∑F y = Fn.1 − m1 g cosθ = 0 Fn.5 N Fnet = (100 N)cos30° − (200 N)sin15° − 71.max = µsFn.1 = m1 g cosθ Fn.7 N Use the x-direction force equation to evaluate Fnet: .

2max (1) ∑ ∑F and x = f s.max − F cos 30° − m2 g sin 15° =0 ∑F y = Fn2 − m2 g sin 15° − F sin 30° = 0 Solve the x equation for fs.max = (500 N ) cos 30° + (100 N ) sin 15° = 459 N and Fn2 = (100 N )sin 15° + (500 N )sin 30° = 276 N Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate F: Fc = (276 N )2 + (459 N )2 = 536 N 112 • Picture the Problem Let v represent the speed of rotation of the station. in deep space. . Because the O’Neill colony is.366 Chapter 5 Because the net force is negative.max and the y equation for Fn2: f s. and r the distance from the center of the station. presumably. the sled does not move: (d) Because the sled does not move: (e) Draw the FBD for the child: f k is undetermined µ k is undetermined Express the net force Fc exerted on the child by the incline: Noting that the child is stationary. the only acceleration one would experience in it would be that due to its rotation. r r apply F = ma to the child: 2 Fc = Fn2 + f s.max = F cos 30° + m2 g sin 15° and Fn2 = m2 g sin 15° + F sin 30° Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fx and Fn2: f s.

(b) Each deck must rotate the central axis with the same period T.e. the " acceleration due to gravity" decreases as r decreases.735 min Take the reciprocal of this time to find the number of revolutions per minute Babylon 5 has to make in order to provide this ″earth-like″ acceleration: T −1 = 1.609 km ⎞ ⎛ 4π 2 ⎜ 0. If someone inside the station drops an apple.Applications of Newton’s Laws 367 (a) Express the acceleration of anyone who is standing inside the station: a = v2/r This acceleration is directed toward the axis of rotation.1s = 0.8 m/s 2 (c) Relate the desired acceleration to the radius of Babylon 5 and its period: Solve for T: T= Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T= = 44. the apple will not have any forces acting on it once released. but will move along a straight line at constant speed. a= 4π 2 r T2 4π 2 r a 1. the apple is perceived to have an acceleration of mv2/r directed away from the axis of rotation (a "centrifugal" force)..3 mi × ⎟ mi ⎠ ⎝ 9. However. from the point of view of our observer inside the station. Relate the speed of a person on a particular deck to his/her distance r from the center: Express the "acceleration of gravity" perceived by someone a distance r from the center: v= 2π r T v 2 4π 2 r = r T2 i.36 rev / min . if he views himself as unmoving.

91 m/s 2 s = v0t1 + 1 a1t12 where v0 = 0 2 and 2 s = v0t2 + 1 a2t2 where v0 = 0 2 a1 = 1 a2 = 1 g sin 30° = 1.23 m/s2 4 4 . use a constant-acceleration equation to relate her sliding times to her accelerations and distance traveled down the slide : Equate these expressions. We’ll first use Newton’s 2nd law to derive an expression for µk in terms of her acceleration and then use Newton’s 2nd law to find her acceleration when riding the frictionless cart. eliminate fk and Fn between the two equations and solve for µk: Apply µ k = tan 30° − a1 g cos 30° (1) ∑F x = max to the child as mg sin 30° = ma2 and she rides the frictionless cart down the incline and solve for her acceleration a2: Letting s represent the distance she slides down the incline. Using a constantacceleration equation.368 Chapter 5 113 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the child as she slides down the incline. Apply ∑ F = ma to the child as r r ∑F and x = mg sin 30° − f k = ma1 = Fn − mg cos 30° = 0 she slides down the incline: ∑F y Using fk = µkFn. Finally. we can use this acceleration in the expression for µk. substitute t2 = 1 t1 and solve for a1: 2 a 2 = g sin 30° = 4. we’ll relate these two accelerations to her descent times and solve for her acceleration when sliding.

23 m/s2: 1. we can calculate its value from its components and determine the particle’s velocity and acceleration by differentiation.0 m ∴the path of the particle is a circle centered at the origin.Applications of Newton’s Laws 369 Evaluate equation (1) with a1 = 1. ( ) (b) Differentiate r with respect to r time to obtain v : r r r ˆ v = dr / dt = [Rω cos ω t ] i + [− Rω sin ω t ] ˆ j = [(8π cos 2π t ) m/s] iˆ − [(8π sin 2π t ) m/s] ˆ j Express the ratio vx : vy vx 8π cos ω t = = − cot ω t v y − 8π sin ω t − R cos ω t y =− = − cot ω t x R sin ω t vx y =− vy x Express the ratio − y : x ∴ r (c) Differentiate v with respect to r time to obtain a : r r a = dv / dt = [(− 16π m/s )sin ω t ] iˆ + [(− 16π m/s )cos ω t ] ˆ j 2 2 2 2 .433 *114 •• Picture the Problem The path of the particle is a circle if r is a constant. (a) Express the magnitude of r in terms of its components: Evaluate r with rx = Rsinωt and ry = Rcosωt: r r = rx2 + ry2 r= [R sin ωt ] 2 + [R cos ωt ] 2 = R 2 sin 2ωt + cos 2 ωt = R = 4.23 m/s 2 µ k = tan 30° − 9.81 m/s 2 cos 30° ( ) = 0. The direction of the net force acting on the particle can be determined from the direction of its acceleration. Once we have shown that it is.

The application of Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of the maximum static friction force will be used to determine the period T of the motion.370 Chapter 5 Factor −4π2/s2 from a to obtain: r r ˆ a = − 4π 2 / s 2 (4 sin ω t ) i + (4 cos ω t ) ˆ j r = − 4π 2 / s 2 r r Because a is in the opposite direction from r r . Apply r r Fnet is toward the center of the circle. Find the ratio v2 : r r r v 2 (8π m/s ) = = 16π 2 m/s 2 = a r 4m 2 (d) Apply ∑ F = ma to the particle: r Fnet = ma = (0. it is directed toward the center of the ( ( )[ ) ] circle in which the particle is traveling. The reciprocal of the period will give us the minimum number of revolutions required per unit time to hold the riders in place.max = µ s Fn and v = 2π r .8π 2 N Because the direction of Fnet is the same as that of a : 115 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram showing the forces acting on a rider being held in place by the maximum static friction force is shown to the right.max − mg = 0 Using f s. ∑ F = ma to the riders r r while they are held in place by friction: ∑ Fx = Fn = m and v2 r ∑F y = f s. T T = 2π µs r g eliminate Fn between the force equations and solve for the period of the motion: .8 kg )(16π 2 m/s 2 ) = 12.

4)(4 m ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 2.00423 min The number of revolutions per minute is the reciprocal of the period in minutes: 116 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagrams to the right show the forces acting on the blocks whose masses are m1 and m2.46 m/s 2 2 (0. Using a constant-acceleration equation.5 m ) = 4. its solution will allow us to substitute in an expression for µk and determine its value.54 s = 0. Finally. relate the displacement of the system in its first configuration as a function of its acceleration and fall time: Solve for a1: 23. leads to a quadratic equation in m1. The repetition of this procedure with the additional object on top of the object whose mass is m1 will lead us to a second equation that. The application of Newton’s 2nd law and the use of a constant-acceleration equation will allow us to find a relationship between the coefficient of kinetic friction and m1.Applications of Newton’s Laws 371 Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = 2π (0.82 s ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate a1: Apply a1 = ∑F x = max to the object m2 g − T1 = m2 a1 and whose mass is m2 and solve for T1: T1 = m2 (g − a ) . when solved simultaneously with the former equation. 2 ∆x = 1 a1 (∆t ) 2 2 a1 = 2∆x (∆t )2 2(1.6 rev/min ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a1 (∆t ) 2 or. because v0 = 0.

2 kg )a2 µk = T1 − m1a1 m1 g (3) Substitute for µk in equation (2) and simplify to obtain the quadratic equation in m1: Solve the quadratic equation to obtain: Substitute numerical values in equation (3) and evaluate µk: 2.3 s ) T2 = m2 ( g − a ) = (2.2-kg T2 − µ k (m1 + 1.685m12 + 9.775 m/s 2 2 2 (∆t ) (1.5 m ) = = 1.07 )kg ⇒ m1 = 1.375 N ( ) ∑ F = ma to the object r r ∑F and x = T1 − f k = m1 a1 = Fn.643 .81m/s2 ( ( ) ) = 0.22 kg ) 4.1 N (2) ( ) Apply ∑F x = max to the 1.22 kg µk = 13.05 = 0 m1 = (− 1.66 m/s 2 (1.85 ± 3.22 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 − 1.81 m/s 2 − 4.2 kg )g object in place: Solve equation (1) for µk: = (m1 + 1.46 m/s 2 = 13.947 m1 − 16.5 kg ) 9.1 − m1 g = 0 (1) whose mass is m1: ∑F y Using fk = µkFn.775 m/s 2 = 20.5 kg ) 9.372 Chapter 5 Substitute numerical values and evaluate T1: Apply T1 = (2. eliminate Fn between the two equations to obtain: Find the acceleration a2 for the second run: Evaluate T2: T1 − µ k m1 g = m1 a1 a2 = 2∆x 2(1.375 N − (1.

(b) A stone dropped from a hand at a location on earth. which relates the apparent weight to the acceleration due to gravity and the acceleration due to the earth' s rotation. surf .37 cm/s )cosθ . surf is the acceleration of the falling stone (neglecting air resistance) relative to the local surface of the earth. where ast. express ac for a point on the surface of the earth at latitude θ : Express the speed of the point due to the rotation of the earth: v2 ac = where R = rcosθ R 2πR T where T is the time for one revolution. where ast. iner . The r r gravitational force on the stone is equal to mast. iner − masurf. A vector addition diagram can be used r r to show that the magnitude of mast. 4π 2 r cosθ T2 v= Substitute for v in the expression for ac and simplify to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ac: ac = 4π 2 (6370 km )cosθ ac = [(24 h )(3600 s/h )] 2 = 2 (3. iner . surf is slightly less than that of mast. The distance R to the axis of rotation is given by R = rcosθ. We can use the definition of centripetal acceleration to express the centripetal acceleration of a point on the surface of the earth due to the rotation of the earth. . surf = mast.iner . The effective weight of r r the stone is equal to mast. Multiplying r r r through this equation by m and rearranging gives mast. (a) Referring to the figure.Applications of Newton’s Laws 373 *117 ••• Picture the Problem The diagram shows a point on the surface of the earth at latitude θ. toward the earth' s axis. iner is the acceleration of the local surface of the earth relative to the inertial frame (the acceleration of the surface due to the rotation of the earth).

and a c: Substitute for θ.374 Chapter 5 (c) At the equator. and ac and simplify to obtain the quadratic equation: Solve for the physically meaningful (i. the only forces acting on the block are the normal and gravitational forces. geff. We’ll apply Newton’s 2nd law and set Fn equal to zero to determine the angle θc at which the block leaves the surface. g.37 cm/s 2 cos0° = 981. Therefore: At latitude θ the gravitational acceleration points toward the center of the earth whereas the centripetal acceleration points toward the axis of rotation.e.4 cm/s 2 ( ) 2 g eff = g 2 + a c2 − 2 ga c cosθ g 2 − 4. apply Fr = mar to the g = g eff + ac = 978 cm/s2 + 3. an intermediate position.. positive) root to obtain: *118 ••• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the block in its initial position. Because the sphere is frictionless. Use the law of cosines to relate geff. Taking the inward direction to be positive. the gravitational acceleration and the radial acceleration are both directed toward the center of the earth.75 cm/s 2 g − 962350 cm 2 /s 4 = 0 ( ) g = 983 cm/s 2 ∑ v2 mg cosθ − Fn = m R v2 R (1) block: Apply the separation condition to obtain: Solve for cosθc: mg cos θ c = m v2 cosθ c = gR Apply ∑F t = mat to the block: mg sin θ = mat or . and as it is separating from the sphere.

we cannot use constant-acceleration equations.2° .Applications of Newton’s Laws 375 at = dv = g sin θ dt Note that a is not constant and. hence. Multiply the left-hand side of the equation by one in the form of dθ/dθ and rearrange to obtain: dv dθ = g sin θ dt dθ and dθ dv = g sin θ dt dθ dθ 1 ds v s = = and R dt R dt R Relate the arc distance s the block travels to the angle θ and the radius R of the sphere: Substitute to obtain: θ= where v is the block’s instantaneous speed. v dv = g sin θ R dθ Separate the variables and integrate from v′ = 0 to v and θ = 0 to θc: ∫ v'dv' = gR ∫ sin θdθ 0 0 v θc or v 2 = 2 gR(1 − cosθ c ) cos θ c = 2 gR(1 − cos θ c ) gR = 2(1 − cos θ c ) ⎛2⎞ ⎝3⎠ Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for and evaluate θc: θ c = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 48.

376 Chapter 5 .

because it must undergo a displacement in order for work to be done on it. While it is true that the person’s kinetic energy is not changing due to the fact that she is moving at a constant speed. A force that is always perpendicular to the velocity of a particle changes neither it’s kinetic nor potential energy and.Chapter 6 Work and Energy Conceptual Problems *1 • Determine the Concept A force does work on an object when its point of application moves through some distance and there is a component of the force along the line of motion. 3 • False. replacing v by 2v yields 2 2 K' = 1 m(2v ) = 4 1 mv 2 = 4 K . (b) True. Any or all of the forces contributing to the net force may do work. (c) True. then neither the kinetic nor the potential energy of the system changed as you moved the box across the room. does no work on the particle. (a) False. The object could be at rest in one reference frame and moving in another. If we consider only the frame in which the object is at rest. hence. Hence. The net force acting on an object is the vector sum of all the forces acting on the object and is responsible for displacing the object. 371 . we must conclude that the minimum work you did on the box is zero. then. Because K = 1 mv 2 . *4 • Determine the Concept The kinetic energy of any object is proportional to the square of its speed. Neither did any forces acting on the box produce displacements. Thus doubling the speed of a car quadruples its kinetic 2 2 ( ) energy. 2 • Determine the Concept If we ignore the work that you do in initiating the horizontal motion of the box and the work that you do in bringing it to rest when you reach the second table. her gravitational potential energy is continuously changing and so we must conclude that the force exerted by the seat on which she is sitting is doing work on her. we would conclude that the statement is true.

372 Chapter 6 5 • r Determine the Concept No. If the net force does no work on the particle. *7 • Determine the Concept The work required to stretch or compress a spring a distance x is given by W = 1 kx 2 where k is the spring’s stiffness constant. . The direction of Fnet is toward the center of the circle in which the object r is traveling and dr is tangent to the circle. Power is defined as: Express the dimension of force: Express the dimension of velocity: Express the dimension of power in terms of those of force and velocity: P ≡ F ⋅v r r [M][L/T 2] [L/T] [M][L/T 2][L/T] = [M][L]2/[T]3 and (d ) is correct. Because W ∝ x2. Because K = 1 mv 2 . Hence tripling the speed of an object increases its 2 2 2 ( ) kinetic energy by a factor of 9 and (d ) is correct. doubling 2 the distance the spring is stretched will require four times as much work. The work done on any object by any force F is defined as r r r dW = F ⋅ dr . 8 • Determine the Concept No. 6 • Determine the Concept The kinetic energy of any object is proportional to the square of its speed and is always positive. 9 • Determine the Concept We can use the definition of power as the scalar product of force and velocity to express the dimension of power. replacing v by 3v yields 2 K' = 1 m(3v ) = 9 1 mv 2 = 9 K . No work is done by the net force because r r Fnet and dr are perpendicular so the dot product is zero. the particle must be accelerated. then we must conclude that the kinetic energy of the particle is constant and that the net force is acting perpendicular to the direction of the motion and will cause a departure from straight-line motion. We know that if a net force is acting on a particle.

is mg∆h. to complete the table: Point dU/dx Fx + A − 0 0 B + C − 0 0 D + E − 0 0 F (b) Find the point where the slope is steepest: At point C Fx is greatest. Consider the work done by the gravitational force on an object in freefall. This is the definition of work done by a conservative force. The definition of work is not limited to displacements caused by conservative forces. then the curve is concave downward and the equilibrium is unstable. then the curve is concave upward and the equilibrium is stable. d2U/dx2 = 0 and the equilibrium is neither stable nor unstable. 11 • (a) False. (b) False. i. remembering that Fx is the negative of the slope of the potential energy graph. Remarks: At point F. (c) If d2U/dx2 < 0. their gains in gravitational potential energy are the same. (c) is correct.e. Fx = − dU dx . (a) Examine the slopes of the curve at each of the lettered points. where ∆h is the elevation change. (c) True. At point B the equilibrium is unstable. over elevation changes that are small enough so that the gravitational field can be considered constant.. Because ∆h is the same for both Sal and Joe. *12 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. At point D the equilibrium is stable.Work and Energy 373 10 • Determine the Concept The change in gravitational potential energy. it is said to be neutral. If d2U/dx2 > 0. .

374 Chapter 6

13 • (a) False. Any force acting on an object may do work depending on whether the force produces a displacement … or is displaced as a consequence of the object’s motion. (b) False. Consider an element of area under a force-versus-time graph. Its units are N⋅s whereas the units of work are N⋅m. 14 • r r r Determine the Concept Work dW = F ⋅ ds is done when a force F produces a

**r r r displacement ds . Because F ⋅ ds ≡ Fds cos θ = (F cos θ ) ds, W will be negative if the
**

value of θ is such that Fcosθ is negative. (d ) is correct.

(

)

**Estimation and Approximation
**

*15 •• Picture the Problem The diagram depicts the situation when the tightrope walker is at the center of rope. M represents her mass and the vertical components of tensions

r r T1 and T2 , equal in magnitude, support her weight. We can apply a condition for static equilibrium in the vertical direction to relate the tension in the rope to the angle θ and use trigonometry to find s as a function of θ.

(a) Use trigonometry to relate the sag s in the rope to its length L and θ: Apply

tan θ =

s L and s = tan θ 1 2 2 L

∑F

y

= 0 to the tightrope

walker when she is at the center of the rope to obtain: Solve for θ to obtain:

**2T sin θ − Mg = 0 where T is the r r magnitude of T1 and T2 .
**

⎛ Mg ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 2T ⎠

⎡ (50 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 ⎤ ⎥ = 2.81° 2(5000 N ) ⎣ ⎦

θ = sin −1 ⎜

Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ :

θ = sin −1 ⎢

(

)

**Work and Energy 375
**

Substitute to obtain:

s=

10 m tan 2.81° = 0.245 m 2

(b) Express the change in the tightrope walker’s gravitational potential energy as the rope sags: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆U:

∆U = U at center − U end = Mg∆y

∆U = (50 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (− 0.245 m ) = − 120 J

(

)

16 • Picture the Problem You can estimate your change in potential energy due to this change in elevation from the definition of ∆U. You’ll also need to estimate the height of one story of the Empire State building. We’ll assume your mass is 70 kg and the height of one story to be 3.5 m. This approximation gives us a height of 1170 ft (357 m), a height that agrees to within 7% with the actual height of 1250 ft from the ground floor to the observation deck. We’ll also assume that it takes 3 min to ride non-stop to the top floor in one of the high-speed elevators. (a) Express the change in your gravitational potential energy as you ride the elevator to the 102nd floor: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆U:

∆U = mg∆h

**∆U = (70 kg ) 9.81m/s 2 (357 m ) = 245 kJ
**

W = Fh = ∆U

(

)

(b) Ignoring the acceleration intervals at the beginning and the end of your ride, express the work done on you by the elevator in terms of the change in your gravitational potential energy: Solve for and evaluate F:

F=

**∆U 245 kJ = = 686 N h 357 m
**

∆U 245 kJ = (3 min )(60 s/min ) ∆t

(c) Assuming a 3 minute ride to the top, express and evaluate the average power delivered to the elevator:

P=

= 1.36 kW

376 Chapter 6

17 • Picture the Problem We can find the kinetic energy K of the spacecraft from its definition and compare its energy to the annual consumption in the U.S. W by examining the ratio K/W. Using its definition, express and evaluate the kinetic energy of the spacecraft: Express this amount of energy as a percentage of the annual consumption in the United States:

K = 1 mv 2 = 2

1 2

(10000 kg )(3 ×107 m/s) 2

= 4.50 × 1018 J K 4.50 × 1018 J ≈ ≈ 1% E 5 × 10 20 J

*18 •• Picture the Problem We can find the orbital speed of the Shuttle from the radius of its orbit and its period and its kinetic energy from K = 1 mv 2 . We’ll ignore the variation in 2 the acceleration due to gravity to estimate the change in the potential energy of the orbiter between its value at the surface of the earth and its orbital value. (a) Express the kinetic energy of the orbiter: Relate the orbital speed of the orbiter to its radius r and period T: Substitute and simplify to obtain:

K = 1 mv 2 2

v=

2π r T

2

2π 2 mr 2 ⎛ 2π r ⎞ K = m⎜ ⎟ = T2 ⎝ T ⎠

1 2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate K:

K=

**2π 2 8 × 10 4 kg [(200 mi + 3960 mi )(1.609 km/mi)] = 2.43 TJ [(90 min )(60 s / min )] 2
**

2

(

)

(b) Assuming the acceleration due to gravity to be constant over the 200 mi and equal to its value at the surface of the earth (actually, it is closer to 9 m/s2 at an elevation of 200 mi), express the change in gravitational potential energy of the orbiter, relative to the surface of the earth, as the Shuttle goes into orbit:

∆U = mgh

**Work and Energy 377
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆U:

∆U = 8 ×10 4 kg 9.81 m/s 2 × (200 mi )(1.609 km/mi) = 0.253 TJ

(

)(

)

No, they shouldn' t be equal because there is more than just the force of gravity to consider here. When the shuttle is resting on the surface of

(c)

the earth, it is supported against the force of gravity by the normal force the earth exerts upward on it. We would need to take into consideration the change in potential energy of the surface of earth in its deformation under the weight of the shuttle to find the actual change in potential energy.

19 • Picture the Problem Let’s assume that the width of the driveway is 18 ft. We’ll also assume that you lift each shovel full of snow to a height of 1 m, carry it to the edge of the driveway, and drop it. We’ll ignore the fact that you must slightly accelerate each shovel full as you pick it up and as you carry it to the edge of the driveway. While the density of snow depends on the extent to which it has been compacted, one liter of freshly fallen snow is approximately equivalent to 100 mL of water. Express the work you do in lifting the snow a distance h: Using its definition, express the densities of water and snow: Divide the first of these equations by the second to obtain: Substitute and evaluate the ρsnow:

W = ∆U = mgh = ρ snowVsnow gh where ρ is the density of the snow.

ρ snow =

msnow m and ρ water = water Vsnow Vwater

**ρ snow Vwater V or ρ snow = ρ water water = ρ water Vsnow Vsnow ρ snow = (103 kg/m 3 )
**

100 mL = 100 kg/m 3 L

Calculate the volume of snow covering the driveway:

⎛ 10 ⎞ Vsnow = (50 ft )(18 ft )⎜ ft ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 28.32 L 10−3 m 3 = 750 ft 3 × × ft 3 L 3 = 21.2 m W = 100 kg/m 3 21.2 m 3 9.81 m/s 2 (1 m ) = 20.8 kJ

Substitute numerical values in the expression for W to obtain an estimate (a lower bound) for the work you would do on the snow in removing it:

(

)(

)(

)

378 Chapter 6

**Work and Kinetic Energy
**

*20 • Picture the Problem We can use (a) Use the definition of K:

1 2

**mv 2 to find the kinetic energy of the bullet.
**

K = 1 mv 2 2 =

1 2

(0.015 kg )(1.2 ×103 m/s) 2

= 10.8 kJ

(b) Because K ∝ v2: (c) Because K ∝ v2:

K' = 1 K = 2.70 kJ 4 K' = 4 K = 43.2 kJ

21 • Picture the Problem We can use jogger. (a) Use the definition of K:

1 2

mv 2 to find the kinetic energy of the baseball and the

K = 1 mv 2 = 2 = 147 J

1 2

(0.145 kg )(45 m/s)2

(b) Convert the jogger’s pace of 9 min/mi into a speed:

**⎛ 1 mi ⎞ ⎛ 1 min ⎞ ⎛ 1609 m ⎞ v=⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎜ 9 min ⎟ ⎜ 60 s ⎟ ⎜ 1 mi ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎝ = 2.98 m/s K = 1 mv 2 = 2 = 266 J
**

1 2

Use the definition of K:

(60 kg )(2.98 m/s)2

22 • Picture the Problem The work done in raising an object a given distance is the product of the force producing the displacement and the displacement of the object. Because the weight of an object is the gravitational force acting on it and this force acts downward, the work done by gravity is the negative of the weight of the object multiplied by its displacement. The change in kinetic energy of an object is equal to the work done by the net force acting on it. (a) Use the definition of W:

r r W = F ⋅ ∆y = F∆y

**Work and Energy 379
**

= (80 N)(3 m) = 240 J (b) Use the definition of W:

**r r r W = F ⋅ ∆y = −mg∆y, because F and r ∆y are in opposite directions.
**

∴ W = − (6 kg)(9.81 m/s2)(3 m) = − 177 J

(c) According to the work-kinetic energy theorem:

K = W + Wg = 240 J + (−177 J) = 63.0 J

23 • Picture the Problem The constant force of 80 N is the net force acting on the box and the work it does is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the box. Using the work-kinetic energy theorem, relate the work done by the constant force to the change in the kinetic energy of the box: Substitute numerical values and evaluate W:

W = K f − K i = 1 m vf2 − vi2 2

(

)

W =

1 2

(5 kg )[(68 m/s )2 − (20 m/s )2 ]

= 10.6 kJ

*24 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of kinetic energy to find the mass of your friend. Using the definition of kinetic energy and letting ″1″ denote your mass and speed and ″2″ your girlfriend’s, express the equality of your kinetic energies and solve for your girlfriend’s mass as a function of both your masses and speeds: Express the condition on your speed that enables you to run at the same speed as your girlfriend:

1 2 2 m1v12 = 1 m2 v2 2

and

⎛v ⎞ m2 = m1 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜v ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠

2

(1)

v2 = 1.25v1

(2)

380 Chapter 6

Substitute equation (2) in equation (1) to obtain:

⎛v ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ m2 = m1 ⎜ 1 ⎟ = (85 kg )⎜ ⎟ ⎜v ⎟ ⎝ 1.25 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ = 54.4 kg

2

2

**Work Done by a Variable Force
**

25 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the particle as it moves along the positive x axis. The particle’s kinetic energy increases because work is done on it. We can calculate the work done on it from the graph of Fx vs. x and relate its kinetic energy when it is at x = 4 m to its kinetic energy when it was at the origin and the work done on it by using the work-kinetic energy theorem.

(a) Calculate the kinetic energy of the particle when it is at x = 0:

K 0 = 1 mv 2 = 2 = 6.00 J W0→4 =

1 2

(3 kg )(2 m/s) 2

(b) Because the force and displacement are parallel, the work done is the area under the curve. Use the formula for the area of a triangle to calculate the area under the F as a function of x graph: (c) Express the kinetic energy of the particle at x = 4 m in terms of its speed and mass and solve for its speed: Using the work-kinetic energy theorem, relate the work done on the particle to its change in kinetic energy and solve for the particle’s kinetic energy at x = 4 m:

(base)(altitude) = 1 (4 m )(6 N ) 2

1 2

= 12.0 J

v4 =

2K 4 m

(1)

W0→4 = K4 – K0

K 4 = K 0 + W0→4 = 6.00 J + 12.0 J = 18.0 J

**Work and Energy 381
**

Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate v4:

v4 =

2(18.0 J ) = 3.46 m/s 3 kg

*26 •• Picture the Problem The work done by this force as it displaces the particle is the area under the curve of F as a function of x. Note that the constant C has units of N/m3. Because F varies with position nonlinearly, express the work it does as an integral and evaluate the integral between the limits x = 1.5 m and x = 3 m:

W = C N/m

(

3

) ∫ x'

3m 1.5 m 1 4

3

dx'

3m

( ) [ x' ] (C N/m ) [(3 m) − (1.5 m) ] =

= C N/m 3 4

4 1.5 m 3 4 4

= 19C J

27 •• Picture the Problem The work done on the dog by the leash as it stretches is the area under the curve of F as a function of x. We can find this area (the work Lou does holding the leash) by integrating the force function. Because F varies with position nonlinearly, express the work it does as an integral and evaluate the integral between the limits x = 0 and x = x1:

W = ∫ − kx'−ax'2 dx' = − 1 kx'2 − 1 ax'3 2 3

x1

(

)

[

0

]

x1 0

= − 1 kx12 − 1 ax13 2 3

28 •• Picture the Problem The work done on an object can be determined by finding the area bounded by its graph of Fx as a function of x and the x axis. We can find the kinetic energy and the speed of the particle at any point by using the work-kinetic energy theorem. (a) Express W, the area under the curve, in terms of the area of one square, Asquare, and the number of squares n: Determine the work equivalent of one square: W = n Asquare

W = (0.5 N)(0.25 m) = 0.125 J

382 Chapter 6

Estimate the number of squares under the curve between x = 0 and x = 2 m: Substitute to determine W: n ≈ 22

W = 22(0.125 J) = 2.75 J

(b) Relate the kinetic energy of the object at x = 2 m, K2, to its initial kinetic energy, K0, and the work that was done on it between x = 0 and x = 2 m: (c) Calculate the speed of the object at x = 2 m from its kinetic energy at the same location: (d) Estimate the number of squares under the curve between x = 0 and x = 4 m: Substitute to determine W:

K 2 = K 0 + W0→2 =

1 2

(3 kg )(2.40 m/s)2 + 2.75 J

= 11.4 J

v=

2K 2 = m

2(11.4 J ) = 2.76 m/s 3 kg

n ≈ 26

W = 26(0.125 J ) = 3.25 J K 4 = K 0 + W0→4 =

1 2

(e) Relate the kinetic energy of the object at x = 4 m, K4, to its initial kinetic energy, K0, and the work that was done on it between x = 0 and x = 4 m: Calculate the speed of the object at x = 4 m from its kinetic energy at the same location:

(3 kg )(2.40 m/s )2 + 3.25 J

= 11.9 J

v=

2K 4 = m

2(11.9 J ) = 2.82 m/s 3 kg

*29 •• Picture the Problem We can express the mass of the water in Margaret’s bucket as the difference between its initial mass and the product of the rate at which it loses water and her position during her climb. Because Margaret must do work against gravity in lifting and carrying the bucket, the work she does is the integral of the product of the gravitational field and the mass of the bucket as a function of its position. (a) Express the mass of the bucket and the water in it as a function of

m( y ) = 40 kg − ry

**Work and Energy 383
**

its initial mass, the rate at which it is losing water, and Margaret’s position, y, during her climb: Find the rate, r =

∆m , at which ∆y

r=

∆m 20 kg = = 1 kg/m ∆y 20 m

Margaret’s bucket loses water: Substitute to obtain:

m( y ) = 40 kg − ry = 40 kg −

1 kg y m

**(b) Integrate the force Margaret exerts on the bucket, m(y)g, between the limits of y = 0 and y = 20 m:
**

20 m

W=g

∫

0

1 kg ⎞ ⎛ y ' ⎟dy ' = 9.81 m/s 2 (40 kg ) y '− 1 (1 kg/m ) y '2 ⎜ 40 kg − 2 m ⎠ ⎝

(

)[

]

20 m 0

= 5.89 kJ

Remarks: We could also find the work Margaret did on the bucket, at least approximately, by plotting a graph of m(y)g and finding the area under this curve between y = 0 and y = 20 m.

**Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
**

30 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces that act on the block as it slides down the frictionless incline. We can find the work done by these forces as the block slides 2 m by finding their components in the direction of, or opposite to, the motion. When we have determined the work done on the block, we can use the work-kinetic energy theorem or a constant-acceleration equation to calculate its kinetic energy and its speed at any given location.

384 Chapter 6 From the free - body diagram, we see that the forces acting on the block are (a) a gravitational force that acts downward and the normal force that the incline exerts perpendicularly to the incline.

Identify the component of mg that acts down the incline and calculate the work done by it: Express the work done by this force: Substitute numerical values and evaluate W: Fx = mg sin 60°

W = Fx ∆x = mg∆x sin 60°

W = (6 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (2 m )sin 60° = 102 J

(

)

Remarks: Fn and mgcos60°, being perpendicular to the motion, do no work on the block (b) The total work done on the block is the work done by the net force:

W = Fnet ∆x = mg∆x sin 60°

= (6 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (2 m )sin 60° = 102 J

(

)

(c) Express the change in the kinetic energy of the block in terms of the distance, ∆x, it has moved down the incline: Relate the speed of the block when it has moved a distance ∆x down the incline to its kinetic energy at that location: Determine this speed when ∆x = 1.5 m:

∆K = Kf – Ki = W = (mgsin60°)∆x or, because Ki = 0, Kf = W = (mgsin60°)∆x

v=

2K = m

2mg∆x sin 60° m

= 2 g∆x sin 60°

v = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (1.5 m )sin 60° = 5.05 m/s

∆K = Kf – Ki =W = (mg sin 60°)∆x and

(

)

(d) As in part (c), express the change in the kinetic energy of the block in terms of the distance, ∆x, it has moved down the incline and

**Work and Energy 385
**

solve for Kf: Substitute for the kinetic energy terms and solve for vf to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf: Kf = (mg sin 60°)∆x + Ki

vf = 2 g sin 60°∆x + vi2

vf = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (1.5 m ) sin60° + (2 m/s ) = 5.43 m/s

2

(

)

31 • Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the object as in moves along its circular path on a frictionless horizontal surface. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to obtain an expression for the tension in the string and the definition of work to determine the amount of work done by each force during one revolution. (a) Apply

∑F

r

= mar to the 2-kg

object and solve for the tension:

(2.5 m/s) v2 T = m = (2 kg ) r 3m

= 4.17 N

r r r T , Fg , and Fn

2

(b) From the FBD we can see that the forces acting on the object are:

Because all of these forces act perpendicularly to the direction of motion of the object, none of them do any work.

386 Chapter 6

*32 • Picture the Problem The free-body r diagram, with F representing the force required to move the block at constant speed, shows the forces acting on the block. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the block to relate F to its weight w and then use the definition of the mechanical advantage of an inclined plane. In the second part of the problem we’ll use the definition of work. (a) Express the mechanical advantage M of the inclined plane: Apply

M =

w F

∑F

x

= ma x to the block:

F − w sin θ = 0 because ax = 0.

Solve for F and substitute to obtain:

M =

w 1 = w sin θ sin θ H L

Refer to the figure to obtain:

sin θ =

Substitute to obtain:

M =

1 L = sin θ H

(b) Express the work done pushing the block up the ramp: Express the work done lifting the block into the truck:

**Wramp = FL = mgL sin θ Wlifting = mgH = mgL sin θ
**

and

Wramp = Wlifting

33 • Picture the Problem We can find the work done per revolution in lifting the weight and the work done in each revolution of the handle and then use the definition of mechanical advantage. Express the mechanical advantage of the jack: Express the work done by the jack in one complete revolution (the weight W is raised a distance p): Express the work done by the force F in one complete revolution:

M =

W F

Wlifting = Wp

Wturning = 2π RF

**Work and Energy 387
**

Equate these expressions to obtain: Solve for the ratio of W to F:

Wp = 2π RF

M =

2π R W = F p

Remarks: One does the same amount of work turning as lifting; exerting a smaller force over a greater distance. 34 • r Picture the Problem The object whose weight is w is supported by two portions of the rope resulting in what is known as a mechanical advantage of 2. The work that is done in each instance is the product of the force doing the work and the displacement of the object on which it does the work. (a) If w moves through a distance h:

F moves a distance 2h W = ∆U = wh cos θ = wh

(b) Assuming that the kinetic energy of the weight does not change, relate the work done on the object to the change in its potential energy to obtain: (c) Because the force you exert on the rope and its displacement are in the same direction: Determine the tension in the ropes supporting the object:

W = F (2h )cosθ = F (2h )

∑F

and

vertical

= 2F − w = 0

F=1w 2

Substitute for F: (d) The mechanical advantage of the inclined plane is the ratio of the weight that is lifted to the force required to lift it, i.e.:

W = F (2h ) = 1 w (2h ) = wh 2 M = w w = 1 = 2 F 2w

Remarks: Note that the mechanical advantage is also equal to the number of ropes supporting the load.

388 Chapter 6

Dot Products

*35 • r r Picture the Problem Because A ⋅ B ≡ AB cos θ we can solve for cosθ and use the fact that A ⋅ B = − AB to find θ. Solve for θ :

r r

r r A⋅ B θ = cos AB

−1

Substitute for A ⋅ B and evaluate θ :

r r

θ = cos −1 (− 1) = 180°

36 • r r Picture the Problem We can use its definition to evaluate A ⋅ B . Express the definition of A ⋅ B : Substitute numerical values and r r evaluate A ⋅ B :

r r

r r A ⋅ B = AB cos θ

r r A ⋅ B = (6 m )(6 m )cos 60°

= 18.0 m 2

37 • r r Picture the Problem The scalar product of two-dimensional vectors A and B is AxBx + A yB y.

ˆ (a) For A = 3 i − 6 ˆ and j

r

r ˆ B = −4 i + 2 ˆ : j r

r r A ⋅ B = (3)( −4) + (−6)(2) = − 24

ˆ j (b) For A = 5 i + 5 ˆ and

r ˆ j B = 2 i −4 ˆ :

r r A ⋅ B = (5)(2) + (5)( −4) = − 10

ˆ ˆ j j (c) For A = 6 i + 4 ˆ and B = 4 i − 6 ˆ :

r

r

r r A ⋅ B = (6)(4) + (4)( −6) = 0

**Work and Energy 389
**

38 • r r Picture the Problem The scalar product of two-dimensional vectors A and B is AB cos θ r r = AxBx + AyBy. Hence the angle between vectors A and B is given by

θ = cos −1

r

Ax B x + Ay B y AB

.

r r A ⋅ B = (3)( −4) + (−6)(2) = −24

ˆ j (a) For A = 3 i − 6 ˆ and

r ˆ j B = −4 i + 2 ˆ :

A= B=

and

(3)2 + (− 6)2 (− 4)2 + (2)2

= 45 = 20

θ = cos −1

ˆ (b) For A = 5 i + 5 ˆ and j

− 24 = 143° 45 20

r

r ˆ B = 2i − 4 ˆ : j

r r A ⋅ B = (5)(2) + (5)(−4) = -10

A= B=

and

(5)2 + (5)2 = 50 (2)2 + (− 4)2 = 20

− 10 = 108° 50 20

θ = cos −1

ˆ ˆ j j (c) For A = 6 i + 4 ˆ and B = 4 i − 6 ˆ :

r

r

r r A ⋅ B = (6)(4) + (4)( −6) = 0

A= B=

and

(6)2 + (4)2 = 52 (4)2 + (− 6)2 = 52

0 = 90.0° 52 52

θ = cos −1

39 • r r Picture the Problem The work W done by a force F during a displacement ∆ s for which it is responsible is given by F ⋅∆ s .

r

r

390 Chapter 6

(a) Using the definitions of work and the scalar product, calculate the work done by the given force during the specified displacement:

r r W = F ⋅ ∆s ˆ ˆ = 2 N i −1N ˆ +1N k j

(

ˆ ˆ ⋅ 3m i + 3m ˆ − 2 m k j = [(2)(3) + (− 1)(3) + (1) (− 2)] N ⋅ m = 1.00 J

(

)

)

(b) Using the definition of work that includes the angle between the force and displacement vectors, solve for r the component of F in the direction r of ∆ s : Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fcosθ :

**W = F∆s cos θ = (F cos θ )∆s
**

and

F cosθ =

W ∆s

F cos θ =

1J

(3 m )2 + (3 m )2 + (− 2 m )2

= 0.213 N

40 •• Picture the Problem The component of a vector that is along another vector is the scalar product of the former vector and a unit vector that is parallel to the latter vector. (a) By definition, the unit vector r that is parallel to the vector A is:

r ˆ ˆ j A Ax i + Ay ˆ + Az k ˆ = uA = 2 A Ax2 + Ay + Az2

r

(b) Find the unit vector parallel to B :

r B ˆ uB = = B

ˆ 3i + 4 ˆ j

(3)

2

+ (4 )

2

=

3ˆ 4 ˆ i+ j 5 5

The component of A along B is:

r

r

r ˆ j ˆ ⎛ 3 ˆ 4 j⎞ ˆ A ⋅ uB = 2i − ˆ − k ⋅ ⎜ i + ˆ ⎟ 5 ⎠ ⎝5 ⎛3⎞ ⎛4⎞ = (2)⎜ ⎟ + (− 1)⎜ ⎟ + (− 1)(0) ⎝5⎠ ⎝5⎠

(

)

= 0.400

*41 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definitions of the magnitude of a vector and the dot product to show that if A + B = A − B , then A ⊥ B .

r

v

r

v

r

r

**Work and Energy 391
**

Express A + B : Express A − B : Equate these expressions to obtain: Expand both sides of the equation to obtain: Simplify to obtain:

r

r2

r r2 r r A+ B = A+ B

r r2 r r A− B = A− B

2

(

)

)

2

r

v

(

2

r v r v (A + B ) = (A − B )

2

r r r r A2 + 2 A ⋅ B + B 2 = A2 − 2 A ⋅ B + B 2

r r 4A ⋅ B = 0

or

r r A⋅ B = 0

From the definition of the dot product we have: Because neither A nor B is the zero vector: 42 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows

r

v

r r A ⋅ B = AB cos θ r v where θ is the angle between A and B. r r cos θ = 0 ⇒ θ = 90° and A ⊥ B.

ˆ ˆ the unit vectors A and B arbitrarily st located in the 1 quadrant. We can express these vectors in terms of the unit vectors

ˆ i and ˆ and their x and y components. We j

can then form the dot product of ˆ ˆ A and B to show that cos(θ1 − θ2) = cosθ1cosθ2 + sinθ1sinθ2.

**ˆ (a) Express A in terms of the unit
**

ˆ j vectors i and ˆ :

ˆ ˆ A = Axi + Ay ˆ j

where

**Ax = cos θ1 and Ay = sin θ1
**

Proceed as above to obtain:

ˆ ˆ B = Bxi + By ˆ j

where

Bx = cos θ 2

and B y = sin θ 2

ˆ ˆ (b) Evaluate A ⋅ B :

ˆ ˆ ˆ A ⋅ B = cos θ1i + sin θ1 ˆ j ˆ ⋅ cos θ 2 i + sin θ 2 ˆ j

(

(

)

)

**= cos θ1 cos θ 2 + sin θ1 sin θ 2
**

From the diagram we note that:

ˆ ˆ A ⋅ B = cos(θ1 − θ 2 )

392 Chapter 6

Substitute to obtain:

cos(θ1 − θ 2 ) = cos θ1 cos θ 2 + sin θ1 sin θ 2

43 • r r Picture the Problem In (a) we’ll show that it does not follow that B = C by giving a counterexample.

ˆ ˆ Let A = i , B = 3i + 4 ˆ and j

r

r

r r r r r ˆ C = 3i − 4 ˆ. Form A ⋅ B and A ⋅ C : j

( ) and r r ˆ ˆ A ⋅ C = i ⋅ (3i − 4 ˆ ) = 3 j

r r ˆ ˆ A ⋅ B = i ⋅ 3i + 4 ˆ = 3 j

**No. We' ve shown by a counter r example that B is not necessarily r equal to C .
**

44 •• r r Picture the Problem We can form the dot product of A and r and require that r r r A ⋅ r = 1 to show that the points at the head of all such vectors r lie on a straight line. r We can use the equation of this line and the components of A to find the slope and intercept of the line.

ˆ (a) Let A = a x i + a y ˆ . Then: j

r

r r ˆ ˆ A ⋅ r = ax i + a y ˆ ⋅ x i + y ˆ j j = ax x + a y y = 1

(

)(

)

Solve for y to obtain:

y= −

ax 1 x+ ay ay

which is of the form y = mx + b and hence is the equation of a line.

ˆ j (b) Given that A = 2 i − 3 ˆ :

r

m=−

and

ax 2 2 =− = ay 3 −3

b=

1 1 1 = = − ay − 3 3

**Work and Energy 393
**

(c) The equation we obtained in (a) specifies all vectors whose component r parallel to A has constant magnitude; therefore, we can write such a vector as

r r r r A r = r 2 + B , where B is any vector A r perpendicular to A. This is shown

graphically to the right. Because all possiblervectors B lie in a plane, the resultant r must lie in a plane as well, as is shown above. *45 •• Picture the Problem The rules for the differentiation of vectors are the same as those for the differentiation of scalars and scalar multiplication is commutative. (a) Differentiate r ⋅ r = r2 = constant:

r

r r

r r r r d r r r dr dr r (r ⋅ r ) = r ⋅ + ⋅ r = 2v ⋅ r dt dt dt d = (constant ) = 0 dt

r r v ⊥r

Because v ⋅ r = 0 : (b) Differentiate v ⋅ v = v2 = constant with respect to time:

r r

r r

r r r r d r r r dv dv r (v ⋅ v ) = v ⋅ + ⋅ v = 2a ⋅ v dt dt dt d = (constant ) = 0 dt

r r a ⊥v

Because a ⋅ v = 0 :

r r

**The results of (a) and (b) tell us that r r a is perpendicular to r and and r parallel (or antiparallel) to r .
**

(c) Differentiate v ⋅ r = 0 with respect to time:

r r

r r d r r r dr r dv (v ⋅ r ) = v ⋅ + r ⋅ dt dt dt r r d = v 2 + r ⋅ a = (0) = 0 dt

394 Chapter 6

Because v 2 + r ⋅ a = 0 : Express ar in terms of θ, where θ is r r the angle between r and a : Express r ⋅ a : Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for ar:

r r

r r r ⋅ a = −v 2

(1)

ar = a cos θ

r r r ⋅ a = ra cos θ = rar

r r

rar = −v 2 ar = − v2 r

Power

46 •• Picture the Problem The power delivered by a force is defined as the rate at which the force does work; i.e., P =

dW . dt PA = 5J = 0.5 W 10 s 3J = 0.6 W and PB > PA 5s

Calculate the rate at which force A does work: Calculate the rate at which force B does work:

PB =

47 • Picture the Problem The power delivered by a force is defined as the rate at which the force does work; i.e., P =

r r dW = F ⋅ v. dt

(a) If the box moves upward with a constant velocity, the net force acting it must be zero and the force that is doing work on the box is: The power input of the force is: Substitute numerical values and evaluate P:

F = mg

P = Fv = mgv

P = (5 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (2 m/s ) = 98.1 W

(

)

**Work and Energy 395
**

(b) Express the work done by the force in terms of the rate at which energy is delivered: W = Pt = (98.1 W) (4 s) = 392 J

48 • Picture the Problem The power delivered by a force is defined as the rate at which the force does work; i.e., P =

r r dW = F ⋅ v. dt

(a) Using the definition of power, express Fluffy’s speed in terms of the rate at which he does work and the force he exerts in doing the work: (b) Express the work done by the force in terms of the rate at which energy is delivered:

v=

P 6W = = 2 m/s F 3N

W = Pt = (6 W) (4 s) = 24.0 J

49 • Picture the Problem We can use Newton’s 2nd law and the definition of acceleration to express the velocity of this object as a function of time. The power input of the force accelerating the object is defined to be the rate at which it does work; i.e.,

r r P = dW dt = F ⋅ v .

(a) Express the velocity of the object as a function of its acceleration and time: Apply

v = at

∑ F = ma to the object:

r

r

a = F/m

Substitute for a in the expression for v: (b) Express the power input as a function of F and v and evaluate P: (c) Substitute t = 3 s:

v=

F 5N t= t= m 8 kg

(

5 8

m/s 2 t

)

5 P = Fv = (5 N ) 8 m/s 2 t = 3.13t W/s

(

)

P = (3.13 W/s )(3 s ) = 9.38 W

396 Chapter 6

50 • Picture the Problem The power delivered by a force is defined as the rate at which the force does work; i.e., P =

r r dW = F ⋅ v. dt

ˆ ˆ (a) For F = 4 N i + 3 N k and

r ˆ v = 6 m/s i :

r

r r ˆ ˆ ˆ P = F ⋅ v = 4 N i + 3 N k ⋅ 6 m/s i

= 24.0 W

(

)(

)

ˆ (b) For F = 6 N i − 5 N ˆ and j

r ˆ v = − 5 m/s i + 4 m/s ˆ : j

r

r r P = F ⋅v

ˆ ˆ = 6 N i − 5 N ˆ ⋅ − 5 m/s i + 4 m/s ˆ j j = − 50.0 W

(

)(

)

ˆ j (c) For F = 3 N i + 6 N ˆ

r

r ˆ j and v = 2 m/s i + 3 m/s ˆ :

r r P = F ⋅v ˆ ˆ = 3 N i + 6 N ˆ ⋅ 2 m/s i + 3 m/s ˆ j j

(

)(

)

= 24.0 W

*51 • Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which upward is the positive y direction. We can find Pin from the given information that Pout = 0.27 Pin . We can express

**Pout as the product of the tension in the cable T and the constant speed v of the
**

dumbwaiter. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the dumbwaiter to express T in terms of its mass m and the gravitational field g. Express the relationship between the motor’s input and output power:

Pout = 0.27 Pin

or

Pin = 3.7 Pout

Express the power required to move the dumbwaiter at a constant speed v: Apply

Pout = Tv T − mg = ma y

or, because ay = 0,

∑F

y

= ma y to the

dumbwaiter:

T = mg

Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Pin:

Pin = 3.7Tv = 3.7 mgv

Pin = 3.7(35 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (0.35 m/s ) = 445 W

(

)

**Work and Energy 397
**

52 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which upward is the positive y direction. We can express Pdrag as the product of the drag force Fdrag acting on the skydiver and her terminal velocity vt. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the skydiver to express Fdrag in terms of her mass m and the gravitational field g. (a) Express the power due to drag force acting on the skydiver as she falls at her terminal velocity vt:

r r r Pdrag = Fdrag ⋅ v t r r or, because Fdrag and v t are antiparallel,

Pdrag = − Fdrag vt

Apply

∑F

y

= ma y to the skydiver:

Fdrag − mg = ma y

or, because ay = 0,

Fdrag = mg

Substitute to obtain, for the magnitude of Pdrag: Substitute numerical values and evaluate P:

Pdrag = − mgvt

(1)

Pdrag = − (55 kg) (9.81 m/s 2 ) (120

mi 1h 1.609 km × × ) = 2.89 × 10 4 W h 3600 s mi

(b) Evaluate equation (1) with v = 15 mi/h:

**1h 1.609 km ⎛ mi ⎞ Pdrag = − (55 kg )(9.81 m/s 2 ) ⎜15 ⎟ × × ) = 3.62 kW mi ⎝ h ⎠ 3600 s
**

*53 •• Picture the Problem Because, in the absence of air resistance, the acceleration of the cannonball is constant, we can use a constant-acceleration equation to relate its velocity to the time it has been in flight. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the cannonball to find the net force acting on it and then form the dot product of F and v to express the rate at which the gravitational field does work on the cannonball. Integrating this expression over the time-of-flight T of the ball will yield the desired result. Express the velocity of the cannonball as a function of time while it is in the air: Apply

r

r

r ˆ v (t ) = 0i + (v0 − gt ) ˆ j

∑ F = ma to the

r r

r

r

r F = − mg ˆ j

cannonball to express the force acting on it while it is in the air: Evaluate F ⋅ v :

r r F ⋅ v = −mg ˆ ⋅ (v0 − gt ) ˆ j j

= −mgv0 + mg 2t

398 Chapter 6

Relate F ⋅ v to the rate at which work is being done on the cannonball: Separate the variables and integrate over the time T that the cannonball is in the air:

r r

r r dW = F ⋅ v = − mgv0 + mg 2t dt

T

W = ∫ − mgv0 + mg 2 t dt

0

(

)

(1)

= 1 mg 2T 2 − mgv0T 2

Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the speed v of the cannonball when it lands at the bottom of the cliff to its initial speed v0 and the height of the cliff H: Solve for v to obtain:

2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆y

**or, because a = g and ∆y = H,
**

2 v 2 = v0 + 2 gH

v=

v0 + 2 gH

2

Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the time-of-flight T to the initial and impact speeds of the cannonball: Solve for T to obtain:

v = v0 − gT

T=

v0 − v g

v 02 − 2vv0 + v 2 g2

Substitute for T in equation (1) and simplify to evaluate W:

W = 1 mg 2 2

**⎛v −v⎞ − mgv0 ⎜ 0 ⎜ g ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

2 = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv0 = ∆K 2 2

54 •• Picture the Problem If the particle is acted on by a single force, that force is the net force acting on the particle and is responsible for its acceleration. The rate at which energy is delivered by the force is P = F ⋅ v . Express the rate at which this force does work in terms of F and v : The velocity of the particle, in terms of its acceleration and the time that the force has acted is:

r r

r

r

r r P = F ⋅v

r r v = at

**Work and Energy 399
**

r r F v= t m

r r r r F F2 F ⋅F P=F⋅ t= t= t m m m

Using Newton’s 2nd law, substitute r for a : Substitute for v in the expression for P and simplify to obtain:

r

Potential Energy

55 • Picture the Problem The change in the gravitational potential energy of the earth-man system, near the surface of the earth, is given by ∆U = mg∆h, where ∆h is measured relative to an arbitrarily chosen reference position. Express the change in the man’s gravitational potential energy in terms of his change in elevation: Substitute for m, g and ∆h and evaluate ∆U: ∆U = mg∆h

∆U = (80 kg ) (9.81 m/s 2 ) (6 m ) = 4.71 kJ

56 • Picture the Problem The water going over the falls has gravitational potential energy relative to the base of the falls. As the water falls, the falling water acquires kinetic energy until, at the base of the falls; its energy is entirely kinetic. The rate at which energy is delivered to the base of the falls is given by P = dW / dt = − dU / dt. Express the rate at which energy is being delivered to the base of the falls; remembering that half the potential energy of the water is converted to electric energy: Substitute numerical values and evaluate P:

P=

dW dU =− dt dt d dm = − 1 (mgh ) = − 1 gh 2 2 dt dt

P = − 1 9.81 m/s 2 (− 128 m ) 2

6

( ) × (1.4 × 10 kg/s )

= 879 MW

400 Chapter 6

57 • Picture the Problem In the absence of friction, the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of the box remains constant as it slides down the incline. We can use the conservation of the mechanical energy of the system to calculate where the box will be and how fast it will be moving at any given time. We can also use Newton’s 2nd law to show that the acceleration of the box is constant and constant-acceleration equations to calculate where the box will be and how fast it will be moving at any given time. (a) Express and evaluate the gravitational potential energy of the box, relative to the ground, at the top of the incline: (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the displacement of the box to its initial speed, acceleration and time-of-travel: Apply Ui = mgh = (2 kg) (9.81 m/s2) (20 m) = 392 J

∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) 2

or, because v0 = 0,

2

∆x = 1 a (∆t ) 2

2

∑F

x

= max to the box as it

mg sin θ = ma ⇒ a = g sin θ

slides down the incline and solve for its acceleration: Substitute for a and evaluate ∆x(t = 1 s):

∆x(1s ) =

(g sin θ )(∆t )2 2 = 1 (9.81 m/s 2 )(sin30°)(1s ) 2

1 2

= 2.45 m

Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the speed of the box at any time to its initial speed and acceleration and solve for its speed when t = 1 s:

v = v0 + at where v0 = 0

and

v(1s ) = a∆t = (g sin θ )∆t

= 9.81m/s 2 (sin 30°)(1s ) = 4.91 m/s

(

)

**Work and Energy 401
**

(c) Calculate the kinetic energy of the box when it has traveled for 1 s:

K = 1 mv 2 = 2 = 24.1 J

1 2

(2 kg )(4.91m/s )2

Express the potential energy of the box after it has traveled for 1 s in terms of its initial potential energy and its kinetic energy: (d) Express the kinetic energy of the box at the bottom of the incline in terms of its initial potential energy and solve for its speed at the bottom of the incline: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v:

U = U i − K = 392 J − 24.1 J = 368 J

K = U i = 1 mv 2 = 392 J 2

and

v=

2U i m 2(392 J ) = 19.8 m/s 2 kg

v=

58 • Picture the Problem The potential energy function U (x) is defined by the equation

**U ( x ) − U ( x0 ) = − ∫ Fdx. We can use the given force function to determine U(x) and then
**

x0

x

the conditions on U to determine the potential functions that satisfy the given conditions. (a) Use the definition of the potential energy function to find the potential energy function associated with Fx:

U (x ) = U (x0 ) − ∫ Fx dx

x0 x

x

= U (x0 ) − ∫ (6 N )dx'

x0

= − (6 N )(x − x0 )

because U(x0) = 0. (b) Use the result obtained in (a) to find U (x) that satisfies the condition that U(4 m) = 0:

U (4 m ) = −(6 N )(4 m − x0 ) = 0 ⇒ x0 = 4 m

and

U (x ) = −(6 N )(x − 4 m ) = 24 J − (6 N )x

402 Chapter 6

(c) Use the result obtained in (a) to find U that satisfies the condition that U(6 m) = 14 J:

U (6 m ) = −(6 N )(6 m − x0 ) = 14 J ⇒ x0 = 50 m

and

25 ⎞ ⎛ U (x ) = −(6 N )⎜ x − m ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝

= 50 J − (6 N )x

59 • Picture the Problem The potential energy of a stretched or compressed ideal spring Us is related to its force (stiffness) constant k and stretch or compression ∆x by U s = 1 kx 2 . 2 (a) Relate the potential energy stored in the spring to the distance it has been stretched: Solve for x:

U s = 1 kx 2 2

x=

2U s k 2(50 J ) = 0.100 m 10 4 N/m 2(100 J ) = 0.141 m 10 4 N/m

Substitute numerical values and evaluate x:

x=

(b) Proceed as in (a) with Us = 100 J:

x=

*60 •• Picture the Problem In a simple Atwood’s machine, the only effect of the pulley is to connect the motions of the two objects on either side of it; i.e., it could be replaced by a piece of polished pipe. We can relate the kinetic energy of the rising and falling objects to the mass of the system and to their common speed and relate their accelerations to the sum and difference of their masses … leading to simultaneous equations in m1 and m2. Use the definition of the kinetic energy of the system to determine the total mass being accelerated:

K=

and

1 2

(m1 + m2 )v 2

2K 2(80 J ) = = 10.0 kg (1) 2 v (4 m/s)2

m1 + m2 =

In Chapter 4, the acceleration of the masses was shown to be:

a=

m1 − m2 g m1 + m2

**Work and Energy 403
**

Because v(t) = at, we can eliminate a in the previous equation to obtain: Solve for m1 − m2 :

v(t ) =

m1 − m2 gt m1 + m2

m1 − m2 =

(m1 + m2 )v(t )

gt

Substitute numerical values and evaluate m1 − m2 : Solve equations (1) and (2) simultaneously to obtain:

m1 − m2 =

(10 kg )(4 m/s) = 1.36 kg (9.81m/s2 )(3 s )

(2)

m1 = 5.68 kg and m2 = 4.32 kg

61 •• Picture the Problem The gravitational potential energy of this system of two objects is the sum of their individual potential energies and is dependent on an arbitrary choice of where, or under what condition(s), the gravitational potential energy is zero. The best choice is one that simplifies the mathematical details of the expression of U. In this problem let’s choose U = 0 where θ = 0. (a) Express U for the 2-object system as the sum of their gravitational potential energies; noting that because the object whose mass is m2 is above the position we have chosen for U = 0, its potential energy is positive while that of the object whose mass is m1 is negative: (b) Differentiate U with respect toθ and set this derivative equal to zero to identify extreme values:

U (θ ) = U1 + U 2

= m2 gl 2 sin θ − m1 gl 1 sin θ =

(m2l 2 − m1l 1 )g sin θ

**dU = (m2 l 2 − m1l 1 )g cosθ = 0 dθ
**

from which we can conclude that cosθ = 0 and θ = cos−10.

To be physically meaningful,

∴θ = ± π 2

−π 2 ≤ θ ≤ π 2 :

Express the 2nd derivative of U with respect to θ and evaluate this derivative at θ = ± π 2 :

d 2U = −(m2l 2 − m1l 1 )g sin θ dθ 2

Force. . (a) Evaluate Fx = − dU : dx Fx = − d Ax 4 = − 4 Ax 3 dx ( ) (b) Set Fx = 0 and solve for x: Fx = 0 ⇒ x = 0 63 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. then U(θ) is a sine function and. that m2l2 – m1l1 >0. given U as a function of x. in the interval of interest. U is concave downward with its maximum value at θ = π/2. we can find Fx by differentiating U with respect to x. Potential Energy. in the interval of interest. then (m2l2 − m1l1) = 0 and U = 0 independently of θ . − π 2 ≤ θ ≤ π 2 . Fx = − dU dx . Remarks: An alternative approach to establishing the U is a maximum at θ = π/2 is to plot its graph and note that. that is. we can find Fx by differentiating U with respect to x. (a) Evaluate Fx = − dU : dx Fx = − d ⎛C ⎞ C ⎜ ⎟= 2 dx ⎝ x ⎠ x (b) Because C > 0: Fx is positive for x ≠ 0 and therefore r F is directed away from the origin. given U as a function of x. Consequently. Consequently.404 Chapter 6 If we assume. in the expression for U that we derived in (a). takes on its minimum value when θ = −π/2: d 2U dθ 2 >0 −π 2 and U is a minimum at θ = − π 2 d 2U dθ 2 <0 π 2 and U is a maximum at θ = π 2 (c) If m1l1 = m2l2. and Equilibrium 62 • Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. that is Fx = − dU dx .

e. Consequently. given F as a function of x.4 1.0 The graph of F as a function of y is shown to the right: F (N) 0. Evaluate the integral of Fx with respect to x: U ( x ) = − ∫ F ( x ) dx = − ∫ = a +U0 x a dx x2 where U0 is a constant determined by whatever conditions apply to U. The table to the right summarizes the information we can obtain from Figure 6-40: Slope Fy Interval (N) (N) 2 −2 A→B B→C transitional −2 → 1.5 1.0 1.5 2. Consequently. U ( x ) increases with increasing x.0 -1. .5 1 2 3 4 5 6 y (m) 65 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x.e. Fx = − dU dx . Because U is inversely proportional to x and C < 0. Fy = − dU dy . Fx is negative for x ≠ 0 and therefore r F is directed toward from the origin.0 0 -0. U(x) becomes less negative as x increases: *64 •• Picture the Problem Fy is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to y. i.5 -1.4 C→D 2.Work and Energy 405 (c) Because U is inversely proportional to x and C > 0: (d) With C < 0: U ( x ) decreases with increasing x. we can obtain Fy by examining the slopes of the graph of U as a function of y. i.5 0.4 −1. we can find U by integrating Fx with respect to x.

Consequently. 6x(x – 1) = 0. we can find Fx by differentiating U with respect to x. given U as a function of x. Fx = 0: When Fx =0. Consequently. that is. at equilibrium. we’ll evaluate d 2U dx 2 at the point of interest. To determine whether the object is in stable or unstable equilibrium at a given point.e. (c) To decide whether the equilibrium at a particular point is stable or unstable. . we’ll evaluate d 2U dx 2 at the point of interest. i. the object is in equilibrium at x = 0 and x = 1 m. Fx = − dU dx . Therefore.406 Chapter 6 66 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. given U as a function of x. we can find Fx by differentiating U with respect to x. (a) Evaluate Fx = − dU : dx Fx = − d 3x 2 − 2 x 3 = 6 x( x − 1) dx ( ) (b) We know that. evaluate the 2nd derivative of the potential energy function at the point of interest: dU d = 3x 2 − 2 x 3 = 6 x − 6 x 2 dx dx and ( ) d 2U = 6 − 12 x dx 2 d 2U dx 2 Evaluate d 2U at x = 0: dx 2 =6>0 x =0 ⇒ stable equilibrium at x = 0 Evaluate d 2U at x = 1 m: dx 2 d 2U dx 2 = 6 − 12 < 0 x =1 m ⇒ unstable equilibrium at x = 1 m 67 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. To determine whether the object is in stable or unstable equilibrium at a given point. Fx = − dU dx .

i. 0. given F as a function of x. Consequently. Examination of d 2U dx 2 at extreme points will determine the nature of the stability at these locations. . we can find U by integrating Fx with respect to x. Fx = − dU dx . 68 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. d 2U d = 16 x − 4 x 3 = 16 − 12 x 2 2 dx dx (c) To decide whether the equilibrium at a particular point is stable or unstable.e.Work and Energy 407 (a) Evaluate the negative of the derivative of U with respect to x: Fx = − = 4 x( x + 2)( x − 2) (b) The object is in equilibrium wherever Fnet = Fx = 0: dU dx d = − (8 x 2 − x 4 ) = 4 x 3 − 16 x dx 4 x( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 ⇒ the equilibrium points are x = −2 m. and 2 m. evaluate the 2nd derivative of the potential energy function at the point of interest: ( ) d 2U at x = −2 m: Evaluate dx 2 d 2U dx 2 = −32 < 0 x =−2 m ⇒ unstable equilibrium at x = −2 m Evaluate d 2U at x = 0: dx 2 d 2U dx 2 = 16 > 0 x =0 ⇒ stable equilibrium at x = 0 Evaluate d 2U at x = 2 m: dx 2 d 2U dx 2 = −32 < 0 x =2 m ⇒ unstable equilibrium at x = 2 m Remarks: You could also decide whether the equilibrium positions are stable or unstable by plotting F(x) and examining the curve at the equilibrium positions.

U (x ) = − ∫ F (x ) = − ∫ x 3 − 4 x dx =− x4 + 2x2 + U 0 4 ( ) where U0 is a constant whose value is determined by conditions on U(x). Fx = − dU dx . given U as a function of x. we can find Fx by differentiating U with respect to x.e.408 Chapter 6 Determine the equilibrium locations by setting Fnet = F(x) = 0: F(x) = x3 – 4x = x(x2 – 4) = 0 ∴ the positions of stable and unstable equilibrium are at Evaluate the negative of the integral of F(x) with respect to x: x = −2. Differentiate U(x) twice: dU = − Fx = − x 3 + 4 x dx and d 2U = −3 x 2 + 4 2 dx d 2U Evaluate at x = −2: dx 2 d 2U dx 2 = −8 < 0 x =−2 ∴ the equilibrium is unstable at x = − 2 Evaluate d 2U at x = 0: dx 2 d 2U dx 2 =4>0 x =0 ∴ the equilibrium is stable at x = 0 Evaluate d 2U at x = 2: dx 2 d 2U dx 2 = −8 < 0 x =2 ∴ the equilibrium is unstable at x = 2 Thus U(x) has a local minimum at x = 0 and local maxima at x = ±2. i. Consequently. To determine whether the object is in stable or unstable equilibrium at a given point. 69 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. . we can examine the graph of U. 0 and 2 .

00 m/s 4 kg . Therefore. (b) A graph of U(x) in the interval –1 m ≤ x ≤ 3 m is shown to the right: U (J) 4. 3x(2 – x) = 0.5 1. the object is in equilibrium at x = 0 and x = 2 m. U(x) is a minimum at x = 0: ∴ stable equilibrium at x = 0 From the graph.Work and Energy 409 (a) Evaluate Fx = − dU for x ≤ 3 m: dx Fx = − d 3x 2 − x 3 = 3x(2 − x ) dx ( ) Set Fx = 0 to identify those values of x for which the 4-kg object is in equilibrium: When Fx = 0.5 3.0 -1.5 1. Evaluate Fx = − dU for x > 3 m: dx Fx = 0 because U = 0.5 0.0 1. U(x) is a maximum at x = 2 m: (d) Relate the kinetic energy of the object to its total energy and its potential energy: Solve for v: ∴ unstable equilibrium at x = 2 m K = 1 mv 2 = E − U 2 v= 2( E − U ) m 2 3 Evaluate U(x = 2 m): Substitute in the equation for v to obtain: U ( x = 2 m ) = 3(2) − (2) = 4 J v= 2(12 J − 4 J ) = 2.5 3.5 2.0 2. Therefore.0 3.0 (c) From the graph.0 x (m) 1.0 2.0 0. the object is in neutral equilibrium for x > 3 m.5 0.0 -0.5 2.0 0.

(a) Express the potential energy of the system as the sum of the potential energies of the clock and counterweights: Substitute to obtain: U ( y ) = U clock ( y ) + U weights ( y ) U ( y ) = − mgy − 2 Mg L − y 2 + d 2 ( ) .0 x (m) *71 ••• Picture the Problem Let L be the total length of one cable and the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the top of the pulleys. For x > 0: U decreases as x increases (b) As x → ∞. We can find the value of y for which the potential energy of the system is an extremum by differentiating U(y) with respect to y and setting this derivative equal to zero. We can establish that this value corresponds to a minimum by evaluating the second derivative of U(y) at the point identified by the first derivative. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the clock to confirm the result we obtain by examining the derivatives of U(y). (a) Evaluate the negative of the integral of F(x) with respect to x: U ( x ) = − ∫ F ( x ) = − ∫ Ax −3 dx = 1 A + U0 2 x2 where U0 is a constant whose value is determined by conditions on U(x).0 0.0 1.5 2.410 Chapter 6 70 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. that is Fx = − dU dx . 1 A → 0: 2 x2 ∴ U0 = 0 and U (x ) = 1 A 1 8 N ⋅ m3 4 = = 2 N ⋅ m3 2 2 2x 2 x x (c) The graph of U(x) is shown to the right: 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0. given F as a function of x. we can find U by integrating Fx with respect to x. Consequently.5 1.

Work and Energy 411 (b) Differentiate U(y) with respect to y: dU ( y ) d =− mgy + 2Mg L − y 2 + d 2 dy dy ⎡ = − ⎢mg − 2Mg ⎢ ⎣ or [ ( )] ⎤ ⎥ y2 + d 2 ⎥ ⎦ y mg − 2Mg y' y' 2 + d 2 = 0 for extrema Solve for y′ to obtain: y' = d m2 4M 2 − m 2 ⎤ ⎥ y2 + d 2 ⎥ ⎦ y Find d 2U ( y ) : dy 2 d 2U ( y ) d ⎡ = − ⎢mg − 2Mg dy 2 dy ⎢ ⎣ 2Mgd 2 = 32 y2 + d 2 ( ) d 2U ( y ) Evaluate at y = y′: dy 2 2Mgd 2 d 2U ( y ) = 32 dy 2 y' y2 + d 2 ( ) y' = 2Mgd 32 ⎞ ⎛ m2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 4M 2 − m 2 + 1⎟ ⎠ ⎝ >0 y= d (c) The FBD for the clock is shown to the right: and the potential energy is a minimum at m2 4M 2 − m 2 Apply ∑F y = 0 to the clock: 2Mg sin θ − mg = 0 and sin θ = m 2M .

we can conclude that this point is one of stable equilibrium.e. leading to a larger upward force on the clock.412 Chapter 6 Express sinθ in terms of y and d: sin θ = y y2 + d 2 y y2 + d 2 Substitute to obtain: m = 2M which is equivalent to the first equation in part (b). the clock will be pulled back toward the equilibrium point if it is displaced away from it. Express the change in potential energy of the population of the United States in this process: Letting E represent the total energy generated in February 2002. Remarks: Because we’ve shown that the potential energy of the system is a minimum at y = y′ (i. the net force from the cables decreases. U(y) is concave upward at that point). θ increases. relate the change in potential to the energy available to operate the elevator: Solve for h: ∆U = Nmgh Nmgh = 0. We can calculate the height to which they can be lifted by equating the change in potential energy to the available energy..25 E Nmg .25E h= 0. Because of this. General Problems *72 • Picture the Problem 25 percent of the electrical energy generated is to be diverted to do the work required to change the potential energy of the American people. Similarly. Ifthe clock is displaced downward. if the clock is displaced upward. This is a point of stable equilibrium.

7 ×109 kW ⋅ h ) ⎛ 3600 s ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ( ⎝ 1h ⎠ 287 × 10 (60 kg ) 9.8 MW dt 60 s 74 • Picture the Problem The power P of the engine needed to operate this ski lift is related to the rate at which it changes the potential energy U of the cargo of the gondolas according to P = ∆U/∆t.81 m/s2) (12 m) = 706 MJ P≡ dW 706 MJ = = 11.25)(60. express the change in U as they are lifted a vertical displacement ∆h: Substitute to obtain: P= ∆U ∆t ∆U = NMg∆h P≡ ∆U NMg∆h = ∆t ∆t Relate ∆h to the angle of ascent θ and the length L of the ski lift: Substitute for ∆h in the expression for P: ∆h = Lsinθ P= NMgL sin θ ∆t .81 m/s 2 6 ) ( ) = 323 km 73 • Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the work done in changing the potential energy of a system and the definition of power to solve this problem. Express the rate at which work is done as the cars are lifted: Letting N represent the number of gondola cars and M the mass of each.Work and Energy 413 Substitute numerical values and evaluate h: h= ⎟ ⎜ (0. Because as many empty gondolas are descending as are ascending. we do not need to know their mass. (a) Find the work done by the crane in changing the potential energy of its load: (b) Use the definition of power to find the power developed by the crane: W = mgh = (6×106 kg) (9.

Apply ∑F radial = maradial the object and solve for R: Express the kinetic energy of the object: Eliminate mv2 between the two equations to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate R: mv 2 mv 2 and R = T= T R K = 1 mv 2 2 R= 2K T 2(90 J ) = 0. The unknown mass and speed of the object can be eliminated by introducing its kinetic energy.414 Chapter 6 Substitute numerical values and evaluate P: P= 12(550 kg ) 9.6 km )sin30° = 50.81 m/s 2 (5. all the potential energy has been converted to kinetic energy) and solve for h: U = mgh K = 1 mv 2 2 h= v2 2g .500 m 360 N R= *76 • Picture the Problem We can solve this problem by equating the expression for the gravitational potential energy of the elevated car and its kinetic energy when it hits the ground.4 kW (60 min )(60 s/min ) ( ) 75 • Picture the Problem The application of Newton’s 2nd law to the forces shown in the free-body diagram will allow us to relate R to T. Express the gravitational potential energy of the car when it is at a distance h above the ground: Express the kinetic energy of the car when it is about to hit the ground: Equate these two expressions (because at impact.

We can apply the condition for equilibrium in the y direction to find the tension in each string. Repeating this procedure at the site of the plucking will yield the restoring force acting on the string. due to symmetry.4 N )cos88. We can find the work done on the string as it returns to equilibrium from the product of the average force acting on it and its displacement. (a) Noting that.3 cm 10 mm ⎞ ⎟ = 88.81 m/s 2 ( ) = 39.3 m ∑ F − 2T sin 18° = 0 at the point of contact with the bridge: Solve for and evaluate T: T= 1 (103 N ) = 41.Work and Energy 415 Substitute numerical values and evaluate h: 77 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on one of the strings at the bridge. The force whose magnitude is F is one-fourth of the force (103 N) the bridge exerts on the strings.6° = 1.6° × cm ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4 mm Substitute and evaluate Fnet: Fnet = 2(34. T′ = T. apply Fy = 0 to the string [(100 km/h )(1h/3600 s )] 2 h= 2 9.68 N .7 N F = 4 2 sin 18° 2 sin 18° (b) A free-body diagram showing the forces restoring the string to its equilibrium position just after it has been plucked is shown to the right: Express the net force acting on the string immediately after it is released: Use trigonometry to find θ: Fnet = 2T cos θ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 16.

given F as a function of x.0 -0.5 -1. the magnitude of the force pulling it down is approximately: Substitute to obtain: dW = Fdx' F = (2T ) x' 4T = x' L2 L dW = 4T x' dx' L x Integrate to obtain: 4T 2T 2 W= ∫ x'dx' = L x L 0 where x is the final displacement of the string.5 -1 -2 -3 0. Consequently.0 -1. that is Fx = − dU dx .5 2.09 mJ 78 •• Picture the Problem Fx is defined to be the negative of the derivative of the potential function with respect to x. Evaluate the integral of Fx with respect to x: U (x ) = − ∫ F (x ) dx = − ∫ − ax 2 dx = 1 ax 3 + U 0 3 U(0) = 0 + U0 = 0 ⇒ U0 = 0 1 3 ( ) Apply the condition that U(0) = 0 to determine U0: ∴U (x ) = ax 3 The graph of U(x) is shown to the right: 3 2 1 U (J) 0 -2.0 x (m) .6 × 10 m ( ) 2 = 4.416 Chapter 6 (c) Express the work done on the string in displacing it a distance dx′: If we pull the string out a distance x′.0 1.7 N ) 4 × 10−3 m −2 32.0 0.5 1. we can find U by integrating Fx with respect to x. Substitute numerical values to obtain: W= 2(41.

The work done on the cart can be calculated from its change in kinetic energy. P is in W. (a) Express the force acting on the cart in terms of the work done on it: Because U is constant: F (x ) = F (x ) = dW dx d 1 2 d (2 mv ) = dx dx [ m(Cx ) ] 1 2 2 = mC 2 x (b) The work done by this force changes the kinetic energy of the cart: 2 W = ∆K = 1 mv12 − 1 mv0 2 2 = 1 mv12 − 0 = 1 m(Cx1 ) 2 2 = 1 2 2 mC 2 x12 80 •• r Picture the Problem The work done by F depends on whether it causes a displacement in the direction it acts.Work and Energy 417 *79 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of work to obtain an expression for the position-dependent force acting on the cart. then v is in m/s. The power delivered to the particle can be expressed as the product of its velocity and the net force acting on it. and the work done by the force and can be found from the change in kinetic energy this work causes.0 J ⎣ ⎦2 m 81 •• Picture the Problem The velocity and acceleration of the particle can be found by differentiation. In the following. . a is in m/s2. (a) Because F is along x-axis and the displacement is along y-axis: (b) Calculate the work done by r F during the displacement from x = 2 m to 5 m: r W = ∫ F ⋅ ds = 0 r r r r W = ∫ F ⋅ ds = = 2 N/m 5m 2m ∫ (2 N/m ) x dx 2 2 5m ( 2 ) ⎡ x3 ⎤ ⎢ 3 ⎥ = 78. if t is in seconds and m is in kilograms. and W is in J.

82 •• Picture the Problem We can calculate the work done by the given force from its r r definition. (a) Calculate the work done from its definition: r r 3m W = ∫ F ⋅ ds = ∫ 6 + 4 x − 3x 2 dx ( ) 0 ⎡ 4 x 3x3 ⎤ = ⎢6 x + − = 9. the work done by the force acting on the particle equals the change in its kinetic energy: W = ∆K = K1 − K 0 = 1 m (v(t1 )) − (v(0 )) 2 2 [ 2 = 1 m 6t12 − 8t1 2 [( )] ] 2 −0 = 2mt12 (3t1 − 4) 2 Remarks: We could also find W by integrating P(t) with respect to time.418 Chapter 6 (a) The velocity of the particle is given by: v= = The acceleration of the particle is given by: ) dv d a= = (6t dt dt 2 dx d = 2t 3 − 4t 2 dt dt ( ) (6t − 8t 2 − 8t ) = (12t − 8) (b) Express and evaluate the rate at which energy is delivered to this particle as it accelerates: P = Fv = mav = m(12t − 8) 6t 2 − 8t = 2 ) 8mt (9t − 18t + 8) ( (c) Because the particle is moving in such a way that its potential energy is not changing. The power can be determined from P = F ⋅ v and v from the change in kinetic energy of the particle produced by the work done on it.00 J 2 3 ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ 2 3m (b) Express the power delivered to the particle in terms of Fx=3 m and its velocity: Relate the work done on the particle to its kinetic energy and solve for its velocity: r r P = F ⋅ v = Fx =3 m v W = ∆K = K final = 1 mv 2 since v0 = 0 2 .

The bullet’s initial speed can be determined from its initial kinetic energy.1 W *83 •• Picture the Problem We’ll assume that the firing height is negligible and that the bullet lands at the same elevation from which it was fired.Work and Energy 419 Solve for and evaluate v: v= 2K = m 2(9 J ) = 2.0° 2 2 K = 1 mv0 and v0 = 2 2K m R= R: 2(1200 J ) sin2(76°) (0. We can use the equation 2 R = v0 g sin 2θ to find the range of the bullet and constant-acceleration equations to ( ) find its maximum height.81m/s2 ( ) = 5.45 m/s ) = − 22. Express the range of the bullet as a function of its firing speed and angle of firing: Rewrite the range equation using the trigonometric identity sin2θ = 2sinθ cosθ: Express the position coordinates of the projectile along its flight path in terms of the parameter t: R= 2 v0 sin 2θ g 2 2 v0 sin 2θ 2v0 sin θ cos θ = R= g g x = (v0 cos θ )t and y = (v0 sin θ )t − 1 gt 2 2 Eliminate the parameter t and make use of the fact that the maximum height occurs when the projectile is at half the range to obtain: Equate R and h and solve the resulting equation for θ: Relate the bullet’s kinetic energy to its mass and speed and solve for the square of its speed: 2 Substitute for v0 and θ and evaluate h= (v0 sin θ )2 2g tan θ = 4 ⇒ θ = tan −1 4 = 76.45 m/s 3 kg 2 Evaluate Fx=3 m: Substitute for Fx=3 m and v: Fx=3 m = 6 + 4(3) − 3(3) = −9 N P = (− 9 N )(2.02 kg ) 9.74 km .

F is positive. complete the third column of the table to the right: 12 10 U (J) The graph of U as a function of x is shown to the right: 8 6 4 2 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 -2 0 1 2 3 4 x (m) . Note that for negative displacements. (a) Use either the formulas for the areas of simple geometric figures or counting squares and multiplying by the work represented by one square to complete the table to the right: x W (m) (J) −4 −11 −3 −10 −2 −7 −1 −3 0 0 1 1 2 0 3 −2 4 −3 x (m) −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 W ∆U (J) (J) −11 11 −10 10 −7 7 −3 3 0 0 1 −1 0 0 −2 2 −3 3 (b) Choosing U(0) = 0. and using the definition of ∆U = −W.420 Chapter 6 84 •• Picture the Problem The work done on the particle is the area under the force-versusdisplacement curve. so W is negative for x < 0.

Note that for negative displacements. complete the third column of the table to the right: 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 0 1 2 3 4 U (J) The graph of U as a function of x is shown to the right: -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 x (m) . (a) Use either the formulas for the areas of simple geometric figures or counting squares and multiplying by the work represented by one square to complete the table to the right: x (m) −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 x (m) −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 W (J) 6 4 2 0.5 0 0.5 3 ∆U (J) −6 −4 −2 −0.5 0 −0.5 −1.5 3 W (J) 6 4 2 0.5 1.5 2.5 −3 (b) Choosing U(0) = 0. so W is positive for x < 0.5 0 0. F is negative.5 1.Work and Energy 421 85 •• Picture the Problem The work done on the particle is the area under the force-versusdisplacement curve.5 −2. and using the definition of ∆U = −W.5 2.

M. We’ll assume that the block is at position 0. the work done by the tension will change both the potential and kinetic energy of the block. (a) Use the definition of work to express the work the tension T does moving the box a distance x up the incline: (b) Apply W = Tx ∑F x = Max to the box: T − Mg sin θ = Max ax = T − Mg sin θ T = − g sin θ M M Solve for ax: Using a constant-acceleration equation.422 Chapter 6 86 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the box at its initial position 0 at the bottom of the inclined plane and later at position 1. express the speed of the box in terms of its acceleration and the distance x it has moved up the incline: Substitute for ax to obtain: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a x x or. because v0 = 0. Finally. x. and θ. Because the surface is frictionless. we can express the power produced by the tension in terms of the tension and the speed of the box. We’ll use Newton’s 2nd law to find the acceleration of the block up the incline and a constantacceleration equation to express v in terms of T. v = 2a x x v= ⎛T ⎞ 2⎜ − g sin θ ⎟ x ⎝M ⎠ (c) The power produced by the tension in the string is given by: ⎛T ⎞ P = Tv = T 2⎜ − g sin θ ⎟ x ⎝M ⎠ .

Finally. mass. *88 ••• ˆ j Picture the Problem We can substitute for r and xi + yˆ in F to show that the magnitude of the force varies as the inverse of the square of the distance to the origin. y = 0 m. dW > 0. and the constant b. We can find the work done by this force by evaluating the integral of F with respect to x from an initial position x = 2 m. − (10π m) F0if the rotation is r counterclockwise. r . r r r W = F0 (2π r ) = 2π (5 m )F0 is clockwise and r j 0). F ⊥ r ( )( ) r r r r (b) Because F ⊥ r . F is tangential to the circle and constant. j = (10π m )F0 if the rotation The work it does in one revolution is: W = (− 10π m )F0 if the rotation is counterclockwise. F points in the − ˆ direction. and that its direction is opposite to the radius vector. The work done as the particle moves in a circular path can be found from its definition. F is not conservative.Work and Energy 423 87 ••• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the magnitude of vector to show that r the magnitude of F is F0 and the definition of the scalar product to show that its direction r is perpendicular to r . Because W ≠ 0 for a complete circuit. At (5 m. W = (10π m) F0 if the rotation is clockwise. y = 0 m to a final position x = 5 m. (a) Express the magnitude of F : r r F = Fx2 + Fy2 ⎛F ⎞ ⎛ F ⎞ = ⎜ 0 y⎟ + ⎜− 0 x⎟ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ F = 0 x2 + y2 r 2 2 Because r = x2 + y2 : r F F = 0 r x2 + y2 = F0 r = F0 r Form the scalar product of F and r : r r r r ⎛F ⎞ ˆ ˆ F ⋅r = ⎜ 0 ⎟ yi − x ˆ ⋅ xi + y ˆ j j ⎝ r ⎠ ⎛F ⎞ = ⎜ 0 ⎟(xy − xy ) = 0 ⎝ r ⎠ Because F ⋅ r = 0. we can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the particle to relate its speed to its radius. If r ds is in the − ˆ direction.

Apply Fr = mac to b v2 =m r2 r ∑ the particle: Solve for v: v= b mr Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= 3 N ⋅ m2 = 0.84×10−5 Algebraic Form a b . and its direction is antiparallel r ˆ j (opposite) to the radius vector r = xi + yˆ. y = 0 m to a final position x = 5 m. y = 0 m: b ⎡1⎤ W = − ∫ 2 dx' = b ⎢ ⎥ x' ⎣ x' ⎦ 2 m 2m 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 = 3 N ⋅ m2 ⎜ − ⎟ = − 0. Simplify to obtain: r ⎛ 1 ⎞ b ˆ F = −b⎜ 2 ⎜ x + y 2 ⎟r = − r 2 r ⎟ˆ ⎝ ⎠ i.. (d) Because the particle is moving in a circle.09×10−7 6. (b) Find the work done by this force by evaluating the integral of F with respect to x from an initial position x = 2 m. the magnitude of the force varies as the inverse of the square of the distance to the origin. the force on the particle must be supplying the centripetal acceleration keeping it moving in the circle.424 Chapter 6 (a) Substitute for r and r ˆ x i + y ˆ in F to obtain: j r ⎛ ⎞ 2 b ⎟ x + y2 r ˆ F = −⎜ 32 ⎟ ⎜ x2 + y2 ⎝ ⎠ ˆ where r is a unit vector pointing from the ( ) origin toward the point of application of r F.e. The constants used in the potential function and the formula used to calculate the ″6-12″ potential are as follows: Cell B2 B3 Content/Formula 1.900 J ⎝5m 2m⎠ 5m 5m (c) No work is done as the force is perpendicular to the velocity.463 m/s (2 kg )(7 m ) 89 ••• Picture the Problem A spreadsheet program to calculate the potential is shown below.

02 0. Because the function is concave upward (a potential ″well″) at this separation.00E-01 1.40E-01 1.80E-01 6.20E-01 3.81E-04 −6.00 0.30 -0.09E-07 3 b = 6.74E-04 $B$2/C8^12−$B$3/C8^6 C8+0.35 0. we can conclude that the shape of the potential energy function supports Feynman’s claim.84E-05 4 5 6 7 r U 8 3.65 0.08 U (eV) 0.24E-02 12 3. occurring at a separation of approximately 0.Work and Energy 425 D8 C9 (a) A B C D 1 2 a = 1.50 r (nm) 0.40E-03 13 3.0107 eV.02 0.43E-04 −6. .11E-01 9 3.13E-02 10 3.24E-04 −5.380 nm.40 0.60 0.95E-03 45 46 47 48 6.10 0.08E-02 11 3.12 0.50E-01 −4.06 0. "6-12" Potential 0.00E-01 −7.70E-01 6.70 (b) The minimum value is about −0.90E-01 7.10E-01 6. Because the force between the atomic nuclei is given by F = −(dU dr ) .55 0.04 0.30E-01 1.45 0.1 a b − 6 12 r r r + ∆r The graph shown below was generated from the data in the table shown above.

426 Chapter 6 this separation is one of stable equilibrium.1 − U 0 ⎜ ⎟e ⎝r⎠ r + ∆r r 0.6 U −16.5 a D8 −$B$1*($B$2/C9)*EXP(−C9/$B$2) ⎛ a ⎞ −r / a C10 (a) A 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 U0= 4 a= 2. *90 ••• Picture the Problem A spreadsheet program to plot the Yukawa potential is shown below.5 0. (c) Relate the force of attraction between two argon atoms to the slope of the potential energy function: F =− dU d ⎡ a b⎤ = − ⎢ 12 − 6 ⎥ dr dr ⎣ r r ⎦ 12a 6b = 13 − 7 r r Substitute numerical values and evaluate F(5 Å): F= 12 1. The constants used in the potential function and the formula used to calculate the Yukawa potential are as follows: Cell Content/Formula Algebraic Form B1 4 U0 B2 2.5 B pJ fm C D C9+0.84 × 10 −5 eV 1. Substitute numerical values and evaluate F(3.35 nm )7 ( ) ( ) = 7.68 × 10 −1 × × −9 nm eV 10 m (0.84 × 10 −5 eV 1.69 × 10 −12 N where the minus sign means that the force is attractive.37 −13.5 nm )7 ( ) ( ) = − 6.09 × 10−7 6 6.6 × 10−19 J 1 nm − = 4.35 nm )13 (0.18 × 10 −2 × × −9 nm eV 10 m (0.49 × 10−11 N where the plus sign means that the force is repulsive.5 Å): F= 12 1.11 .09 × 10−7 6 6.5 nm )13 (0.6 × 10−19 J 1 nm − = −4. although very shallow.

80 −9.5 6.13 −0.08 −7.3 6.2 6.6 −10.11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (b) Relate the force between the nucleons to the slope of the potential energy function: F (r ) = − dU (r ) dr ⎤ d ⎡ ⎛a⎞ = − ⎢ − U 0 ⎜ ⎟e − r a ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎝r⎠ ⎦ ⎛ a 1⎞ = − U 0 e −r / a ⎜ 2 + ⎟ r⎠ ⎝r (c) Evaluate F(2a): ⎛ a 1 ⎞ F (2a ) = −U 0 e −2 a / a ⎜ + ⎟ 2 ⎜ (2a ) 2a ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ = −U 0 e −2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4a ⎠ .15 −0.7 0.4 6.12 −0.75 −6.70 −0.8 0. 0 -2 0 -4 -6 U (pJ) -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18 r (fm) 0.14 −0.Work and Energy 427 11 12 13 14 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 U as a function of r is shown below.9 1 6 6.1 6.11 −0.14 −0.

20 × 10 −3 .138 (d) Evaluate F(5a): ⎛ a 1 ⎞ F (5a ) = −U 0 e −5 a / a ⎜ + ⎟ 2 ⎜ (5a ) 5a ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 6 ⎞ = −U 0 e −5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25a ⎠ Express the ratio F(5a)/F(a): ⎛ 6 ⎞ − U 0 e −5 ⎜ ⎟ F (5a ) ⎝ 25a ⎠ = 3 e −4 = 25 F (a ) ⎛2⎞ − U 0 e −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ = 2.428 Chapter 6 Evaluate F(a): ⎛ a 1⎞ F (a ) = −U 0 e −a / a ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⎜ (a ) a⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛2⎞ = −U 0 e −1 ⎜ + ⎟ = −U 0 e −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝a a⎠ ⎝a⎠ Express the ratio F(2a)/F(a): ⎛ 3 ⎞ − U 0 e −2 ⎜ ⎟ F (2a ) ⎝ 4a ⎠ = 3 e −1 = F (a ) ⎛2⎞ 8 − U 0 e −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ = 0.

The stone that is thrown at an angle of 30° above the horizontal has a longer flight time due to its initial upward velocity and so they do not strike the ground at the same time. Forces that are external to a system can do work on the system to change its energy. 4 • Determine the Concept Your kinetic energy increases at the expense of chemical energy. ∆U < 0. When they strike the ground. (b) False. While freewheeling down the hill. potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. and while braking to a stop. it must exert a force over some distance. *6 • Determine the Concept If we define the system to include the falling body and the earth. they will have the same total energy at all times during their fall. Because ∆K + ∆U = constant. their gravitational potential energies will be zero and their kinetic energies will be equal. (a ) is correct. chemical energy inside her body is converted into kinetic energy as the bike picks up speed. In order for some object to do work. their speeds at impact will be equal. Therefore. (c) is correct. then no work is done by an external agent and ∆K + ∆Ug + ∆Etherm= 0. 2 • Determine the Concept Choose the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at ground level. *5 • Determine the Concept As she starts pedaling. 3 • (a) False. As she rides it up the hill. The chemical energy stored in the muscles of your legs allows your muscles to do the work that launches you into the air. mechanical energy is conserved as this system evolves from one state to another. 437 .Chapter 7 Conservation of Energy Conceptual Problems *1 • Determine the Concept Because the peg is frictionless. The two stones have the same initial energy because they are thrown from the same height with the same initial speeds. The system moves and so we know that ∆K > 0. Thus. Solving for the change in the gravitational potential energy we find ∆Ug = −(∆K + friction energy). kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy (a more random form of kinetic energy) by the frictional forces acting on the bike. chemical energy is converted into gravitational potential and thermal energy.

We can also apply the work-energy theorem with friction to obtain expressions for the kinetic energy of the car and the rate at which it is changing. 2a 2 Thus. we can apply the constant-acceleration equations to the analysis of these statements. ∴∆s = 2 − v0 where a < 0. Choose the system to include the earth and car and assume that the car is moving on a horizontal surface so that ∆U = 0. in deciding its descent times. 8 • Picture the Problem We’ll let the zero of potential energy be at the bottom of each ramp and the mass of the block be m. We’ll consider the distance the block travels on each ramp. ∆K ∝ v and therefore not constant. (a) A constant frictional force causes a constant acceleration. 7 •• Picture the Problem Because the constant friction force is responsible for a constant acceleration. ∆K = −Wf = − µ k mg∆s ∆K ∆s = − µ k mg ∆t ∆t Thus. (d ) is correct. as well as its speed at the foot of the ramp. Use conservation of energy to find the speed of the blocks at the bottom of each ramp: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or K bot − K top + U bot − U top = 0 . ∆t Statement (b) is false. (b) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to obtain: Express the rate at which K is dissipated: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆s where v = 0. ∆s ∝ v0 and statement (a) is false. (c) In part (b) we saw that: Because ∆s ∝ ∆t: Because none of the above are correct: K ∝ ∆s K ∝ ∆t and statement (c) is false.438 Chapter 7 (b) is correct. We can use conservation of energy to predict the speed of the block at the foot of each ramp. The stopping distance of the car is related to its speed before the brakes were applied through a constantacceleration equation.

30 × 106 J Evaluate Esitting: ( )( ) Esitting = APsitting ∆tsitting = 2 m 2 60 W/m 2 (8 h )(3600 s/h ) = 3. and 5 hours doing moderate physical activity. + Eaerobic act. 1 hour in aerobic exercise. His total energy consumption will be the sum of the five terms corresponding to his daily activities. (b) is correct. 8 hours sitting. and ∆tactivity is the time spent in the given activity.46 × 106 J ( )( ) . Because the block sliding down the circular arc travels a greater distance (an arc length is greater than the length of the chord it defines) but arrives at the bottom of the ramp with the same speed that it had at the bottom of the inclined plane. From the work-kinetic energy theorem.Conservation of Energy 439 Because Ktop = Ubot = 0: Substitute to obtain: Solve for vbot: K bot − U top = 0 1 2 2 mvbot − mgH = 0 vbot = 2 gH independently of the shape of the ramp. where A is the surface area of his body. However.30 × 10 J 6 ( )( ) Evaluate Ewalking: Ewalking = APwalking ∆t walking = 2 m 2 160 W/m 2 (2 h )(3600 s/h ) = 2. Estimation and Approximation *10 •• Picture the Problem We’ll use the data for the "typical male" described above and assume that he spends 8 hours per day sleeping. the rod must exert a tangential force on the rock to keep the speed constant. We can approximate his energy utilization using Eactivity = APactivity ∆tactivity . The effect of this force is to cancel the component of the force of gravity that is tangential to the trajectory of the rock. it will require more time to arrive at the bottom of the arc. as its kinetic energy is constant. act. Pactivity is the rate of energy consumption in a given activity. 2 hours walking. Esleeping = APsleeping ∆tsleeping = 2 m 2 40 W/m 2 (8 h )(3600 s/h ) = 2. 9 •• Determine the Concept No. (a) Express the energy consumption of the hypothetical male: Evaluate Esleeping: E = Esleeping + Ewalking + Esitting + Emod. no total work is being done on the rock.

30 × 106 J ( )( ) Evaluate Eaerobic act.30 × 106 J + 2. = 2 m 2 300 W/m 2 (1 h )(3600 s/h ) = 2. act.5 × 106 J Express the average metabolic rate represented by this energy consumption: (b) Express his average energy consumption in terms of kcal/day: Pav = E 16. act.30 × 106 J + 2. by adjusting the day's activities. 11 • Picture the Problem The rate at which you expend energy.5 × 106 J/day = 3940 kcal/day 4190 J/kcal (c) 3940 kcal = 22. = 2 m 2 175 W/m 2 (5 h )(3600 s/h ) = 6.: Emod.16 × 106 J = 16. = APmod. act.e. is defined as power and is the ratio of the work done to the time required to do the work.16 × 106 J ( )( ) Substitute to obtain: E = 2.∆taerobic act.46 × 106 J + 6. i. the metabolic rate can vary by more than a factor of 2.. act. do work.5 kcal/lb is higher than the estimate given in the statement of the 175 lb problem. Relate the rate at which you can expend energy to the work done in running up the four flights of stairs and solve for your running time: Express the work done in climbing the stairs: Substitute for ∆W to obtain: P= ∆W ∆W ⇒ ∆t = P ∆t ∆W = mgh ∆t = mgh P . E= 16. However.: Eaerobic act.440 Chapter 7 Evaluate Emod.5 × 106 J = = 191 W ∆t (24 h )(3600 s/h ) or about twice that of a 100 W light bulb. = APaerobic act.30 × 106 J + 3.∆tmod.

6×1013 watt.5×108 automobiles on the road (excluding those used for industry). the total annual consumption of energy derived from gasoline: (1.24 d ⎞ ⎛ 24 h ⎞ ⎛ 3600 s ⎞ ⎟⎜ ×⎜ ⎜ ⎟ d ⎟⎜ h ⎟ y ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ 10 = 9. Calculate. The solar constant is roughly 103 W/m2 (reaching .998 ×10 1J 8 m/s ) 2 = 1.5 ×10 8 gal J ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ weeks ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ 2.47 × 1010 J 8 m/s ) 2 = 1. We’ll assume that each car uses about 15 gal of fuel per week.04 × 1019 J/y auto ⎜15 ⎟ ⎜ 52 ⎜ ⎟⎜ y ⎠⎝ gal ⎟ ⎝ auto ⋅ week ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ) Express this rate of energy use as a fraction of the total annual energy use by the US: 3.Conservation of Energy 441 Assuming that your weight is 600 N. On the assumption that the average family has 4 people in it and that they own two cars.05 µg *13 • Picture the Problem There are about 3×108 people in the United States. based on the assumptions identified above. works out to an average power consumption of about 1.11× 10−17 kg (b) Express the energy required as a function of the power of the light bulb and evaluate E: E = 3Pt = 3(100 W )(10 y ) ⎛ 365.5 m ) = 250 W 33.47 × 10 J Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: m= (2. (a) Relate the rest mass consumed to the energy produced and solve for and evaluate m: E0 = mc 2 ⇒ m = m= E0 c2 (1) (2. we have a total of 1. 14 • Picture the Problem The energy consumption of the U.6 s 12 • Picture the Problem The intrinsic rest energy in matter is related to the mass of matter through Einstein’s equation E0 = mc 2 . and a total cost (assuming $1.15 per gallon) of about 140 billion dollars per year.6 × 108 ⎟ = 3. evaluate ∆t: ∆t = (600 N )(4 × 3.998 ×10 9.04 × 1019 J/y ≈ 6% 5 × 1020 J/y Remarks: This is an average power expenditure of roughly 9x1011 watt.S.

or about 120 W/m2 of useful power with a 12% conversion efficiency. and the efficiency of the process. Differentiation of this expression with respect to time will yield the rate at which water must pass through its turbines to generate Hoover Dam’s annual energy output. Letting P represent the daily rate of energy consumption. use the expression for the gravitational potential energy near the earth’s surface to express the energy available from the water when it has fallen a distance h: Differentiate this expression with respect to time to obtain: Solve for dV/dt: E = ηmgh P= d [ηmgh] = ηgh dm = ηρgh dV dt dt dt (1) dV P = dt ηρgh P= ∆E ∆t Using its definition. A= P 2 1. we can relate the power available at the surface of the earth to the required area of the solar panels using P = IA .57 × 108 W (365.24 d )(24 h/d ) . Assuming a total efficiencyη. relate the dam’s annual power output to the energy produced: Substitute numerical values to obtain: 4 × 109 kW ⋅ h P= = 4.67 × 1011 m 2 = 516 km Remarks: A more realistic estimate that would include the variation of sunlight over the day and account for latitude and weather variations might very well increase the area required by an order of magnitude. Find the side of a square with this area: s = 2. 15 • Picture the Problem We can relate the energy available from the water in terms of its mass. the vertical distance it has fallen.6 × 1013 W = I 120 W/m 2 ( ) = 2.67 × 1011 m 2 where the factor of 2 comes from the fact that the sun is only up for roughly half the day. Relate the required area to the electrical energy to be generated by the solar panels: Solve for and evaluate A: P = IA where I is the solar intensity that reaches the surface of the Earth.442 Chapter 7 the ground).

which equals its initial kinetic energy when released: Relate the compression of the spring in the first case to its potential energy.57 × 108 W dV = dt 0. Relate the compression of the spring in the second case to its potential energy. the energy stored in the spring is transformed into the kinetic energy of the block.2(1kg/L ) 9. Equating these energies will give us a relationship between the compressions of the spring and the speeds of the blocks. which equals its initial kinetic energy when released: Substitute to obtain: Solve for x2: 1 2 2 2 kx2 = 1 m2 v2 2 = 1 2 (4m1 )(3v1 )2 = 18m1v12 1 2 kx12 = 1 m1v12 2 or m1v12 = kx12 2 kx2 = 18kx12 1 2 x 2 = 6x1 17 • Picture the Problem Choose the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at the foot of the hill.Conservation of Energy 443 Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate dV/dt: 4. Let the numeral 1 refer to the first case and the numeral 2 to the second case. Then the kinetic energy of the woman on her bicycle at the foot of the hill is equal to her gravitational potential energy when she has reached her highest point on the hill. When the block is released.10 × 106 L/s The Conservation of Mechanical Energy 16 • Picture the Problem The work done in compressing the spring is stored in the spring as potential energy. Equate the kinetic energy of the rider at the foot of the incline and her gravitational potential energy when she has reached her highest point on the hill and solve for h: Relate her displacement along the 1 2 mv 2 = mgh ⇒ h = v2 2g d = h/sinθ .81 m/s 2 (211m ) ( ) = 1.

( (10 m/s) 2 ) = 97. Equate the initial gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy of the bob as it passes through its lowest point and solve for v: Express ∆h in terms of the length L of the pendulum: Substitute and simplify: mg∆h = 1 mv 2 2 and v = 2 g∆h ∆h = L 4 gL 2 v= 19 • Picture the Problem Choose the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at the foot of the ramp.444 Chapter 7 incline d to h and the angle of the incline: Substitute for h to obtain: d sin θ = v2 2g Solve for d: d= v2 2 g sin θ Substitute numerical values and evaluate d: d= and 2 9. and the ramp. the earth. We can find the speed of the bob at it passes through the equilibrium position by equating its initial potential energy to its kinetic energy as it passes through its lowest point. Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the low point of the pendulum’s swing.4 m *18 • Picture the Problem The diagram shows the pendulum bob in its initial position. the equilibrium position. Then there are .81 m/s 2 sin3° (c) is correct. Let the system consist of the block.

Relate the gravitational potential energy of the block when it has reached h. Then the initial gravitational potential energy of the 3-kg object is transformed into kinetic energy as it slides down the ramp and then.Conservation of Energy 445 no external forces acting on the system to change its energy and the kinetic energy of the block at the foot of the ramp is equal to its gravitational potential energy when it has reached its highest point. and the spring. into potential energy stored in the spring. as it compresses the spring. Let Ug = 0 at the elevation of the spring. (a) Apply conservation of energy to relate the distance the spring is compressed to the initial potential energy of the block: Solve for x: Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 and.81 m/s 2 sin40° ( (7 m/s) 2 ) = 3. the block. because ∆K = 0. − mgh + 1 kx 2 = 0 2 x= 2mgh k . its highest point on the ramp. With this choice there are no external forces doing work to change the energy of the system.89 m 20 • Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the earth. to its kinetic energy at the foot of the ramp: Solve for h: mgh = 1 mv 2 2 v2 h= 2g d = h/sinθ Relate the displacement d of the block along the ramp to h and the angle the ramp makes with the horizontal: Substitute for h: v2 d sin θ = 2g d= v2 2 g sin θ Solve for d: Substitute numerical values and evaluate d: d= 2 9.

21 • Picture the Problem With Ug chosen to be zero at the uncompressed level of the spring.015 kg ) (9. Because the initial and final speeds of the container are zero. the ball’s initial gravitational potential energy is negative. Apply conservation of energy to the system: Because ∆K = 0: Wext = ∆E sys = ∆K + ∆U Wext = ∆U = mg∆h . launching it back up the incline: The block will retrace its path. Then the work done by the crane is done by an external force and this work changes the energy of the system.05 m 22 • Picture the Problem Let the system include the earth and the container. Choose Ug = 0 to be at the level of the deck of the freighter.81 m/s 2 (5 m ) 400 N/m ( ) = 0.446 Chapter 7 Substitute numerical values and evaluate x: x= 2(3 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 ) = 5. Apply the conservation of energy to the system as it evolves from its initial to its final state: Solve for h: − mgx + 1 kx 2 = mgh 2 h= kx 2 −x 2mg Substitute numerical values and evaluate h: (600 N/m )(0. the initial and final kinetic energies are zero and the work done by the crane equals the change in the gravitational potential energy of the container. The difference between the initial potential energy of the spring and the gravitational potential energy of the ball is first converted into the kinetic energy of the ball and then into gravitational potential energy as the ball rises and slows … eventually coming momentarily to rest.858 m (b) The energy stored in the compressed spring will accelerate the block. rising to a height of 5 m.05 m h= 2(0.05 m )2 − 0.

Then Wext = 0. Given our choice for Ug = 0.4 m/s) 2 ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ θ = cos ⎜ 2 9. With this choice. Then Wext = 0. is positive. this initial potential energy is transformed entirely into kinetic energy. however. because Wext = 0.i = 0 at the child’s lowest point as shown in the diagram to the right. the initial potential energy of the 3-kg object is positive and that of the 2-kg object is negative. Using the diagram.Conservation of Energy 447 Evaluate the work done by the crane: Wext = mg∆h = (4000 kg ) 9.6° *24 •• Picture the Problem Let the system include the two objects and the earth. . Then the child’s initial energy is entirely kinetic and its energy when it is at its highest point is entirely gravitational potential. We can determine h from energy conservation and then use trigonometry to determine θ. Apply conservation of energy: Wext = ∆K + ∆U g = 0 or. Choose Ug = 0 at the elevation at which the two objects meet.81 m/s 2 (− 8 m ) = − 314 kJ ( ) 23 • Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the earth and the child.81 m/s 2 (6 m ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −1 ( ) = 25. relate θ to h and L: Apply conservation of energy to the system to obtain: Solve for h: θ = cos −1 ⎜ 1 2 h⎞ ⎛ L−h⎞ −1 ⎛ ⎟ = cos ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ mvi2 − mgh = 0 h= vi2 2g ⎛ ⎝ vi2 ⎞ ⎟ 2 gL ⎟ ⎠ Substitute to obtain: θ = cos −1 ⎜1 − ⎜ Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : ⎛ (3. Choose Ug. Their sum.

to the block: ∑F Using fs. eliminate fs. fs = fs. We can use Newton’s 2nd law. noting that m represents the sum of the masses of the objects as they are both moving in the final state: Express and evaluate ∆Ug: 1 2 mvf2 − 1 mvi2 = − ∆U g 2 or. because vi = 0.f − U g.448 Chapter 7 ∆K = −∆Ug Substitute for ∆K and solve for vf. vf = − 2∆U g m ∆U g = U g. under equilibrium conditions.91 J ) = 1. because the block is on the verge of sliding.max = µsFn and Fsp = kx.max − mg sin θ = 0 = Fn − mg cosθ = 0 conditions. under equilibrium r r ∑F and x = Fsp − f s. Express the potential energy of the spring when the block is about to move: Apply U = 1 kx 2 2 ∑ F = ma. k and θ and then substitute in the expression for the potential energy stored in a stretched or compressed spring. to express the elongation of the spring as a function of m.81 m/s 2 = −4. Fsp is the force exerted by the spring and.40 m/s 5 kg 25 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block when it is about to move.5 m ) × 9.max.i = 0 − (3 kg − 2 kg )(0.max and Fsp from the x equation and solve for x: y x= mg (sin θ + µs cos θ ) k .91 J ( ) Substitute and evaluate vf: vf = − 2(− 4.

the spring.f − U g. Apply conservation of energy to the system: ∆U + ∆K = 0 or U g.f = Us.i + U s. consisting of the block.Conservation of Energy 449 ⎡ mg (sin θ + µs cosθ ) ⎤ U = k⎢ ⎥ k ⎣ ⎦ 1 2 Substitute for x in the expression for U: 2 = [mg (sin θ + µs cosθ )] 2 2k 26 •• Picture the Problem The mechanical energy of the system.f + K f = 0 − mg (h + x ) + 1 kx 2 + 1 mv 2 = 0 2 2 v = 2 g (h + x ) − kx 2 m Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v = 2 9. Then the mechanical energy when the compression of the spring is 15 cm will be partially kinetic and partially stored in the spring. and the earth. Let Ug = 0 where the spring is compressed 15 cm.i + U s. We can use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential energy of the system to the energy stored in the spring and the kinetic energy of block when it has compressed the spring 15 cm.I = Ki = 0: Substitute to obtain: Solve for v: − U g.81 m/s 2 (5 m + 0.00 m/s .4 kg = 8.i + K f − K i = 0 Because Ug.15 m ) − ( ) (3955 N/m )(0. is initially entirely gravitational potential energy.f − U s.15 m )2 2.

We’ll apply Newton’s 2nd law to the ball at the top and bottom of its path to obtain a relationship between TT and TB and the conservation of mechanical energy to relate the speeds of the ball at these two locations. Apply ∑F radial = maradial to the ball at the bottom of the circle and solve for TB: 2 vB TB − mg = m R and 2 vB TB = mg + m R (1) Apply ∑F radial = maradial to the ball TT + mg = m and at the top of the circle and solve for TT: 2 vT R TT = −mg + m Subtract equation (2) from equation (1) to obtain: 2 vT R (2) TB − TT = mg + m 2 vB R ⎛ v2 ⎞ ⎜ − mg + m T ⎟ −⎜ R⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 v v = m B − m T + 2mg R R Using conservation of energy. relate the mechanical energy of the ball at the bottom of its path to its mechanical energy at the top of the circle and solve for m 2 vB v2 −m T : R R (3) 1 2 2 2 mvB = 1 mvT + mg (2 R ) 2 2 vB v2 − m T = 4mg R R m Substitute in equation (3) to obtain: TB − TT = 6mg .450 Chapter 7 *27 •• Picture the Problem The diagram represents the ball traveling in a circular path with constant energy. Ug has been chosen to be zero at the lowest point on the circle and the superimposed free-body diagrams show the forces acting on the ball at the top and bottom of the circular path.

The FBD show the forces acting on the girl at the low point of her swing. The simultaneous solution of these equations will yield an expression for Fn in terms of known quantities. Apply ∑F radial = maradial to the girl T − mg = m at her lowest point and solve for T: v2 R v2 R and T = mg + m Equate the girl’s initial potential energy to her final kinetic energy and solve for mg R 1 2 v2 = 2 mv ⇒ =g 2 R v2 : R T = mg + mg = 2mg Substitute for v2/R2 and simplify to obtain: 29 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the car when it is upside down at the top of the loop. We can express Fn in terms of v and R by apply Newton’s 2nd law to the car and then obtain a second expression in these same variables by applying the conservation of mechanical energy. Applying Newton’s 2nd law to her will allow us to establish the relationship between the tension T and her speed. Apply ∑F radial = maradial to the car Fn + mg = m and at the top of the circle and solve for Fn : v2 R (1) Fn = m v2 − mg R . Then we can equate her initial potential energy to her kinetic energy as she passes through the low point on her swing to relate her speed v to R.Conservation of Energy 451 28 •• Picture the Problem Let Ug = 0 at the lowest point in the girl’s swing. Choose Ug = 0 at the bottom of the loop.

the track. and the earth and denote the starting position with the numeral 0 and the top of the second hill with the numeral 1. relate the energy of the car at the beginning of its motion to its energy when it is at the top of the loop: mgH = 1 mv 2 + mg (2 R ) 2 Solve for m v2 : R m v2 ⎛H ⎞ = 2mg ⎜ − 2 ⎟ R ⎝R ⎠ (2) Substitute equation (2) in equation (1) to obtain: ⎛H ⎞ Fn = 2mg ⎜ − 2 ⎟ − mg ⎝R ⎠ ⎛ 2H ⎞ = mg ⎜ − 5⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn: ⎡ 2(23 m ) ⎤ − 5⎥ = 1. We can use the workenergy theorem to relate the energies of the coaster at its initial and final positions.81 m/s 2 ⎢ ⎣ 7. Fn = (1500 kg ) 9. v1 = 0 and: 1 2 2 mv12 − 1 mv0 + mgh1 − mgh0 = 0 2 v0 = v12 + 2 g (h1 − h0 ) v0 = 2 g (h1 − h0 ) .67 × 10 4 N ⇒ (c) is correct. Wext = 0: Wext = ∆Esys = ∆K + ∆U ∆K + ∆U = 0 and K1 − K 0 + U1 − U 0 = 0 Substitute to obtain: Solve for v0: If the coaster just makes it to the top of the second hill. (a) Use conservation of energy to relate the work done by external forces to the change in the energy of the system: Because the track is frictionless.5 m ⎦ ( ) 30 • Picture the Problem Let the system include the roller coaster.452 Chapter 7 Using conservation of energy.

We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to her at both the top and bottom of the loop to relate the speeds at those locations to m and R and.Conservation of Energy 453 Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0: v0 = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (9. because Ub = 0. 31 •• Picture the Problem Let the radius of the loop be R and the mass of one of the riders be m. . Kb − Kt − U t = 0 1 2 2 mvb − 1 mvt2 − 2mgR = 0 2 2 vb = 5 gR Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: F = mg + m 5 gR = 6mg R i. to F. and the force of gravity.5 m − 5 m ) = 9.. Note that the required speed depends only on the difference in the heights of the two hills. pulling down. At the top of the loop.40 m/s ( ) (b) No. pushing up. the centripetal force on her is her weight (the force of gravity). The two forces acting on her at the bottom of the loop are the normal force exerted by the seat of the car. and then use conservation of energy to relate vt and vb. Apply ∑F radial = ma radial to the rider at the bottom of the circular arc: Solve for F to obtain: F − mg = m 2 vb R F = mg + m vt2 R 2 vb R (1) Apply ∑F radial = ma radial to the rider at the top of the circular arc: Solve for vt2 : Use conservation of energy to relate the energies of the rider at the top and bottom of the arc: Substitute to obtain: 2 Solve for vb : mg = m vt2 = gR Kb − Kt + U b − U t = 0 or. the rider will feel six times heavier than her normal weight. at b.e.

We can use the definition of the work done by gravity to calculate how much work was done by gravity as the ball rose to its maximum height.454 Chapter 7 *32 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the stone and the earth and ignore the influence of air resistance. the r horizontal component of v is constant and equal to vx = vcosθ. Choose Ug = 0 as shown in the figure. Then Wext = 0. Apply conservation of energy: Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 and K1 − K 0 + U1 − U 0 = 0 Because U0 = 0: Substitute to obtain: In the absence of air resistance. The figure shows the ball being thrown from the roof of a building.2 m/s 1 − cos 2 53° ( ) Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 . Hence: Solve for v: K1 − K 0 + U1 = 0 1 2 2 mvx − 1 mv 2 + mgH = 0 2 1 2 m(v cosθ ) − 1 mv 2 + mgH = 0 2 2 v= 2 gH 1 − cos 2 θ Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: 33 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the ball and the earth. Apply the law of the conservation of mechanical energy to describe the energy transformations as the stone rises to the highest point of its trajectory.81 m/s 2 (24 m ) = 27. Then Wext = 0. We can use the conservation of mechanical energy to determine the maximum height of the ball and its speed at impact with the ground. Choose Ug = 0 at ground level. (a) Apply conservation of energy: v= 2 9.

81m/s2 )(12 m ) = 33.7 J 1 2 ( ) (c) Relate the initial mechanical energy of the ball to its just-beforeimpact energy: Solve for vf: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf mvi2 + mghi = 1 mvf2 2 vf = vi2 + 2ghi vf = (30 m/s) 2 + 2(9.Conservation of Energy 455 or K 2 − K1 + U 2 − U 1 = 0 Substitute for the energies to obtain: Note that.81 m/s ) 2 (30 m/s)2 40° − 1 ) = 31.0 m (b) Using its definition. at point 2. the ball is moving horizontally and: Substitute for v2 and h2: 1 2 2 mv 2 − 1 mv12 + mgh2 − mgh1 = 0 2 v 2 = v1 cosθ m(v1 cosθ ) − 1 mv12 + mgH 2 2 1 2 − mgh1 = 0 Solve for H: H = h1 − v2 cos 2 θ − 1 2g ( ) 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate H: H = 12 m − (cos 2(9.7 m/s . express the work done by gravity: Wg = − ∆U = − U H − U hi = −(mgH − mghi ) = −mg (H − hi ) ( ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate Wg: Wg = −(0.17 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (31 m − 12 m ) = − 31.

We can apply the conservation of mechanical energy to relate the two angles of interest to the speeds of the bob at the intermediate and low points of its trajectory. use the law of the conservation of mechanical energy to relate the speed of the bob at this point to θ : Express U f' : Substitute for K f' .8 m/s)2 ⎥ 2 2(9. U f' and U i : K f' − K i + U f' − U i = 0 where K i = 0. Choose Ug = 0 at the low point of the swing. ∴K f ' + U f ' − U i = 0 U f' = mgh' = mgL(1 − cosθ ) 1 2 m(vf' ) + mgL(1 − cos θ ) 2 − mgL(1 − cos θ 0 ) = 0 .8 m ) ⎦ (b) Letting primed quantities describe the indicated location.456 Chapter 7 34 •• Picture the Problem The figure shows the pendulum bob in its release position and in the two positions in which it is in motion with the given speeds.0° ⎡ ⎤ (2. (a) Apply conservation of energy: Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 or Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 where U f and K i equal zero.81m/s )(0. ∴Kf − U i = 0 Express Ui: Substitute for Kf and Ui: Solve for θ0: U i = mgh = mgL(1 − cos θ 0 ) 1 2 mvf2 − mgL(1 − cos θ 0 ) = 0 −1 ⎛ v2 ⎞ θ 0 = cos ⎜1 − ⎜ 2 gL ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ0: θ 0 = cos −1 ⎢1 − ⎣ = 60.

and let the system be the earth. k= 2(60 kg ) (9. Us cord. the jumper and the bungee cord.3° *35 •• Picture the Problem Choose Ug = 0 at the bridge.40 N/m . 2 where x is the maximum distance the bungee cord has stretched.8 m ) ⎦ ⎡ Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : θ = cos −1 ⎢ = 51. − mgL + 1 kx 2 = 0. k= 2mgL x2 Find the maximum distance the bungee cord stretches: Evaluate k: x = 310 m – 50 m = 260 m.81m/s 2 )(310 m ) (260 m )2 = 5.Conservation of Energy 457 Solve for θ : θ = cos −1 ⎢ ⎡ (vf ')2 ⎤ + cosθ 0 ⎥ ⎣ 2 gL ⎦ ⎤ (1. Then Wext = 0. we’ll use a similar strategy but include a kinetic energy term because we are interested in finding her maximum speed. In part (b). d and the distance x the bungee cord has stretched: Use the conservation of mechanical energy to relate her gravitational potential energy as she just touches the water to the energy stored in the stretched bungee cord: Solve for k: h=L–d−x (1) Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 Because ∆K = 0 and ∆U = ∆Ug + ∆Us.81m/s )(0.4 m/s) 2 + cos 60°⎥ 2 ⎣ 2(9. Use the conservation of mechanical energy to relate to relate her initial and final gravitational potential energies to the energy stored in the stretched bungee. (a) Express her final height h above the water in terms of L.

4 N/m )(109 m )2 )(50 m + 109 m) − 60 kg = 45. x = 109 m corresponds to Kmax and so v is a maximum.40 N/m ( ) From equation (1) we have: Solve for v to obtain: 1 2 mv 2 = mg (d + x ) − 1 kx 2 2 kx 2 m v = 2 g (d + x ) − Substitute numerical values and evaluate v for x = 109 m: v = 2 9. dx 2 .81 m/s ( 2 (5.81m/s 2 ) = 109 m x= 5. solve for K:: E = K + U g + U s = Ei = 0 K = −U g − U s = mg (d + x ) − 1 kx 2 2 (1) Use the condition for an extreme value to obtain: Solve for and evaluate x: dK = mg − kx = 0 for extreme values dx x= mg (60 kg ) 9.3 m/s Because d 2K = −k < 0.81m/s 2 = = 109 m k 5.458 Chapter 7 Express the relationship between the forces acting on her when she has finally come to rest and solve for x: Fnet = kx − mg = 0 and x= mg k Evaluate x: (60 kg )(9.40 N/m h = 310 m − 50 m − 109 m = 151 m Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate h: (b) Using conservation of energy. express her total energy E: Because v is a maximum when K is a maximum.

(a) Apply conservation of energy to relate the energies of the bob at points 1 and 2: Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 or K 2 − K1 + U 2 − U 1 = 0 1 2 2 mv2 − 1 mv12 + U 2 = 0 2 Because U1 = 0: Express U2: Substitute for U2 to obtain: Solve for v2: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v2: U 2 = mgL(1 − cos θ ) 1 2 2 mv2 − 1 mv12 + mgL(1 − cosθ ) = 0 2 v2 = v12 − 2 gL(1 − cos θ ) v2 = (4. When the bob reaches the 30° position its energy will be partially kinetic and partially potential.89 J 2 v2 T − mg cos θ = m L ( ) ∑F radial = maradial to the bob to 2 ⎛ v2 ⎞ T = m⎜ g cos θ + ⎟ ⎜ L⎟ ⎝ ⎠ .81m/s 2 )(3 m )(1 − cos30°) = 3.81 m/s 2 (3 m )(1 − cos30°) = 7. Choose Ug = 0 at the low point of the bob’s swing and apply the law of the conservation of mechanical energy to its motion. Then Wext = 0. When it reaches its maximum height. its energy will be entirely potential. Applying Newton’s 2nd law will allow us to express the tension in the string as a function of the bob’s speed and its angular position.Conservation of Energy 459 36 •• Picture the Problem Let the system be the earth and pendulum bob.52 m/s (b) From (a) we have: Substitute numerical values and evaluate U2: (c) Apply obtain: Solve for T: U 2 = mgL(1 − cos θ ) U 2 = (2 kg ) 9.5 m/s )2 − 2(9.

respectively. Then Wext = 0.3 N 2 T = (2 kg )⎢ 9.81 m/s 2 )(3 m ) ⎦ 37 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the earth and pendulum bob. lowest point and highest point. The bob will gain speed and kinetic energy until it reaches point 2 and slow down until it reaches point 3. We can use Newton’s 2nd law at points 2 and 3 in conjunction with the law of the conservation of mechanical energy to find the maximum kinetic energy of the bob and the tension in the string when the bob has its maximum kinetic energy.460 Chapter 7 Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: ⎡ (3. Choose Ug = 0 at the bottom of the circle and let points 1. 2 and 3 represent the bob’s initial point.0° ⎡ (4.5 m/s) 2 ⎤ ⎥ 2(9.52 m/s)2 ⎤ = 25.81 m/s cos30° + ⎥ 3m ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (d) When the bob reaches its greatest height: U = U max = mgL(1 − cos θ max ) and K1 + U max = 0 − 1 mv12 + mgL(1 − cos θ max ) = 0 2 Substitute for K1 and Umax Solve for θmax: θ max ⎛ v2 ⎞ ⎜1 − 1 ⎟ = cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 gL ⎠ −1 Substitute numerical values and evaluate θmax: θ max = cos −1 ⎢1 − ⎣ = 49. so it has its maximum kinetic energy when it is at point 2. (a) Apply ∑F radial = maradial to the mg = m and 2 v3 = gL bob at the top of the circle and solve 2 for v3 : 2 v3 L .

Given our choice of the zero of gravitational potential energy. it is more direct to consider the energy transformations between points 1 and 3. Then Wext = 0. the child’s initial position is designated with the numeral 1. . K 2 = K max = K 3 + U 3 2 = 1 mv3 + mg (2 L ) 2 2 Substitute for v3 and simplify to K max = 1 m(gL ) + 2mgL = 2 5 2 mgL obtain: (b) Apply ∑F radial = maradial to the Fnet = T2 − mg = m and 2 v2 L bob at the bottom of the circle and solve for T2: 2 v2 L T2 = mg + m Use conservation of energy to relate the energies of the bob at points 2 and 3 and solve for K2: 2 Substitute for v3 and K2 and solve 2 for v2 : (1) K 3 − K 2 + U 3 − U 2 = 0 where U 2 = 0 K 2 = K3 + U 3 2 = 1 mv3 + mg (2 L ) 2 1 2 2 mv2 = 1 m( gL ) + mg (2 L ) 2 and 2 v2 = 5 gL Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: T2 = 6mg 38 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the earth and child. While one could use the law of the conservation of energy between points 1 and 2 and then between points 2 and 3. K3 and U3 and solve for K2: K 3 − K 2 + U 3 − U 2 = 0 where U 2 = 0 Therefore. Choose Ug = 0 at the water level. the point at which the child releases the rope and begins to fall with a 2.Conservation of Energy 461 Use conservation of energy to express the relationship between K2. In the figure. and its point of impact with the water is identified with a 3. the initial potential energy at point 1 is transformed into kinetic energy at point 3.

2 m + (10. Solve for v3: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v3: where U 3 and K1are zero. 1 2 2 mv3 − mg [h + L(1 − cos θ )] = 0 v3 = 2 g [h + L(1 − cos θ )] v3 = 2 9.91m/s *39 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of you and the earth. Then there are no external forces to do work on the system and Wext = 0.81m/s 2 [3.462 Chapter 7 Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 K 3 − K1 + U 3 − U1 = 0 Apply conservation of energy to the energy transformations between points 1 and 3: Substitute for K3 and U1. the point at which you release the rope and begin to fall with a 2. In the figure. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the forces acting on you at point 2 and apply conservation of energy between points 1 and 2 to determine the maximum angle at which you can begin your swing and then between points 1 and 3 to determine the speed with which you will hit the water. and your point of impact with the water is identified with a 3. (a) Use conservation of energy to relate your speed at point 2 to your potential energy there and at point 1: Because K1 = 0: ( ) Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 or K 2 − K1 + U 2 − U 1 = 0 1 2 2 mv2 + mgh − [mgL(1 − cos θ ) + mgh] = 0 ⎡ ⎣ 2 v2 ⎤ ⎥ 2 gL ⎦ Solve this equation for θ : θ = cos −1 ⎢1 − (1) Apply ∑F radial = maradial to T − mg = m 2 v2 L . Choose Ug = 0 at the water level. your initial position is designated with the numeral 1.6 m )(1 − cos23°)] = 8.

6 m )(1 − cos20.55 m 2 /s 2 2 2 9.55 m 2 /s 2 66.6 m ) = 5. it must be that: 2 v2 m = 80 N L or (80 N )L 2 v2 = m Let’s assume your weight is 650 N.Conservation of Energy 463 yourself at point 2 and solve for T: and 2 v2 T = mg + m L Because you’ve estimated that the rope might break if the tension in it exceeds your weight by 80 N.3 kg and: Substitute numerical values in equation (1) to obtain: 2 v2 = (80 N )(4.39 m/s ( ) . Then your mass is 66.8 m + (4.3kg ⎡ ⎣ ⎤ 5.81 m/s (4.6 m )⎥ ⎦ θ = cos −1 ⎢1 − = 20.81 m/s 2 [1.2°)] = 6.2° ( ) (b) Apply conservation of energy to the energy transformations between points 1 and 3: Substitute for K3 and U1 to obtain: Solve for v3: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v3: Wext = ∆K + ∆U = 0 K 3 − K1 + U 3 − U 1 = 0 where U 3 and K1are zero 1 2 2 mv3 − mg [h + L(1 − cos θ )] = 0 v3 = 2 g [h + L(1 − cos θ )] v3 = 2 9.

Given this choice. The bob’s initial energy is partially gravitational potential and partially potential energy stored in the stretched spring. As the bob swings down to point 2 this energy is transformed into kinetic energy. By equating these energies. the lowest point of the bob’s trajectory and let the system consist of the bob and the earth. Apply conservation of energy to the system as the pendulum bob swings from point 1 to point 2: Note. Because θ << 1. simplify and solve for v2: 1 2 2 mv 2 = 1 kx 2 + mgL(1 − cosθ ) 2 1 2 2 mv 2 = 1 k (L sin θ ) + mgL(1 − cosθ ) 2 2 sin θ ≈ θ and cosθ ≈ 1 − 1 θ 2 2 v 2 = Lθ k g + m L . from the figure. there are no external forces doing work on the system.464 Chapter 7 40 •• Picture the Problem Choose Ug = 0 at point 2. when θ << 1: Substitute. we can use the trigonometric series for the sine and cosine functions to approximate these functions. we can derive an expression for the speed of the bob at point 2. that x ≈ Lsinθ when θ << 1: Also.

the lowest point of the bob’s trajectory and let the system consist of the earth. and pendulum bob. As the bob swings down to point 2 this energy is transformed into kinetic energy.Conservation of Energy 465 41 ••• Picture the Problem Choose Ug = 0 at point 2. Apply conservation of energy to the system as the pendulum bob swings from point 1 to point 2: 1 2 2 mv 2 = 1 kx 2 + mgL(1 − cosθ ) (1) 2 Apply the Pythagorean theorem to the lower triangle in the diagram to obtain: (x + 1 L )2 = L2 [sin 2 θ + ( 3 cosθ )2 ] = L2 [sin 2 θ + 9 − 3 cosθ + cos 2 θ ] = L2 (13 − 3 cosθ ) 2 2 4 4 Take the square root of both sides of the equation to obtain: Solve for x: Substitute for x in equation (1): 1 2 2 mv2 = 1 kL2 2 x+ 1 L= L 2 (13 − 3 cosθ ) 4 x=L [( 2 13 4 − 3 cos θ ) − 1 2 ] [( 13 4 − 3 cos θ ) − 1 2 ] + mgL(1 − cosθ ) 2 Solve for v2 to obtain: 2 v2 = 2 gL(1 − cos θ ) + k 2 L m k ⎡ g = L2 ⎢2 (1 − cos θ ) + m ⎣ L [ ( 13 4 − 3 cosθ − 1 2 ] 2 13 4 − 3 cosθ − 1 2 ) 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ . we can derive an expression for the speed of the bob at point 2. Given this choice. The bob’s initial energy is partially gravitational potential and partially potential energy stored in the stretched spring. ceiling. By equating these energies. spring. there are no external forces doing work to change the energy of the system.

48 Mton TNT 4. This energy is then transformed into gravitational potential energy as the material rises. (a) Express the energy of the eruption in terms of the height ∆h to which the debris rises: Relate the density of the material to its mass and volume: Substitute for m to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate E: E = mg∆h ρ= m V E = ρVg∆h E = 1600 kg/m 3 4 km 3 9.81 m/s 2 (120 m ) = 94.466 Chapter 7 Finally.14 × 1016 J (b) Convert 3. solve for v2: v2 = L 2 g (1 − cosθ ) + k L m ( 13 4 − 3 cos θ − 1 2 ) 2 The Conservation of Energy 42 • Picture the Problem The energy of the eruption is initially in the form of the kinetic energy of the material it thrusts into the air.14 × 1016 J × 1Mton TNT = 7.2 kJ ( ) . (a) The increase in gravitational potential energy is: ∆U = mg∆h = (80 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (500 m ) = 3.13×1016 J to megatons of TNT: ( )( )( ) 3.14 × 1016 J = 3.2 × 1015 J 43 •• Picture the Problem The work done by the student equals the change in his/her gravitational potential energy and is done as a result of the transformation of metabolic energy in the climber’s muscles.

(a) The energy dissipated by friction is given by: Apply the work-energy theorem for problems with kinetic friction: f∆s = ∆Etherm Wext = ∆Emech + ∆Etherm = ∆Emech + f∆s or. Knowing that energy is transformed into heat by friction. thermal) energy. As the car skids to a stop on a horizontal road.2 E = ∆U and (c) Relate the chemical energy expended by the student to the change in his/her potential energy and solve for E: E = 5∆U = 5(94.e. 0.Conservation of Energy 467 (b) The energy required to do this work comes from chemical energy stored in the body. we can use the definition of the coefficient of kinetic friction to calculate its value.2 kJ ) = 471 kJ Kinetic Friction 44 • Picture the Problem Let the car and the earth be the system. its kinetic energy is transformed into internal (i. because ∆Emech = ∆K = − K i and Wext = 0. 0 = − 1 mvi2 + f∆s 2 Solve for f∆s to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate f∆s: (b) Relate the kinetic friction force to the coefficient of kinetic friction and the weight of the car and solve for the coefficient of kinetic friction: Express the relationship between the energy dissipated by friction and the kinetic friction force and solve fk: Substitute to obtain: f∆s = 1 mvi2 2 f∆s = 1 2 (2000 kg )(25 m/s)2 = fk mg 625 kJ f k = µ k mg ⇒ µ k = ∆Etherm = f k ∆s ⇒ f k = ∆Etherm ∆s µk = ∆Etherm mg∆s ..

(a) Use the definition of work to calculate the work done by the applied force: (b) Express the energy dissipated by friction as the sled is dragged along the surface: Apply r r Wext ≡ F ⋅ s = Fs cosθ = (40 N )(3 m )cos 30° = 104 J ∆Etherm = f∆x = µ k Fn ∆x ∑F y = ma y to the sled and Fn + F sin θ − mg = 0 and solve for Fn: Fn = mg − F sin θ Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆Etherm: ∆Etherm = µ k ∆x(mg − F sin θ ) ∆Etherm = (0. Then the 40-N force is external to the system.4)(3 m ) (8 kg ) 9.81m/s 2 − (40 N )sin30°] = 70. The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the sled as it is pulled along a horizontal road. Finally. To find the energy dissipated by friction. knowing the kinetic energy of the sled after it has traveled 3 m will allow us to solve for its speed at that location. we’ll use Newton’s 2nd law to determine fk and then use it in the definition of work. The work done by the applied force can be found using the definition of work.531 45 • Picture the Problem Let the system be the sled and the earth.468 Chapter 7 Substitute numerical values and evaluate µk: µk = 625 kJ (2000 kg ) 9.2 J [ ( ) (c) Apply the work-energy theorem Wext = ∆Emech + ∆Etherm = ∆Emech + f∆s .81 m/s 2 (60 m ) ( ) = 0. The change in the kinetic energy of the sled is equal to the net work done on it.

91 m/s 8 kg Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf: vf = *46 • Picture the Problem Choose Ug = 0 at the foot of the ramp and let the system consist of the block. Wext = ∆K + ∆Etherm ∆K = Wext − ∆Etherm = 104 J − 70.8 J Solve for and evaluate ∆K to obtain: (d) Because Ki = 0: Solve for vf: K f = ∆K = 1 mvf2 2 vf = 2∆K m 2(33.Conservation of Energy 469 for problems with kinetic friction: or. The block’s kinetic energy at the foot of the incline is partially converted to gravitational potential energy and partially dissipated by friction as the block slides up the incline.8 J ) = 2. because ∆Emech = ∆K + ∆U and ∆U = 0.2 J = 33. Then the kinetic energy of the block at the foot of the ramp is equal to its initial kinetic energy less the energy dissipated by friction. 0 = ∆K + f∆s = K f − K i + f∆s K f = K i − f∆s Solve for Kf: . and the earth. Applying Newton’s 2nd law to the block will allow us to determine fk and express the energy dissipated by friction. because ∆U = Wext = 0. ramp. (a) Apply conservation of energy to the system while the block is moving horizontally: Wext = ∆Emech + ∆Etherm = ∆K + ∆U + f∆s or. The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block as it slides up the incline.

because Kf = Wext = 0. and f∆s to obtain: Solving for vf yields: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf: 1 2 mvf2 = 1 mvi2 − µ k mg∆x 2 vf = vi2 − 2µ k g∆x vf = (7 m/s)2 − 2(0. The potential energy of the block at the top of the ramp or.10 m/s Wext = ∆Emech + ∆Etherm = ∆K + ∆U + f∆s or. (b) Apply conservation of energy to the system while the block is on the incline: 0 = − K i + ∆U + f∆s Apply ∑F y = ma y to the block Fn − mg cos θ = 0 ⇒ Fn = mg cos θ when it is on the incline: Express f∆s: The final potential energy of the block is: Substitute for Uf. and f∆s to obtain: Solving for L yields: f∆s = f k L = µ k Fn L = µ k mgL cosθ U f = mgL sin θ 0 = − K i + mgL sin θ + µ k mgL cos θ L= vi2 g (sin θ + µ k cos θ ) 1 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate L: L= (6. there are no external forces acting that will change the energy of the system.10 m/s)2 (9. Ui. and the earth.17 m 47 • Picture the Problem Let the system include the block.81m/s2 )(2 m ) = 6.3)(9.3)cos40°) 1 2 = 2. its kinetic energy at the bottom of the ramp is . Given this choice.81 m/s 2 )(sin40° + (0. Because the curved ramp is frictionless. We can calculate its speed at the bottom of the ramp by using the law of the conservation of energy.470 Chapter 7 Substitute for Kf. mechanical energy is conserved as the block slides down it. the ramp and horizontal surface. equivalently. Ki.

9 J = 0. and the slide. use conservation of energy to relate the block’s potential energy at the top of the ramp to its kinetic energy at the bottom: Solve for v2 to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v2: (b) The energy dissipated by friction is responsible for changing the thermal energy of the system: Because ∆K = 0 for the slide: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Wf: Wext = ∆Emech + ∆Etherm or. because Wext = Ki = Uf = ∆Etherm = 0. 2 0 = 1 mv2 − mg∆h = 0 2 v2 = 2 g∆h v2 = 2 9. there are no external forces doing work to change the energy of the system. By the time she reaches the bottom of the slide.67 m/s Wf + ∆K + ∆U = ∆E therm + ∆K + ∆U = 0 ( ) Wf = −∆U = −(U 2 − U1 ) = U1 Wf = mg∆h = (2 kg ) 9. the girl.81 m/s 2 (3 m ) = 58.333 (2 kg ) 9.Conservation of Energy 471 converted into thermal energy during its slide along the horizontal surface.9 J ∆Etherm = f∆s = µ k mg∆x ∆Etherm mg∆x 58. Given this choice. (a) Choosing Ug = 0 at point 2 and letting the numeral 1 designate the initial position of the block and the numeral 2 its position at the foot of the ramp. her potential energy at the top of the slide has been converted into kinetic and thermal energy.81 m/s 2 (9 m ) ( ) (c) The energy dissipated by friction is given by: Solve for µk: µk = µk = Substitute numerical values and evaluate µk: ( ) 48 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the earth. Choose Ug = 0 at the bottom of the slide and denote the top and bottom of the slide as shown in .81 m/s 2 (3 m ) = 7.

We’ll use the work-energy theorem with friction to relate these quantities and the forces acting on her during her slide to determine the friction force that transforms some of her initial potential energy into thermal energy.81 m/s 2 (3.3 m/s ) = 611 J 2 2 ( ) (b) Relate the energy dissipated by friction to the kinetic friction force and the distance over which this force acts and solve for µk: Apply ∆Etherm = f∆s = µ k Fn ∆s and µk = ∆Etherm Fn ∆s ∑F y = ma y to the girl and Fn − mg cos θ = 0 ⇒ Fn = mg cosθ solve for Fn: Referring to the figure. (a) Express the work-energy theorem: Because U2 = K1 = Wext = 0: Wext = ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 0 = K 2 − U1 + ∆Etherm = 0 or 2 ∆Etherm = U1 − K 2 = mg∆h − 1 mv2 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆Etherm: ∆Etherm = (20 kg ) 9.2 m ) − 1 (20 kg )(1. relate ∆h to ∆s and θ: Substitute for ∆s and Fn to obtain: ∆s = ∆h sin θ ∆Etherm ∆Etherm tan θ = ∆h mg∆h cos θ mg sin θ µk = Substitute numerical values and evaluate µk: .472 Chapter 7 the figure.

2 m ) 0.98 m/s 4 kg + 2 kg [ ( ) ] *50 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the particle.73 N )(2 m ) = 1.7 N ) y 1 2 (c) Express the total mechanical energy of the system: Solve for v to obtain: (m1 + m2 )v 2 − m2 gy = −∆Etherm 2(m2 gy − ∆E therm ) m1 + m2 v= (1) Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= 2 (2 kg ) 9.Conservation of Energy 473 µk = (611 J )tan20° = (20 kg )(9.7 N ) y Wext = ∆Emech + ∆Etherm or. because Wext = 0. and the earth. We can find the energy dissipated by friction and then use the workenergy theorem with kinetic friction to find the speed of either block when they have moved the given distance. the shelf. not all of the energy transformed during the fall of the 2-kg block is realized in the form of kinetic energy. Given this choice. and the earth. there are no external forces doing work to change the energy of the system. Then Wext = 0 and the energy dissipated by friction during one revolution is the change in the thermal energy of the system.81 m/s 2 (2 m ) − (13. (a) Apply the work-energy theorem Wext = ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm .35)(4 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 y = (13. Due to the friction between the 4-kg block and the surface on which it slides. ( ) (b) From the work-energy theorem with kinetic friction we have: ∆Emech = −∆Etherm = − (13. the table. (a) The energy dissipated by friction when the 2-kg block falls a distance y is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆Etherm: ∆Etherm = f∆s = µ k m1 gy ∆Etherm = (0.81 m/s 2 )(3.354 49 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the two blocks.

relate the normal force to the weight of the box and the angle of the incline: Relate ∆h to the distance L along the Wext = ∆Emech + ∆Etherm = ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm 2 0 = 1 mv12 − 1 mv0 + mg∆h + µ k Fn L 2 2 (1) Fn = mg cos θ ∆h = L sin θ . because ∆U = Wext = 0. and ∆Etherm to obtain: Referring to the FBD. Let the system be the earth. With this choice of the system. it will only require another 1/3 4 revolution to lose the remaining 1 K i . and the inclined plane and apply the work-energy theorem with friction. there are no external forces doing work to change the energy of the system. 0 = ∆K + ∆Etherm Substitute for ∆Kf and simplify to obtain: ∆Etherm = − 1 mvf2 − 1 mvi2 2 2 = − 1 m( 1 v0 ) − 1 m(v0 ) 2 2 2 2 [ 3 8 ( ) 2 ] = (b) Relate the energy dissipated by friction to the distance traveled and the coefficient of kinetic friction: Substitute for ∆E and solve for µk to obtain: 2 mv0 ∆Etherm = f∆s = µ k mg∆s = µ k mg (2πr ) µk = 2 3 mv 2 ∆Etherm 3v0 = 8 0 = 2πmgr 2πmgr 16πgr (c) Because it lost 3 K i in one revolution. Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to the system: Substitute for ∆K. ∆U.474 Chapter 7 with kinetic friction to obtain: or. the box. The freebody diagram shows the forces acting on the box when it is moving up the incline. 4 51 •• Picture the Problem The box will slow down and stop due to the dissipation of thermal energy.

We’ll apply the work-energy theorem with friction to the second part of the problem. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the block to obtain an expression for the extension of the spring at this instant. there are no external forces doing work to change the energy of the system. With this choice of the system. and the spring.3)cos37° + sin37°] = 0.81m/s2 (0. the incline.875 m)[sin37° − (0.max − mg sin θ = 0 . equation (2) becomes: Set v1 = 0 (the block starts from rest at the top of the incline) and solve for vf : Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf: µ k mgL cos θ + 1 mvf2 − 1 mv12 2 2 − mgL sin θ = 0 vf = 2 gL(sin θ − µk cosθ ) vf = 2 9.8 m/s)2 2(9.875 m Let vf represent the box’s speed as it passes its starting point on the way down the incline. the block. (a) Apply ( ) ] ∑ F = ma to the block r r ∑F x = Fspring − f s.81 m/s 2 )[(0. The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block just before it begins to move.Conservation of Energy 475 incline: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Solving equation (2) for L yields: 2 µ k mgL cos θ + 1 mv12 − 1 mv0 2 2 + mgL sin θ = 0 (2) L= 2 v0 2 g (µ k cos θ + sin θ ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate L: L= (3. For the block’s descent.3)cos37°] = 2.49 m/s 52 ••• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the earth.

. ∆K = 0 and: Let Ug = 0 at the initial position of the block. Then: Express the change in the energy stored in the spring as it relaxes to its unstretched length: The energy dissipated by friction is: Wext = ∆Emech + ∆Etherm = ∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s + ∆Etherm ∆U g + ∆U s + ∆Etherm = 0 (1) ∆U g = U g. and Fspring between the two equations to obtain: Solve for and evaluate d: kd − µ s mg cos θ − mg sin θ = 0 d= mg (sin θ + µ s cos θ ) k (b) Begin with the work-energy theorem with friction and no work being done by an external force: Because the block is at rest in both its initial and final states.final − U s.max.initial = 0 − 1 kd 2 2 = − 1 kd 2 2 ∆Etherm = f∆s = − f k d = − µ k Fn d = − µ k mgd cosθ Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Finally. fs.476 Chapter 7 when it is on the verge of sliding: and ∑F y = Fn − mg cos θ = 0 Eliminate Fn.final − U g.initial = mgh − 0 = mgd sin θ ∆U s = U s. solve for µk: mgd sin θ − 1 kd 2 − µ k mgd cos θ = 0 2 µk = 1 2 (tan θ − µs ) Mass and Energy 53 • Picture the Problem The intrinsic rest energy in matter is related to the mass of matter through Einstein’s equation E0 = mc 2 .

Conservation of Energy 477 (a) Relate the rest mass consumed to the energy produced and solve for and evaluate m: E0 = mc 2 = 1× 10 −3 kg 3 × 108 m/s = 9.60 × 10 J 6 ( ) Convert 9×1013 J to kW⋅h: ⎛ 1 kW ⋅ h ⎞ 9 × 1013 J = 9 × 1013 J ⎜ ⎜ 3.56 × 10 −5 kg 55 • Picture the Problem The intrinsic rest energy in matter is related to the mass of matter through Einstein’s equation E0 = mc 2 . to find the mass equivalent of the energy from the explosion. E = mc2.60 × 106 J ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 7 = 2. Solve E = mc2 for m: m= E c2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate m: m= (2.998 ×10 5 × 1012 J 8 m/s ) 2 = 5.500 y 54 • Picture the Problem We can use the equation expressing the equivalence of energy and matter.5 × 106 ( ) (c) Relate the energy consumed to its rate of consumption and the time and solve for the latter: E = Pt and t= E 9 × 1013 J = 100 W P = 9 × 1011 s = 28.10 ⎞ Price = 2.50 × 10 kW ⋅ h ( ) Determine the price of the electrical energy: ⎛ $0.50 × 107 kW ⋅ h ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ kW ⋅ h ⎠ = $2. Relate the rest mass of a muon to its rest energy: m0 = E c2 .00 × 1013 J ( )( ) 2 (b) Express kW⋅h in joules: 1 kW ⋅ h = 1× 103 J/s (1 h )(3600 s/h ) = 3.

59 MeV. In Example 7-15 it is shown that the energy per reaction is 17.59 MeV = (17.6×10−13 J m0 = (105.45 × 1016 kg/s 57 • Picture the Problem The number of reactions per second is given by the ratio of the power generated to the energy released per reaction.59 MeV ) × 1.88 × 10 −28 kg *56 • Picture the Problem We can differentiate the mass-energy equation to obtain an expression for the rate at which the black hole gains energy.56 × 1014 reactions/s . Convert this energy to joules: 17.6 ×10−13 J/MeV ) (3 ×10 8 m/s ) 2 = 1.01mc 2 = 0.7 MeV )(1.01c 2 dt dt dt [ ] dm dE dt = dt 0.01c 2 dm 4 × 1031 watt = dt (0. express the energy radiated by the black hole: Differentiate this expression to obtain an expression for the rate at which the black hole is radiating energy: Solve for dm/dt: E = 0. The number of reactions that must take place to produce a given amount of energy is the ratio of the energy per second (power) to the energy released per second. Using the mass-energy relationship.998 × 108 m/s Substitute numerical values and evaluate dm/dt: ( ) 2 = 4.6 × 10 −19 J/eV = 28.478 Chapter 7 Express 1 MeV in joules: Substitute numerical values and evaluate m0: 1 MeV = 1.01) 2.1 × 10 −13 ( ) J The number of reactions per second is: 1000 J/s 28.01mc 2 dm dE d = 0.1 × 10 −13 J/reaction = 3.

.280 + 0.Conservation of Energy 479 58 • Picture the Problem The energy required for this reaction is the difference between the rest energy of 4He and the sum of the rest energies of 3He and a neutron.511)] MeV = 0.409 − (2808.573)] MeV = 20.573 MeV E = [939.574 MeV 59 • Picture the Problem The energy required for this reaction is the difference between the rest energy of a neutron and the sum of the rest energies of a proton and an electron. The energy released in this reaction is the difference between twice the rest energy of 2H and the rest energy of 4He. Express the reaction: The rest energy of a neutron (Table 7-1) is: The rest energy of 4He (Example 7-15) is: The rest energy of 3He is: 4 He→3 He + n 939. The rest energy of a proton (Table 7-1) is: The rest energy of an electron (Table 7-1) is: The rest energy of a neutron (Table 7-1) is: Substitute numerical values to find the difference in the rest energy of a neutron and the sum of the rest energies of a positron and an electron: 938.573 MeV 3727.41 + 939.573 − (938.280 MeV 0.511 MeV 939.409 MeV 2808.782 MeV 60 •• Picture the Problem The reaction is 2 H + 2 H→ 4 He + E .432 MeV Substitute numerical values to find the difference in the rest energy of 4He and the sum of the rest energies of 3He and n: E = [3727.

847 MeV = 3.62 × 1014 reactions/s (b) The number of reactions per second is: 61 •• Picture the Problem The annual consumption of matter by the fission plant is the ratio of its annual energy output to the square of the speed of light. (a) Express m in terms of E: m= E c2 Assuming an efficiency of 33 percent. 2H.84 × 1017 J ( ( ) ) Substitute to obtain: m= (3 ×10 2.628 MeV E = [2(1875. The annual consumption of coal in a coal-burning power plant is the ratio of its annual energy output to energy per unit mass of the coal.1× 107 J/kg ( ) = 8. (a) The rest energy of 4He (Example 7-14) is: The rest energy of a deuteron.24 d ) = 2. find the energy produced annually: E = 3P∆t = 3 3 × 109 J/s (1 y ) = 3 3 × 109 J/s (3600 s/h ) × (24 h/d )(365.628) − 3727.16 kg (b) Assuming an efficiency of 38 percent.409] MeV = 23.47 × 1016 J = = 0.84 × 1017 J 8 m/s ) 2 = 3.04 × 109 kg .816 × 10 −12 J/reaction = 2.409 MeV 1875.480 Chapter 7 The number of reactions that must take place to produce a given amount of energy is the ratio of the energy per second (power) to the energy released per reaction.38 3. (Table 7-1) is: The energy released in the reaction is: 3727.816 × 10 −12 J 1000 J/s 3. express the mass of coal required in terms of the annual energy production and the energy released per kilogram: mcoal Eannual 9.38(E / m ) 0.

the work done by the tension in the string as it displaces the block on the incline is equal to the sum of the changes in the kinetic and gravitational potential energies. Then the tension in the string is an external force that will do work to change the energy of the system. Then there are no external forces to do work on the system and Wext = 0. express the change in the potential energy of the block as it moves from position 1 to position 2: Because the block starts from rest: Substitute to obtain: Wtension force = Wext = ∆U + ∆K ∆U = mg∆h = mgL sin θ ∆K = K 2 = 1 mv 2 2 Wtension force = mgL sin θ + 1 mv 2 2 and (c) is correct. the block. and the inclined plane. Relate the work done by the tension force to the changes in the kinetic and gravitational potential energies of the block: Referring to the figure. Because the incline is frictionless. 63 •• Picture the Problem Let the system include the earth. Express the work-energy theorem with friction: Wext = ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 . and the incline. the earth. Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to find an expression for the energy dissipated by friction.Conservation of Energy 481 General Problems *62 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the block.

Express the work-energy theorem: Because ∆K = ∆U g = ∆Etherm = 0 : Substitute for Wext and ∆Us: Solve for x: Wext = ∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s + ∆Etherm Wext = ∆U s Fx = 1 kx 2 2 x= 2F k 2(70 N ) = 2. Letting Isurface represent the intensity of the solar radiation at the surface of the earth.06 cm 6800 N/m Substitute numerical values and evaluate x: x= *65 • Picture the Problem The solar constant is the average energy per unit area and per unit time reaching the upper atmosphere. This physical quantity can be thought of as the power per unit area and is known as intensity.482 Chapter 7 Because the velocity of the block is constant. Then the applied force is external to the system and does work on the system in compressing the spring. express Isurface as a function of power and the area on which this energy is incident: Solve for ∆E: I surface = P ∆E / ∆t = A A ∆E = I surface A∆t . ∆K = 0 and: In time ∆t the block slides a distance v∆t . This work is stored in the spring as potential energy. From the figure: Substitute to obtain: ∆Etherm = − ∆U = −mg∆h ∆h = v∆t sin θ ∆Etherm = − mgv∆t sin θ and (b) is correct. 64 • Picture the Problem Let the system include the earth and the box.

99 × 1030 kg 1.Conservation of Energy 483 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆E: ∆E = 1 kW/m 2 2 m 2 (8 h )(3600 s/h ) = 57. so: ∆n 4 3. (b) Express the solar lifetime in terms of the mass of the sun and the rate at which its mass is being converted to energy: tsolar = N H nuclei M m = ∆n ∆t ∆n ∆t where M is the mass of the sun. We can estimate the solar lifetime by dividing the number of hydrogen nuclei in the sun by the rate at which they are being transformed into energy. express the surface area of the sun: Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate L: L = IA A = 4πR 2 L = 4πR 2 I L = 4π (1.9×1026 watt.5 ×1011 m ) (1. If we let L represent the sun’s luminosity. I the power it radiates per unit area (also known as the solar constant or the intensity of its radiation).6 MJ ( )( ) 66 •• Picture the Problem The luminosity of the sun (or of any other object) is the product of the power it radiates per unit area and its surface area. and n is the number of nuclei used up.67 ×10 −27 kg/H nucleus = ∆n ∆t = 1.19 ×1057 H nuclei ∆n ∆t For each reaction.57 × 1038 s −1 ( ) . m the mass of a hydrogen nucleus.82 × 1026 J/s = ∆t 4.35 kW/m 2 ) 2 = 3.82 ×10 26 watt Note that this result is in good agreement with the value given in the text of 3. Substitute numerical values to obtain: tsolar 1. and A its surface area. (a) Express the total energy the sun radiates every second in terms of the solar constant: Letting R represent its radius. then L = IA.27 × 10−12 J = 3. 4 hydrogen nuclei are "used up".

33 × 1017 s = 1. because v = 0.208 (1) Fnet = − f k = − µ k mg = ma a = −µk g v = v0 − µ k g∆t K = 1 m(v0 − µ k g∆t ) 2 2 .1⎜ ⎜ 3. and the elapsed time: Express the braking force acting on the car: Solve for a: Substitute for a to obtain: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate K: [(708 km/h )(1h/3600 s )] 2 µk = 2(9. 2 − 1 mv0 + µ k mg∆s = 0 2 µk = v2 2 g∆s Substitute numerical values and evaluate µk: (b) Express the kinetic energy of the car: Using a constant-acceleration equation.81 m/s 2 )(9. (a) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to relate the coefficient of kinetic friction µk to the initial and final kinetic energies of the car: Solve for µk: 1 2 2 mv 2 − 1 mv0 + µ k mg∆s = 0 2 or.19 × 1057 H nuclei ⎞ tsolar = 0.06 × 1010 y 67 • Picture the Problem Let the system include the earth and the Spirit of America. We can use the workenergy theorem to relate the coefficient of kinetic friction to the given information.5 km ) K = 1 mv 2 2 v = v0 + a∆t = 0. Then there are no external forces to do work on the car and Wext = 0. initial speed.484 Chapter 7 Because we’ve assumed that the sun will continue burning until roughly 10% of its hydrogen fuel is used up. the total solar lifetime should be: ⎛ 1. relate the speed of the car to its acceleration. A constant-acceleration equation will yield the car’s velocity when 60 s have elapsed.57 × 1038 s −1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 3.

6 kW ( ) .Conservation of Energy 485 K= 1 2 (1250 kg )[708 ×103 m/h − (0.5 m/s )[sin 15° + (0. we need to find F as a function of mtot. Because the power r r required to move them is F ⋅ v .81 m/s 2 (2.208)(9. and µk. θ.06 ) cos15°] = 46.45 MJ 68 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the skiers as they are towed up the slope at constant speed.81m/s2 )(60 s )] 2 = 3. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to obtain such a function. Express the power required as a function of force on the skiers and their speed: Apply P = Fv (1) r r F = ma to the skiers: ∑ ∑F and x = F − f k − mtot g sin θ = 0 = Fn − mtot g cos θ = 0 ∑F y Eliminate fk = µkFn and Fn between the two equations and solve for F: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: F = mtot g sin θ + µ k mtot g cos θ P = (mtot g sin θ + µ k mtot g cos θ )v = mtot gv(sin θ + µ k cos θ ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate P: P = 80(75 kg ) 9.

The box’s speed when it returns to bottom of the incline will be less than its speed when it started up the incline due to the energy dissipated by friction while it was in motion. a kinetic friction force.3)cos60°] ( ) (3 m/s)2 = 0.486 Chapter 7 69 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram for the box is superimposed on the pictorial representation shown to the right. Then Wext = 0. From the FBD we can see that the forces acting on the box are the (a) normal force exerted by the inclined plane. The work done by friction slows and momentarily stops the box as it slides up the incline.451 m . relate ∆h to ∆x to obtain: Substitute for ∆h to obtain: − 1 mv12 + mg∆h + µ k mg∆x cos θ = 0 2 ∆h = ∆x sin θ − 1 mv12 + mg∆x sin θ 2 + µ k mg∆x cos θ = 0 Solve for ∆x: ∆x = v12 2 g (sin θ + µ k cos θ ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆x: ∆x = 2 9. We can use the work-energy theorem with friction to solve the several parts of this problem. (b) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to relate the distance ∆x the box slides up the incline to its initial kinetic energy. Let the system include the box. its final potential energy. and the work done against friction: Referring to the figure. and the incline. and the gravitational force (the weight of the box) exerted by the earth.81m/s 2 [sin60° + (0. the earth.

81 m/s 2 )(0.451 m )[sin60° − (0. the tension in the support cable(s) is: Substitute for F to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate P: P = Fv F = (melev + mload )g P = (melev + mload )gv P = (2000 kg ) (9.451 m )cos60° = 1.3 m/s ) = 45.3)(2 kg ) 9. The power provided by the motor is given by: Because the elevator is ascending with constant speed.81 m/s 2 (0.Conservation of Energy 487 (c) Express and evaluate the energy dissipated by friction: ∆Etherm = f k ∆x = µ k mg∆x cosθ = (0.52 m/s *70 • Picture the Problem The power provided by a motor that is delivering sufficient energy to exert a force F on a load which it is moving at a speed v is Fv.81 m/s 2 )(2.3)cos60°] = 2.33 J (d) Use the work-energy theorem with friction to obtain: ( ) Wext = ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 or K1 − K 2 + U1 − U 2 + ∆Etherm = 0 Because K2 = U1 = 0 we have: K1 − U 2 + ∆Etherm = 0 or 1 2 mv12 − mg∆x sin θ + µ k mg∆x cos θ = 0 Solve for v1: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v1: v1 = 2 g∆x(sin θ − µ k cos θ ) v1 = 2(9.1 kW .

81 m/s 2 (2.488 Chapter 7 71 •• Picture the Problem The power a motor must provide to exert a force F on a load that it is moving at a speed v is Fv.3 m/s ) = − 6. there are no external forces to do work on the system. Apply conservation of energy during the dart’s ascent: Wext = ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 or.81 m/s 2 (2.i + ∆Etherm = 0 . i. the tension in the support cable(s) is: Substitute and evaluate P: Substitute numerical values and evaluate P: P = Fv F = (melev + mload − mcw )g P = (melev + mload − mcw )gv P = (500 kg ) 9. U g. its gravitational potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy and thermal energy.f − U s. The counterweight does negative work and the power of the motor is reduced from that required with no counterbalance. With this choice of the system. During the dart’s descent.i + U s. The power provided by the motor is given by: Because the elevator is counterbalanced and ascending with constant speed.i + ∆Etherm = 0 Because U g.f − U g.3 m/s ) = 11.f − U s. The energy initially stored in the spring is transformed into gravitational potential energy and thermal energy.77 kW ( ) 72 •• Picture the Problem We can use the work-energy theorem with friction to describe the energy transformation within the dart-spring-air-earth system.3 kW ( ) Without a load: F = (melev − mcw )g and P = (melev − mcw )gv = (− 300 kg ) 9. because ∆K = 0.e.i = U s. Choose Ug = 0 at the elevation of the dart on the compressed spring..f = 0 : U g. Wext = 0.

rock and air.602 J = 17. Choose Ug = 0 to be where the rock begins its upward motion.007 kg ) 9.i + ∆Etherm = 0 1 2 Substitute for Kf and Ug. K f − U g. (a) Using the definition of kinetic energy. During its descent.f and solve for ∆Etherm: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆Etherm: ∆Etherm = U s.03 m )2 − (0.i − U g.007 kg [ ( ) ] *73 •• Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the earth.81 m/s 2 (24 m ) − 0. Given this choice. calculate the initial kinetic energy of the rock: (b) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to relate the energies of the system as the rock ascends: Because Kf = 0: K i = 1 mvi2 = 2 = 1.3 m/s 0.f = 1 kx 2 − mgh 2 ∆Etherm = 1 2 (5000 N/m )(0. there are no external forces to do work on the system and Wext = 0.007 kg )(9. because Ki = Ug.602 J Apply conservation of energy during the dart’s descent: Wext = ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 or.81 m/s 2 )(24 m ) = 0.f = 0.60 kJ 1 2 (2 kg )(40 m/s )2 ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 − K i + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 and ∆Etherm = K i − ∆U . The initial kinetic energy of the rock is partially transformed into potential energy and partially dissipated by air resistance as the rock ascends.Conservation of Energy 489 Substitute for Ug.i to obtain: Solve for vf: mvf2 − mgh + ∆Etherm = 0 2(mgh − ∆Etherm ) m vf = Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf: vf = 2 (0. its potential energy is partially transformed into kinetic energy and partially dissipated by air resistance.i and Us.

Let the block. The pictorial representation shows the block at the top of the incline (1).81 m/s 2 (50 m ) − = 23.7∆Etherm = 0 1.7∆Etherm = 0 ( ) (c) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to relate the energies of the system as the rock descends: Because Ki = Uf = 0: Substitute for the energies to obtain: Solve for vf: K f − U i + 0. and the earth comprise the system.3 − U g. Let Ug = 0 where the spring is at maximum compression.7∆Etherm = 0 1 2 mvf2 − mgh + 0.1 = 0 .4 m/s ( ) 1. just as it strikes the spring (2).1 + U s. We can apply the work-energy theorem to relate the energies of the system as it evolves from state 1 to state 3.490 Chapter 7 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆Etherm: ∆Etherm = 1600 J − (2 kg ) 9.4(619 J ) 2 kg 74 •• Picture the Problem Let the distance the block slides before striking the spring be L. and the block against the fully compressed spring (3).3 − U s. Express the work-energy theorem: ∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s = 0 or ∆K + U g.81 m/s 2 (50 m ) = 619 J ∆K + ∆U + 0.4∆Etherm m vf = 2 gh − Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf: vf = 2 9. Then Wext = 0. spring.

(a) Relate the work the girder does on the slab to the change in potential energy of the slab: Substitute numerical values and evaluate W: 2 W = ∆U = mg∆h W = 1.81 m/s 2 (0.3 = 0 − mgh1 + 1 kx 2 = 0 2 − mg (L + x )sin θ + 1 kx 2 = 0 2 x2 − 2mg sin θ 2mgL sin θ x− =0 k k 2mgL mg ⎛ mg ⎞ 2 sin θ + ⎜ sin θ x= ⎟ sin θ + k k ⎝ k ⎠ Note that the negative sign between the two terms leads to a non-physical solution. the atoms in the girder vibrate with a greater average kinetic energy.3 = Us. leading to a larger average separation.1 = 0: Substitute for each of these energy terms to obtain: Substitute for h3 and h1: Rewrite this equation explicitly as a quadratic equation: Solve this quadratic equation to obtain: − U g. which causes the girder' s expansion. Express the average power delivered by the car’s engine: Pav = ∆E ∆t . Because the car is slowing down as it climbs the hill.1 + U s. *75 • Picture the Problem We can find the work done by the girder on the slab by calculating the change in the potential energy of the slab.Conservation of Energy 491 Because ∆K = Ug. 76 •• Picture the Problem The average power delivered by the car’s engine is the rate at which it changes the car’s energy. As the temperature of the girder rises.001 m ) = 147 J ( )( ) The energy is transferred to the girder from its surroundings.5 × 104 kg 9. its potential energy increases and its kinetic energy decreases. which are (b) warmer than the girder.

find the time it takes the car to climb the hill: Substitute to determine Pav: ∆t = ∆s 2000 m = = 118 s vav 17 m/s 1.81 m/s 2 )(120 m )]= 1. The maximum extension of the spring. The equilibrium position of the system can be found by applying the work-energy theorem with friction … as can the amount of thermal energy produced as the system oscillates to its equilibrium position. Because k and m are not specified. (a) The graph of U as a function of y is shown to the right. we can find the net force acting on a given system from F = −dU / dy . Note that the minimum value of U (a position of stable equilibrium) occurs near y = 5 m.41 MJ vav = v top + v bot 2 = 17 m/s Assuming that the acceleration of the car is constant. The spring is unstretched when y = y0 = 0. find its average speed during this climb: Using the vav. the lowest position of the mass on its end.9 kW 118 s Pav = *77 •• Picture the Problem Given the potential energy function as a function of y.41 MJ = 11.492 Chapter 7 Express the increase in the car’s mechanical energy: ∆E = ∆K + ∆U = K top − K bot + U top − U bot 2 2 = 1 mvtop − 1 mvbot + mg∆h 2 2 2 2 = 1 m vtop − vbot + 2 g∆h 2 ( ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆E: ∆E = 1 2 (1500 kg )[(10 m/s)2 − (24 m/s )2 + 2(9.. i. k has been set equal to 2 and mg to 1. .e. can be found by applying the work-energy theorem.

2 -0.6 U (J) 0.4 0.Conservation of Energy 493 1. it follows that: Because U(0) = 0: Solve for ymax: ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 ∆U = U(ymax) – U(0) = 0 U(ymax) = 0 ⇒ 1 2 2 kymax − mgymax = 0 y max = 2mg k (d) Express the condition of F at equilibrium and solve for yeq: Feq = 0 ⇒ − ky eq + mg = 0 and yeq = mg k (e) Apply the conservation of energy to the movement of the mass from y = 0 to y = yeq and solve for ∆Etherm: ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm = 0 or.4 0.6 y (m) (b) Evaluate the negative of the derivative of U with respect to y: F =− dU d =− dy dy ( 1 2 ky 2 − mgy ) = − ky + mg (c) Apply conservation of energy to the movement of the mass from y = 0 to y = ymax: Because ∆K = 0 (the object starts from rest and is momentarily at rest at y = ymax) and ∆Etherm = 0 (no friction).6 0.4 1.2 1.2 0.4 0.0 -0. ∆Etherm = −∆U = U i − U f .0 1.0 0.8 0.8 1. because ∆K = 0.2 0.0 0.

We can use the work-energy theorem with friction in the analysis of the energy transformations during the motion of the flare.e.i : Solve for k to obtain: Ws = K i. flare = 1 2 2 mv0 ∆K + ∆U s = 0 or K f − K i + U s. Let the system contain the earth.i = 0 K f − U s.494 Chapter 7 Because U i = U (0 ) = 0 : Substitute for yeq and simplify to obtain: 2 ∆Etherm = −U f = − 1 kyeq − mgyeq 2 ( ) ∆Etherm = m2 g 2 2k 78 •• Picture the Problem The energy stored in the compressed spring is initially transformed into the kinetic energy of the signal flare and then into gravitational potential energy and thermal energy as the flare climbs to its maximum height. apply the conservation of energy to the transformation that takes place as the spring decompresses and gives the flare its launch speed: Because Ki = ∆Ug = Us.. assume that the compression of the spring is small compared to the maximum elevation of the flare). (a) The work done on the spring in compressing it is equal to the kinetic energy of the flare at launch. the air.f: Substitute for K f and U s.i = 0 1 2 2 mv0 − 1 kd 2 = 0 2 k= 2 mv0 d2 (c) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to the upward trajectory of the flare: ∆K + ∆U g + ∆Etherm = 0 . Therefore: (b) Ignoring changes in gravitational potential energy (i.f − U s. and the flare so that Wext = 0.

. Then there are no external forces to do work on the system and change its energy and we can use Newton’s 2nd law and the work-energy theorem to describe the system’s energy transformations to point G … and then the work-energy theorem with friction to determine the braking force that brings the car to a stop. The free-body diagram for point D is shown to the right. (a) Apply the work-energy theorem to the system’s energy transformations between A and B: If we assume that the car arrives at point B with vB = 0. the track. The free-body diagram for point C is shown to the right. Choose the system to include the earth. The free-body diagram for point F is shown to the right. then: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or KB − KA +UB −UA = 0 2 − 1 mvA + mg∆h = 0 2 where ∆h is the difference in elevation between A and B. and the car.Conservation of Energy 495 Solve for ∆Etherm: Because Kf = Ui = 0: ∆Etherm = −∆K − ∆U g = Ki − Kf + U i − U f ∆Etherm = 1 2 2 mv0 − mgh 79 •• Picture the Problem Let UD = 0.

496 Chapter 7 Solve for and evaluate ∆h: The height above the ground is: (12 m/s) = 7.. then the force exerted by the track on the car will be the normal force: (c) Apply = (500 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 4.3 m Ftrack on car = Fn = mg (b) If the car just makes it to point B.91 kN ( ) ∑F x = max to the car at mg sin θ = ma and point C (see the FBD) and solve for a: a = g sin θ = (9. if it gets there with vB = 0.81 m/s 2 )sin30° = 4.e.34 m = 17.34 m v2 ∆h = A = 2 g 2 9.81 m/s 2 2 ( ) h + ∆h = 10 m + 7.91 m/s 2 (d) Apply ∑F y = ma y to the car at Fn − mg = m and point D (see the FBD) and solve for Fn : 2 vD R Fn = mg + m Apply the work-energy theorem to the system’s energy transformations between B and D: Because KB = UD = 0: Substitute to obtain: 2 Solve for vD : 2 vD R ∆K + ∆U = 0 or KD − KB +UD −UB = 0 KD −UB = 0 1 2 2 mv D − mg (h + ∆h ) = 0 2 vD = 2 g (h + ∆h ) Substitute to find Fn: Fn = mg + m 2 vD R 2 g (h + ∆h ) = mg + m R ⎡ 2(h + ∆h ) ⎤ = mg ⎢1 + ⎥ R ⎣ ⎦ . i.

Conservation of Energy 497 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fn: ⎡ 2(17.46 kN (12 m/s)4 + (9. (e) F has two components at point F. one horizontal (the inward force that the track exerts) and the other vertical (the normal force).81 m/s 2 (30 m ) ⎤ = 63.81 m/s 2 ⎢1 + 20 m ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ( ) = 13. directed upward. 2 mvF = 2d Fbrake . Apply r r F = ma to the car at point F: ∑F and y = Fn − mg = 0 ⇒ Fn = mg 2 vF R ∑ ∑ Fx = Fc = m F = Fc2 + Fn2 Express the resultant of these two forces: ⎛ v2 ⎞ 2 = ⎜ m F ⎟ + (mg ) ⎜ R⎟ ⎝ ⎠ =m 4 vF + g2 R2 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate F: F = (500 kg ) = 5.9° = tan ⎢ (12 m/s)2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (f) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to the system’s energy transformations between F and the car’s stopping position: The work done by friction is also given by: Equate the two expressions for ∆Etherm and solve for Fbrake: ( ) − K G + ∆Etherm = 0 and 2 ∆Etherm = K G = 1 mvG 2 ∆Etherm = f∆s = Fbrake d where d is the stopping distance.4 kN.3 m )⎤ Fn = (500 kg ) 9.81m/s2 ) 2 (30 m )2 Find the angle the resultant makes with the x axis: θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜ −1 ⎛ Fn ⎞ ⎛ gR ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜v ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ F ⎠ ⎝ Fc ⎠ ⎡ 9.

81 m/s 2 (1. Let Ug = 0 where the spring has its maximum compression and the system consist of the earth.3 − U s.5 m/s ) = 29. In state 2 the elevator is moving faster and is about to strike the relaxed spring. The momentarily at rest elevator on the compressed spring is shown as state 3.1 = 0: ∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s = 0 or K 3 − K 1 + U g. Then Wext = 0 and we can apply the conservation of mechanical energy to the analysis of the falling elevator and compressing spring.44 kN P = Fbraking v0 Fbraking = Mg P = Mgv0 = (2000 kg ) 9.1 = 0 2 − 1 Mv0 − Mg (d + ∆y ) + 1 k (∆y ) = 0 2 2 2 .1 + U s. and the spring. (a) Express the rate of conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy as a function of the speed of the elevator and braking force acting on it: Because the elevator is moving with constant speed.498 Chapter 7 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fbrake: *80 • Picture the Problem The rate of conversion of mechanical energy can be r r determined from P = F ⋅ v . The pictorial representation shows the elevator moving downward just as it goes into freefall as state 1.4 kW ( ) (b) Apply the conservation of energy to the falling elevator and compressing spring: Because K3 = Ug.3 − U g. the net force acting on it is zero and: Substitute for Fbraking and evaluate P: (500 kg )(12 m/s)2 Fbrake = 2(25 m ) = 1.3 = Us. the elevator.

19 m 81 • Picture the Problem We can use Newton’s 2nd law to determine the force of friction as a function of the angle of the hill for a given constant speed. The power output of the engine is given by P = Ff ⋅ v .87° = 491 N and = 981 N F30 = (1000 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 sin5.81m/s 2 )2 + (1.Conservation of Energy 499 Rewrite this equation as a quadratic equation in ∆y.5 m/s ) 4 1.5 ×10 4 N/m ) 2 2000 kg 2 2 9. FBD for (a): FBD for (b): r r (a) Apply ∑F x = max to the car: mg sin θ − Ff = 0 ⇒ Ff = mg sin θ Evaluate Ff for the two speeds: F20 = (1000 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (5 m ) + (1.81m/s 2 ) 1.5 × 10 4 N/m + (2000 kg )2 (9.5 × 10 N/m [( ) ] = 5.74° ( ) ( ) (b) Express the power an engine must deliver on a level road in order P = Ff v P20 = (491 N )(20 m/s ) = 9.81 m/s 2 sin2. the maximum compression of the spring: Solve for ∆y to obtain: (∆y )2 − ⎛ 2Mg ⎞∆y − M (2 gd + v02 ) = 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ k ∆y = Mg M 2g2 M 2 ± + 2 gd + v0 2 k k k ( ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆y: ∆y = (2000 kg )(9.82 kW .

The pictorial representation to the left shows the block sliding down the incline .85° (d) Express the equivalence of the work done by the engine in driving the car at the two speeds: Let ∆V represent the volume of fuel consumed by the engine driving the car on a level road and divide both sides of the work equation by ∆V to obtain: Wengine = F20 (∆s )20 = F30 (∆s )30 F20 (∆s )20 ∆V = F30 (∆s )30 ∆V Solve for (∆s )30 ∆V : (∆s )30 ∆V = F20 (∆s )20 F30 ∆V 491 N (12.500 Chapter 7 to overcome friction loss and evaluate this expression for v = 20 m/s and 30 m/s: (c) Apply and P30 = (981 N )(30 m/s ) = 29. block. and incline.4 kW = F − mg sin θ − F f = 0 ∑F x = max to the car: ∑F x Relate F to the power output of the engine and the speed of the car: Substitute for F and solve for θ : Since P = Fv. Then Wext = 0. F = ⎤ ⎡P ⎢ v − F20 ⎥ θ = sin −1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ mg ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ P v Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : ⎡ 40 kW ⎢ 20 m/s − 491 N −1 θ = sin ⎢ 2 ⎢ (1000 kg ) 9.81 m/s ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ = 8. spring.7 km/L) 981 N Substitute numerical values and evaluate (∆s )30 ∆V (∆s )30 ∆V = : = 6.36 km/L 82 •• Picture the Problem Let the system include the earth.

81 N )x − 39. θ and L to obtain: Solve for the physically meaningful (i.3 − U g.3 = 0 or − mg∆h + 1 kx 2 = 0 2 Relate ∆h to L + x and θ and substitute to obtain: Rewrite this equation in the form of an explicit quadratic equation: Substitute for k. (a) Apply conservation of mechanical energy to the system as it evolves from state 1 to state 3: ∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s = 0 or K 3 − K1 + U g. The pictorial representation to the right shows the block sliding up the rough incline after being accelerated by the fully compressed spring. We can use the conservation of mechanical energy to determine the maximum compression of the spring.1 + U s. m.1 + U s.1 = 0 : − U g. positive) root: (b) Proceed as in (a) but include energy dissipated by friction: The mechanical energy transformed to thermal energy is given by: ∴ 1 kx 2 − mg (L + x )sin θ = 0 2 1 2 ∆h = (L + x )sin θ kx 2 − (mg sin θ )x − mgL sin θ = 0 ⎛ N⎞ 2 ⎜ 50 ⎟ x − (9.3 = U s.1 = 0 Because K 3 = K 1 = U g.3 − U s. Choose Ug = 0 at the elevation at which the spring is fully compressed. We can use the work-energy theorem with friction to determine how far up the incline the block slides before stopping. g..1 + U s.989 m − U g.24 J = 0 ⎝ m⎠ x = 0.e.Conservation of Energy 501 and compressing the spring.3 + ∆Etherm = 0 ∆Etherm = Ff (L + x ) = µ k Fn (L + x ) = µ k mg cos θ (L + x ) .

m. g.39 × 1010 J ( )( ) (c) Express the energy dissipated by kinetic friction: ∆Etherm = f∆s .65 J = 0 ⎝ m⎠ x = 0. θ.3 + U s. and the cars but not the engines.783 m: L' = 1.4 − U g.502 Chapter 7 Substitute for ∆h and ∆Etherm to obtain: Substitute for k.4 = 0 : U g. µk and L to obtain: Solve for the positive root: (c) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to the system as it evolves from state 3 to state 4: Because − mg (L + x ) sin θ + 1 kx 2 2 + µ k mg cos θ (L + x ) = 0 ⎛ N⎞ 2 ⎜ 50 ⎟ x − (6.54 m 83 •• Picture the Problem The work done by the engines maintains the kinetic energy of the cars and overcomes the work done by frictional forces.4 MJ (b) The change in potential energy of the train is: ∆U = mg∆h = 2 × 10 6 kg 9.4 − U s.3 = U s.81 m/s 2 (707 m ) = 1.783 m K 4 − K 3 + U g. (a) Use the definition of kinetic energy: K = 1 mv 2 2 = 1 2 ( ⎛ km 1 h ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ 2 × 10 kg ⎜15 ⎜ h 3600 s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 6 ) 2 = 17.41 N )x − 25.3 + ∆Etherm = 0 K 4 = K 1 = U g. track. Then the engines will do external work on the system and we can use this work to find the power output of the train’s engines.4 − U s. Let the system include the earth.3 + ∆Etherm = 0 or − mg∆h'+ 1 kx 2 + ∆Etherm = 0 2 Substitute for ∆h′ and ∆Etherm to obtain: − mg (L'+ x ) sin θ + 1 kx 2 2 + µ k mg cos θ (L'+ x ) = 0 Solve for L′ with x = 0.

008 2 × 106 kg 9. Let the system include the earth.81 m/s 2 (62 km ) = 9.39 × 10 J + 9.59 MW P = 1. because ∆K = 0. (a) The required energy equals the change in the kinetic energy of the car: ∆K = 1 mv 2 2 ⎛ km 1 h ⎞ ⎟ = (1200 kg )⎜ 50 ⋅ ⎜ h 3600 s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 2 2 = 116 kJ (b) The required energy equals the ∆Etherm = f∆s .73 × 109 J (d) Express the power output of the train’s engines in terms of the work done by them: Use the work-energy theorem with friction to find the work done by the train’s engines: Find the time during which the engines do this work: Substitute in the expression for P to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate P: ( )( ) P= ∆W ∆t Wext = ∆K + ∆U + ∆Etherm or.Conservation of Energy 503 f = 0.008mg Express the frictional force: Substitute for f and evaluate ∆Etherm: ∆Etherm = 0.73 × 10 J 62 km ( ) *84 •• Picture the Problem While on a horizontal surface. These energy transformations are described by the work-energy theorem with friction. the work done by an automobile engine changes the kinetic energy of the car and does work against friction. and the car but not the car’s engine. Wext = ∆U + ∆Etherm ∆t = ∆s v P= (∆U + ∆Etherm )v ∆s ⎛ km 1 h ⎞ ⎜15 ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ h 3600 s ⎟ 10 9 ⎝ ⎠ = 1. the roadway.008mg∆s = 0.

504 Chapter 7 work done against friction: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆Etherm: (c) Apply the work-energy theorem with friction to express the required energy: Divide both sides of the equation by E to express the ratio of the two energies: Substitute numerical values and evaluate E′/E: *85 ••• Picture the Problem Assume that the bob is moving with speed v as it passes the top vertical point when looping around the peg. There are two forces acting on the bob: the tension in the string (if any) and the force of gravity. The minimum possible speed for the bob to pass the vertical occurs when the tension is 0.75E E ' ∆K = + 0.75 E E E ' 116 kJ = + 0. from this. both point downward when the ball is in the topmost position. We can use conservation of energy to relate v to L and R.04 90 kJ E M v2 > Mg R v2 >g R 1 Mv 2 = Mg (L − 2 R ) 2 v 2 = 2 g (L − 2 R ) 2 g (L − 2 R ) >g R . Mg.0 kJ E ' = Wext = ∆K + ∆Etherm = ∆K + 0. gravity must supply the centripetal force required to keep the ball moving in a circle. Express the condition that the bob swings around the peg in a full circle: Simplify to obtain: Use conservation of energy to relate the kinetic energy of the bob at the bottom of the loop to its potential energy at the top of its swing: Solve for v2: Substitute to obtain: ∆Etherm = (300 N )(300 m ) = 90.75 = 2.

(a) Use conservation of energy to relate the kinetic and potential energies of the system: Because the system starts from rest and Uf = 0: Substitute to obtain: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 Kf − U i = 0 1 2 mv 2 + 1 Mv 2 − mgY = 0 2 . Let their common speed when they have moved a distance Y be v and let the zero of potential energy be at the elevation of the weight when it has fallen the distance Y. We’ll let m be the mass of the bullet and v its initial speed and apply the work-kinetic energy theorem to relate the penetration depth to v. we’ll let the system include the glider. we can use a constant-acceleration equation to find their common speed when they have moved a distance Y. track. Wtotal = − K i FD = − 1 mv 2 2 D=− mv 2 2F 2 For an identical bullet with twice the speed we have: Solve for D′ to obtain: FD' = − 1 m(2v ) 2 ⎛ mv 2 ⎞ D' = 4⎜ − ⎜ 2F ⎟ = 4D ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ and (c) is correct. In part (b). Because this acceleration is constant. Apply the work-kinetic energy theorem to relate the penetration depth to the change in the kinetic energy of the bullet: Substitute for Wtotal and Ki to obtain: Solve for D to obtain: Wtotal = ∆K = K f − K i or. 87 •• Picture the Problem For part (a). we’ll let the direction of motion be the x direction. and apply Newton’s 2nd law to the glider and the weight to find their common acceleration. or because the final kinetic energy of the bullet is zero. the work it does has magnitude FD. weight. because Kf = 0. This must be equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the bullet.Conservation of Energy 505 Solve for R: R< 2 L 5 86 •• Picture the Problem If the wood exerts an average force F on the bullet. to the negative of the initial kinetic energy. The speeds of the glider and the falling weight will be the same while they are in motion. and the earth. the tension in the connecting string be T. We can use conservation of energy to relate the speed of the glider (and the weight) to the distance the weight has fallen.

the same result we M +m obtained in part (a). because v0 = 0.506 Chapter 7 Solve for v: v= 2mgY M +m (b) The free-body diagrams for the glider and the weight are shown to the right: Apply Newton’s 3rd law to obtain: Apply Apply r r T1 = T2 = T T = Ma ∑F ∑F x = ma to the glider: = ma to the weight: x mg − T = ma Add these equations to eliminate T and obtain: Solve for a to obtain: mg = Ma + ma m m+M a=g Using a constant-acceleration equation. *88 •• Picture the Problem We’re given P = dW / dt and are asked to evaluate it under the assumed conditions. relate the speed of the glider to its initial speed and to the distance that the weight has fallen: Substitute for a and solve for v to obtain: 2 v 2 = v0 + 2aY or. v 2 = 2aY v= 2mgY . Express the rate of energy expenditure by the man: P = 3mv 2 = 3(10 kg )(3 m/s ) = 270 W 2 Express the rate of energy expenditure P′ assuming that his P = 1 P' 5 .

Let its speed at position 1 be v. because ∆y = −H. Relate the distance D traveled horizontally by the bob to its launch speed v and time of flight ∆t: Use conservation of energy to relate its launch speed v to the length of the pendulum L and the angle θ : Substitute to obtain: Solving for v yields: In the absence of air resistance.35 kW D = v∆t (1) K1 − K 0 + U1 − U 0 = 0 or. We can find its flight time ∆t from a constantacceleration equation and then express D as the product of v and ∆t. ay = −g. it is independent of g. because U1 = K0 = 0. We can use conservation of energy to relate v to the change in the potential energy of the bob as it swings through the angle θ . ∆t = 2 H / g D = 2 gL(1 − cosθ ) = 2 HL(1 − cosθ ) which shows that. 2H g .Conservation of Energy 507 muscles have an efficiency of 20%: Solve for and evaluate P′: 89 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the bob swinging through an angle θ before the thread is cut and it is launched horizontally. and v0y = 0. the horizontal and vertical motions of the bob are independent of each other and we can use a constantacceleration equation to express the time of flight (the time to fall a distance H): Solve for ∆t to obtain: Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: P' = 5 P = 5(270 W ) = 1. K1 − U 0 = 0 1 2 mv 2 − mgL(1 − cosθ ) = 0 v = 2 gL(1 − cosθ ) ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 − H = − 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 2 or. while D depends on θ.

492 m/s . We can use the work-energy theorem with friction to determine how far the block will slide before coming to rest. and when it has come to rest after moving a distance x + d.03 m ) = 0. Wext = 0.508 Chapter 7 90 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation depicts the block in its initial position against the compressed spring (1).294 J K 2 − K1 + U s.294 J ) 5 kg = 0.1 + ∆Etherm = 0 1 2 2 mv2 − 1 kx 2 + ∆Etherm = 0 2 v2 = kx 2 − 2∆Etherm m Substitute numerical values and evaluate v2: v2 = (20 N/cm)(3 cm)2 − 2(0. and the surface on which the block slides. Let the system consist of the earth. With this choice.1 + ∆Etherm = 0 ( ) K 2 − U s.81m/s 2 (0. (a) The work done by the spring on the block is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Wspring: (b) The energy dissipated by friction is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆Etherm: (c) Apply the conservation of energy between points 1 and 2: Because K1 = Us.2)(5 kg ) 9. the block.2 = 0: Substitute to obtain: Solve for v2: Wspring = ∆U spring = 1 kx 2 2 Wspring = 1 2 (20 N/cm)(3 cm)2 = 0.900 J ∆Etherm = f∆s = µ k Fn ∆x = µ k mg∆x ∆Etherm = (0.2 − U s. as it separates from the spring with its maximum kinetic energy (2).

1 + U s. partially compressing the spring as it continues to gain kinetic energy at point 3.2)(5 kg )(9. and the spring so that Wext = 0.03 m d= 2(0.3 = 0 . Let the system consist of the earth. We can use the work-energy theorem to express the kinetic energy of the system as a function of the block’s position and then use this function to maximize K as well as determine the maximum compression of the spring and the location of the block when the system has half its maximum kinetic energy.17 cm 91 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the block initially at rest at point 1.3 = Us.3 − U g.1 + ∆Etherm = 0 − U s. and finally coming to rest at point 4 with the spring fully compressed. the block.1 + ∆Etherm = 0 or − 1 kx 2 + µ k mg ( x + d ) = 0 2 kx 2 d= −x 2µ k mg Solve for d: Substitute numerical values and evaluate d: (20 N/cm)(3 cm)2 − 0.3 = 0: ∆K + U s.3 − U s.1 + U s. (a) Apply conservation of mechanical energy to describe the energy transformations between state 1 and state 3: Because K1 = Ug. falling under the influence of gravity to point 2.1 = 0: ∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s = 0 or K 3 − K 1 + U g.1 = 0 K 3 − U g.81m/s 2 ) = 6. Let Ug = 0 at point 3 for part (a) and at point 4 for part (b).Conservation of Energy 509 (d) Apply the conservation of energy between points 1 and 3: Because ∆K = Us.3 − U s.

3 − U s. dx Differentiate K with respect to x and set this derivative equal to zero to identify extreme values: Solve for x: x= mg k Evaluate the second derivative of K with respect to x: d 2K = −k < 0 dt 2 mg ⇒ x= maximizes K .3 − U g.1 = 0: ∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s = 0 or K − K 1 + U g.510 Chapter 7 and K 3 = K = mg (h + x ) − 1 kx 2 2 dK = mg − kx = 0 for extreme values.1 + U s. k ⎛ mg ⎞ 1 ⎛ mg ⎞ = mgh + mg ⎜ ⎟ − 2 k⎜ ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ ⎝ k ⎠ m2 g 2 = mgh + 2k 2 Evaluate K for x = mg/k: K max (b) The spring will have its maximum compression at point 4 where K = 0: 2 mg (h + x max ) − 1 kx max = 0 2 or 2 x max − 2mg 2mgh x max − =0 k k Solve for x and keep the physically meaningful root: x max mg m 2 g 2 2mgh = + + k k k2 (c) Apply conservation of mechanical energy to the system as it evolves from state 1 to the state in which K = 1 K max : 2 Because K1 = Ug.3 = 0 and K = mg (h + x ) − 1 kx 2 2 .1 = 0 K − U g.1 + U s.3 = Us.

Recall that. (a) Apply ∑F x = max to the bob: Ftan = − mg sin θ = matan a tan = dv / dt = − g sin θ s = Lθ Solve for atan: (b) Relate the arc distance s to the length of the pendulum L and the angle θ : Differentiate with respect to time: ds / dt = v = Ldθ / dt dv dθ and by dt dθ dθ substitute for from part (b): dt (c) Multiply dv dv dθ dv dθ = = dt dt dθ dθ dt = dv ⎛ v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dθ ⎝ L ⎠ . The remaining parts of the problem simply require following the directions for each part.Conservation of Energy 511 Substitute for K to obtain: 1 2 ⎛ m2 g 2 ⎞ ⎜ mgh + ⎟ = mg (h + x ) − 1 kx 2 2 ⎜ 2k ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ m 2 g 2 mgh ⎞ 2mg x+⎜ ⎜ 2k 2 − k ⎟ = 0 ⎟ k ⎝ ⎠ Express this equation in quadratic form: x2 − Solve for the positive value of x: x= mg 2m 2 g 2 4mgh + + k k k2 92 ••• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the pendulum bob. provided θ is in radian measure. Differentiation with respect to time produces the result called for in part (b). The application of Newton’s 2nd law leads directly to the required expression for the tangential acceleration. s = Lθ.

that h = L(1 − cosθ0). Substitute and solve for v: v dv ⎛ v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = − g sin θ dθ ⎝ L ⎠ vdv = − gL sin θ dθ ∫ v' dv' = ∫ − gL sin θ ' dθ ' 0 0 θ0 1 2 v 2 = gL(1 − cosθ 0 ) v= 2 gh 93 ••• Picture the Problem The potential energy of the climber is the sum of his gravitational potential energy and the potential energy stored in the spring-like bungee cord. The constants used in the potential energy function and the formulas used to calculate the potential energy are as follows: Cell B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 D11 D12 Content/Formula 300 5 60 85 9. from the figure. Let θ be the angle which the position of the rock climber on the cliff face makes with a vertical axis and choose the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at the bottom of the cliff.512 Chapter 7 (d) Equate the expressions for dv/dt from (a) and (c): Separate the variables to obtain: (e) Integrate the left side of the equation in part (d) from v = 0 to the final speed v and the right side from θ = θ0 to θ = 0: Evaluate the limits of integration to obtain: Note. We can use the definitions of Ug and Uspring to express the climber’s total potential energy. (a) Express the total potential energy of the climber: Substitute to obtain: U (s ) = U bungee cord + U g U ( s ) = 1 k (s − L ) + Mgy 2 2 2 = 1 k (s − L ) + MgH cos θ 2 ⎛ s ⎞ 2 = 1 k (s − L ) + MgH cos ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝H⎠ A spreadsheet solution is shown below.81 60 D11+1 Algebraic Form H k L M g s s+1 .

5*$B$4*(D11−$B$5)^2 +$B$6*$B$7*$B$3*(cos(D11/$B$3)) E11−E61 1 2 ⎛ s ⎞ 2 k (s − L ) + MgH cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝H⎠ U (60 m ) − U (110 m ) G11 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 147 148 149 150 151 B C D E H= k= L= m= g= 300 5 60 85 9.45E+05 2.45E+05 2.45E+05 2.45E+05 2.45E+05 2.45E+05 2.46E+05 The following graph was plotted using the data from columns D (s) and E (U(s)).45E+05 2.45E+05 2.Conservation of Energy 513 E11 0. 246 245 244 243 U (kJ) 242 241 240 239 238 50 70 90 110 130 s (m) 150 170 190 210 .81 m N/m m kg m/s^2 s 60 61 62 63 64 196 197 198 199 200 U(s) 2.45E+05 2.

We can find the magnitude of the force pulling the block 2 back toward its equilibrium position by finding the sum of the magnitudes of the y components of the forces exerted by the springs.5−$B$1)^2 Algebraic Form L k M x U(x) . The constants used in the potential energy function and the formulas used to calculate the potential energy are as follows: Cell B1 B2 B3 C8 D7 Content/Formula 1 1 1 C7+0.01 $B$2*((C7^2+$B$1^2)^0. (a) Express the change in the potential energy stored in the springs when the block is displaced a distance x: Referring to the force diagram. ∆L = L2 + x 2 − L ∆U = k ( L + x − L) 2 2 2 (b) Sum the forces acting on the block to express Frestoring: Frestoring = 2 F cos θ = 2k∆L cos θ = 2k∆L x L + x2 2 2 2 Substitute for ∆L to obtain: Frestoring = 2k ( L + x − L) x L + x2 2 ⎛ L = 2kx ⎜1 − ⎜ 2 L + x2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (c) A spreadsheet program to calculate U(x) is shown below. express ∆L: Substitute to obtain: ∆U = 2 1 k (∆L ) = k (∆L ) 2 2 [ ] 2 where ∆L is the change in length of a spring. In Part (d) we can use conservation of energy to find the speed of the block as it passes through its equilibrium position. The change in the potential energy stored in the springs is due to the elongation of both springs when the block is displaced a distance x from its equilibrium position and 2 we can find ∆U using 1 k (∆L ) .514 Chapter 7 *94 ••• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the forces each of the springs exerts on the block.

02 0.15 0.32E−02 1.10 0.94E−05 5.16 0.19 0.20 U(x) 0 2.92E−06 1.93E−05 1.20 x (m) (d) Use conservation of energy to relate the kinetic energy of the block as it passes through the equilibrium position to the change in its potential energy as it returns to its equilibrium position: K equilibrium = ∆U or 1 2 Mv 2 = ∆U .45E−03 1.1 k= 1 M= 1 C m N/m kg D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 23 24 25 26 27 x 0 0.04 0.49E−07 3.39E−04 7.Conservation of Energy 515 A B L = 0.12E−02 1.00 0.01 0.17 0.05 0. 16 14 12 10 U (mJ) 8 6 4 2 0 0.86E−03 9.53E−02 The following graph was plotted using the data from columns C (x) and D (U(x)).03 0.18 0.05 0.

86 cm/s 1 kg .1 m )2 + (0.1 m )2 − 0.1 m ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ 2(1 N/m ) = 5.516 Chapter 7 Solve for v to obtain: v= = Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: ( L + x − L) 2 2 2∆U = M 2k ( L + x − L) 2 2 2 M 2k M v=⎛ ⎜ ⎝ (0.

(b) is correct. 3 • Determine the Concept The acceleration of the center of mass of a system of particles is described by Fnet. The definition of the center of mass of an object does not require that there be any matter at its location.ext = r r r Fi. 4 • Determine the Concept The acceleration of the center of mass of a system of particles is described by Fnet. *2 • Determine the Concept The center of mass is midway between the two balls and is in free-fall along with them (all forces can be thought to be concentrated at the center of mass. Any hollow sphere (such as a basketball) or an empty container with any geometry are additional examples of threedimensional objects that have no mass at their center of mass.ext F1 = M m1 + m2 Express the acceleration of the center of mass of the two pucks: acm = because the spring force is an internal force. where M is the total mass of the system. Fnet.ext = r ∑F i r i.ext F1 = M m1 + m2 and (b) is correct. the center of mass will rise until the velocities of the two balls are equal but opposite. where M is the total mass of the system. Because the initial velocity of the center of mass is half of the initial velocity of the ball thrown upwards. 517 . Also. the mass thrown upwards will rise for twice the time that the center of mass rises. (b) is correct.ext = Macm . then fall. ∑ i Express the acceleration of the center of mass of the two pucks: acm = Fnet.ext r = Macm .) The center of mass will initially rise.Chapter 8 Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum Conceptual Problems 1 • Determine the Concept A doughnut.

Therefore. . This is a restatement of the expression for the total momentum of a system of particles.. i. the momentum of a heavy object is greater than that of a light object moving at the same speed. The blocks have equal kinetic energies but momenta of magnitude 1 kg·m /s and 1. if we are considering just the magnitudes of the momenta. in order for momentum to be conserved. but the momentum of the system is the same after the collision as before the collision. It does not require the presence of a medium such as air. The mechanical energy of the system is not conserved (it is transformed into other forms of energy).707 m/s. for any inelastic collision. The momentum of an object is the product of its mass and velocity. respectively. Consider the collision of two objects of equal mass traveling in opposite directions with the same speed.kg block with a speed of 0. i..e. the mass of the dock plus the earth is so large that the energy she imparts to them is essentially zero.e. The energy she 2 imparts to the boat is Eboat = pboat 2mboat . the net external force is zero. the momentum of a system may be conserved even when mechanical energy is not..e. 7 • Determine the Concept To the extent that the system in which the rifle is being fired is an isolated system. Assume that they collide inelastically. her forward momentum must be the same as the boat’s backward momentum. momentum is conserved during its firing. she must.414 kg·m/s. 6 • (a) True. Therefore.518 Chapter 8 *5 • Determine the Concept No. zero. Apply conservation of momentum to the firing of the rifle: r r prifle + pbullet = 0 or r r prifle = − pbullet *8 • Determine the Concept When she jumps from a boat to a dock. When she jumps from one dock to another. (b) True. give the boat a recoil momentum. *9 •• Determine the Concept Conservation of momentum requires only that the net external force acting on the system be zero. Consider a 1-kg block with a speed of 1 m/s and a 2. i. (c) True.

but if the road were frictionless (as is closely approximated by icy conditions) the wheels would simply spin without the car moving anywhere. Because the bowling balls are identical and have the same velocity. You can only add forces when they act on the same object. So the distance traveled is about 2 cm at an average speed of . In a similar manner. but the action and reaction forces act on different objects. as that wouldn't satisfy the requirement that momentum is conserved. the car’s tire pushes backwards against the road−from Newton’s third law. the frictional force acting on the tire must then push it forward. he (Superman) ought to be tossed backwards at a pretty high speed to satisfy the conservation of momentum. *14 •• Determine the Concept There is only one force which can cause the car to move forward−the friction of the road! The car’s engine causes the tires to rotate. 11 • Determine the Concept Think of someone pushing a box across a floor. as we tend to think of friction as being a retarding force only. the force of static friction of the road against the tires must increase. where its kinetic energy relative to its center 2 of mass is K rel . if Superman picks up a train and throws it at Lex Luthor.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 519 10 • 2 Determine the Concept The kinetic energy of the sliding ball is 1 mvcm . and not the tires. a safety net reduces the force acting on the performer by increasing the time ∆t during which the slowing force acts. 12 • Determine the Concept It’s not possible for both to remain at rest after the collision. Her push on the box is equal but opposite to the push of the box on her. as the tire is in contact with the ground without slipping at all times. but true. of course. It is possible for one to remain at rest: This is what happens for a one-dimensional collision of two identical particles colliding elastically. and so as you push on the brakes harder. This may seem odd. 16 • Determine the Concept Because ∆p = F∆t is constant. This is rather subtle. 17 • Determine the Concept Assume that the ball travels at 80 mi/h ≈ 36 m/s. Also. the brakes heat up. 13 • Determine the Concept It violates the conservation of momentum! To move forward requires pushing something backwards. 15 •• Determine the Concept The friction of the tire against the road causes the car to slow down. which Superman doesn’t appear to be doing when flying around. Because of friction. The ball stops in a distance of about 1 cm. the rolling ball has more energy. The kinetic 2 2 energy of the rolling ball is 1 mvcm + K rel .

use conservation of momentum to determine V: pbefore = pafter or mv = 2mV ⇒ V = 1 v 2 . We’ll use conservation of momentum to find the final velocities of the two masses in each perfectly elastic collision. 19 • (a) False. 21 •• Determine the Concept We can find the loss of kinetic energy in these two collisions by finding the initial and final kinetic energies. (a) Letting V represent the velocity of the masses after their perfectly inelastic collision. (c) True. (b) True. In a perfectly inelastic collision. This is the definition of an elastic collision. The collision time is 0. use conservation of momentum to determine V: Express the loss of kinetic energy for the case in which the two objects have oppositely directed velocities of magnitude v/2: pbefore = pafter or mv − mv = 2mV ⇒ V = 0 ⎛ ⎛ v ⎞2 ⎞ ∆K = K f − K i = 0 − 2⎜ 1 m⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜2 ⎝2⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 mv =− 4 Letting V represent the velocity of the masses after their perfectly inelastic collision. *20 •• Determine the Concept All the initial kinetic energy of the isolated system is lost in a perfectly inelastic collision in which the velocity of the center of mass is zero.520 Chapter 8 about 18 m/s. depending on the momentum each brings to the collision. the colliding bodies stick together but may or may not continue moving. In a head-on elastic collision both kinetic energy and momentum are conserved and the relative speeds of approach and recession are equal. 18 m/s 18 • Determine the Concept The average force on the glass is less when falling on a carpet because ∆t is longer.02 m ≈ 1 ms .

its momentum (and.f + m2 v 2. Let the direction particle 1 is moving before the collision be the positive x direction. we’ll examine the ratio of the final kinetic energy of particle 2 to that of particle 1 to determine the condition under which there is maximum energy transfer from particle 1 to particle 2. By the impulse-momentum theorem.f = −(v 2.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 521 Express the loss of kinetic energy for the case in which the one object is initially at rest and the other has an initial velocity v: ∆K = K f − K i mv ⎛v⎞ = (2m )⎜ ⎟ − 1 mv 2 = − 2 4 ⎝2⎠ 1 2 2 2 The loss of kinetic energy is the same in both cases. Both peas are acted on by the same force.i − v1.f − v1. *22 •• Determine the Concept A will travel farther. speed) will be higher than pea B’s speed on leaving the shooter. hence.f (1) v 2.i = m1v1. (b) Express the percentage loss for the case in which the two objects have oppositely directed velocities of magnitude v/2: Express the percentage loss for the case in which the one object is initially at rest and the other has an initial velocity v: 2 1 ∆K 4 mv = 1 2 = 100% K before 4 mv 2 1 ∆K 4 mv = = 50% K before 1 mv 2 2 The percentage loss is greatest for the case in which the two objects have oppositely directed velocities of magnitude v/2.i ) = v1. 23 •• Determine the Concept Refer to the particles as particle 1 and particle 2. but pea A is acted on by that force for a longer time. Use conservation of momentum to obtain one relation for the final velocities: Use conservation of mechanical energy to set the velocity of m1v1. Finally. We’ll use both conservation of momentum and conservation of mechanical energy to obtain an expression for the velocity of particle 2 after the collision.i (2) .

i in terms of m1 and m2: R= = K 2. 24 • Determine the Concept In the center-of-mass reference frame the two objects approach with equal but opposite momenta and remain at rest after the collision.f = Express the ratio R of K2. the water exerts an equal but opposite force on the nozzle.i ⎛ 2m1 ⎞ 2 1 ⎜ ⎟ v1. 26 • Determine the Concept The collision usually takes place in such a short period of time that the impulse delivered by gravity or friction is negligible. and. and obtain the quadratic equation: Solve this equation for m2 to determine its value for maximum energy transfer: − 2 m2 +1 = 0 m12 m2 = m1 (b) is correct because all of 1' s kinetic energy is transferred to 2 when m2 = m1.522 Chapter 8 recession equal to the negative of the velocity of approach: To eliminate v1. from Newton’s 3rd law.f = v 2. .f + v1.f.i m1 + m2 v 2. the nozzle must exert a force on the stream of water to change its direction.f to K1. Therefore. and substitute the result in equation (1): Solve for v2. f − v1.i 2 2 m2 4m12 m1 (m1 + m2 )2 Differentiate this ratio with respect to m2. solve equation (2) for v1. i = m1 (v2.f K1.f.i ) + m2v2.f: v1. set the derivative equal to zero. 25 • Determine the Concept The water is changing direction when it rounds the corner in the nozzle. f 2m1 v1.i 2 m2 ⎜ m1 + m2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 1 m1v12.i m1v1.

so the car must slow down. Fext. and there must be a force on the boat pushing it forward. An easy way of seeing this is to imagine a "packet" of grain being dumped into the car all at once: This is a completely inelastic collision. the boat must exert a net force on the air pushing it backward. It has the same horizontal speed as the railroad car when it leaks out. This can be treated as a collision. the air is at rest. the car should slow down. the grain exerts an equal but opposite force on the car. (c) No it doesn’t speed up. The net external force acting on the pendulum bob is the sum of the force of gravity and the tension in the string and these forces do not add to zero. Imagine that they bounce off the sail elastically−their net change in momentum is then roughly twice the change in momentum that they experienced going through the fan.net = dp dt defines the relationship between the net force acting on a system and the rate at which its momentum changes. (b) When the packet of grain lands in the car. it initially has a horizontal velocity of 0. it is moving backward−therefore. (a) Yes. We’ll assume a car length of 6 m. In general. so the train car doesn’t have to speed up or slow down to conserve momentum. too. By Newton’s 3rd law. Imagine a packet of grain being "dumped" out of the railroad car. Therefore. it is moving with the same horizontal velocity that the car does. *29 •• Determine the Concept Think of the stream of air molecules hitting the sail. slowing it down. Estimation and Approximation 30 •• Picture the Problem We can estimate the time of collision from the average speed of the car and the distance traveled by the center of the car during the collision. Another way of looking at it: Initially. the train must exert a force on it to accelerate it. After the collision. this is a frictional force which causes the grain to come to the same speed as the car. so it must be accelerated to come to the same speed as the car of the train.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 523 27 • r r Determine the Concept No. with the packet having an initial horizontal velocity of 0. We can calculate the average force exerted by the wall on the car from the car’s change in momentum and it’s stopping time. (a) Relate the stopping time to the assumption that the center of the car travels halfway to the wall with constant deceleration: ∆t = d stopping vav = 1 2 ( 1 Lcar ) = 2 vav 1 4 Lcar vav . *28 •• Determine the Concept We can apply conservation of momentum and Newton’s laws of motion to the analysis of these questions. but after passing through the fan and bouncing off the sail.

120 s (b) Relate the average force exerted by the wall on the car to the car’s change in momentum: Fav = ∆p = ∆t (2000 kg ) ⎜ 90 km × ⎜ ⎝ h ⎛ 1h 1000 m ⎞ ⎟ × 3600 s km ⎟ ⎠ 0. the pumpers. (a) Relate the time of fall of the railcar to the distance it falls and its velocity as it leaves the bank: Use conservation of momentum to find the speed of the car relative to the velocity of its center of mass: ∆t = ∆y vc r r pi = pf or mc uc + mp u p = 0 u c − u p = 4 m/s ∴ u p = u c − 4 m/s Relate uc to up and solve for uc: Substitute for up to obtain: mc uc + mp (uc − 4 m/s ) = 0 .524 Chapter 8 Express and evaluate vav: vav = vi + vf 2 0 + 90 km 1h 1000 m × × h 3600 s km = 2 = 12. We’ll use conservation of momentum to relate the center of mass frame velocities of the car and the pumpers and then transform to the earth frame of reference to find the time of fall of the car.120 s = 417 kN 31 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction the railcar is moving be the positive x direction and the system include the earth.5 m/s Substitute for vav and evaluate ∆t: ∆t = 1 4 (6 m ) 12. We’ll also denote the railcar with the letter c and the pumpers with the letter p.5 m/s = 0. and the railcar.

85 ∆t = 25 m = 2.74 m/s Substitute and evaluate ∆t: (b) Find the speed with which the pumpers hit the ground: vp = vc − up = 10.74 m/s = 1.33 s 10.85 m/s m 350 kg 1+ c 1+ 4(75 kg ) mp Relate the speed of the car to its speed relative to the center of mass of the system: vc = uc + vcm m km 1h 1000 m + 32 × × s h 3600 s km = 10. We’ll assume that the bullet stays in the watermelon after the collision and use conservation of momentum to relate the mass of the bullet and its initial velocity to the momenta of the melon jet and the melon less the plug after the collision.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 525 Solve for and evaluate uc: uc = 4 m/s 4 m/s = = 1. *32 •• Picture the Problem The diagram depicts the bullet just before its collision with the melon and the motion of the melon-and-bullet-less-jet and the jet just after the collision.74 m/s − 4 m/s = 6. they may be injured. Apply conservation of momentum to the collision to obtain: Solve for v2f: m1v1i = (m2 − m3 + m1 ) v2f + 2m3 K 3 m1v1i − 2m3 K 3 m2 − m3 + m1 v2f = Express the kinetic energy of the jet of melon in terms of the initial kinetic energy of the bullet: 1 1 K 3 = 10 K1 = 10 ( 1 2 2 m1v1i = ) 1 20 2 m1v1i .74 m/s Hitting the ground at this speed.

2 m ) + (2 kg )(0.233 m 2 kg + 2 kg + 2 kg m1 + m2 + m3 y cm = 0 and the center of mass of this system of particles is at Because the point masses all lie along the x axis: (0.14 kg ) ⎟ = −0.0104 kg )(0. and then use these coordinates and the masses of the handle and stone to find the center of mass of the club-ax.50 kg − 0.0104 kg ⎠ ⎝ = − 1.1(0. Express the center of mass of the handle plus stone system: Assume that the stone is drilled and the stick passes through it.281 ft ⎟ 2.0104 kg − 0. *34 • Picture the Problem Let the left end of the handle be the origin of our coordinate system. We can disassemble the club-ax.526 Chapter 8 Substitute and simplify to obtain: v2f = = 2 1 m1v1i − 2m3 ( 20 m1v1i ) v1i m1 − 0.1m1m3 m2 − m3 + m1 ( m2 − m3 + m1 ) ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate v2f: ⎛ ft 1 m ⎞ 0.0 cm . stone mstick + mstone xcm.386 m/s v2f = ⎜1800 × ⎜ s 3.14 kg + 0.5 m ) = = 0.stick = 45.27 ft/s Note that this result is in reasonably good agreement with experimental results. stick + mstone xcm. Use symmetry considerations to locate the center of mass of the stick: xcm = mstick xcm. ( Finding the Center of Mass 33 • Picture the Problem We can use its definition to find the center of mass of this system. Apply its definition to find xcm: xcm = m1 x1 + m2 x2 + m3 x3 (2 kg )(0) + (2 kg )(0.233 m. find the center of mass of each piece. 0) .

ycm).5 kg + 8 kg = 78.00 m Use the definition of ycm: ycm = = (3 kg )(2 m ) + (1 kg )(1 m ) + (1 kg )(0) 3 kg + 1 kg + 1 kg m A y A + mB y B + mC yC m A + mB + mC = 1.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 527 Use symmetry considerations to locate the center of mass of the stone: Substitute numerical values and evaluate xcm: xcm.40 m ) xcm = 0 .0 cm xcm = (2.5 kg )(45 cm) + (8 kg )(89 cm) 2. The bisectors of the vertex angles are also shown.1. We can find x coordinate of the center-of-mass by inspection and the y coordinate using trigonometry. From symmetry considerations: (2.5cm 35 • Picture the Problem We can treat each of balls as though they are point objects and apply the definition of the center of mass to find (xcm.stone = 89.00 m.40 m The center of mass of this system of particles is at: 36 • Picture the Problem The figure shows an equilateral triangle with its y-axis vertex above the x axis. Use the definition of xcm: xcm = = (3 kg )(2 m ) + (1 kg )(1 m ) + (1 kg )(3 m ) 3 kg + 1 kg + 1 kg m A x A + m B x B + mC x C m A + m B + mC = 2.

2 = 2. ycm.1.5 m.36 m ) .1 − m2 ycm . xcm. 2 m1 − m2 m1 ycm.289a ) . Let the subscript 2 refer to 2-m by 1-m piece that has been removed and let σ be the area density of the sheet.289a 2 The center of mass of an equilateral triangle oriented as shown above is at (0.2 = 1.0 m Determine m1 and m2: m1 = σA1 = 9σ kg and m2 = σA2 = 2σ kg Substitute numerical values and evaluate xcm: xcm = (9σ kg )(1.50 m Substitute numerical values and evaluate ycm: ycm = (9σ kg )(1. 30°.5 kg ) 9σ kg − 2σ kg = 1. . ycm. treating the missing region as though it had negative mass.50 m.5 m ) − (2σ kg )(2 m ) 9σ kg − 2σ kg = 1. Express the coordinates of the center of mass of the sheet of plywood: xcm = ycm = m1 xcm. *37 •• Picture the Problem Let the subscript 1 refer to the 3-m by 3-m sheet of plywood before the 2-m by 1-m piece has been cut from it. ycm.5 m.1.5 m and xcm.1 = 1. and then finding the center-of-mass of the U-shaped region by applying its definition.1 = 1. 2 m1 − m2 Use symmetry to find xcm. 0. and ycm: Solve for ycm: tan 30° = ycm a2 ycm = 1 a tan 30° = 0.2: xcm.528 Chapter 8 Express the trigonometric relationship between a/2.2. We can find the centerof-mass of these two regions.1. and ycm.1 − m2 xcm.36 m The center of mass of the U-shaped sheet of plywood is at (1.5 m ) − (2σ kg )(1.

By setting the derivative of this function equal to zero. we can find the value of x that corresponds to the minimum height of the center of mass of the water as it drains out and then use this extreme value to express the minimum height of the center of mass.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 529 38 •• Picture the Problem We can use its definition to find the center of mass of the can plus water. express the location of the center of mass of the can + water: Let the cross-sectional area of the cup be A and use the definition of density to relate the mass m of water remaining in the can at any given time to its depth x: Solve for m to obtain: ⎛H⎞ ⎛ x⎞ M ⎜ ⎟ + m⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝2⎠ xcm = ⎝ ⎠ M +m M m ρ= = AH Ax m= x M H ⎛H⎞ ⎛ x ⎞⎛ x ⎞ M ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ M ⎟⎜ ⎟ 2 H ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ = ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ x M+ M H ⎛ ⎛ x ⎞2 ⎞ ⎜1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ H ⎜ ⎝H⎠ ⎟ = 2 ⎜ 1+ x ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ H ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Substitute to obtain: xcm (b) Differentiate xcm with respect to x and set the derivative equal to zero for extrema: 2⎤ ⎫ ⎧ ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞2 ⎤ d ⎛ ⎡ x ⎛ ⎛ x ⎞2 ⎞ ⎪ ⎛1 + x ⎞ d ⎢1 + ⎛ x ⎞ ⎥ ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜1 + ⎞ ⎪ ⎜1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ H dx H ⎠⎪ dxcm H d ⎜ ⎝ H ⎠ ⎟ H ⎪ ⎝ H ⎠ dx ⎢ ⎝ H ⎠ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ = ⎬ ⎜ ⎟= ⎨ 2 2 x dx 2 dx ⎜ x⎞ x⎞ ⎪ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ 2⎪ 1+ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ H ⎟ ⎜ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ H⎠ ⎝ H⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ 2 ⎤⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎫ ⎧⎛ x x 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎞2⎛ ⎞⎛ ⎞ ⎢1 + ⎜ H ⎟ ⎥⎜ H ⎟ ⎪ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎝ ⎠ H⎪ ⎪ H ⎠ ⎝ H ⎠⎝ H ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ = ⎨⎝ − ⎬=0 2 2 2 ⎪ x⎞ x⎞ ⎪ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ H⎠ ⎝ H⎠ ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ Simplify this expression to obtain: ⎛ x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ − 1 = 0 ⎝H ⎠ ⎝H ⎠ 2 . (a) Using its definition.

414 H ) where we’ve kept the positive solution because a negative value for x/H would make no sense. we’ll use r r Mrcm = ∫ r dm and symmetry to find its center of mass. Evaluate xcm at x = H ( 2 − 1 to obtain: ) ⎛ ⎛ H 2 − 1 ⎞2 ⎞ ⎜1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ H H ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ xcm x= H ( 2 −1) = ⎜ 2⎜ H 2 −1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 1+ H ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ( ) ( ) = H ( 2 −1 ) Finding the Center of Mass by Integration *39 •• Picture the Problem A semicircular disk and a surface element of area dA is shown in the diagram. Express the coordinates of the center of mass of the semicircular disk: xcm = 0 by symmetry.414 H and that. Use your graphing calculator to convince yourself that the graph of xcm as a function of x is concave upward at x ≈ 0.530 Chapter 8 Solve for x/H to obtain: x=H ( 2 − 1 ≈ 0. ycm = ∫ yσ dA M Express y as a function of r and θ : Express dA in terms of r and θ : Express M as a function of r and θ : y = r sin θ dA = r dθ dr M = σAhalf disk = 1 σπR 2 2 . Because the disk is a continuous object. the minimum value of xcm occurs at x ≈ 0.414 H . therefore.

where θ is the polar angle and φ the azimuthal angle. The element of area on the shell is dA = 2πR2 ∫ sinθ dθ. Let σ be the surface mass density and express the z coordinate of the center of mass: zcm = ∫ zσ dA ∫ σ dA .Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 531 Substitute and evaluate ycm: ycm = = σ ∫ ∫ r 2 sin θ dθ dr 0 0 Rπ M 2σ 3 4 R = R 3M 3π 2σ 2 = r dr M ∫ 0 R 40 ••• Picture the Problem Because a solid hemisphere is a continuous object. where R is the radius of the hemisphere. Let the base of the hemisphere be the xy plane and ρ be the mass density. Then: Express the z coordinate of the center of mass: z = r cos θ zcm = ∫ rρdV ∫ ρdV Evaluate M = ∫ ρdV : M = ∫ ρdV = 1 ρVsphere 2 = 1 ρ 4 π R 3 = 2 πρR 3 3 2 3 ( ) Evaluate ∫ rρdV : ∫ rρdV = ∫ 0 R π / 2 2π ∫ ∫r 0 0 4 1 2 3 sin θ cosθdθdφdr 2 = Substitute and simplify to find zcm: 1 4 2 3 πρR 2 [ sin θ ] 3 8 π /2 0 = πρR 4 4 zcm = πρR 4 = πρR 3 R 41 ••• Picture the Problem Because a thin hemisphere shell is a continuous object. we’ll use r r Mrcm = r dm to find its center of mass. The volume element for a sphere is dV = r2 sinθ dθ dφ dr. we’ll use r r Mrcm = ∫ r dm to find its center of mass.

We’ll integrate the element of area dA (= xdy) to obtain the total area of the sheet and yxdy to obtain the numerator of the definition of the center of mass.532 Chapter 8 Evaluate M = σ dA : ∫ M = ∫ σ dA = 1 σAspherical shell 2 = 1 σ 4π R 2 = 2πσR 2 2 ( ) Evaluate ∫ zσ dA : ∫ zσ dA = 2πR σ ∫ sin θ cos θ dθ 3 0 π /2 = πR 3σ = πR σ 3 π /2 ∫ sin 2θ dθ 0 Substitute and simplify to find zcm: zcm = πR 3σ = 2πσR 2 1 2 R 42 ••• Picture the Problem The parabolic sheet is shown to the right. Because the area of the sheet is distributed symmetrically with respect to the y axis. Express ycm: ycm = ∫ xydy 0 b b ∫ xdy 0 b Evaluate ∫ xydy : 0 b ∫ xydy = ∫ 0 0 b y1 2 1 32 ydy = ∫ y dy a a0 b5 2 b b = b 2 5 a b Evaluate ∫ xdy : 0 b ∫ xdy = ∫ 0 0 y1 2 1 12 dy = ∫ y dy a a0 2 b3 2 = 3 a . xcm = 0.

by symmetry: The center of mass of the parabolic sheet is at: xcm = 0 b5 2 (0. Use the expression for the total momentum of a system to relate the velocity of the center of mass of the two-vehicle system to the momenta of the individual vehicles: Express the velocity of the truck: r ∑mv i r i i r = Mv cm to determine the velocity of the r v cm = ∑m v i r i i M r r mt v t + mc v c = mt + mc r ˆ v t = (16 m/s ) i .5 m/s ) ˆ j *44 • Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which east is the positive x direction and use the relationship P = center of mass of the system. Use the expression for the total momentum of a system to relate the velocity of the center of mass of the two-particle system to the momenta of the individual particles: Substitute numerical values and r evaluate v cm : r v cm = ∑m v M r i i r r m1v1 + m2 v 2 = m1 + m2 r r r r r (3 kg )(v1 + v 2 ) = 1 (v + v ) vcm = 1 2 2 6 kg ˆ = 1 (6 m/s ) i − (3 m/s ) ˆ j 2 [ ] = (3 m/s ) iˆ − (1.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 533 Substitute and simplify to determine ycm: 2 = 3b ycm = 5 a 2 32 5 b 3 a Note that. 3 b ) 5 Motion of the Center of Mass 43 • Picture the Problem The velocity of the center of mass of a system of particles is related to the total momentum of the system through P = r ∑mv i i r i i r = Mv cm .

Use Newton’s 2nd law to express the acceleration of the ball: Substitute numerical values and r evaluate a cm : r r r Fnet. (b) Using Newton’s 2nd law.ext r acm = mtot r mg ˆ a cm = − j M +m (c) Use Newton’s 2nd law to express the net force acting on the scale while the object of mass m is falling: Substitute and simplify to obtain: Fnet.00 m/s) iˆ 45 • Picture the Problem The acceleration of the center of mass of the ball is related to the net external force through Newton’s 2nd law: Fnet. (a) Yes.ext = (M + m )g − ( M + m)acm ⎛ mg ⎞ Fnet.ext = Ma cm to find the acceleration of the center of mass of this two-body system. the reading is Mg.ext r acm = M r acm = (12 N ) iˆ 3 kg + 1 kg + 1 kg = (2. We can use Newton’s 2nd law Fnet. initially the scale reads ( M + m) g . express the acceleration of the center of mass of the system: Substitute to obtain: r Fnet.ext = (M + m )g − ( M + m) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝M +m⎠ = Mg . while m is in free fall.534 Chapter 8 Express the velocity of the car: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v cm : r ˆ v c = (− 20 m/s ) i r r (3000 kg )(16 m/s) iˆ + (1500 kg )(− 20 m/s) iˆ = v cm = 3000 kg + 1500 kg (4.ext = Ma cm .4 m/s )iˆ 2 46 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which upward is the positive y r r direction.

i = 0. U g.f = 0 or mb gd − 1 kd 2 = 0 2 d= 2m b g k Evaluate our force equation in (a) with d = Fn = mp g + Fball on spring ⎛ 2m g ⎞ = mp g + kd = mp g + k ⎜ b ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ = mp g + 2mb g = (mp + 2mb )g 2m b g : k . We can use Newton’s 2nd law to determine the scale reading in part (a) and the work-energy theorem in conjunction with Newton’s 2nd law in parts (b) and (c). (a) Apply ∑F y = ma y to the ∑F y = Fn − mp g − Fball on spring = 0 spring when it is compressed a distance d: Solve for Fn: Fn = mp g + Fball on spring ⎛m g⎞ = mp g + kd = mp g + k ⎜ b ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ = mp g + mb g = (mp + mb )g (b) Use conservation of mechanical energy. to relate the gravitational potential energy of the system to the energy stored in the fully compressed spring: Solve for d: ∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s = 0 Because ∆K = Ug. The scale reading is the force the scale exerts on the platform and is represented on the FBD by Fn. *47 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the platform when the spring is partially compressed.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 535 as expected. given our answer to part (a).f = Us.i − U s. with Ug = 0 at the position at which the spring is fully compressed.

(a) Relate the acceleration of the center of mass to m1. We’ll use Newton’s 2nd law for a system of particles to relate the acceleration of the center of mass to the acceleration of the individual particles. mc and their accelerations: Because m1 and m2 have a common acceleration a and ac = 0: From Problem 4-81 we have: r r r r Ma cm = m1a1 + m2 a 2 + mc a c a cm = a m1 − m2 m1 + m2 + mc a=g m1 − m2 m1 + m2 Substitute to obtain: ⎛ m − m2 ⎞ ⎛ m1 − m2 ⎞ acm = ⎜ 1 ⎜ m + m g ⎟⎜ m + m + m ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 2 2 c ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎠⎝ 1 = (m1 − m2 )2 g (m1 + m2 )(m1 + m2 + mc ) (b) Use Newton’s 2nd law for a system of particles to obtain: F − Mg = − Macm where M = m1 + m2 + mc and F is positive upwards. Therefore: Fn = scale reading = mp g *48 •• Picture the Problem Assume that the object whose mass is m1 is moving downward and take that direction to be the positive direction.536 Chapter 8 (c) When the ball is in its original position. m2. Solve for F and substitute for acm from part (a): F = Mg − Macm (m1 − m2 )2 g = Mg − m1 + m2 ⎡ 4m1 m2 ⎤ = ⎢ + mc ⎥ g ⎣ m1 + m2 ⎦ (c) From Problem 4-81: T= 2m1 m2 g m1 + m2 . the spring is relaxed and exerts no force on the ball.

The scale reading is the force the scale exerts on the platform and is represented on the FBD by Fn. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to determine the scale reading in part (a) and the result of Problem 7-96 part (b) to obtain the scale reading when the ball is dropped from a height h above the cup. part (b): x max = mb g ⎛ ⎜1 + 1 + 2kh k ⎜ mb g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ From part (a): Fn = mp g + Fball on spring = mp g + kxmax ⎛ 2kh = mp g + mb g ⎜1 + 1 + ⎜ mb g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The Conservation of Momentum 50 • Picture the Problem Let the system include the woman. and the earth. (a) Apply ∑F y = ma y to the spring ∑F y = Fn − mp g − Fball on spring = 0 when it is compressed a distance d: Solve for Fn: Fn = mp g + Fball on spring ⎛m g⎞ = mp g + kd = mp g + k ⎜ b ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ = mp g + mb g = (mp + mb )g (b) From Problem 7-96. the canoe.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 537 Substitute in our result from part (b) to obtain: ⎡ 2m1m2 ⎤ F = ⎢2 + mc ⎥ g ⎣ m1 + m2 ⎦ ⎡ T ⎤ = ⎢2 + mc ⎥ g = 2T + mc g ⎣ g ⎦ 49 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the platform when the spring is partially compressed. Then the net external force is zero and linear momentum is conserved as she jumps off the .

5 m/s ) iˆ + (75 kg ) vcanoe = 0 r r v canoe = (− 1. Apply conservation of momentum to the system: Substitute to obtain: Solve for v canoe : ∑m v r i i r r = mgirl v girl + mcanoe v canoe = 0 r (55 kg )(2. Thus we can equate the initial and final momenta in the x direction and the initial and final momenta in the y direction.f ∴4mvi = mv3 vi = 1 v3 and (c) is correct.f = mv2 − 2mv1 = m(2v1 ) − 2mv1 = 0 We can conclude that the momentum was entirely in the x direction before the particle exploded. then the net external force is zero and linear momentum is conserved as the spring delivers its energy to the two objects. 4 . Let the direction she jumps be the positive x direction.83 m/s) iˆ 51 • Picture the Problem If we include the earth in our system. Apply conservation of momentum to the system: Substitute numerical values to obtain: Solve for v10 : ∑m v r i i r r = m5 v 5 + m10 v10 = 0 r (5 kg )(− 8 m/s ) iˆ + (10 kg ) v10 = 0 r r v10 = (4 m/s) iˆ *52 • Picture the Problem This is an explosion-like event in which linear momentum is conserved. Equate the momenta in the x direction before and after the explosion: Solve for v3: ∑p x.538 Chapter 8 canoe.i = ∑ py. Equate the momenta in the y direction before and after the explosion: ∑p y.i = ∑ p x. Choose a coordinate system in the positive x direction is to the right and the positive y direction is upward.

Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 539 53 • Picture the Problem Choose the direction the shell is moving just before the explosion to be the positive x direction and apply conservation of momentum.ext = 0 and momentum is conserved within the system. r Then Fnet. gun and block. (a) Apply conservation of momentum to the system just before and just after the bullet leaves the gun: Substitute for pbullet and pplatform and solve for v platform : r r pbefore = pafter or r r 0 = pbullet + pplatform r r r r ˆ 0 = mb vb i + mp v platform and r m ˆ v platform = − b vb i mp (b) Apply conservation of momentum to the system just before the bullet leaves the gun and just after it comes to rest in the block: (c) Express the distance ∆s traveled by the platform: Express the velocity of the bullet relative to the platform: r r p before = pafter or r r 0 = p platform ⇒ v platform = 0 ∆s = vplatform ∆t vrel = vb − vplatform = vb + mb vb mp ⎛ m ⎞ m + mb vb = ⎜1 + b ⎟v b = p ⎜ m ⎟ mp p ⎠ ⎝ Relate the time of flight ∆t to L and vrel: ∆t = L v rel . Use conservation of momentum to relate the masses of the fragments to their velocities: Solve for v ' : r r pi = pf or r ˆ mvi = 1 mvˆ + 1 mv ' j 2 2 r r ˆ j v ' = 2vi − vˆ *54 •• Picture the Problem Let the system include the earth and the platform.

both in motion as the small object leaves the wedge. x or r ˆ 0 = mvi + 2mV Solve for V : r r ˆ V = − 1 vi 2 and (1) V = 1v 2 Use conservation of energy to determine the speed of the small object when it exits the wedge: Because Uf = Ki = 0: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 1 2 mv 2 + 1 (2m )V 2 − mgh = 0 2 . to the left. We can use conservation of momentum to express v in terms of V and conservation of energy to express v in terms of h.540 Chapter 8 Substitute to find the distance ∆s moved by the platform in time ∆t: ⎛m ⎞⎛ L ⎞ ⎟ ∆s = vplatform ∆t = ⎜ b vb ⎟⎜ ⎜m ⎟⎜ v ⎟ ⎝ p ⎠⎝ rel ⎠ ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ ⎛ mb ⎞ ⎜ L ⎟ vb ⎟ ⎜ =⎜ ⎜m ⎟ m + mb ⎟ ⎝ p ⎠⎜ p vb ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ m p ⎠ ⎝ = mb L mp + mb 55 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the wedge and small object. Choose the direction the small object is moving when it leaves the wedge be the positive x direction and the zero of potential energy to be at the surface of the table. initially at rest. Apply conservation of momentum to the small object and the wedge: r r pi. Let the speed of the small object be v and that of the wedge V. and. to the right. x = pf.

their centers are separated by half their combined lengths: Thus we have: (10 cm + 20 cm) = 0.1kg )X 1 + (0.2 kg )X 2 1 3 m1 X 1 + m2 X 2 m1 + m2 0.2 kg )(1.15 m .667 X 2 = 1. 3 *56 •• Picture the Problem Because no external forces act on either cart.6 m ) 0.1m ) + (0..1kg )(0.1 kg + 0. Use the definition of the center of mass to relate the coordinates of the centers of the two gliders when they first touch to the location of the center of mass: 1. the center of mass of the two-cart system can’t move.2 kg m1 x1 + m2 x2 m1 + m2 = 1. We can use the data concerning the masses and separation of the gliders initially to calculate its location and then apply the definition of the center of mass a second time to relate the positions X1 and X2 of the centers of the carts when they first touch.15 m 0.10 m and X 2 − X 1 = 0.10 m = = (0.1 kg + 0.10 m from the left end of the air track.2 kg = X1 + 2 X 2 3 X 2 − X1 = 1 2 Also. (a) Apply its definition to find the center of mass of the 2-glider system: xcm = = (0. We can also use the separation of the centers of the gliders when they touch to obtain a second equation in X1 and X2 that we can solve simultaneously with the equation obtained from the location of the center of mass.333 X 1 + 0. the wedge moves in the direction opposite to that of the small object with a speed of gh .Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 541 Substitute for V to obtain: Solve for v to obtain: 1 2 mv 2 + 1 (2m )( 1 v ) − mgh = 0 2 2 2 v=2 gh 3 gh ˆ i 3 Substitute in equation (1) to r determine V : r ⎛ gh ⎞ ˆ ⎟i = − V = − 1 ⎜2 2⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ i.e. when they first touch.

so it must be zero after the collision. The initial momentum of the system is zero.15 m No. Kinetic Energy of a System of Particles *57 • Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is to the right.5 J (b) Relate the velocity of the center of mass of the system to its total momentum: Solve for vcm : r r r Mv cm = m1v1 + m2 v 2 r r r r m v + m2 v 2 v cm = 1 1 m1 + m2 r (3 kg )(5 m/s ) iˆ − (3 kg )(2 m/s ) iˆ vcm = 3 kg + 3 kg ˆ = (1. Use the expression for the total momentum of a system to find the velocity of the center of mass and the definition of relative velocity to express the sum of the kinetic energies relative to the center of mass.50 m/s ) i Substitute numerical values and r evaluate vcm : (c) The velocity of an object relative to the center of mass is given by: r r r v rel = v − v cm . (a) Find the sum of the kinetic energies: K = K1 + K 2 2 = 1 m1v12 + 1 m2v2 2 2 = 1 2 (3 kg )(5 m/s )2 + 1 (3 kg )(2 m/s )2 2 = 43.542 Chapter 8 Solve these equations simultaneously to obtain: (b) X 1 = 1.00 m and X 2 = 1.

Use the expression for the total momentum of a system to find the velocity of the center of mass and the definition of relative velocity to express the sum of the kinetic energies relative to the center of mass.5 m/s ) i (3.5 m/s )2 = 36.50 m/s) iˆ (d) Express the sum of the kinetic energies relative to the center of mass: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Krel: 2 K rel = K1.50 m/s) iˆ r ˆ ˆ v 2.0 J r r r Mv cm = m1v1 + m2 v 2 r r r r m1v1 + m2 v 2 v cm = m1 + m2 . (a) Express the sum of the kinetic energies: Substitute numerical values and evaluate K: (b) Relate the velocity of the center of mass of the system to its total momentum: Solve for v cm : 2 K = K1 + K 2 = 1 m1v12 + 1 m2 v2 2 2 K= 1 2 (3 kg )(5 m/s )2 + 1 (5 kg )(3 m/s )2 2 = 6 0 .5 m/s ) 2 (6 kg )(1.5 m/s )2 2 + 1 (3 kg )(− 3.rel + 1 m2v2.75 J (e) Find Kcm: 2 K cm = 1 mtot vcm = 2 1 2 = 6.rel + K 2.5 m/s ) i = = (− 3.rel = 1 m1v12.75 J = K − K rel 58 • Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is to the right.rel = (5 m/s ) i − (1.75 J = 43.rel = (− 2 m/s ) i − (1.rel 2 2 K rel = 1 2 (3 kg )(3.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 543 Substitute numerical values to obtain: r ˆ ˆ v1.5 J − 36.

75 m/s ) i = (− 0.75 J (e) Find Kcm: 2 K cm = 1 mtot vcm = 2 1 2 (8 kg )(3.544 Chapter 8 Substitute numerical values and r evaluate v cm : r (3 kg )(5 m/s) iˆ + (5 kg )(3 m/s) iˆ vcm = 3 kg + 5 kg = (3.75 m/s ) i ˆ = (1.rel = (3 m/s ) i − (3.rel = (5 m/s ) i − (3. I = ∆p = p f − pi (a) Relate the impulse delivered to the ball to its change in momentum: = mvf since vi = 0 Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: I = (0.75 m/s ) 2 = 3.8 N ⋅ s .750 m/s) iˆ (d) Express the sum of the kinetic energies relative to the center of mass: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Krel: K rel = K1.43 kg )(25 m/s ) = 10.25 m/s)2 2 + 1 (5 kg )(− 0. The impulse is also the product of the average force exerted on the ball by the kicker and the time during which the average force acts.rel + 1 m2 v2.75 m/s )2 = 56.3 J = K − K rel Impulse and Average Force 59 • Picture the Problem The impulse imparted to the ball by the kicker equals the change in the ball’s momentum.25 m/s ) i and r ˆ ˆ v 2.rel 2 2 K rel = 1 2 (3 kg )(1.rel + K 2.75 m/s) iˆ (c) The velocity of an object relative to the center of mass is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate the relative velocities: r r r v rel = v − v cm r ˆ ˆ v1.rel 2 = 1 m1v12.

brick − pi. .Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 545 (b) Express the impulse delivered to the ball as a function of the average force acting on it and solve for and evaluate Fav : I = Fav ∆t and Fav = I 10. (a) Express the impulse exerted by the ground on the brick: Because pf.81 m/s 2 (8 m ) = 3.89 kN ∆t 0.brick I = pi.brick = 0: Use conservation of energy to determine the speed of the brick at impact: Because Uf = Ki = 0: I = ∆pbrick = pf.brick = mbrick v (1) ∆K + ∆U = 0 or Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 Kf −Ui = 0 or 1 2 mbrick v 2 − mbrick gh = 0 Solve for v: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: v = 2 gh I = mbrick 2 gh I = (0.0013 s *61 • Picture the Problem The impulse exerted by the ground on the meteorite equals the change in momentum of the meteorite and is also the product of the average force exerted by the ground on the meteorite and the time during which the average force acts.34 kN ∆t 0.76 N ⋅ s I = Fav ∆t and ( ) (c) Express the impulse delivered to the brick as a function of the average force acting on it and solve for and evaluate Fav : Fav = I 3.8 N ⋅ s = = 1.76 N ⋅ s = = 2.008 s 60 • Picture the Problem The impulse exerted by the ground on the brick equals the change in momentum of the brick and is also the product of the average force exerted by the ground on the brick and the time during which the average force acts.3 kg ) 2 9.

81 MN ⋅ s ⎝ 2 ⎠ ( )( ) Express the impulse delivered to the meteorite as a function of the average force acting on it and solve for and evaluate Fav : I = Fav ∆t and Fav = I 1.81MN ⋅ s = = 0.546 Chapter 8 Express the impulse exerted by the ground on the meteorite: Relate the kinetic energy of the meteorite to its initial momentum and solve for its initial momentum: Express the ratio of the initial and final kinetic energies of the meteorite: I = ∆pmeteorite = pf − pi pi2 Ki = ⇒ pi = 2mK i 2m pi2 p2 Ki = 2m = i2 = 2 Kf p f2 pf 2m Solve for pf: pf = pi 2 Substitute in our expression for I and simplify: I= pi ⎛ 1 ⎞ − pi = pi ⎜ − 1⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ = 2mK i ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Because our interest is in its magnitude. (a) Express the impulse exerted by the bat on the ball in terms of the change in momentum of the ball: r r r r I = ∆pball = pf − pi ˆ ˆ ˆ = mv i − − mv i = 2mv i f ( i ) where v = vf = vi .8 × 103 kg 617 ×106 J ⎜ − 1⎟ = 1. evaluate I : I = ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 30.602 MN ∆t 3s 62 •• Picture the Problem The impulse exerted by the bat on the ball equals the change in momentum of the ball and is also the product of the average force exerted by the bat on the ball and the time during which the bat and ball were in contact.

x = −vcosθ.3 ms Using Newton’s 3rd law. The wall changes the momentum of the ball by exerting a force on it during the ball’s collision with it.x = vcosθ and vf. The reaction to this force is the force the ball exerts on the wall.62 kN ∆t 1. I = 2(0. we can find the average force exerted on the ball by finding the change in momentum of the ball. Choose a coordinate system in which the positive x direction is to the right. because vi. Because these action and reaction forces are equal in magnitude.15 kg )(20 m/s ) = 6.00 N ⋅ s I = Fav ∆t and Fav = I 6. relate the average force exerted by the ball on the wall to the average force exerted by the wall on the ball: Relate the average force exerted by the wall on the ball to its change in momentum: Express ∆v x for the ball: r r Fav on wall = − Fav on ball and Fav on wall = Fav on ball (1) r r r ∆p m∆v Fav on ball = = ∆t ∆t r ˆ ˆ ∆v x = vf .Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 547 Substitute for m and v and evaluate I: (b) Express the impulse delivered to the ball as a function of the average force acting on it and solve for and evaluate Fav : *63 •• Picture the Problem The figure shows the handball just before and immediately after its collision with the wall. x i − vi . r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ∆v x = −v cos θ i − v cos θ i = −2v cos θ i Substitute in our expression for r Fav on ball : r r m∆v 2mv cos θ ˆ Fav on ball = i =− ∆t ∆t . x i or.00 N ⋅ s = = 4.

06 kg )(5 m/s )cos40° = 2 ms = 230 N Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Fav on wall = 230 N 64 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the ball during the interval of time you are exerting a force on it to accelerate it upward. The average force you exert can be determined from the change in momentum of the ball.548 Chapter 8 Evaluate the magnitude of Fav on ball : r Fav on ball = 2mv cosθ ∆t 2(0. p1 = 0. use conservation of mechanical energy to relate the initial kinetic energy of the ball to its potential energy when it is at its highest point: Substitute for Kf and Ui and solve for v2: Fav = ∆p p2 − p1 mv2 = = ∆t ∆t ∆t because v1 and. ∆K + ∆U = 0 or − Ki + U f = 0 since K f = U i = 0 2 − 1 mv 2 + mgh = 0 2 and v 2 = 2 gh Relate ∆t to the average speed of the ball while you are throwing it upward: ∆t = d d 2d = = vav v 2 v2 2 . (a) Relate the average force exerted by your hand on the ball to the change in momentum of the ball: Letting Ug = 0 at the initial elevation of your hand. hence. The change in the velocity of the ball can be found by applying conservation of mechanical energy to its rise in the air once it has left your hand.

81m/s 2 )(40 m ) 0.1 N Because the weight of the ball is less than 2% of the average force exerted on the ball. (b) Find Fav from the change in the ball’s momentum: Fav = ∆p 1. The impulse delivered to the wall or received by the player equals the change in the momentum of the ball. into wall.06 kg )(10 m/s ) i [ ] ˆ = (1.15 kg ) (9. (d) Relate Fav to the change in the ball’s momentum: Express the stopping time in terms of the average speed vav of the ball Fav = ∆p ball ∆t ∆t = d vav .15 kg )(9.81 m/s 2 ) = = < 2% Fav Fav 84.08 N ⋅ s ) i directed into wall.480 N ⋅ s.06 kg )(8 m/s ) = 0.06 kg )(8 m/s ) i ˆ − − (0.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 549 Substitute for ∆t and v2 in the expression for Fav to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fav: Fav = mgh d Fav = (0. 65 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the direction the ball is moving after its collision with the wall is the positive x direction.1 N (b) Express the ratio of the weight of the ball to the average force acting on it: w mg (0. (c) Find the impulse received by the player from the change in momentum of the ball: I = ∆pball = m∆v = (0. it is reasonable to have neglected its weight.003 s ∆t = 360 N. We can find the average forces from the rate of change in the momentum of the ball.08 N ⋅ s = 0. away from wall.7 m = 84. (a) Relate the impulse delivered to the wall to the change in momentum of the handball: r r r r I = ∆p = mvf − mvi ˆ = (0.

81 m/s 2 )(5 m ) = 9.95 × 10 −5 N .84 N.550 Chapter 8 and its stopping distance d: Substitute to obtain: Fav = vav ∆pball d Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fav: Fav = (4 m/s)(0. use conservation of mechanical energy to relate their speed at impact to their fall distance: Because Ki = Uf = 0: Solve for and evaluate v = vf: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 1 2 mvf2 − mgh = 0 v = 2 gh = 2(9.03 mL ) = 3 × 10 −5 kg Letting Ug = 0 at the point of impact of the droplets. We’re given the number of droplets that arrive per minute and can use conservation of mechanical energy to determine their velocity as they reach the floor.5 m = 3.90 m/s Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fav: ⎛N⎞ Fav = ⎜ ⎟m∆v ⎝ ∆t ⎠ ⎛ droplets 1 min ⎞ ⎟ = ⎜10 × ⎜ min 60 s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ × 3 × 10 −5 kg (9. 66 ••• Picture the Problem The average force exerted on the limestone by the droplets of water equals the rate at which momentum is being delivered to the floor. (a) Letting N represent the rate at which droplets fall. relate Fav to the change in the droplet’s momentum: Find the mass of the droplets: Fav = ∆pdroplets ∆t =N m∆v ∆t m = ρV = (1 kg/L )(0. away from wall.480 N ⋅ s ) 0.90 m/s ) ( ) = 4.

and the deformation of metal.95 × 10 −5 N −5 )( ) Collisions in One Dimension *67 • Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of momentum to this perfectly inelastic collision to find the after-collision speed of the two cars.81 m/s 2 ≈ 6 4. sound. The ratio of the transformed kinetic energy to kinetic energy before the collision is the fraction of kinetic energy lost in the collision.0 m/s (b) Express the ratio of the kinetic energy that is lost to the kinetic energy of the two cars before the collision and simplify: ∆K K − K initial = final K initial K initial = = = K final −1 K initial 1 2 1 2 (2m )V 2 2 mv12 + 1 mv2 2 −1 2V 2 −1 2 v12 + v2 2 Substitute numerical values to obtain: 2(20 m/s ) ∆K = −1 K initial (30 m/s )2 + (10 m/s )2 = −0.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 551 (b) Calculate the ratio of the weight of a droplet to Fav: w mg = Fav Fav = (3 × 10 kg 9. (a) Letting V be the velocity of the two cars after their collision. apply conservation of momentum to their perfectly inelastic collision: Solve for and evaluate V: pinitial = pfinal or mv1 + mv2 = (m + m )V V= v1 + v2 30 m/s + 10 m/s = 2 2 = 20.200 20% of the initial kinetic energy is transformed into heat. .

5 − m10 vi.10 = m5vf. apply conservation of momentum to obtain: Solve for vf. .5: pi = pf or m5vi. Let the direction the 5-kg object is moving before the collision be the positive direction. Letting the subscript 1 refer to the running back and the subscript 2 refer to the linebacker.10 m5 Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf. apply conservation of momentum to their perfectly inelastic collision: Solve for V: pi = pf or m1v1 = (m1 + m2 )V V= m1 v1 m1 + m2 85 kg (7 m/s) = 3.552 Chapter 8 68 • Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of momentum to this perfectly inelastic collision to find the after-collision speed of the two players.5 − m10 vi. We can decide whether the collision was elastic by examining the initial and final kinetic energies of the system.5 vf.5: vf.00 m/s where the minus sign means that the 5-kg object is moving to the left after the collision. (a) Letting the subscript 5 refer to the 5-kg object and the subscript 2 refer to the 10-kg object.5 = (5 kg )(4 m/s) − (10 kg )(3 m/s) 5 kg = − 2.5 = m5vi.13 m/s 85 kg + 105 kg Substitute numerical values and evaluate V: V= 69 • Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of momentum to this collision to find the after-collision speed of the 5-kg object.

Express the speed of approach of the bat and ball: Because the mass of the bat is much greater than that of the ball: Substitute to obtain: Solve for and evaluate vf. ball = −(vf. We can use both conservation of momentum and conservation of mechanical energy to obtain an expression for velocity of the proton after the collision.bat − vi. bat − vf.ball: vf. bat − vf.ball.i m + 12m 1 ˆ = 13 (300 m/s ) i (23. bat − vi.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 553 (b) Evaluate ∆K for the collision: ∆K = K f − K i = 1 2 (5 kg )(2 m/s )2 − [1 (5 kg )(4 m/s )2 + 1 (10 kg )(3 m/s )2 ] = −75. ball ) vi.ball ) = −vi. Take the direction the bat is moving to be the positive direction. the collision was inelastic.bat = v + 2v = 3v *71 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction the proton is moving before the collision be the positive x direction. ball = −(vi.bat ≈ vf.0 J 2 2 Because ∆K ≠ 0. bat − vi.bat vf.bat + (vf. with the approximation that vi.1m/s) iˆ .ball = vf. we can equate the speeds of recession and approach. ball ) vf. 70 • Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the ball and bat just before and just after their collision.bat to find vf. Because the collision is elastic. r r r (a) Use the expression for the total P = mi vi = Mvcm i momentum of a system to find vcm: ∑ and r vcm = = r mv p.ball + 2vf.bat ≈ vf.

i (2) v nuc.i + v p.0 J . and solve for and evaluate v2f: m3 v3i = m3 v3f + m2 v 2f (1) v 2f − v3f = −(v 2i − v3i ) = v3i (2) v2f = 2m3v3i 2(3 kg )(4 m/s ) = m2 + m3 2 kg + 3 kg = 4.00 m/s = 0.i − v p. Use conservation of momentum to obtain one relation for the final velocities: Use conservation of mechanical energy to set the velocity of recession equal to the negative of the velocity of approach: Solve equation (2) for v3f .i = mp v p.f mp v p. and substitute the result in equation (1): Solve for and evaluate vp.80 m/s − 4.f − v p. substitute in equation (1) to eliminate v3f.f + mnuc v nuc.80 m/s v3f = v2f − v3i = 4.i = mp v p.f + mnuc (v p.554 Chapter 8 (b) Use conservation of momentum to obtain one relation for the final velocities: Use conservation of mechanical energy to set the velocity of recession equal to the negative of the velocity of approach: To eliminate vnuc.f ) mp − mnuc mp + mnuc vp.i ) = v p.f = = vp.f = −(v nuc.f: mp v p.f.i + v p.f = v p.f.f (1) v nuc.i m − 12m (300 m/s) = − 254 m/s 13m 72 •• Picture the Problem We can use conservation of momentum and the definition of an elastic collision to obtain two equations in v2f and v3f that we can solve simultaneously.800 m/s Use equation (2) to find v3f: Evaluate Ki and Kf: 2 K i = K 3i = 1 m3v3i = 2 1 2 (3 kg )(4 m/s )2 = 24. solve equation (2) for vnuc.

e. we can conclude that the values obtained for v2f and v3f are consistent with the collision having been elastic. before collision) and final (i.e.5 J ∆K + ∆U s = 0 or K f − K i + U sf − U si = 0 K cm − K i + 1 k (∆x ) = 0 2 2 .00 m/s (b) Find the kinetic energy of the system at maximum compression (u1 = u2 = 0): Use conservation of energy to relate the kinetic energy of the system to the potential energy stored in the spring at maximum compression: Because Kf = Kcm and Usi = 0: 2 K = K cm = 1 Mvcm 2 = 1 2 (7 kg )(5 m/s)2 = 87..8 m/s)2 2 + 1 (2 kg )(4.0 J Because K i = K f . Finally. We’ll use conservation of energy to find the maximum compression of the spring and express the initial (i. (a) Use the definition of the total momentum of a system to relate the initial momenta to the velocity of the center of mass: r r r P = ∑ mi v i = Mv cm i or m1v1i = (m1 + m2 ) vcm Solve for vcm: vcm = m1v1i + m2 v2i m1 + m2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm: vcm = (2 kg )(10 m/s) + (5 kg )(3 m/s) 2 kg + 5 kg = 5.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 555 and 2 2 K f = K 3f + K 2f = 1 m3v3f + 1 m2v2f 2 2 = 1 2 (3 kg )(0. we’ll transform the velocities from the center of mass frame of reference to the table frame of reference. 73 •• Picture the Problem We can find the velocity of the center of mass from the definition of the total momentum of the system. at separation) velocities..8 m/s ) 2 = 24.

556 Chapter 8 Solve for ∆x: ∆x = = = 2(K i − K cm ) k 2 2 1 m1v12i + 1 m2v2i − K cm 2 2 k 2 m1v12i + m2v2i − 2 K cm k [ ] Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆x: ∆x = (2 kg )(10 m/s)2 + (5 kg )(3 m/s)2 − 2(87. We can apply both conservation of energy and conservation of momentum to obtain the various physical quantities called for in this problem. and u1f for this elastic collision: u1i = v1i − vcm = 10 m/s − 5 m/s = 5 m/s.5 J ) ⎤ = 1120 N/m 1120 N/m ⎥ ⎦ 0.250 m (c) Find u1i. because Kf = Ui = 0. 2 − 1 mvm + mgh = 0 2 .00 m/s *74 •• Picture the Problem Let the system include the earth. and u1f = v1f − vcm = 0 − 5 m/s = −5 m/s Use conservation of mechanical energy to set the velocity of recession equal to the negative of the velocity of approach and solve for u2f: u2f − u1f = −(u2i − u1i ) and u2f = −u2i + u1i + u1f = 2 m/s = −(− 2 m/s ) + 5 m/s − 5 m/s Transform u1f and u2f to the table frame of reference: v1f = u1f + vcm = −5 m/s + 5 m/s = 0 and v 2f = u 2f + vcm = 2 m/s + 5 m/s = 7. the bullet. u2i. u 2i = v2i − vcm = 3 m/s − 5 m/s = −2 m/s. (a) Use conservation of mechanical energy after the bullet exits the sheet of plywood to relate its exit speed to the height to which it rises: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. and the sheet of plywood. Then Wext = 0. Choose the zero of gravitational potential energy to be where the bullet enters the plywood.

(a) Noting that when the distance between the two particles is least...Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 557 Solve for vm: vm = vM = 2 gh 2 gH Proceed similarly to relate the initial velocity of the plywood to the height to which it rises: (b) Apply conservation of momentum to the collision of the bullet and the sheet of plywood: Substitute for vm and vM and solve for vmi: (c) Express the initial mechanical energy of the system (i. .e.e. We’ll use conservation of energy to find the speeds of the particles when their separation is least and when they are far apart. when the bullet and block have reached their maximum heights): (d) Use the work-energy theorem with Wext = 0 to find the energy dissipated by friction in the inelastic collision: Ef = mgh + MgH = g (mh + MH ) Ef − Ei + Wfriction = 0 and Wfriction = Ei − Ef ⎡ h M ⎤ = gMH ⎢2 + − 1⎥ ⎣ H m ⎦ 75 •• Picture the Problem We can find the velocity of the center of mass from the definition of the total momentum of the system. both move at the same speed. use the definition of the total momentum of a system to relate the initial momenta to the velocity of r r r P = ∑ mi v i = Mv cm i or mp vpi = (mp + mα )vcm . namely vcm. just before the collision): r r pi = pf or mvmi = mvm + MvM vmi = 2 gh + M m 2 gH 2 Ei = 1 mvmi 2 ⎡ 2M = mg ⎢h + m ⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎛M ⎞ ⎤ hH + ⎜ ⎟ H ⎥ ⎝m⎠ ⎥ ⎦ Express the final mechanical energy of the system (i.

vcm = Find the initial velocity of the electron in the center-of-mass reference frame: u1i = v1i − vcm = v1i − 1 v1i 1841 1 ⎞ ⎛ = ⎜1 − ⎟v1i ⎝ 1841 ⎠ . Express f. hence. We can find the final velocity of the electron and. the fraction of its initial kinetic energy that is transferred to the atom. because m2 = 1840m1. the fraction of the electron’s initial kinetic energy that is transferred to the atom: f = Ki − Kf K =1− f Ki Ki 1 2 1 2 ⎛v m1v12f =1− = 1 − ⎜ 1f 2 ⎜v m1v1i ⎝ 1i Find the velocity of the center of mass: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (1) vcm = m1v1i m1 + m2 m1v1i 1 = v1i m1 + 1840m1 1841 or.558 Chapter 8 the center of mass: Solve for and evaluate vcm: vcm = v' = mp vpi + mα vαi m1 + m2 = mv0 + 0 m + 4m = 0. calculating the post-collision velocity of the electron. substitute in equation (1) to eliminate vpf.400 v0 m + 4m 76 • Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote the electron and the numeral 2 the hydrogen atom. and solve for vαf: mp v0 = mpvpf + mα vαf (1) vpf − vαf = −(vpi − vαi ) = −vpi (2) vαf = 2 m p v0 mp + mα = 2mv0 = 0. and then transforming back to the laboratory frame of reference.200 v0 (b) Use conservation of momentum to obtain one relation for the final velocities: Use conservation of mechanical energy to set the velocity of recession equal to the negative of the velocity of approach: Solve equation (2) for vpf . by transforming to the center-ofmass reference frame.

Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 559 Find the post-collision velocity of the electron in the center-of-mass reference frame by reversing its velocity: To find the final velocity of the electron in the original frame. when the bob plus bullet have risen to their maximum height. later. We can use conservation of momentum during the collision to relate the speed of the bullet to the initial speed of the bob plus bullet (V). The initial kinetic energy of the bob plus bullet is transformed into gravitational potential energy when they reach their maximum height.217% 2 77 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the bullet about to imbed itself in the bob of the ballistic pendulum and then. Hence we apply conservation of mechanical energy to relate V to the angle through which the bullet plus bob swings and then solve the momentum and energy equations simultaneously for the speed of the bullet. add vcm to its final velocity in the centerof-mass reference frame: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: ⎛ 1 ⎞ − 1⎟v1i u1f = −u1i = ⎜ ⎝ 1841 ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎞ − 1⎟v1i v1f = u1f + vcm = ⎜ ⎝ 1841 ⎠ ⎛⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎞ − 1⎟v1i ⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 1841 ⎠ ⎟ ⎛ 2 ⎞ = 1− ⎜ − 1⎟ f = 1− ⎜ ⎝ ⎟ ⎜ v1i ⎝ 1841 ⎠ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ = 2.17 × 10 −3 = 0. Use conservation of momentum to relate the speed of the bullet just before impact to the initial speed of the bob plus bullet: Solve for the speed of the bullet: mvb = (m + M )V ⎛ M⎞ vb = ⎜ 1 + ⎟ V m⎠ ⎝ ∆K + ∆U = 0 (1) Use conservation of energy to relate .

because Kf = Ui = 0.016 kg ⎟ 2 9.81 m/s (2. Apply conservation of momentum to the elastic collision of the particles to obtain: Relate the initial and final kinetic energies of the particles in an elastic collision: Rearrange this equation and factor to obtain: m1v1f + m2 v2f = m1v1i + m2 v2i (1) 1 2 2 2 m1v12f + 1 m2 v2 f = 1 m1v12i + 1 m2 v2i 2 2 2 2 2 m2 v2f − v2i = m1 v12i − v12f ( ) ( ) (2) or m2 (v2 f − v2i )(v2f + v2i ) = m1 (v1i − v1f )(v1i + v1f ) Rearrange equation (1) to obtain: Divide equation (2) by equation (3) to obtain: Rearrange this equation to obtain equation (4): Multiply equation (4) by m2 and add it to equation (1) to obtain: m2 (v2f − v2i ) = m1 (v1i − v1f ) v2 f + v2i = v1i + v1f v1f − v2f = v2i − v1i (3) (4) (m1 + m2 )v1f = (m1 − m2 )v1i + 2m2v2i . − Ki + U f = 0 − 1 (m + M )V 2 2 and + (m + M )gL(1 − cos θ ) = 0 V = 2 gL(1 − cos θ ) Substitute for V in equation (1) to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vb: M⎞ ⎛ vb = ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 gL(1 − cos θ ) m⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 1.3 m )(1 − cos60°) = 450 m/s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) *78 •• Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of momentum and the definition of an elastic collision to obtain equations relating the initial and final velocities of the colliding objects that we can solve for v1f and v2f.5 kg ⎞ 2 vb = ⎜ 1 + ⎜ 0.560 Chapter 8 the initial kinetic energy of the bullet to the final potential energy of the system: Substitute for Ki and Uf and solve for V: or.

This verifies that the speed of recession equals the speed of approach. (a) From Problem 78 we have: v1f = and m1 − m2 2m2 v1i + v2i m1 + m2 m1 + m2 m − m1 2m1 v1i + 2 v 2i m1 + m2 m1 + m2 (1) v2f = Set m1 = m2 = m to obtain: (2) v1f = and 2m v2 i = v2 i m+m v2 f = (b) Divide the numerator and denominator of both terms in equation (1) by m2 to obtain: 2m v1i = v1i m+m m1 −1 2 m2 v1f = v1i + v2i m1 m1 +1 +1 m2 m2 v1f ≈ −v1i +2v2i If m2 >> m1: . In part (a) we can simply set the masses equal to each other and substitute in the equations in Problem 78 to show that the particles "swap" velocities. 79 •• Picture the Problem As in this problem. In part (b) we can divide the numerator and denominator of the equations in Problem 78 by m2 and use the condition that m2 >> m1 to show that v1f ≈ −v1i+2v2i and v2f ≈ v2i.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 561 Solve for v1f to obtain: v1 f = 2m2 m1 − m2 v1i + v2 i m1 + m2 m1 + m2 Multiply equation (4) by m1 and subtract it from equation (1) to obtain: Solve for v2f to obtain: (m1 + m2 )v2f = (m2 − m1 )v2i + 2m1v1i 2m1 m − m1 v1i + 2 v 2i m1 + m2 m1 + m2 v2 f = Remarks: Note that the velocities satisfy the condition that v 2f − v1f = −(v 2i − v1i ) . onedimensional collision between two objects. Problem 78 involves an elastic. Both solutions involve using the conservation of momentum equation m1v1f + m2 v2 f = m1v1i + m2 v2i and the elastic collision equation v1f − v2 f = v2i − v1i .

the velocities satisfy the condition that v 2f − v1f = −(v 2i − v1i ) .562 Chapter 8 Divide the numerator and denominator of both terms in equation (2) by m2 to obtain: 2 v2f = m1 m2 1− v1i + m1 m2 m1 +1 m2 m1 +1 m2 v 2i If m2 >> m1: v2f ≈ v 2i Remarks: Note that. If the bullet plus bob just makes it to the top of the circle with zero speed. This verifies that the speed of recession equals the speed of approach. it will swing through a complete circle. (1) Use conservation of energy to relate the initial kinetic energy of the bob plus bullet to their potential energy at the top of the circle: Substitute for Ki and Uf: − Ki + U f = 0 − 1 (m1 + m2 )V 2 + (m1 + m2 )g (2 L ) = 0 2 Solve for V: Substitute for V in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: V = gL ⎛ m v = ⎜1 + 2 ⎜ m1 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ gL ⎟ ⎠ . in both parts of this problem. Perfectly Inelastic Collisions and the Ballistic Pendulum 80 •• Picture the Problem Choose Ug = 0 at the bob’s equilibrium position. Momentum is conserved in the collision of the bullet with bob and the initial kinetic energy of the bob plus bullet is transformed into gravitational potential energy as it swings up to the top of the circle. Use conservation of momentum to relate the speed of the bullet just before impact to the initial speed of the bob plus bullet: Solve for the speed of the bullet: m1v = (m1 + m2 )V ⎛ m ⎞ v = ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ V ⎜ m ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. because Kf = Ui = 0.

the pre-collision velocity of the bullet v. Letting V represent the initial speed of the bob as it begins its upward swing. that of the wooden block M.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 563 *81 •• Picture the Problem Choose Ug = 0 at the equilibrium position of the ballistic pendulum. Momentum is conserved in the collision of the bullet with the bob and kinetic energy is transformed into gravitational potential energy as the bob swings up to its maximum height. and the post-collision velocity of the block+bullet be V. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to find the acceleration of the sliding block and a constant-acceleration equation to find the distance the block slides. because Kf = Ui = 0. use conservation of momentum to relate this speed to the speeds of the bullet just before and after its collision with the bob: Solve for the speed of the bob: m1v = m1 ( 1 v ) + m2V 2 V = m1 v 2m 2 (1) Use conservation of energy to relate the initial kinetic energy of the bob to its potential energy at its maximum height: Substitute for Ki and Uf: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. − Ki + U f = 0 − 1 m2V 2 + m2 gh = 0 2 Solve for h: h= V2 2g 2 (2) Substitute V from equation (1) in equation (2) and simplify to obtain: ⎛ m1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2m v ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = v ⎛ m1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ h= 2g 8 g ⎜ m2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 82 • Picture the Problem Let the mass of the bullet be m. We can use conservation of momentum to find the velocity of the block with the bullet imbedded in it just after their perfectly inelastic collision. .

564 Chapter 8 Using a constant-acceleration equation. ∆x = − V2 2a (1) mv = (m + M )V V = m v m+M 2 1 ⎛ m ⎞ ∆x = − ⎜ v⎟ 2a ⎝ m + M ⎠ (2) Apply r r F = ma to the ∑ ∑F and x = − f k = (m + M ) a =Fn − (m + M )g = 0 (3) (4) block+bullet (see the FBD in the diagram): ∑F y Use the definition of the coefficient of kinetic friction and equation (4) to obtain: Substitute in equation (3): Solve for a to obtain: Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: f k = µ k Fn = µ k (m + M )g − µ k (m + M )g = (m + M ) a a = −µk g ∆x = 1 ⎛ m ⎞ v⎟ ⎜ 2µ k g ⎝ m + M ⎠ 2 . relate the velocity of the block+bullet just after their collision to their acceleration and displacement before stopping: Solve for the distance the block slides before coming to rest: Use conservation of momentum to relate the pre-collision velocity of the bullet to the post-collision velocity of the block+bullet: Solve for V: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: 0 = V 2 + 2a∆x because the final velocity of the block+bullet is zero.

22 ) 9.0105 kg + 10.5 kg ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 83 •• Picture the Problem The collision of the ball with the box is perfectly inelastic and we can find the speed of the box-and-ball immediately after their collision by applying conservation of momentum. because vf = 0 and vi = v. Using its definition.81 m/s 2 ( ) ⎛ ⎞ 0. express the coefficient of kinetic friction of the table: Use conservation of momentum to relate the speed of the ball just before the collision to the speed of the ball+box immediately after the collision: Solve for v: µk = f k (M + m ) a a = = Fn (M + m )g g (1) MV = (m + M ) v v= MV m+M (2) Use a constant-acceleration equation to relate the sliding distance of the ball+box to its initial and final velocities and its acceleration: Solve for a: vf2 = vi2 + 2a∆x or.130 m ⎜ 0. we can use a constant-acceleration equation to find the acceleration of the box and ball combination and the definition of µk to find its value.0105 kg ⎜ (750 m/s)⎟ = 0.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 565 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆x: 1 ∆x = 2(0. 0 = v 2 + 2a∆x a=− v2 2∆x v2 2 g∆x Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: µk = Use equation (2) to eliminate v: µk = 1 ⎛ MV ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 g∆x ⎝ m + M ⎠ 2 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎜ V ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ = 2 g∆x ⎜ m + 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝M ⎠ 2 . If we assume that the kinetic friction force is constant.

425 kg ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ( ) *84 •• Picture the Problem Jane’s collision with Tarzan is a perfectly inelastic collision.327 kg + 1 ⎟ ⎜ 0.52 m ) ⎜ 0.0529 µk = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (0. Their kinetic energy just after their collision will be transformed into gravitational potential energy when they have reached their greatest height h.3 m/s ⎟ = 0. Use conservation of energy to relate the potential energy of Jane and Tarzan at their highest point (2) to their kinetic energy immediately after Jane grabbed Tarzan: Solve for h to obtain: U 2 = K1 or mJ+T gh = 1 mJ+TV 2 2 V2 h= 2g (1) Use conservation of momentum to relate Jane’s velocity just before she collides with Tarzan to their velocity just after their perfectly inelastic collision: Solve for V: mJ v1 = mJ+TV V = mJ v1 mJ+T (2) Apply conservation of energy to relate Jane’s kinetic energy at 1 to her potential energy at 0: K1 = U 0 or 1 2 mJ v12 = mJ gL .566 Chapter 8 Substitute numerical values and evaluate µk: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ 1. We can find her speed v1 just before she grabs Tarzan from conservation of energy and their speed V just after she grabs him from conservation of momentum.

the alpha particle and proton must move in opposite directions.50 × 10 6 m/s − 27 6. Use conservation of momentum in this process to express the alpha particle’s velocity in terms of the proton’s: pi = p f = 0 and 0 = mp vp − mα vα . We’ll apply both conservation of energy and conservation of momentum to find the speeds of the proton and alpha particle.5 × 10 −14 J = 1. To conserve momentum. Letting E represent the energy released in the reaction.94 m ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate h: Exploding Objects and Radioactive Decay 85 •• Picture the Problem This nuclear reaction is 4Be → 2α + 1.5×10−14 J. express conservation of energy for this process: Solve for vα: 2 2 K α = 2 1 mα vα = E 2 ( ) vα = E mα Substitute numerical values and evaluate vα: vα = 1.15 × 10−13 J.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 567 Solve for v1: Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: v1 = 2 gL V = mJ 2 gL mJ+T 2 2 Substitute in equation (1) and simplify: ⎛ mJ ⎞ 1 ⎛ mJ ⎞ ⎜ h= ⎜ m ⎟ 2 gL = ⎜ m ⎟ L ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 g ⎝ J +T ⎠ ⎝ J +T ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ 54 kg h=⎜ ⎜ 54 kg + 82 kg ⎟ (25 m ) = 3. In order to conserve momentum. We’ll use conservation of energy to find their speeds.68 × 10 kg 86 •• Picture the Problem This nuclear reaction is 5Li → α + p + 3. the alpha particles will have move in opposite directions with the same velocities.

apply conservation of energy to the process: Substitute for vα: Solve for vp and substitute for mα to obtain: vα = mp mα vp = mp 4mp vp = 1 v p 4 K p + Kα = E or 1 2 2 2 mp vp + 1 mα vα = E 2 2 mp vp + 1 mα (1 vp ) = E 2 4 2 1 2 vp = 32 E 32 E = 16mp + mα 16mp + 4mp 32 3.34 × 106 m/s 87 ••• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the projectile at its maximum elevation and is moving horizontally. .568 Chapter 8 Solve for vα and substitute for mα to obtain: Letting E represent the energy released in the reaction. We chose the system to include the projectile and the earth so that no external forces act to change the momentum of the system during the explosion.74 × 10 7 m/s Use the relationship between vp and vα to obtain vα: vα = 1 vp = 4 1 4 (1.74 ×10 7 m/s ) = 4. It also shows the two fragments resulting from the explosion. With this choice of system we can also use conservation of energy to determine the elevation of the projectile when it explodes. We’ll also find it useful to use constant-acceleration equations in our description of the motion of the projectile and its fragments.15 × 10 −13 J 20 1.67 × 10 − 27 kg Substitute numerical values and evaluate vp: vp = ( ( ) ) = 1.

81 m/s 2 ( ) = 183.6 s ) 2 = 3.5 m − 1 9.3 m/s ( ) 2 Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate vy1: v y1 = 2(33.5 m vy2 183. apply conservation of energy to the climb of the projectile to its maximum elevation: Solve for ∆y: (2) ∆K + ∆U = 0 Because Kf = Ui = 0.81 m/s 2 (3.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 569 (a) Use conservation of momentum to relate the velocity of the projectile before its explosion to the velocities of its two parts after the explosion: The only way this equality can hold is if: r r pi = pf r r r m3v 3 = m1v1 + m2 v 2 ˆ ˆ m3v3 i = m1v x1i + m1v y1 ˆ − m2 v y 2 ˆ j j m3v3 = m1v x1 and m1v y1 = m2 v y 2 vx1 = 3v3 = 3v0 cosθ and Express v3 in terms of v0 and substitute for the masses to obtain: = 3(120 m/s )cos30° = 312 m/s (1) 2 v y1 = 2v y 2 ∆y = v y 2 ∆t + 1 g (∆t ) 2 vy2 = ∆y − 1 g (∆t ) 2 ∆t 2 Using a constant-acceleration equation with the downward direction positive.3 m/s ) = 66. relate vy2 to the time it takes the 2-kg fragment to hit the ground: With Ug = 0 at the launch site.6 m/s . − K i + U f = 0 or 2 − 1 m3v y 0 + m3 g∆y = 0 2 ∆y = 2 vy0 2g = (v0 sin 30°)2 2g Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆y: Substitute in equation (2) and evaluate vy2: ∆y = [(120 m/s)sin30°] 2 2 9.6 s = 33.

express ∆texp: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆texp: Substitute in equation (4) and evaluate ∆x: Relate the distance traveled by the 1-kg fragment after the explosion to the time it takes it to reach the ground: Using a constant-acceleration equation.5 m ∆x' = vx1∆t' ∆y = v y1∆t' − 1 g (∆t' ) 2 2 (∆t' )2 − (13.6 m/s) ˆ j (3) d = ∆x + ∆x' ∆x = (v0 cos θ )(∆t exp ) v0 sin θ g (4) ∆texp = vy0 g = ∆texp = (120 m/s)sin30° = 6.9 s ) .6 s )∆t' − 37. relate the time ∆t′ for the 1-kg fragment to reach the ground to its initial speed in the y direction and the distance to the ground: Substitute to obtain the quadratic equation: Solve the quadratic equation to find ∆t′: Substitute in equation (3) and evaluate d: (312 m/s) iˆ + (66.4 s 2 = 0 ∆t′ = 15.5 m + (312 m/s )(15.12 s 9.81 m/s 2 ∆x = (120 m/s )(cos30°)(6.61 km = 636.12 s ) = 636.570 Chapter 8 Express v1 in vector form: r r ˆ v1 = vx1i + v y1 ˆ j = (b) Express the total distance d traveled by the 1-kg fragment: Relate ∆x to v0 and the time-toexplosion: Using a constant-acceleration equation.9 s d = ∆x + ∆x' = ∆x + v x1∆t' = 5.

6 m/s)2 ] [ 2 + 1 (2 kg )(33.3 m/s ) 2 1 2 = 52.2 kJ Substitute in equation (5) to determine the energy released in the explosion: *88 ••• Picture the Problem This nuclear reaction is 9B → 2α + p + 4. Eexp = K f − K i = 52.0 kJ Find the kinetic energy of the projectile before the explosion: 2 K i = 1 m3v3 = 1 m3 (v0 cos θ ) 2 2 2 = 1 2 (3 kg )[(120 m/s ) cos 30°] 2 = 16.8 kJ Express the energy released to the kinetic energies of the decay products: K p + 2 Kα = Erel or 1 2 2 2 mp vp + 2 1 mα vα = Erel 2 ( ) Solve for vα: vα = 2 Erel − 1 mp vp 2 mα .Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 571 (c) Express the energy released in the explosion: Find the kinetic energy of the fragments after the explosion: Eexp = ∆K = K f − K i (5) 2 K f = K1 + K 2 = 1 m1v12 + 1 m2v2 2 2 = (1kg )(312 m/s)2 + (66. The sum of the kinetic energies of the decay products equals the energy released in the decay. Assume that the proton moves in the –x direction as shown in the figure.2 kJ = 35. We’ll use conservation of momentum to find the angle between the velocities of the proton and the alpha particles.0 kJ − 16. Note that vα = vα ' .4×10−14 J.

7° 6 ⎣ 8 1.68 × 10 −27 kg 2 vα = Given that the boron isotope was at rest prior to the decay. These velocities can be determined from the heights from which the ball was dropped and the height to which it rebounded by using conservation of mechanical energy.44 ×106 m/s 4.68 × 10 −27 kg 6.44 ×10 m/s ⎦ ( ) Let θ′ equal the angle the velocities of the alpha particles make with that of the proton: θ' = ±(180° − 58.7°) = ± 121° Coefficient of Restitution 89 • Picture the Problem The coefficient of restitution is defined as the ratio of the velocity of recession to the velocity of approach.67 ×10−27 kg )(6 ×106 m/s) = 1. Kf − Ui = 0 1 2 or 2 mvapp − mghapp = 0 Solve for vapp: vapp = 2 ghapp .572 Chapter 8 Substitute numerical values and evaluate vα: 1 (1.4 × 10 −14 J −2 6. use conservation of momentum to relate the momenta of the decay products: Solve for θ : r r pf = pi = 0 ⇒ p xf = 0 ∴ 2(mα vα cos θ ) − mp vp = 0 or 2(4mp vα cos θ ) − mp vp = 0 ⎡ vp ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ 8vα ⎦ θ = cos −1 ⎢ ⎡ 6 × 106 m/s ⎤ = cos −1 ⎢ ⎥ = ±58. Use its definition to relate the coefficient of restitution to the velocities of approach and recession: Letting Ug = 0 at the surface of the steel plate. apply conservation of energy to express the velocity of approach: e= vrec vapp ∆K + ∆U = 0 Because Ki = Uf = 0.

Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 573 In like manner.849 254 cm Find emax: emax = . Kf − Ui = 0 1 2 or 2 mvapp − mghapp = 0 Solve for vapp: In like manner.5 m = 0. apply conservation of energy to express the velocity of approach: e= vrec vapp ∆K + ∆U = 0 Because Ki = Uf = 0. These velocities can be determined from the heights from which an object was dropped and the height to which it rebounded by using conservation of mechanical energy.913 3m *90 • Picture the Problem The coefficient of restitution is defined as the ratio of the velocity of recession to the velocity of approach. Use its definition to relate the coefficient of restitution to the velocities of approach and recession: Letting Ug = 0 at the surface of the steel plate.825 254 cm 183 cm = 0. show that: Substitute in the equation for e to obtain: vrec = 2 ghrec e= 2 ghrec 2 ghapp = hrec happ Substitute numerical values and evaluate e: e= 2. show that: Substitute in the equation for e to obtain: vapp = 2 ghapp vrec = 2 ghrec e= 2 ghrec 2 ghapp = hrec happ Find emin: emin = 173 cm = 0.

849 91 • Picture the Problem Because the rebound kinetic energy is proportional to the rebound height.574 Chapter 8 and 0. for each bounce of the ball.825 ≤ e ≤ 0.8happ: (b) Use its definition to relate the coefficient of restitution to the velocities of approach and recession: Letting Ug = 0 at the surface from which the ball is rebounding. Kf − Ui = 0 1 2 or 2 mvapp − mghapp = 0 Solve for vapp: In like manner. from conservation of energy.894 . 20% of its mechanical energy is lost. hrec = 0.8 = 0. show that: Substitute in the equation for e to obtain: vapp = 2 ghapp vrec = 2 ghrec e= 2 ghrec 2 ghapp = hrec happ Substitute for hrec to obtain: happ e = 0. the percentage of mechanical energy lost in one bounce can be inferred from knowledge of the rebound height. apply conservation of energy to express the velocity of approach: K α h. e= vrec vapp ∆K + ∆U = 0 Because Ki = Uf = 0. The coefficient of restitution is defined as the ratio of the velocity of recession to the velocity of approach. These velocities can be determined from the heights from which an object was dropped and the height to which it rebounded by using conservation of mechanical energy. that the kinetic energy of an object dropped from a given height h is proportional to h: If. (a) We know.

.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 575 92 •• Picture the Problem Let the numeral 2 refer to the 2-kg object and the numeral 4 to the 4-kg object. the surface on which the blocks move. (a) Use conservation of momentum in one dimension to relate the initial and final momenta of the participants in the collision: Solve for and evaluate the final velocity of the 4-kg object: r r pi = p f or m2 v 2i = m4 v 4f − m2 v 2f m2v2i + m2v2 f m4 4 kg v4 f = = (2 kg )(6 m/s + 1 m/s) = 3. Then we can use conservation of momentum to find the velocity of the recoiling 4-kg object.50 m/s (b) Express the energy lost in terms of the kinetic energies before and after the collision: Elost = K i − K f 2 = 1 m2 v2i − 2 = 1 2 [m (v 2 ( 1 2 2 2 m2 v2f + 1 m4 v4 f 2 2 2i 2 2 − v2 f − m4 v4 f ) ] ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate Elost: Elost = 1 2 [((2 kg ){(6 m/s) − (1m/s) })− (4 kg )(3. the surface on which the objects slide. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction the blocks are moving before the collision is the positive x direction and let the system consist of the earth.5 J (c) Use the definition of the coefficient of restitution: e= vrec v4f − v2f 3. We can find the coefficient of restitution from its definition. We can find the energy transformed in the collision by calculating the difference between the kinetic energies before and after the collision and the coefficient of restitution from its definition. Then we can use conservation of momentum find the velocity of the 2-kg block after the collision.5 m/s − (− 1 m/s ) = = = 0. and the blocks. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction the 2-kg object is moving before the collision is the positive x direction and let the system consist of the earth.750 vapp v2 i 6 m/s 93 •• Picture the Problem Let the numeral 2 refer to the 2-kg block and the numeral 3 to the 3-kg block. and the objects.5 m/s) ] = 2 2 2 10.

2 m/s − 1.2 m/s) = 2 kg 1. the conservation of momentum. In part (b) we can use the result of part (a). (a) Find the dot product of B + C with itself: Because A = B + C : Substitute to obtain: (b) Apply conservation of momentum to the collision of the particles: Form the dot product of each side of this equation with itself to obtain: r r r r r r (B + C ) ⋅ (B + C ) r r = B2 + C 2 + 2B ⋅ C r r r r r2 r r r r A2 = B + C = B + C ⋅ B + C ( )( ) r r A2 = B 2 + C 2 + 2 B ⋅ C r r r p1 + p2 = P r r r r ( p1 + p2 ) ⋅ ( p1 + p2 ) = P ⋅ P or r r r r 2 p12 + p2 + 2 p1 ⋅ p2 = P 2 (1) Apply the definition of an elastic collision to obtain: 2 p12 p2 P2 + = 2m 2m 2m .70 m/s (b) Use the definition of the coefficient of restitution: e= vrec v3f − v2 f 4.833 Collisions in Three Dimensions *94 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the magnitude of a vector and the definition of the dot product to establish the result called for in (a). and the definition of an elastic collision (kinetic energy is conserved) to show that the particles separate at right angles.576 Chapter 8 (a) Use conservation of momentum in one dimension to relate the initial and final momenta of the participants in the collision: Solve for the final velocity of the 2-kg object: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v2f: r r pi = p f or m2 v 2i + m3 v3i = m2 v 2 f + m3 v3f v2 f = m2v2i + m3v3i − m3v3f m2 v2 f = (2 kg )(5 m/s) + (3 kg )(2 m/s − 4.7 m/s = = 5 m/s − 2 m/s vapp v2i − v3i = 0.

. and v8 form a right triangle.33 m/s . the particles move apart along paths that are at right angles to each other.e. We can apply conservation of energy to determine the angle the cue ball makes with the positive x direction and the conservation of momentum to find the final velocities of the cue ball and the eight ball.50 m/s and v8 = 4. v cf .Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 577 or 2 p12 + p2 = P 2 (2) Subtract equation (1) from equation (2) to obtain: r r 2 p1 ⋅ p2 = 0 or r r p1 ⋅ p2 = 0 i. (a) Use conservation of energy to relate the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: This Pythagorean relationship tells r r r us that v ci . 95 • Picture the Problem Let the initial direction of motion of the cue ball be the positive x direction. Hence: 1 2 2 2 2 mvci = 1 mvcf + 1 mv8 2 2 or 2 2 2 vci = vcf + v8 θ cf + θ 8 = 90° and θ cf = 60° r r pxi = pxf or mvci = mvcf cos θ cf + mv8 cos θ 8 (b) Use conservation of momentum in the x direction to relate the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: Use conservation of momentum in the y direction to obtain a second equation relating the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: Solve these equations simultaneously to obtain: r r pyi = pyf or 0 = mvcf sin θ cf + mv8 sin θ 8 vcf = 2.

578 Chapter 8 96 •• Picture the Problem We can find the final velocity of the object whose mass is M1 by using the conservation of momentum. We can decide whether the collision was elastic by either calculating the system’s kinetic energy before and after the collision or by determining whether the angle between the final velocities is 90°. the collision is inelastic. Whether the collision was elastic can be decided by examining the difference between the initial and final kinetic energy of the interacting objects. (a) Use conservation of momentum to relate the initial and final velocities of the two objects: Simplify to obtain: Solve for v1f : r r pi = pf or r ˆ ˆ mv0 i + 2m 1 v0 ˆ = 2m 1 v0 i + mv1f j 2 4 ( ) ( ) r ˆ v0 i + v0 ˆ = 1 v0 i + v1f j 2 ˆ r r v1f = 1 2 ˆ v0 i + v0 ˆ j (b) Express the difference between the kinetic energy of the system before the collision and its kinetic energy after the collision: ∆E = K i − K f = K1i + K 2i − (K1f + K 2f ) = = = 1 2 1 2 [mv m[v 2 1i 2 0 + 2mv − mv 2 2 + 2 1 v0 − 5 v0 4 4 ( ) 2 2i 2 1f [M v + M v − M v − 2mv ] = m[v + 2v − v − 2v ] − 2( v )] = mv 1 2 2 1 1i 2 2 2i 2 1f 2 2f 1 2 2 1i 2 2i 2 2f 1 16 2 0 1 16 2 0 2 1 1f 2 − M 2 v2 f ] Because ∆E ≠ 0. *97 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion of the puck that is moving before the collision be the positive x direction. Applying conservation of momentum to the collision in both the x and y directions will lead us to two equations in the unknowns v1 and v2 that we can solve simultaneously. (a) Use conservation of momentum in the x direction to relate the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: pxi = pxf or mv = mv1 cos 30° + mv2 cos 60° or v = v1 cos 30° + v2 cos 60° .

then: cosθ 1 = 1 5 and sin θ 1 = 1 + 2v2 cos θ 2 5 2 5 Substitute in the momentum equations to obtain: 3v0 = 5v0 or v0 = v2 cos θ 2 and . We can show that the collision was elastic by showing that the system’s kinetic energy before and after the collision is the same. Applying conservation of momentum to the motion in both the x and y directions will lead us to two equations in the unknowns v2 and θ2 that we can solve simultaneously. the collision was elastic.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 579 Use conservation of momentum in the y direction to obtain a second equation relating the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: pyi = pyf or 0 = mv1 sin 30° − mv2 sin 60° or 0 = v1 sin 30° − v2 sin 60° v1 = 1. r r (a) Use conservation of momentum in the x direction to relate the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: pxi = pxf or 3mv0 = 5mv0 cos θ1 + 2mv2 cos θ 2 or 3v0 = 5v0 cos θ1 + 2v2 cos θ 2 pyi = pyf Use conservation of momentum in the y direction to obtain a second equation relating the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: or 0 = 5mv0 sin θ1 − 2mv2 sin θ 2 or 0 = 5v0 sin θ1 − 2v2 sin θ 2 Note that if tanθ1 = 2.00 m/s Solve these equations simultaneously to obtain: (b) Because the angle between v1 and v 2 is 90°.73 m/s and v2 = 1. 98 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion of the object that is moving before the collision be the positive x direction.

580 Chapter 8 0 = 5v0 2 − 2v2 sin θ 2 5 or 0 = v0 − v2 sin θ 2 Solve these equations simultaneously for θ2 : Substitute to find v2: θ 2 = tan −1 1 = 45. Noting that the angle of deflection for the recoiling ball is 60°.5mv0 2 and K f = 1 m 5v0 + 1 (2m ) 2v0 2 2 2 2 = 4. v1 and v2 are 90° apart. use conservation of momentum in the x direction to relate the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: Use conservation of momentum in the y direction to obtain a second equation relating the velocities of the collision participants before and after the collision: pxi = pxf or mv = mv1 cos 30° + mv2 cos 60° or v = v1 cos 30° + v2 cos 60° pyi = pyf or 0 = mv1 sin 30° − mv2 sin 60° or 0 = v1 sin 30° − v2 sin 60° . We know that because the collision is elastic and the balls have the same mass. Let v represent the velocity of the ball that is moving before the collision. v1 its velocity after the collision and v2 the velocity of the initially-atrest ball after the collision.5mv0 ( ) ( ) 2 Because K i = K f . Applying conservation of momentum to the collision in both the x and y directions will lead us to two equations in the unknowns v1 and v2 that we can solve simultaneously. find the before-collision and after-collision kinetic energies: 2 K i = 1 m(3v0 ) = 4. the collision is elastic.0° v2 = v0 v0 = = cos θ 2 cos 45° 2 2v0 (b) To show that the collision was elastic. *99 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion of the ball that is moving before the collision be the positive x direction.

In part (b) we can use conservation of momentum in vector form and the elastic-collision equation to show that v = v0cosφ. (a) Apply conservation of momentum in the x direction to obtain: Apply conservation of momentum in the y direction to obtain: Solve equation (1) for Vcosθ : Divide equation (2) by equation (3) to obtain: v0 = v cos φ + V cos θ (1) v sin φ = V sin θ V cos θ = v0 − v cos φ V sin θ v sin φ = V cos θ v0 − v cos φ or (2) (3) tan θ = (b) Apply conservation of momentum to obtain: Draw the vector diagram representing this equation: v sin φ v0 − v cos φ r r r v0 = v + V Use the definition of an elastic 2 v0 = v 2 + V 2 . In part (a) we can apply conservation of momentum in the x and y directions to obtain two equations that we can solve simultaneously for tanθ.00 m/s 100 •• Picture the Problem Choose the coordinate system shown in the diagram below with the x-axis the axis of initial approach of the first particle.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 581 Solve these equations simultaneously to obtain: v1 = 8.66 m/s and v 2 = 5. Call V the speed of the target particle after the collision.

Express the total kinetic energy of the system: Relate the kinetic energy relative to the center of mass to the momenta of the two particles: Express the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the two particles: Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: K = K rel + K cm (1) K rel p12 p12 p12 (m1 + m2 ) = + = 2m1 2m2 2m1m2 (2 p1 )2 = 2 p12 K cm = 2(m1 + m2 ) m1 + m2 p12 (m1 + m2 ) 2 p12 K= + 2m1 m2 m1 + m2 = 2 p12 ⎡ m12 + 6m1 m2 + m2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 2 2 ⎣ m12 m2 + m1 m2 ⎦ In an elastic collision: Ki = Kf = = 2 p12 ⎡ m12 + 6m1m2 + m2 ⎤ 2 2 ⎢ m12 m2 + m1m2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 p'12 ⎡ m12 + 6m1m2 + m2 ⎤ 2 2 ⎢ m12 m2 + m1m2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Simplify to obtain: (p ) = ( p ) ' 2 1 2 1 ' ⇒ p1 = ± p1 and ' If p1 = + p1 . The kinetic energy of a particle of mass m is related to momentum according to K = p 2 2m .582 Chapter 8 collision to obtain: If this Pythagorean condition is to hold. . the third angle of the triangle must be a right angle and. the particles do not collide. using the definition of the cosine function: v = v0 cos φ Center-of-Mass Frame 101 •• Picture the Problem The total kinetic energy of a system of particles is the sum of the kinetic energy of the center of mass and the kinetic energy relative to the center of mass.

00 m/s ) iˆ 2 K i = 1 m3v3 + 1 m1v12 2 2 .00 m/s) iˆ (2.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 583 *102 •• Picture the Problem Let the numerals 3 and 1 denote the blocks whose masses are 3 kg r r mi v i = Mv cm to find the velocity of the center-ofand 1 kg respectively.00 m/s ) iˆ (b) Find the velocity of the 3-kg block in the center of mass reference frame: Find the velocity of the 1-kg block in the center of mass reference frame: (c) Express the after-collision velocities of both blocks in the center of mass reference frame: r r r ˆ ˆ u3 = v3 − vcm = (− 5 m/s ) i − (− 3 m/s ) i = (− 2.00 m/s) iˆ r r r ˆ ˆ u1 = v1 − vcm = (3 m/s ) i − (− 3 m/s ) i = (6.00 m/s) iˆ (− 6. (a) Express the total momentum of this two-particle system in terms of the velocity of its center of mass: Solve for vcm : r r r r P = ∑ mi vi = m1v1 + m3v3 r r = Mvcm = (m1 + m3 )vcm r r r m v + m1v1 vcm = 3 3 m3 + m1 r (3 kg )(− 5 m/s ) iˆ + (1 kg )(3 m/s) iˆ v cm = 3 kg + 1 kg = i r Substitute numerical values and r evaluate vcm : (− 3.00 m/s ) iˆ r r' r ˆ ˆ v1' = u1 + v cm = (− 6 m/s ) i + (− 3 m/s ) i = (− 9. We can use ∑ i mass of the system and simply follow the directions in the problem step by step.00 m/s) iˆ r' u3 = and r' u1 = (d) Transform the after-collision velocity of the 3-kg block from the center of mass reference frame to the original reference frame: Transform the after-collision velocity of the 1-kg block from the center of mass reference frame to the original reference frame: (e) Express Ki in the original frame of r' r' r ˆ ˆ v3 = u3 + vcm = (2 m/s ) i + (− 3 m/s ) i = (− 1.

584 Chapter 8 reference: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ki: Ki = 1 2 [(3 kg )(5 m/s) + (1kg )(3 m/s) ] 2 2 = 42.0 J 103 •• Picture the Problem Let the numerals 3 and 1 denote the blocks whose masses are 3 kg r r mi v i = Mv cm to find the velocity of the center-ofand 1 kg respectively. We can use ∑ i mass of the system and simply follow the directions in the problem step by step. (a) Express the total momentum of this two-particle system in terms of the velocity of its center of mass: Solve for vcm : r r r r P = ∑ mi vi = m3v3 + m5v5 r r = Mvcm = (m3 + m5 ) vcm r r r m3v3 + m5v5 vcm = m3 + m5 r (3 kg )(− 5 m/s) iˆ + (5 kg )(3 m/s) iˆ v cm = 3 kg + 5 kg = 0 i r Substitute numerical values and r evaluate vcm : (b) Find the velocity of the 3-kg block in the center of mass reference frame: Find the velocity of the 5-kg block in the center of mass reference frame: r r r ˆ u3 = v3 − vcm = (− 5 m/s ) i − 0 = (− 5 m/s ) iˆ r r r ˆ u5 = v5 − vcm = (3 m/s ) i − 0 = (3 m/s ) iˆ (5 m/s) iˆ (c) Express the after-collision velocities of both blocks in the center of mass reference frame: r' u3 = and .0 J Express Kf in the original frame of reference: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Kf: K f = 1 m3v'32 + 1 m1v'12 2 2 Kf = 1 2 [(3 kg )(1m/s) + (1kg )(9 m/s) ] 2 2 = 42.

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 585
**

' u5 = 0.75 m/s

(d) Transform the after-collision velocity of the 3-kg block from the center of mass reference frame to the original reference frame: Transform the after-collision velocity of the 5-kg block from the center of mass reference frame to the original reference frame: (e) Express Ki in the original frame of reference: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ki:

r' r' r ˆ v3 = u3 + vcm = (5 m/s ) i + 0

=

(5 m/s) iˆ

r' r' r ˆ v5 = u5 + vcm = (− 3 m/s ) i + 0

=

(− 3 m/s) iˆ

2 2 K i = 1 m3v3 + 1 m5v5 2 2

Ki =

1 2

[(3 kg )(5 m/s) + (5 kg )(3 m/s) ]

2 2

= 60.0 J

Express Kf in the original frame of reference: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Kf:

K f = 1 m3v'32 + 1 m5v'52 2 2

Kf =

1 2

[(3 kg )(5 m/s)

2

+ (5 kg )(3 m/s ) = 60.0 J

2

]

**Systems With Continuously Varying Mass: Rocket Propulsion
**

104 •• Picture the Problem The thrust of a rocket Fth depends on the burn rate of its fuel dm/dt and the relative speed of its exhaust gases uex according to Fth = dm dt uex .

Using its definition, relate the rocket’s thrust to the relative speed of its exhaust gases: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fth:

Fth =

dm uex dt

Fth = (200 kg/s )(6 km/s ) = 1.20 MN

586 Chapter 8

105 •• Picture the Problem The thrust of a rocket Fth depends on the burn rate of its fuel dm/dt and the relative speed of its exhaust gases uex according to Fth = dm dt uex . The final

velocity vf of a rocket depends on the relative speed of its exhaust gases uex, its payload to initial mass ratio mf/m0 and its burn time according to vf = −uex ln (mf m0 ) − gt b . (a) Using its definition, relate the rocket’s thrust to the relative speed of its exhaust gases: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fth: (b) Relate the time to burnout to the mass of the fuel and its burn rate: Substitute numerical values and evaluate tb: (c) Relate the final velocity of a rocket to its initial mass, exhaust velocity, and burn time: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf:

Fth =

dm uex dt

Fth = (200 kg/s )(1.8 km/s ) = 360 kN

tb = tb =

mfuel 0.8m0 = dm / dt dm / dt 0.8(30,000 kg ) = 120 s 200 kg/s

⎛m ⎞ vf = −uex ln⎜ f ⎟ − gtb ⎜m ⎟ ⎝ 0⎠

**⎛1⎞ vf = −(1.8 km/s ) ln⎜ ⎟ − 9.81 m/s 2 (120 s ) = 1.72 km/s ⎝5⎠
**

*106 •• Picture the Problem We can use the dimensions of thrust, burn rate, and acceleration to show that the dimension of specific impulse is time. Combining the definitions of rocket thrust and specific impulse will lead us to uex = gI sp .

(

)

(a) Express the dimension of specific impulse in terms of the dimensions of Fth, R, and g:

[I ]

sp

M⋅L 2 [F ] = th = T = T [R][g ] M ⋅ L T T2

(b) From the definition of rocket thrust we have: Solve for uex:

Fth = Ruex uex = Fth R

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 587
**

Substitute for Fth to obtain:

uex = I sp =

RgI sp R Fth Rg

= gI sp

(1)

(c) Solve equation (1) for Isp and substitute for uex to obtain: From Example 8-21 we have: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Isp:

R = 1.384×104 kg/s and Fth = 3.4×106 N

3.4 × 106 N I sp = 1.384 × 104 kg/s 9.81m/s 2

(

)(

)

= 25.0 s

*107 ••• Picture the Problem We can use the rocket equation and the definition of rocket thrust to show that τ 0 = 1+ a0 g . In part (b) we can express the burn time tb in terms of the initial and final masses of the rocket and the rate at which the fuel burns, and then use this equation to express the rocket’s final velocity in terms of Isp, τ0, and the mass ratio m0/mf. In part (d) we’ll need to use trial-and-error methods or a graphing calculator to solve the transcendental equation giving vf as a function of m0/mf.

(a) Express the rocket equation: From the definition of rocket thrust we have: Substitute to obtain: Solve for Fth at takeoff:

− mg + Ruex = ma Fth = Ruex − mg + Fth = ma Fth = m0 g + m0 a0

Divide both sides of this equation by m0g to obtain: Because τ 0 = Fth /( m0 g ) :

Fth a = 1+ 0 m0 g g

τ 0 = 1+

a0 g m0 − gtb , mf

(1)

(b) Use equation 8-42 to express the final speed of a rocket that starts from rest with mass m0: Express the burn time in terms of the burn rate R (assumed constant):

vf = uex ln

where tb is the burn time.

tb =

m0 − mf m0 ⎛ mf ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ = R R ⎜ m0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

588 Chapter 8

Multiply tb by one in the form gT/gT and simplify to obtain:

tb = =

gFth m0 ⎛ mf ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ gFth R ⎜ m0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

**gm0 Fth ⎛ mf ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ Fth gR ⎜ m0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ I ⎛ m ⎞ = sp ⎜1 − f ⎟ τ 0 ⎜ m0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

Substitute in equation (1):

vf = uex ln

m0 gI sp ⎛ mf ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ − τ 0 ⎜ m0 ⎟ mf ⎝ ⎠

From Problem 32 we have:

uex = gI sp ,

where uex is the exhaust velocity of the propellant.

Substitute and factor to obtain:

vf = gI sp ln

m0 gI sp ⎛ mf ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ − τ 0 ⎜ m0 ⎟ mf ⎝ ⎠

⎡ ⎛ m ⎞ 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎤ = gI sp ⎢ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − ⎜1 − f ⎟⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎣ ⎝ mf ⎠ τ 0 ⎝ m0 ⎠⎦

(c) A spreadsheet program to calculate the final velocity of the rocket as a function of the mass ratio m0/mf is shown below. The constants used in the velocity function and the formulas used to calculate the final velocity are as follows:

Cell B1 B2 B3 D9 E8

Content/Formula 250 9.81 2 D8 + 0.25 $B$2*$B$1*(LOG(D8) − (1/$B$3)*(1/D8))

Algebraic Form Isp g

τ

m0/mf

⎡ ⎛ m ⎞ 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎤ gI sp ⎢ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − ⎜1 − f ⎟⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎣ ⎝ mf ⎠ τ 0 ⎝ m0 ⎠⎦

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

A B C Isp = 250 s g = 9.81 m/s^2 tau = 2

D

E

mass ratio vf 2.00 1.252E+02 2.25 3.187E+02

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 589
**

10 11 12 2.50 2.75 3.00 4.854E+02 6.316E+02 7.614E+02

36 9.00 2.204E+03 37 9.25 2.237E+03 38 9.50 2.269E+03 39 9.75 2.300E+03 40 10.00 2.330E+03 41 725.00 7.013E+03 A graph of final velocity as a function of mass ratio is shown below.

2

v f (km/s)

1

0 2 4 6 8 10

m 0/m f

(d) Substitute the data given in part (c) in the equation derived in part (b) to obtain:

⎛ m 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎞ 7 km/s = 9.81 m/s 2 (250 s )⎜ ln 0 − ⎜1 − f ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ m 2 ⎜ m ⎟⎟ f 0 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝

(

)

or

2.854 = ln x − 0.5 +

Use trial-and-error methods or a graphing calculator to solve this transcendental equation for the root greater than 1:

0.5 where x = m0/mf. x

x = 28.1 ,

a value considerably larger than the practical limit of 10 for single-stage rockets.

108 •• Picture the Problem We can use the velocity-at-burnout equation from Problem 106 to find vf and constant-acceleration equations to approximate the maximum height the rocket will reach and its total flight time.

(a) Assuming constant acceleration, relate the maximum height reached

2 h = 1 gt top 2

(1)

590 Chapter 8

by the model rocket to its time-totop-of-trajectory: From Problem 106 we have:

⎛ ⎛ m ⎞ 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎞ vf = gI sp ⎜ ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − ⎜1 − f ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ m ⎟ τ ⎜ m ⎟⎟ 0 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ f⎠

vf = 9.81 m/s 2 (100 s ) ⎡ 1⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ × ⎢ln (1.2) − ⎜1 − ⎟ 5 ⎝ 1.2 ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 146 m/s

Evaluate the velocity at burnout vf for Isp = 100 s, m0/mf = 1.2, and τ = 5:

(

)

Assuming that the time for the fuel to burn up is short compared to the total flight time, find the time to the top of the trajectory: Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate h: (b) Find the total flight time from the time it took the rocket to reach its maximum height: (c) Express and evaluate the fuel burn time tb:

t top =

vf 146 m/s = = 14.9 s g 9.81 m/s 2

h=

1 2

(9.81m/s )(14.9 s)

2

2

= 1.09 km

tflight = 2t top = 2(14.9 s ) = 29.8 s

tb =

I sp ⎛ m f ⎜1 − τ ⎜ m0 ⎝ = 3.33 s

⎞ 100 s ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟= ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎟ 5 ⎝ 1.2 ⎠ ⎠

Because this burn time is approximately 1/5 of the total flight time, we can' t expect the answer we obtained in Part (b) to be very accurate. It should, however, be good to about 30% accuracy, as the maximum distance the model rocket could possibly move in this time is 1 vtb = 243 m, assuming 2 constant acceleration until burnout.

General Problems

109 • Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion of the 250-g car before the collision be the positive x direction. Let the numeral 1 refer to the 250-kg car, the numeral 2 refer to the 400-kg car, and V represent the velocity of the linked cars. Let the system include the earth and the cars. We can use conservation of momentum to find their speed after they have linked together and the definition of kinetic energy to find their initial and final kinetic energies.

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 591
**

Use conservation of momentum to relate the speeds of the cars immediately before and immediately after their collision: Solve for V:

pix = pfx or m1v1 = (m1 + m2 )V

V=

m1v1 m1 + m2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate V: Find the initial kinetic energy of the cars:

V =

(0.250 kg )(0.50 m/s ) =

0.250 kg + 0.400 kg

1 2

0.192 m/s

K i = 1 m1v12 = 2 = 31.3 mJ

Kf =

(0.250 kg )(0.50 m/s )2

Find the final kinetic energy of the coupled cars:

**(m1 + m2 )V 2 2 = 1 (0.250 kg + 0.400 kg )(0.192 m/s ) 2
**

1 2

= 12.0 mJ

110 • Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion of the 250-g car before the collision be the positive x direction. Let the numeral 1 refer to the 250-kg car and the numeral 2 refer to the 400-g car and the system include the earth and the cars. We can use conservation of momentum to find their speed after they have linked together and the definition of kinetic energy to find their initial and final kinetic energies.

(a) Express and evaluate the initial kinetic energy of the cars:

K i = 1 m1v12 = 2 = 31.3 mJ

1 2

(0.250 kg )(0.50 m/s)2

(b) Relate the velocity of the center of mass to the total momentum of the system: Solve for vcm:

r r r P = ∑ mi v i = mv cm

i

vcm =

m1v1 + m2 v2 m1 + m2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm:

vcm =

(0.250 kg )(0.50 m/s) = 0.192 m/s

0.250 kg + 0.400 kg

592 Chapter 8

Find the initial velocity of the 250-g car relative to the velocity of the center of mass: Find the initial velocity of the 400-g car relative to the velocity of the center of mass: Express the initial kinetic energy of the system relative to the center of mass: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ki,rel:

**u1 = v1 − vcm = 0.50 m/s − 0.192 m/s = 0.308 m/s u 2 = v2 − vcm = 0 m/s − 0.192 m/s = − 0.192 m/s
**

2 K i,rel = 1 m1u12 + 1 m2u 2 2 2

K i,rel =

1 2

(0.250 kg )(0.308 m/s )2 2 + 1 (0.400 kg )(− 0.192 m/s ) 2

= 19.2 mJ

(c) Express the kinetic energy of the center of mass: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Kcm:

2 K cm = 1 Mvcm 2

K cm =

1 2

(0.650 kg )(0.192 m/s )2

= 12.0 mJ

(d) Relate the initial kinetic energy of the system to its initial kinetic energy relative to the center of mass and the kinetic energy of the center of mass:

K i = K i,rel + K cm = 19.2 mJ + 12.0 mJ = 31.2 mJ ∴ K i = K i,rel + K cm

*111 • Picture the Problem Let the direction the 4-kg fish is swimming be the positive x direction and the system include the fish, the water, and the earth. The velocity of the larger fish immediately after its lunch is the velocity of the center of mass in this perfectly inelastic collision.

Relate the velocity of the center of mass to the total momentum of the system:

r r r P = ∑ mi v i = mv cm

i

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 593
**

Solve for vcm:

vcm =

m4 v4 − m1.2 v1.2 m4 + m1.2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm:

vcm =

(4 kg )(1.5 m/s) − (1.2kg) (3 m/s)

4 kg + 1.2 kg

= 0.462 m/s

112 • Picture the Problem Let the direction the 3-kg block is moving be the positive x direction and include both blocks and the earth in the system. The total kinetic energy of the two-block system is the sum of the kinetic energies of the blocks. We can relate the momentum of the system to the velocity of its center of mass and use this relationship to find vcm. Finally, we can use the definition of kinetic energy to find the kinetic energy relative to the center of mass.

(a) Express the total kinetic energy of the system in terms of the kinetic energy of the blocks: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ktot:

2 2 K tot = 1 m3v3 + 1 m6 v6 2 2

K tot =

1 2

(3 kg )(6 m/s )2 + 1 (6 kg )(3 m/s)2 2

= 81.0 J

(b) Relate the velocity of the center of mass to the total momentum of the system: Solve for vcm:

r r r P = ∑ mi v i = mv cm

i

vcm =

m3v3 + m6 v6 m1 + m2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm:

vcm =

(3 kg )(6 m/s) + (6 kg )(3 m/s)

3 kg + 6 kg

= 4.00 m/s

(c) Find the center of mass kinetic energy from the velocity of the center of mass:

2 K cm = 1 Mvcm = 2 1 2

(9 kg )(4 m/s)2

= 72.0 J

594 Chapter 8

(d) Relate the initial kinetic energy of the system to its initial kinetic energy relative to the center of mass and the kinetic energy of the center of mass:

K rel = K tot − K cm = 81.0 J − 72.0 J = 9.00 J

113 • Picture the Problem Let east be the positive x direction and north the positive y direction. Include both cars and the earth in the system and let the numeral 1 denote the 1500-kg car and the numeral 2 the 2000-kg car. Because the net external force acting on the system is zero, momentum is conserved in this perfectly inelastic collision.

(a) Express the total momentum of the system: Substitute numerical values and evaluate p :

r r r r r p = p1 + p2 = m1v1 + m2 v 2 ˆ =mv ˆ−m v i j

1 1 2 2

r

r ˆ p = (1500 kg )(70 km/h ) ˆ − (2000 kg )(55 km/h ) i j

ˆ = − 1.10 ×105 kg ⋅ km/h i + 1.05 × 105 kg ⋅ km/h ˆ j

(b) Express the velocity of the wreckage in terms of the total momentum of the system: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v f :

(

) (

)

r r r p v f = v cm = M

r

**ˆ r − 1.10 × 105 kg ⋅ km/h i 1.05 × 105 kg ⋅ km/h ˆ j vf = + 1500 kg + 2000 kg 1500 kg + 2000 kg ˆ = −(31.4 km/h ) i + (30.0 km/h ) ˆ j
**

Find the magnitude of the velocity of the wreckage:

(

)

(

)

vf =

(31.4 km/h )2 + (30.0 km/h )2

= 43.4 km/h

⎡ 30.0 km/h ⎤ ⎥ = −43.7° ⎣ − 31.4 km/h ⎦

Find the direction of the velocity of the wreckage:

θ = tan −1 ⎢

The direction of the wreckage is 46.3° west of north.

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 595
**

*114 •• Picture the Problem Take the origin to be at the initial position of the right-hand end of raft and let the positive x direction be to the left. Let ″w″ denote the woman and ″r″ the raft, d be the distance of the end of the raft from the pier after the woman has walked to its front. The raft moves to the left as the woman moves to the right; with the center of mass of the woman-raft system remaining fixed (because Fext,net = 0). The diagram shows the initial (xw,i) and final (xw,f) positions of the woman as well as the initial (xr_cm,i) and final (xr_cm,f) positions of the center of mass of the raft both before and after the woman has walked to the front of the raft.

CM

x

×

xr_cm,i x w i =6 m , xC

M CM

0

0.5 m

x

×

P I E R

xr_cm,f xr_cm,i

0

xw f

,

d

(a) Express the distance of the raft from the pier after the woman has walked to the front of the raft: Express xcm before the woman has walked to the front of the raft: Express xcm after the woman has walked to the front of the raft: Because Fext,net = 0, the center of mass remains fixed and we can equate these two expressions for xcm to obtain: Solve for xw,f:

d = 0.5 m + xf,w

(1)

xcm =

mw xw,i + mr xr_cm, i m w + mr mw xw,f + mr xr_cm,f m w + mr

xcm =

mw xw ,i + mr xr_cm,i = mw xw,f + mr xr_cm,f

xw,f = xw,i −

mr (xr_cm,f − xr_cm,i ) mw

From the figure it can be seen that xr_cm,f – xr_cm,i = xw,f. Substitute xw,f

xw,f =

mw xw,i m w + mr

596 Chapter 8

for xr_cm,f – xr_cm,i and to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate xw,f: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

xw,f =

(60 kg )(6 m )

60 kg + 120 kg

= 2.00 m

d = 2.00 m + 0.5 m = 2.50 m

2 K tot = 1 mw vw + 1 mr vr2 2 2

(b) Express the total kinetic energy of the system: Noting that the elapsed time is 2 s, find vw and vr:

vw =

x w,f − x w,i ∆t

xr,f − xr,i ∆t =

=

2m − 6m = −2 m/s 2s

relative to the dock, and

vr =

2.50 m − 0.5 m = 1 m/s , 2s

also relative to the dock. Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ktot:

K tot =

1 2

(60 kg )(− 2 m/s)2 2 + 1 (120 kg )(1 m/s ) 2

(60 kg )(3 m/s )2

= 180 J

Evaluate K with the raft tied to the pier:

2 K tot = 1 mw vw = 2 1 2

= 270 J

All the kinetic energy derives from the chemical energy of the woman and, (c) assuming she stops via static friction, the kinetic energy is transformed into her internal energy. After the shot leaves the woman' s hand, the raft - woman system constitutes an inertial reference frame. In that frame the shot has the same initial (d) velocity as did the shot that had a range of 6 m in the reference frame of the land. Thus, in the raft - woman frame, the shot also has a range of 6 m and lands at the front of the raft.

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 597
**

115 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the elevation of the 1-kg block. We can use conservation of energy to find the speed of the bob just before its perfectly elastic collision with the block and conservation of momentum to find the speed of the block immediately after the collision. We’ll apply Newton’s 2nd law to find the acceleration of the sliding block and use a constant-acceleration equation to find how far it slides before coming to rest. ∆K + ∆U = 0 (a) Use conservation of energy to find the speed of the bob just before or its collision with the block: K − K +U −U = 0

f i f i

Because Ki = Uf = 0:

1 2

2 mball vball + mball g∆h = 0

**and vball = 2 g∆h
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate vball: Because the collision is perfectly elastic and the ball and block have the same mass: (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation, relate the displacement of the block to its acceleration and initial speed and solve for its displacement: Apply block:

vball = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (2 m ) = 6.26 m/s

vblock = vball = 6.26 m/s

(

)

**vf2 = vi2 + 2ablock ∆x Since vf = 0, ∆x = − vi2 − v2 = block 2ablock 2ablock
**

= − f k = mablock = Fn − mblock g = 0

∑ F = ma to the sliding

r

r

∑F

and

x

∑F

Using the definition of fk (µkFn) eliminate fk and Fn between the two equations and solve for ablock: Substitute for ablock to obtain:

y

ablock = − µ k g

∆x =

2 − vblock v2 = block − 2µ k g 2µ k g

598 Chapter 8

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆x:

∆x =

(6.26 m/s)2 = 2(0.1) (9.81 m/s 2 )

20.0 m

*116 •• Picture the Problem We can use conservation of momentum in the horizontal direction to find the recoil velocity of the car along the track after the firing. Because the shell will neither rise as high nor be moving as fast at the top of its trajectory as it would be in the absence of air friction, we can apply the work-energy theorem to find the amount of thermal energy produced by the air friction.

(a)

No. The vertical reaction force of the rails is an external force and so the momentum of the system will not be conserved.

(b) Use conservation of momentum in the horizontal (x) direction to obtain: Solve for and evaluate vrecoil:

∆p x = 0

or

mv cos 30° − Mvrecoil = 0 vrecoil = mv cos 30° M

Substitute numerical values and evaluate vrecoil:

vrecoil =

**(200 kg )(125 m/s)cos30°
**

5000 kg

= 4.33 m/s

(c) Using the work-energy theorem, relate the thermal energy produced by air friction to the change in the energy of the system: Substitute for ∆U and ∆K to obtain:

Wext = Wf = ∆Esys = ∆U + ∆K

Wext = mgyf − mgyi + 1 mvf2 − 1 mvi2 2 2 = mg ( yf − yi ) + 1 m vf2 − vi2 2

(

)

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Wext:

**Wext = (200 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (180 m ) + 1 (200 kg ) (80 m/s ) − (125 m/s ) = − 569 kJ 2
**

2 2

(

)

[

]

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 599
**

117 •• Picture the Problem Because this is a perfectly inelastic collision, the velocity of the block after the collision is the same as the velocity of the center of mass before the collision. The distance the block travels before hitting the floor is the product of its velocity and the time required to fall 0.8 m; which we can find using a constantacceleration equation.

Relate the distance D to the velocity of the center of mass and the time for the block to fall to the floor: Relate the velocity of the center of mass to the total momentum of the system and solve for vcm:

D = vcm ∆t

r r r P = ∑ mi v i = Mv cm

i

and

vcm =

mbullet vbullet + mblock vblock mbullet + mblock

Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm: Using a constant-acceleration equation, find the time for the block to fall to the floor:

vcm =

(0.015 kg )(500 m/s) = 9.20 m/s

0.015 kg + 0.8 kg

2

∆y = v0 ∆t + 1 a(∆t ) 2

Because v0 = 0, ∆t = 2∆y g

2∆y g

Substitute to obtain:

D = vcm

Substitute numerical values and evaluate D:

D = (9.20 m/s )

2(0.8 m ) = 3.72 m 9.81 m/s 2

118 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction the particle whose mass is m is moving initially be the positive x direction and the direction the particle whose mass is 4m is moving r initially be the negative y direction. We can determine the impulse delivered by F and, hence, the change in the momentum of the system from the change in the momentum of r the particle whose mass is m. Knowing ∆p , we can express the final momentum of the

particle whose mass is 4m and solve for its final velocity. Express the impulse delivered by the r force F :

r r r r r I = FT = ∆p = pf − pi ˆ ˆ ˆ = m(4v ) i − mv i = 3mv i

600 Chapter 8

Express p' 4 m :

r

r r r r p' 4m = 4mv ' = p4 m (0 ) + ∆p ˆ = −4mv ˆ + 3mv i j

Solve for v ' :

119 •• Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 refer to the basketball and the numeral 2 to the baseball. The left-hand side of the diagram shows the balls after the basketball’s elastic collision with the floor and just before they collide. The right-hand side of the diagram shows the balls just after their collision. We can apply conservation of momentum and the definition of an elastic collision to obtain equations relating the initial and final velocities of the masses of the colliding objects that we can solve for v1f and v2f.

r

r v' =

3 4

ˆ vi −v ˆ j

(a) Because both balls are in freefall, and both are in the air for the same amount of time, they have the same velocity just before the basketball rebounds. After the basketball rebounds elastically, its velocity will have the same magnitude, but the opposite direction than just before it hit the ground. (b) Apply conservation of momentum to the collision of the balls to obtain: Relate the initial and final kinetic energies of the balls in their elastic collision: Rearrange this equation and factor to obtain:

The velocity of the basketball will be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the velocity of the baseball.

m1v1f + m2 v2f = m1v1i + m2 v2i

(1)

1 2

2 2 m1v12f + 1 m2 v2 f = 1 m1v12i + 1 m2 v2i 2 2 2

2 2 m2 v2f − v2i = m1 v12i − v12f

(

)

(

)

(2)

or

m2 (v2 f − v2i )(v2 f + v2i )

= m1 (v1i − v1f )(v1i + v1f )

Rearrange equation (1) to obtain: Divide equation (2) by equation (3) to obtain:

m2 (v2f − v2i ) = m1 (v1i − v1f ) v2 f + v2i = v1i + v1f

(3)

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 601
**

Rearrange this equation to obtain equation (4): Multiply equation (4) by m2 and add it to equation (1) to obtain: Solve for v1f to obtain:

v1f − v2f = v2i − v1i

(4)

**(m1 + m2 )v1f = (m1 − m2 )v1i + 2m2v2i
**

v1f = m1 − m2 2m2 v1i + v2 i m1 + m2 m1 + m2 2m2 m1 − m2 v1i − v1i m1 + m2 m1 + m2 m1 − 3m2 v1i m1 + m2 3m2 − 3m2 v= 0 3m2 + m2

or, because v2i = −v1i,

v1f = =

For m1 = 3m2 and v1i = v:

v1f =

(c) Multiply equation (4) by m1 and subtract it from equation (1) to obtain: Solve for v2f to obtain:

**(m1 + m2 )v2f = (m2 − m1 )v2i + 2m1v1i
**

2m1 m − m1 v 2i v1i + 2 m1 + m2 m1 + m2 2m1 m − m1 v1i − 2 v1i m1 + m2 m1 + m2

v2 f =

or, because v2i = −v1i,

v2 f = =

For m1 = 3m2 and v1i = v:

3m1 − m2 v1i m1 + m2 3(3m2 ) − m2 v = 2v 3m2 + m2

v2 f =

602 Chapter 8

120 ••• Picture the Problem In Problem 119 only two balls are dropped. They collide head on, each moving at speed v, and the collision is elastic. In this problem, as it did in Problem 119, the solution involves using the conservation of momentum equation

**m1v1f + m2 v2f = m1v1i + m2 v2i
**

and the elastic collision equation

**v1f − v2 f = v2i − v1i ,
**

where the numeral 1 refers to the baseball, and the numeral 2 to the top ball. The diagram shows the balls just before and just after their collision. From Problem 119 we know that that v1i = 2v and v2i = −v. (a) Express the final speed v1f of the baseball as a function of its initial speed v1i and the initial speed of the top ball v2i (see Problem 78): Substitute for v1i and , v2i to obtain: Divide the numerator and denominator of each term by m2 to introduce the mass ratio of the upper ball to the lower ball:

v1f =

m1 − m2 2m2 v1i + v2 i m1 + m2 m1 + m2

**m1 − m2 (2v ) + 2m2 (− v ) m1 + m2 m1 + m2 m1 −1 m2 (2v ) + m 2 (− v ) v1f = m1 1 +1 +1 m2 m2 v1f = 0=
**

and

Set the final speed of the baseball v1f equal to zero, let x represent the mass ratio m1/m2, and solve for x:

x −1 (2v ) + 2 (− v ) x +1 x +1 m1 1 = m2 2 2m1 m − m1 v1i + 2 v 2i m1 + m2 m1 + m2 2m1 (2v ) + m2 − m1 (− v ) m1 + m2 m1 + m2

x=

(b) Apply the second of the two equations in Problem 78 to the collision between the top ball and the baseball: Substitute v1i = 2v and are given that v2i = −v to obtain:

v2 f =

v2 f =

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 603
**

In part (a) we showed that m2 = 2m1. Substitute and simplify:

v3f = = =

**2(2m1 ) (2v ) − 2m1 − m1 v m1 + 2m1 m1 + 2m1 4m1 (2v ) − m1 v = 8 v − 1 v 3 3 3m1 3m1
**

7 3

v

*121 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction the probe is moving after its elastic collision with Saturn be the positive direction. The probe gains kinetic energy at the expense of the kinetic energy of Saturn. We’ll relate the velocity of approach relative to the center of mass to urec and then to v.

(a) Relate the velocity of recession to the velocity of recession relative to the center of mass: Find the velocity of approach:

v = u rec + vcm

uapp = −9.6 km/s − 10.4 km/s = −20.0 km/s

Relate the relative velocity of approach to the relative velocity of recession for an elastic collision: Because Saturn is so much more massive than the space probe: Substitute and evaluate v:

u rec = −uapp = 20.0 km/s

vcm = vSaturn = 9.6 km/s

v = urec + vcm = 20 km/s + 9.6 km/s = 29.6 km/s

(b) Express the ratio of the final kinetic energy to the initial kinetic energy:

2 1 ⎛v ⎞ Kf 2 Mvrec = 1 = ⎜ rec ⎟ 2 ⎜ v ⎟ Ki ⎝ i ⎠ 2 Mvi 2

2

⎛ 29.6 km/s ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 10.4 km/s ⎟ = 8.10 ⎠ ⎝

The energy comes from an immeasurably small slowing of Saturn.

604 Chapter 8

*122 •• Picture the Problem We can use the relationships P = c∆m and ∆E = ∆mc 2 to show that P = ∆E c . We can then equate this expression with the change in momentum of the flashlight to find the latter’s final velocity.

(a) Express the momentum of the mass lost (i.e., carried away by the light) by the flashlight: Relate the energy carried away by the light to the mass lost by the flashlight: Substitute to obtain:

P = c∆m

∆m =

∆E c2

∆E ∆E = 2 c c

P=c

(b) Relate the final momentum of the flashlight to ∆E:

∆E = ∆p = mv c

because the flashlight is initially at rest.

Solve for v: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v:

v=

∆E mc

1.5 × 103 J v= (1.5 kg ) 2.998 × 108 m/s

(

)

= 3.33 × 10 −6 m/s = 3.33 µm/s

123 • Picture the Problem We can equate the change in momentum of the block to the momentum of the beam of light and relate the momentum of the beam of light to the mass converted to produce the beam. Combining these expressions will allow us to find the speed attained by the block.

Relate the change in momentum of the block to the momentum of the beam: Express the momentum of the mass converted into a well-collimated beam of light: Substitute to obtain: Solve for v:

(M − m )v = Pbeam

because the block is initially at rest.

Pbeam = mc

(M − m )v = mc

v= mc M −m

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 605
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate v:

v=

**(0.001kg )(2.998 × 108 m/s)
**

1kg − 0.001 kg

= 3.00 × 105 m/s

124 •• Picture the Problem Let the origin of the coordinate system be at the end of the boat at which your friend is sitting prior to changing places. If we let the system include you and your friend, the boat, the water and the earth, then Fext,net = 0 and the center of mass is at the same location after you change places as it was before you shifted.

Express the center of mass of the system prior to changing places:

xcm = =

mboat xboat + myou xyou + mxfriend xyou (mboat + myou ) + mxfriend mboat + myou + m mboat + myou + mfriend

Substitute numerical values and simplify to obtain an expression for xcm in terms of m:

xcm = =

(2 m )(60 kg + 80 kg ) + (0) m

60 kg + 80 kg + m 280 kg ⋅ m 140 kg + m

Find the center of mass of the system after changing places:

x'cm =

mboat xboat + myou xyou + mxfriend mboat + myou + mfriend

=

(mboat + m )(2 m ± 0.2 m )

mboat + myou + m

+

myou (± 0.2 m ) mboat + myou + m

Substitute numerical values and simplify to obtain:

x'cm =

(60 kg + m )(2 m ± 0.2 m )

60 kg + 80 kg + m +

+

(80 kg )(± 0.2 m )

60 kg + 80 kg + m

=

(2 m )m ± 0.2m m ± 16 kg ⋅ m

120 kg ⋅ m ± 12 kg ⋅ m 140 kg + m

**140 kg + m Because Fext,net = 0, x'cm = xcm .
**

Equate the two expressions and solve for m to obtain: Calculate the largest possible mass for your friend:

m=

(160 ± 28) kg (2 ± 0.2)

m=

(160 + 28) kg = (2 − 0.2)

104 kg

606 Chapter 8

Calculate the smallest possible mass for your friend:

m=

(160 − 28) kg = (2 + 0.2)

60.0 kg

125 •• Picture the Problem Let the system include the woman, both vehicles, and the earth. Then Fext,net = 0 and acm = 0. Include the mass of the man in the mass of the truck. We can use Newton’s 2nd and 3rd laws to find the acceleration of the truck and net force acting on both the car and the truck.

(a) Relate the action and reaction forces acting on the car and truck:

Fcar = Ftruck

or

**mcar acar = mtruck+ woman atruck
**

Solve for the acceleration of the truck:

atruck =

mcar acar mtruck + woman 0.600 m/s 2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate atruck:

atruck

(800 kg )(1.2 m/s 2 ) = =

1600 kg

(b) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to either vehicle to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fnet:

**Fnet = mcar acar
**

Fnet = (800 kg ) 1.2 m/s 2 = 960 N

(

)

126 •• Picture the Problem Let the system include the block, the putty, and the earth. Then Fext,net = 0 and momentum is conserved in this perfectly inelastic collision. We’ll use conservation of momentum to relate the after-collision velocity of the block plus blob and conservation of energy to find their after-collision velocity.

Noting that, because this is a perfectly elastic collision, the final velocity of the block plus blob is the velocity of the center of mass, use conservation of momentum to relate the velocity of the center of mass to the velocity of the glob before the collision:

**pi = p f or mgl vgl = Mvcm
**

where M = mgl + mbl.

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 607
**

Solve for vgl to obtain:

vgl =

M vcm mgl

(1)

Use conservation of energy to find the initial energy of the block plus glob: Use fk = µkMg to eliminate fk and solve for vcm: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm:

∆K + ∆U + Wf = 0

Because ∆U = Kf = 0,

2 − 1 Mvcm + f k ∆x = 0 2

vcm = 2 µ k g∆x

vcm = 2(0.4) 9.81 m/s 2 (0.15 m ) = 1.08 m/s vgl = 13 kg + 0.4 kg (1.08 m/s) 0.4 kg

(

)

Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate vgl:

= 36.2 m/s

*127 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction the moving car was traveling before the collision be the positive x direction. Let the numeral 1 denote this car and the numeral 2 the car that is stopped at the stop sign and the system include both cars and the earth. We can use conservation of momentum to relate the speed of the initially-moving car to the speed of the meshed cars immediately after their perfectly inelastic collision and conservation of energy to find the initial speed of the meshed cars.

Using conservation of momentum, relate the before-collision velocity to the after-collision velocity of the meshed cars: Solve for v1:

pi = pf or m1v1 = (m1 + m2 )V ⎛ m ⎞ m1 + m2 V = ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ V ⎜ m ⎟ m1 1 ⎠ ⎝

v1 =

Using conservation of energy, relate the initial kinetic energy of the meshed cars to the work done by friction in bringing them to a stop: Substitute for Ki and, using fk = µkFn = µkMg, eliminate fk to

∆K + ∆Ethermal = 0

or, because Kf = 0 and ∆Ethermal = f∆s,

− K i + f k ∆s = 0

− 1 MV 2 + µ k Mg∆x = 0 2

608 Chapter 8

obtain: Solve for V: Substitute to obtain:

V = 2 µ k g∆x ⎛ m ⎞ v1 = ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ 2 µ k g∆x ⎜ m1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Substitute numerical values and evaluate v1:

**⎛ 900 kg ⎞ 2 v1 = ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜ 1200 kg ⎟ 2(0.92 ) (9.81 m/s )(0.76 m ) = 6.48 m/s = 23.3 km/h ⎠ ⎝ The driver was not telling the truth. He was traveling at 23.3 km/h.
**

128 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the lowest point of the bob’s swing and note that the bob can swing either forward or backward after the collision. We’ll use both conservation of momentum and conservation of energy to relate the velocities of the bob and the block before and after their collision.

Express the kinetic energy of the block in terms of its after-collision momentum: Solve for m to obtain:

Km =

2 pm 2m

m=

2 pm 2K m

(1)

Use conservation of energy to relate Km to the change in the potential energy of the bob: Solve for Km:

∆K + ∆U = 0

or, because Ki = 0,

Km + Uf − Ui = 0

K m = −U f + U i

**= mbob gL[cos θ f − cos θ i ]
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Km:

= mbob g [L(1 − cos θ i ) − L(1 − cos θ f )]

K m = (0.4 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (1.6 m )[cos5.73° − cos53°] = 2.47 J

(

)

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 609
**

Use conservation of energy to find the velocity of the bob just before its collision with the block:

∆K + ∆U = 0

or, because Ki = Uf = 0,

Kf − Ui = 0

**∴ 1 mbob v 2 − mbob gL(1 − cos θ i ) = 0 2 or v = 2 gL(1 − cos θ i )
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: Use conservation of energy to find the velocity of the bob just after its collision with the block: Substitute for Ki and Uf to obtain: Solve for v′: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v′:

v = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (1.6 m )(1 − cos53°) = 3.544 m/s

∆K + ∆U = 0

or, because Kf = Ui = 0,

(

)

− Ki + U f = 0

**− 1 mbob v'2 + mbob gL(1 − cos θ f ) = 0 2
**

v' = 2 gL(1 − cos θ f )

**v' = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (1.6 m )(1 − cos5.73°) = 0.396 m/s pi = p f or mbob v = mbob v'± pm
**

pm = mbob v ± mbob v'

(

)

Use conservation of momentum to relate pm after the collision to the momentum of the bob just before and just after the collision: Solve for and evaluate pm:

= (0.4 kg )(3.544 m/s ± 0.396 m/s ) = 1.418 kg ⋅ m/s ± 0.158 kg ⋅ m/s

Find the larger value for pm:

pm = 1.418 kg ⋅ m/s + 0.158 kg ⋅ m/s = 1.576 kg ⋅ m/s

Find the smaller value for pm:

pm = 1.418 kg ⋅ m/s − 0.158 kg ⋅ m/s = 1.260 kg ⋅ m/s

Substitute in equation (1) to determine the two values for m:

m=

(1.576 kg ⋅ m/s) 2 2(2.47 J )

= 0.503 kg

610 Chapter 8

or

m=

(1.260 kg ⋅ m/s) 2 2(2.47 J )

= 0.321kg

129 •• Picture the Problem Choose the zero of gravitational potential energy at the location of the spring’s maximum compression. Let the system include the spring, the blocks, and the earth. Then the net external force is zero as is work done against friction. We can use conservation of energy to relate the energy transformations taking place during the evolution of this system.

Apply conservation of energy: Because ∆K = 0: Express the change in the gravitational potential energy: Express the change in the potential energy of the spring: Substitute to obtain: Solve for M:

∆K + ∆U g + ∆U s = 0 ∆U g + ∆U s = 0 ∆U g = − mg∆h − Mgx sin θ

**∆U s = 1 kx 2 2 − mg∆h − Mgx sin θ + 1 kx 2 = 0 2
**

M =

1 2

kx 2 − mg∆h kx 2m∆h = − gx sin 30° g x

Relate ∆h to the initial and rebound positions of the block whose mass is m: Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

∆h = (4 m − 2.56 m ) sin 30° = 0.720 m

M =

(11×10

N/m (0.04 m ) 2(1 kg )(0.72 m ) − = 8.85 kg 2 9.81 m/s 0.04 m

3

)

*130 •• Picture the Problem By symmetry, xcm = 0. Let σ be the mass per unit area of the disk. The mass of the modified disk is the difference between the mass of the whole disk and the mass that has been removed.

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 611
**

Start with the definition of ycm:

ycm = =

∑m y

i i

i

M − mhole mdisk ydisk − mhole y hole M − mhole

Express the mass of the complete disk: Express the mass of the material removed:

**M = σA = σπ r 2 ⎛r⎞ = σπ ⎜ ⎟ = 1 σπ r 2 = 1 M 4 4 ⎝2⎠ M (0) − ( 1 M )(− 1 r ) 4 2 = M −1M 4
**

1 6 2

mhole

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

ycm =

r

131 •• Picture the Problem Let the horizontal axis by the y axis and the vertical axis the z axis. By symmetry, xcm = ycm = 0. Let ρ be the mass per unit volume of the sphere. The mass of the modified sphere is the difference between the mass of the whole sphere and the mass that has been removed.

Start with the definition of ycm:

zcm = =

∑m y

i i

i

M − mhole msphere ysphere − mhole y hole M − mhole

Express the mass of the complete sphere: Express the mass of the material removed:

**M = ρV = 4 ρπ r 3 3 ⎛r⎞ mhole = 4 ρπ ⎜ ⎟ = 3 ⎝2⎠ zcm =
**

3

1 4 8 3

(

ρπ r 3 ) = 1 M 8

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

M (0) − ( 1 M )(− 1 r ) 8 2 = 1 M −8M

1 14

r

*132 •• Picture the Problem In this elastic head-on collision, the kinetic energy of recoiling nucleus is the difference between the initial and final kinetic energies of the neutron. We can derive the indicated results by using both conservation of energy and conservation of momentum and writing the kinetic energies in terms of the momenta of the particles before and after the collision.

612 Chapter 8

(a) Use conservation of energy to relate the kinetic energies of the particles before and after the collision: Apply conservation of momentum to obtain a second relationship between the initial and final momenta: Eliminate pnf in equation (1) using equation (2):

2 Use equation (3) to write pni 2m in 2 2 2 pni pnf pnucleus = + 2m 2m 2M

(1)

pni = pnf + pnucleus

(2)

**pnucleus pnucleus pni + − =0 2M 2m m
**

2 (M + m ) p2 pni = K n = nucleus 2 2m 8M m 2

(3)

terms of pnucleus: Use equation (4) to express 2 K nucleus = pnucleus 2M in terms of Kn: (b) Relate the change in the kinetic energy of the neutron to the aftercollision kinetic energy of the nucleus: Using equation (5), express the fraction of the energy lost in the collision:

(4)

⎡ 4Mm ⎤ K nucleus = K n ⎢ 2⎥ ⎣ (M + m ) ⎦ ∆K n = − K nucleus

(5)

− ∆K n = Kn

m 4 4 Mm M = 2 (M + m ) ⎛ m ⎞ 2 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ M⎠

133 •• Picture the Problem Problem 132 (b) provides an expression for the fractional loss of energy per collision.

(a) Using the result of Problem 132 (b), express the fractional loss of energy per collision: Evaluate this fraction to obtain:

K nf K ni − ∆K n (M − m ) = = K ni E0 (M + m )2

2

**K nf (12m − m ) = = 0.716 E0 (12m + m )2
**

2

Express the kinetic energy of one

K nf = 0.716 N E0

**Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 613
**

neutron after N collisions: (b) Substitute for Knf and E0 to obtain: Take the logarithm of both sides of the equation and solve for N:

0.716 N = 10 −8

N=

−8 ≈ 55 log 0.716

134 •• Picture the Problem We can relate the number of collisions needed to reduce the energy of a neutron from 2 MeV to 0.02 eV to the fractional energy loss per collision and solve the resulting exponential equation for N.

(a) Using the result of Problem 132 (b), express the fractional loss of energy per collision: Express the kinetic energy of one neutron after N collisions: Substitute for Knf and E0 to obtain: Take the logarithm of both sides of the equation and solve for N: (b) Proceed as in (a) to obtain:

K nf K ni − ∆K n K ni − 0.63K ni = = K ni E0 K ni = 0.37 K nf = 0.37 N E0

0.37 N = 10 −8 N= −8 ≈ 19 log 0.37

K nf K ni − ∆K n K ni − 0.11K ni = = K ni E0 K ni = 0.89

Express the kinetic energy of one neutron after N collisions: Substitute for Knf and E0 to obtain: Take the logarithm of both sides of the equation and solve for N:

K nf = 0.89 N E0

0.89 N = 10 −8

N= −8 ≈ 158 log 0.89

614 Chapter 8

135 •• Picture the Problem Let λ = M/L be the mass per unit length of the rope, the subscript 1 refer to the portion of the rope that is being supported by the force F at any given time, and the subscript 2 refer to the rope that is still on the table at any given time. We can find the height hcm of the center of mass as a function of time and then differentiate this expression twice to find the acceleration of the center of mass.

(a) Apply the definition of the center of mass to obtain: From the definition of λ we have:

hcm =

m1h1,cm + m2 h2,cm M

(1)

M m1 M = ⇒ m1 = vt L vt L h1,cm = 1 vt and h2,cm = 0 2

h1,cm and h2,cm are given by :

Substitute for m1, h1,cm, and h2,cm in equation (1) and simplify to obtain:

hcm

⎛M ⎞ ⎜ vt ⎟h1,cm + m2 (0 ) v2 2 L ⎠ =⎝ = t M 2L

(b) Differentiate hcm twice to obtain acm:

⎛ v2 ⎞ v2 dhcm = 2⎜ ⎟t = t ⎜ 2L ⎟ dt L ⎝ ⎠ and d 2 hcm v2 = acm = dt 2 L

(c) Letting N represent the normal force that the table exerts on the rope, apply Fy = macm to the

F + N − Mg = Macm

∑

rope to obtain: Solve for F, substitute for acm and N to obtain:

F = Mg + Macm − N v2 = Mg + M − m2 g L

Use the definition of λ again to obtain:

m2 M ⎛ vt ⎞ ⇒ m2 = M ⎜1 − ⎟ = L − vt L ⎝ L⎠

(a) Apply ∑F y = ma y to the Fn − mp g − Fball on spring = 0 spring when it is compressed a distance d: Solve for Fn: Fn = mp g + Fball on spring = mp g + kd ⎛m g⎞ = mp g + k ⎜ b ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ = mp g + mb g = (mp + mb )g (b) Letting the zero of gravitational energy be at the initial elevation of the cup and vbi represent the velocity of the ball just before it hits the cup. We’ll use both conservation of energy and momentum to obtain the scale reading when the ball collides inelastically with the cup.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 615 Substitute for m2 and simplify: F = Mg + M = ⎛ v2 v2 vt ⎛ vt ⎞ − M ⎜1 − ⎟ g = M ⎜ g + − g + ⎜ L L L ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ v 2 vt ⎞ g ⎟ = Mg ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ gL + L ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ vt ⎛ v ⎜ + 1⎟ Mg ⎜ gt ⎟ L⎝ ⎠ 136 •• Picture the Problem The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the platform when the spring is partially compressed. use conservation of energy to find this velocity: Use conservation of momentum to ∆K + ∆U g = 0 where K i = U gf = 0 2 ∴ 1 mb vbi − mgh = 0 2 and vbi = 2 gh r r pi = pf . We can use Newton’s 2nd law to determine the scale reading in part (a). The scale reading is the force the scale exerts on the platform and is represented on the FBD by Fn.

Use conservation of momentum to relate the speeds of astronaut 1 and the ball after the first throw: Relate the speed of the ball in the laboratory frame to its speed relative m1v1 + mb v b = 0 (1) v = v b − v1 (2) . 137 •• Picture the Problem Let the direction that astronaut 1 first throws the ball be the positive direction and let vb be the initial speed of the ball in the laboratory frame.616 Chapter 8 find the velocity of the center of mass: ∴ vcm = ⎡ mb ⎤ mb vbi = 2 gh ⎢ ⎥ mb + mc ⎣ mb + mc ⎦ Apply conservation of energy to the collision to obtain: ∆K cm + ∆U s = 0 or. the ball never returns to its original height. We can apply conservation of momentum and the definition of the speed of the ball relative to the thrower to each of the perfectly inelastic collisions to express the final speeds of each astronaut after one throw and one catch. with Kf = Usi = 0. Note that each collision is perfectly inelastic. 2 − 1 (mb + mc )vcm + 1 kx 2 = 0 2 2 2 kx 2 = (mb + mc ) vcm Substitute for vcm and solve for kx2: ⎡ mb ⎤ = 2 gh(mb + mc ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ mb + mc ⎦ 2 2 ghmb = mb + mc Solve for x: 2 x = mb 2 gh k (mb + mc ) From part (a): Fn = mp g + kx = mp g + kmb 2 gh k (mb + mc ) ⎞ ⎛ 2kh ⎟ = g ⎜ mp + mb ⎜ g (mb + mc ) ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ (c) Because the collision is inelastic.

Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 617 to astronaut 1: Eliminate vb between equations (1) and (2) and solve for v1: Substitute equation (3) in equation (2) and solve for vb: Apply conservation of momentum to express the speed of astronaut 2 and the ball after the first catch: Solve for v2: v1 = − mb v m1 + mb (3) vb = m1 v m1 + mb (4) 0 = mb v b = (m2 + mb )v 2 (5) v2 = mb vb m2 + mb mb m1 v m2 + mb m1 + mb (6) Express v2 in terms of v by substituting equation (4) in equation (6): v2 = ⎡ ⎤ mb m1 =⎢ ⎥v ⎣ (m2 + mb )(m1 + mb ) ⎦ (7) Use conservation of momentum to express the speed of astronaut 2 and the ball after she throws the ball: Relate the speed of the ball in the laboratory frame to its speed relative to astronaut 2: Eliminate vbf between equations (8) and (9) and solve for v2f: (m2 + mb )v2 = mb vbf + m2v2f (8) v = v 2f − v bf (9) ⎛ mb ⎞ ⎡ m1 ⎤ ⎟ ⎢1 + v2 f = ⎜ ⎥v ⎜m +m ⎟ m1 + mb ⎦ b ⎠⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎡ mb ⎤ vbf = − ⎢1 − ⎥ ⎣ m2 + mb ⎦ ⎡ m1 ⎤ × ⎢1 + ⎥v ⎣ m1 + mb ⎦ (10) Substitute equation (10) in equation (9) and solve for vbf: (11) Apply conservation of momentum to express the speed of astronaut 1 and the ball after she catches the ball: (m1 + mb )v1f = mb vbf + m1v1 (12) .

and the rate at which the water is . the position of the center of mass of the earth − moon system is below the surface of the earth.. the sun and other planets. Any object external to the system will exert accelerating forces on the system.618 Chapter 8 Using equations (3) and (11).g. e.3 + 1 Because this distance is less than the radius of the earth. Apply conservation of momentum to the system consisting of yourself. the acceleration of the system is toward the sun. Any object not in the earth − moon system exerts forces on the system. the distance d moved by the earth in this time interval is: 139 •• Picture the Problem Let the numeral 2 refer to you and the numeral 1 to the water leaving the hose. d = 2rem = 2(4670 km ) = 9340 km (b) (c) (d) Because the center of mass is at a fixed distance from the sun. and the earth and then differentiate this expression to relate your recoil acceleration to your mass. (a) Express the center of mass of the earth−moon system relative to the center of the earth: r r Mrcm = ∑ mi ri i or rcm = = M e (0) + mm rem mm rem = M e + mm M e + mm rem Me +1 mm Substitute numerical values and evaluate rcm: 3.84 × 105 km rcm = = 4670 km 81. Because the sun exerts the dominant external force on the earth − moon system. the water. eliminate vbf and v1 in equation (12) and solve for v1f: v1f = − (m1 + mb )2 (m2 + mb ) m2 mb (2m1 + mb ) v *138 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the center of mass of a system containing multiple objects to locate the center of mass of the earth−moon system. the speed of the water.

5 m ) = 3. Use conservation of energy to relate the y component of the bead’s velocity as it hits the pan to its height of fall: Solve for vy: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vy: Express the change in momentum in the y direction per bead: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or.Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 619 leaving the hose. a1. because Ki = Uf = 0. and the earth. is zero … as is dm2 . the rate at which you are dt losing mass: dm1 + m2 a 2 = 0 dt and v dm1 a2 = − 1 m 2 dt v1 a2 = − 30 m/s (2. 1 2 2 mv y − mgh = 0 v y = 2 gh v y = 2 9. We can use conservation of energy to find the vertical component of the velocity of the beads as they hit the pan and then calculate the net downward force on the pan from Newton’s 2nd law.13 m/s ( ) ∆p y = p yf − p yi = mv y − (− mv y ) = 2mv y . the beads. Use conservation of momentum to relate your recoil velocity to the velocity of the water leaving the hose: Differentiate this expression with respect to t: r r p1 + p 2 = 0 or m1v1 + m2 v 2 = 0 m1 or dv1 dm dv dm2 + v1 1 + m2 2 + v 2 =0 dt dt dt dt dm1 dm2 + ma 2 + v 2 =0 dt dt m1 a1 + v1 Because the acceleration of the water leaving the hose.81 m/s 2 (0.960 m/s 2 *140 ••• Picture the Problem Take the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at the elevation of the pan and let the system include the balance.4 kg/s) 75 kg Substitute numerical values and evaluate a2: = − 0.

the wall and floor. i. and solve for M: Fnet.0005 kg )(3. Let the zero of gravitational potential be at the center of mass of the lower ball and use conservation of energy to relate the speeds of the balls to the potential energy of the system. Let the system include the dumbbell. equate its weight to the net force exerted by the beads. the centers of mass of the balls are separated by L. Use conservation of energy to express the relationship between the initial and final energies of the system: Express the initial energy of the system: Express the energy of the system when the angle with the vertical is 45°: Substitute to obtain: Ei = E f Ei = mgL Ef = mgL sin 45° + 1 (2m ) v 2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 gL = gL⎜ ⎟+v ⎝ 2⎠ 1 ⎞ ⎛ v = gL⎜1 − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Solve for v: . the speeds will be equal when the angle with the vertical is 45°. substitute for ∆py..e. By symmetry.9 g [2(0.13 m/s)] 9. y = N ∆p y ∆t Mg = N and ∆p y ∆t M = N ⎛ 2mv y ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ∆t ⎜ g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate M: M = (100 / s ) = 31.81m/s 2 141 ••• Picture the Problem Assume that the connecting rod goes halfway through both balls. and the earth.620 Chapter 8 Use Newton’s 2nd law to express the net force in the y direction exerted on the pan by the beads: Letting M represent the mass to be placed on the other pan.

Systems of Particles and Conservation of Momentum 621 Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= (9.81m/s )L⎛1 − ⎜ 2 = 1.70 m 2 /s L 1 ( ) ⎝ 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ .

622 Chapter 8 .

Angular velocity has the dimensions ⎢ ⎥ whereas linear velocity has ⎣T ⎦ dimensions ⎢ ⎥ . The angular velocity of all points on the wheel is dθ/dt. Both turn through the same angle. (c) True. Both have the same angular velocity. 2 • (a) False. T (b) True. it has the greater speed.Chapter 9 Rotation Conceptual Problems *1 • Determine the Concept Because r is greater for the point on the rim. We can set up a proportion to determine the number of revolutions required to double ω and then subtract to find the number of additional revolutions to accelerate the disk to an angular speed of 2ω. it moves the greater distance. Both have zero angular acceleration. relate the initial and final angular velocities to the angular acceleration: Let ∆θ10 represent the number of revolutions required to reach an angular velocity ω: Let ∆θ2ω represent the number of revolutions required to reach an angular velocity ω: Divide equation (2) by equation (1) and solve for ∆θ2ω: 2 ω 2 = ω0 + 2α∆θ ⎡1⎤ ⎡L⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2 or. Both have zero tangential acceleration. Using a constant-acceleration equation. Because r is greater for the point on the rim. Because r is greater for the point on the rim. 3 •• Picture the Problem The constant-acceleration equation that relates the given variables 2 is ω 2 = ω0 + 2α∆θ . it has the greater centripetal acceleration. ω 2 = 2α∆θ ω 2 = 2α∆θ10 (1) (2ω)2 = 2α∆θ2ω (2) ∆θ2ω = 623 (2ω)2 ∆θ ω2 10 = 4∆θ10 . The angular acceleration of all points on the wheel is dω/dt. because ω0 = 0.

*4 • Determine the Concept Torque has the dimension ⎢ (a) Impulse has the dimension ⎢ ⎡ ML2 ⎤ . the angular velocity may have any value including zero. The net torque acting on an object determines the angular acceleration of the object. 8 • (a) False. and the square of the distance from the object’s center of mass to the axis about which the object is . the mass of the object. A net torque is required to change the rotational state of an object. ⎣ T ⎥ ⎦ (b) is correct. At any given instant. (c) False. The moment of inertia of a body is always dependent on one’s choice of an axis of rotation. ⎣ T ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ML2 ⎤ (b) Energy has the dimension ⎢ 2 ⎥ . ⎣T ⎦ ⎡ ML ⎤ . The moment of inertia of an object is the product of a constant that is characteristic of the object’s distribution of matter. All we can say for sure is that a net torque will change the angular speed of an object. In the absence of a net torque an object continues in whatever state of rotational motion it was at the instant the net torque became zero.624 Chapter 9 The number of additional revolutions is: 4∆θ10 − ∆θ10 = 3∆θ10 = 3(10 rev ) = 30 rev and (c) is correct. and the square of the distance from the object’s center of mass to the axis about which the object is rotating. A net torque is required to change the rotational state of an object. 2 ⎥ ⎣T ⎦ ⎡ ML ⎤ . A net torque may decrease the angular speed of an object. (c) Momentum has the dimension ⎢ 5 • Determine the Concept The moment of inertia of an object is the product of a constant that is characteristic of the object’s distribution of matter. (b) True. the mass of the object. 7 • Determine the Concept No. Because both (b) and (c) are correct (d ) is correct. *6 • Determine the Concept Yes.

it also means that the hand on the knob must move through the greatest distance to open the door..Rotation 625 rotating.e. (d ) is correct. 11 • Determine the Concept The power delivered by the constant torque is the product of the torque and the angular velocity of the merry-go-round. I i. which increases the door’s angular acceleration. *10 • Determine the Concept From the parallel-axis theorem we know that I = I cm + Mh 2 . i. if the knob were at the center of the door. Also. neither the power input nor the angular velocity of the merry-go-round is constant. However. the statement is false. It is clear that putting the knob far from the hinges means that the door can be opened with less effort (force). (b) is correct. . α ∝ d α= τ net = Fd F = d I I (b) is correct. so it may not be the quickest way to open the door. doubling d will double the angular acceleration. M is the mass of the object. Because neither of these conditions is satisfied. 9 • Determine the Concept The angular acceleration of a rotating object is proportional to the net torque acting on it. Therefore. leading to the door being opened more quickly. and h is the distance between the parallel axes. this increases the torque about the hinges of the door. 13 • Determine the Concept For a given applied force. I is always greater than Icm by Mh2. The net torque is the product of the tangential force and its lever arm. and exerts no torque on an extended object if and only if it’s directed toward the center of the object. you would have to walk around the door after opening it. we’ll assume that the system is rigid. 12 • Determine the Concept Let’s make the simplifying assumption that the object and the surface do not deform when they come into contact. A force does no work if and only if it is perpendicular to the velocity of an object.e. Because the constant torque causes the merry-go-round to accelerate. assuming the door is opening toward you. Express the angular acceleration of the disk as a function of the net torque acting on it: Because α ∝ d .. where Icm is the moment of inertia of the object with respect to an axis through its center of mass.

The kinetic energies of both objects is the sum of their translational and rotational kinetic energies. We can express the total kinetic of both objects and equate them to decide which of their translational speeds is greater. 15 •• Picture the Problem The kinetic energies of both objects is the sum of their translational and rotational kinetic energies. has a smaller moment of inertia. they will have the same kinetic energy at the bottom of the incline. Express the kinetic energy of the cylinder: 2 2 K cyl = 1 I cylω cyl + 1 mvcyl 2 2 = 1 1 2 2 ( mr 2 )r 2 vcyl 2 2 + 1 mvcyl 2 2 = 3 mvcyl 4 Express the kinetic energy of the sphere: 2 2 K sph = 1 I sphω sphl + 1 mvsph 2 2 = 1 2 2 5 ( mr 2 )r 2 vsph 2 2 + 1 mvsph 2 2 7 = 10 mvsph Equate the kinetic energies and simplify to obtain: vcyl = 14 15 sph v < vsph and (b) is correct. We can express the total kinetic of both objects and equate them to their common potential energy loss to decide which of their translational speeds is greater at the bottom of the incline. 17 •• Picture the Problem Because the coin and the ring begin from the same elevation. Their speed dependence will differ due to the differences in their moments of inertia. hence. . Their speed dependence will differ due to the differences in their moments of inertia. but the bottom of the wheel is momentarily at rest. The one which is easier to spin has its mass concentrated closer to the center of mass and. a point at the top of the wheel moves with a speed twice that of the center of mass of the wheel. (c) is correct.626 Chapter 9 *14 • Determine the Concept If the wheel is rolling without slipping. *16 • Determine the Concept You could spin the pipes about their center.

. the translational and rotational kinetic energies are the same and (c) is correct. 18 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definitions of the translational and rotational kinetic energies of the hoop and the moment of inertia of a hoop (ring) to express and compare the kinetic energies. vcoin > vring and (b) is correct. Express the translational kinetic energy of the hoop: Express the rotational kinetic energy of the hoop: K trans = 1 mv 2 2 K rot = 1 I hoopω 2 = 2 1 2 (mr ) v r 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 2 Therefore.Rotation 627 Express the kinetic energy of the coin at the bottom of the incline: 2 2 K coin = 1 I cylω coin + 1 mcoin vcoin 2 2 = 1 1 2 2 ( mcoin r 2 ) vr 2 coin 2 2 + 1 mcoin vcoin 2 2 = 3 mcoin vcoin 4 2 2 K ring = 1 I ringω ring + 1 mring vring 2 2 Express the kinetic energy of the ring at the bottom of the incline: = 1 2 (m ring r 2 )r 2 vring 2 2 + 1 mring vring 2 2 = mring vring Equate the kinetic of the coin to its change in potential energy as it rolled down the incline and solve for vcoin: Equate the kinetic of the ring to its change in potential energy as it rolled down the incline and solve for vring: 3 4 2 mcoin v coin = mcoin gh and 2 v coin = 4 gh 3 2 mring v ring = mring gh and 2 v ring = gh Therefore.

Express the translational kinetic energy of the disk: Express the rotational kinetic energy of the disk: K trans = 1 mv 2 2 K rot = 1 I hoopω 2 = 2 1 1 2 2 ( mr 2 )v r 2 2 = 1 mv 2 4 Therefore. f = 0. 20 •• Picture the Problem Let us assume that f ≠ 0 and acts along the direction of motion. and r the radius of the wheels. τ = 0 because l = 0. Let M represent the mass of the rider. mw the mass of each bicycle wheel. Now consider the acceleration of the center of mass and the angular acceleration about the point of contact with the plane. and express the total kinetic energy of the bicycle and rider. i. If the sphere is slipping. 21 • Determine the Concept True. so α = 0. Estimation and Approximation 23 •• Picture the Problem Assume the wheels are hoops.e.628 Chapter 9 19 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definitions of the translational and rotational kinetic energies of the disk and the moment of inertia of a disk (cylinder) to express and compare the kinetic energies. m the mass of the bicycle. 22 • Determine the Concept Because the ball is struck high enough to have topspin. Express the ratio of the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of the wheels to that associated with the total kinetic energy of the bicycle and rider: K rot K rot = K tot K trans + K rot (1) . the translational kinetic energy is greater and (a ) is correct. However.. the frictional force is forward. then there is kinetic friction which dissipates the mechanical energy of the sphere. Consequently. reducing ω until the nonslip condition is satisfied. acm ≠ 0. neglect the mass of the spokes. Because Fnet ≠ 0. (a ) is correct. But α = 0 is not consistent with acm ≠ 0.

5 m ) = 0.81 m/s 2 ω = 0. Relate the angular orientation θ of the toast to its initial angular orientation.319 s 9. relate the distance the toast falls ∆y to its time of fall ∆t: θ = θ 0 + ω∆t (1) 9. Solve for ∆t: ∆t = 2∆y g 2(0.Rotation 629 Express the translational kinetic energy of the bicycle and rider: Express the rotational kinetic energy of the bicycle wheels: K trans = K bicycle + K rider = 1 mv 2 + 1 Mv 2 2 2 K rot = 2 K rot.81 m/s 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: ∆t = .47 rad/s 0.956 = 9.3 % = K tot 2 + 14 kg + 38 kg evaluate Krot/Ktot: 3 kg 24 •• Picture the Problem We can apply the definition of angular velocity to find the angular orientation of the slice of toast when it has fallen a distance of 0.1m ∆y = v0 y ∆t + 1 a y (∆t ) 2 ∆y = 1 g (∆t ) 2 2 2 or. We can then interpret the orientation of the toast to decide whether it lands jellyside up or down. 1 wheel = 2 1 I wω 2 2 v2 = mw r 2 = mw v 2 r 2 ( ) ( ) Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: K rot m v2 mw 2 = 1 2 1 w 2 = 1 = 2 1 m+M K tot 2 mv + 2 Mv + mw v 2 m + 2 M + mw 2+ mw K rot 2 Substitute numerical values and = 10. and time of fall ∆t: Use the equation given in the problem statement to find the angular velocity corresponding to this length of toast: Using a constant-acceleration equation. because v0y = 0 and ay = g. its angular velocity ω.5 m from the edge of the table.

630 Chapter 9 2 gL find θ : (vf ')2 + cos θ 0 Substitute in equation (1) to θ= π 6 + (9. a man’s average waist circumference seems to be about 34 inches.154 m 38 in × 2. and the average chest circumference about 42 inches. Letting Iout represent his moment of inertia with his arms straight out and Iin his moment of inertia with his arms at his side.54 rad × The orientation of the slice of toast will therefore be at an angle of 203° with respect to the ground.319 s ) 180° = 203° π rad = 3. *25 •• Picture the Problem Assume that the mass of an average adult male is about 80 kg. We’ll also assume that about 20% of the body’s mass is in the two arms. and each has a length L = 1 m. From experience in men’s clothing stores.47 rad/s )(0.54 cm 1m × in 100 cm 2π Substitute numerical values and evaluate Iout/ Iin: . i. the ratio of these two moments of inertia is: Express the moment of inertia of the ″man as a cylinder″: Express the moment of inertia of his arms: Express the moment of inertia of his body-less-arms: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: I out I body + I arms = I in I in (1) I in = 1 MR 2 2 I arms = 2( 1 )mL2 3 I body = 1 2 (M − m )R 2 I out = I in cav = 1 2 (M − m )R 2 + 2( 1 )mL2 3 1 2 MR 2 Assume the circumference of the cylinder to be the average of the average waist circumference and the average chest circumference: Find the radius of a circle whose circumference is 38 in: 34 in + 42 in = 38 in 2 R= cav = 2π = 0. so that each arm has a mass of about m = 8 kg.side down. and that we can model his body when he is standing straight up with his arms at his sides as a cylinder. with the jelly .e.

6 rad/s ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∆θ = ω 0 ∆t + 1 α (∆t ) 2 or.Rotation 631 I out = I in 1 2 (80 kg − 16 kg )(0. 2 (b) Using another constantacceleration equation.154 m )2 + 2 (8 kg )(1m )2 3 1 (80 kg )(0.33 rev 27 • Picture the Problem Because the angular acceleration is constant.154 m )2 2 = 6. relate the number of revolutions made by the particle in a given time interval to its angular velocity: ⎛ 1 rev ⎞ rad ⎞ ⎛ ∆θ = ω ∆t = ⎜ 0.42 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration 26 • Picture the Problem The tangential and angular velocities of a particle moving in a circle are directly proportional.278 rad/s r 90 m (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. when ω0 = 0.278 ⎟ (30 s )⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2π rad ⎟ s ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ = 1. we can find the various physical quantities called for in this problem by using constant-acceleration equations. relate the angular velocity of the wheel to its angular acceleration and the time it has been accelerating: Evaluate ω when ∆t = 6 s: ω = ω 0 + α∆t or. ω = α∆t ω = ⎛ 2. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. The number of revolutions made by the particle in a given time interval is proportional to both the time interval and its angular speed.6 rad/s2 ⎞ (6 s ) = 15. when ω0 = 0. relate the angular displacement to the wheel’s angular acceleration and the time it ∆θ = 1 α (∆t ) 2 2 . (a) Relate the angular velocity of the particle to its speed along the circumference of the circle: Solve for and evaluate ω: v = rω ω= v 25 m/s = = 0.

we can find the various physical quantities called for in this problem by using constant-acceleration equations.6 rad/s ) 2 4 = 73.134 rad/s 2 .8 rad × 1 rev = 7.6 rad/s 2 ) + (15.6 rad/s )(6 s ) 2 2 = 46.3 m ) (2.45 rev 2π rad v = rω = (0.8 rad (c) Convert ∆θ (6 s ) from rad to revolutions: (d) Relate the angular velocity of the particle to its tangential speed and evaluate the latter when ∆t = 6 s: Relate the resultant acceleration of the point to its tangential and centripetal accelerations when ∆t = 6 s: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: ∆θ (6 s ) = 46.0 m/s 2 *28 • Picture the Problem Because we’re assuming constant angular acceleration. (a) Using its definition.68 m/s a = at2 + ac2 = = r α 2 + ω4 (rα )2 + (rω 2 )2 a = (0.3 m )(15.6 rad/s ) = 4. express the angular acceleration of the turntable: Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: α= ∆ω ω − ω0 = ∆t ∆t α= 0 − 33 1 3 rev 2π rad 1 min × × min rev 60 s 26 s = 0.632 Chapter 9 has been accelerating: Evaluate ∆θ when ∆t = 6 s: ∆θ (6 s ) = 1 2 (2.

the average angular velocity is the average of its initial and final values: ωav = ω0 + ω 2 33 1 3 rev 2π rad 1 min × × min rev 60 s 2 = = 1.0 rad/s ) 2 = 192 m/s 2 30 • Picture the Problem We can find the angular velocity of the Ferris wheel from its definition and the linear speed and centripetal acceleration of the passenger from the relationships between those quantities and the angular velocity of the Ferris wheel. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.24 rev 2π rad 29 • Picture the Problem Because the angular acceleration of the disk is constant.960 m/s 2 Express ac in terms of ω: Evaluate ac when t = 5 s: a c = rω 2 ac (5 s ) = (0.75 rad/s (c) Using the definition of ωav. relate the angular velocity of the disk to its angular acceleration and time during which it has been accelerating: Evaluate ω when t = 5 s: (b) Express at in terms of α: Evaluate at when t = 5 s: ω = ω 0 + α ∆t or.Rotation 633 (b) Because the angular acceleration is constant. find the number or revolutions the turntable makes before stopping: ∆θ = ωav ∆t = (1.75 rad/s )(26 s ) = 45.0 rad/s a t = rα at (5 s ) = (0. We can find the tangential and centripetal accelerations from their relationships to the angular velocity and angular acceleration of the disk.5 rad × 1 rev = 7.12 m ) 8 rad/s 2 ( ) = 0. . ω = α ∆t ω (5 s ) = (8 rad/s 2 )(5 s ) = 40. we can use a constant-acceleration equation to relate its angular velocity to its acceleration and the time it has been accelerating.12 m )(40. because ω0 = 0.

(a) Using a constant-acceleration equation. relate the angular displacement of the wheel to its angular acceleration and the time it has been accelerating: Solve for α: ∆θ = ω 0 ∆t + 1 α (∆t ) 2 or.589 rad/s 2 α= (8 s )2 (b) Using a constant-acceleration equation. ω = α∆t ω (8 s ) = (0.79 m/s ac = rω 2 = (12 m )(0.589 rad/s 2 )(8 s ) = 4. because ω0 = 0.634 Chapter 9 (a) Find ω from its definition: ω= ∆θ 2π rad = = 0.233 rad/s ∆t 27 s (b) Find the linear speed of the passenger from his/her angular speed: Find the passenger’s centripetal acceleration from his/her angular velocity: v = rω = (12 m )(0. we can use constant-acceleration equations in rotational form to find their angular acceleration and their angular velocity at any given time.233 rad/s ) = 2.71 rad/s . relate the angular velocity of the wheel to its angular acceleration and the time it has been accelerating: Evaluate ω when ∆t = 8 s: ω = ω 0 + α∆t or.651 m/s 2 31 • Picture the Problem Because the angular acceleration of the wheels is constant.233 rad/s ) 2 = 0. when ω0 = 0. 2 ∆θ = 1 α (∆t ) 2 2 α= 2∆θ (∆t )2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: ⎛ 2π rad ⎞ 2(3 rev )⎜ ⎟ ⎝ rev ⎠ = 0.

because ω = 0. We can combine this relationship with the always applicable definition of angular velocity to find the initial angular velocity of the wheel.27 × 10 −5 rad/s 33 • Picture the Problem When the angular acceleration of a wheel is constant. Express the average angular velocity of the wheel in terms of its initial and final angular speeds: ω av = ω0 + ω 2 or. Relate the tangential acceleration of a point on the wheel (equal to the acceleration of the bicycle) to the wheel’s angular acceleration and solve for its angular acceleration: a = a t = rα and α= a r .Rotation 635 32 • Picture the Problem The earth rotates through 2π radians every 24 hours.8 s (d ) is correct. Provided there is no slippage. its average angular velocity is the average of its initial and final angular velocities. We can use its defining equation to determine the acceleration of the bicycle. 34 • Picture the Problem The tangential and angular accelerations of the wheel are directly proportional to each other with the radius of the wheel as the proportionality constant. the acceleration of a point on the rim of the wheel is the same as the acceleration of the bicycle.57 s and ∆t 2. Find ω using its definition: ω≡ ∆θ 2π rad = ∆t 24 h × 3600 s h = 7. ω av = 1 ω 0 2 ω av ≡ ω0 = ∆θ ∆t Express the definition of the average angular velocity of the wheel: Equate these two expressions and solve for ω0: 2∆θ 2(5 rad ) = = 3.

e.. i. Relate the angular velocity of the tape to its tangential speed: Letting Rf represent the outer radius of the reel when the reels have the same area.42 cm/s 3600 s 2h × h .9 mm L v= = ∆t 246 m × 100 cm m = 3.6 m )(14. a= Substitute in the expression for α to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: α= ⎛ km ⎞ ⎛ 1 h ⎞ ⎛ 1000 m ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎜ 24 ⎟⎜ ⎟ h ⎠ ⎜ 3600 s ⎟ ⎝ km ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ α= (0.636 Chapter 9 Use its definition to express the acceleration of the wheel: a= ∆v v − v0 = ∆t ∆t v ∆t v r∆t or.794 rad/s 2 *35 •• Picture the Problem The two tapes will have the same tangential and angular velocities when the two reels are the same size.0 s ) = 0. We can calculate the tangential speed of the tape from its length and running time and relate the angular velocity to the constant tangential speed and the radius of the reels when they are turning with the same angular velocity. express the condition that they have the same speed: Solve for Rf: ω= v r (1) π Rf2 − π r 2 = 1 (π R 2 − π r 2 ) 2 Rf = R2 + r 2 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Rf: Find the tangential speed of the tape from its length and running time: Rf = (45 mm)2 + (12 mm)2 2 = 32. have the same area. because v0 = 0.

9 mm × 10 mm = 1.93 rev/min Torque.Rotation 637 Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate ω: ω= v = Rf 3.04 rad/s = 1. because ω = 0. and Newton’s Second Law for Rotation 36 • Picture the Problem The force that the woman exerts through her axe. produces a net torque that changes (decreases) the angular velocity of the grindstone.49 rad/s 2 where the minus sign means that the grindstone is slowing down. Moment of Inertia. (b) Use Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form to relate the angular acceleration of the grindstone to the net torque slowing it: Express the moment of inertia of disk with respect to its axis of rotation: τ net = Iα I = 1 MR 2 2 . because it does not act at the axis of rotation.04 rad/s to rev/min: 1. − ω0 α= ∆t α= Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: 730 α =− rev 2π rad 1 min × × min rev 60 s 9s = − 8.04 rad 1 rev 60 s × × s 2π rad min = 9.42 cm/s 1 cm 32.04 rad/s Convert 1. (a) From the definition of angular acceleration we have: ∆ω ω − ω0 = ∆t ∆t or.

0462 N ⋅ m *37 • Picture the Problem We can find the torque exerted by the 17-N force from the definition of torque.11 m ) = 1. (a) Calculate the torque from its definition: (b) Use Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form to relate the acceleration resulting from this torque to the torque: Express the moment of inertia of the cylinder with respect to its axis of rotation: Substitute to obtain: τ = Fl = (17 N )(0. .87 N ⋅ m α= τ I I = 1 MR 2 2 α= α= 2τ MR 2 2(1.08 m )2 (8.49 rad/s 2 ) 2 = 0. ω =αt ω (5 s ) = (124 rad/s 2 )(5 s ) = 620 rad/s 38 •• Picture the Problem We can find the angular acceleration of the wheel from its definition and the moment of inertia of the wheel from Newton’s 2nd law.638 Chapter 9 Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate τnet: τ net = 1 MRα 2 τ net = 1 (1. express the angular velocity of the cylinder as a function of time: Evaluate ω (5 s): ω = ω0 + α t or.7 kg )(0. Once we know the angular acceleration.87 N ⋅ m ) = 124 rad/s 2 (2. we can find the angular velocity of the cylinder as a function of time. The angular acceleration resulting from this torque is related to the torque through Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form.11m )2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: (c) Using a constant-acceleration equation.5 kg )(0. because ω0 = 0.

because the line-ofaction of the tension passes through the pendulum’s pivot point. Note that the tension in the string is radial.14 rad/s 2 Substitute and evaluate I: I= 50 N ⋅ m = 15. (a) Referring to the FBD.14 rad/s 2 1 6 (b) Because the wheel takes 120 s to slow to a stop (it took 20 s to acquire an angular velocity of 600 rev/min) and its angular acceleration is directly proportional to the accelerating torque: 39 •• Picture the Problem The pendulum and the forces acting on it are shown in the free-body diagram.9 kg ⋅ m 2 3.33 N ⋅ m Ft = mg sin θ at = Ft = g sin θ m pivot point ∑τ = mgL sin θ . its lever arm is zero and the net torque is due τ fr = 1 τ = 6 (50 N ⋅ m ) = 8. express r the component of mg that is tangent to the circular path of the bob: Use Newton’s 2nd law to express the tangential acceleration of the bob: (b) Noting that. We can use Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational form to find the tangential component of the acceleration of the bob.Rotation 639 (a) Express the moment of inertia of the wheel in terms of the angular acceleration produced by the applied torque: Find the angular acceleration of the wheel: I= τ α α= ∆ω = ∆t 600 rev 2π rad 1 min × × min rev 60 s 20 s = 3. and so exerts no tangential force on the ball.

(a) Relate the velocity of the center of mass to its distance from the pivot point: Express the torque due to F0: Solve for α: vcm = L ω 2 (1) τ = F0 x = I pivotα α= F0 x I pivot Express the moment of inertia of the rod with respect to an axis through I pivot = 1 ML2 3 . We can find the angular velocity of the rod by using Newton’s 2nd law to find its angular acceleration and then a constant-acceleration equation that relates ω to α. the location of the center of percussion of the rod will be verified by setting the force exerted by the pivot to zero. sum the torques about the pivot point to obtain: (c) Use Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form to relate the angular acceleration of the pendulum to the net torque acting on it: Solve for α to obtain: τ net = mgL sin θ = Iα α= mgL sin θ I Express the moment of inertia of the bob with respect to the pivot point: Substitute to obtain: I = mL2 mgL sin θ g sin θ = mL2 L α= Relate α to at: ⎛ g sin θ ⎞ a t = rα = L ⎜ ⎟ = g sin θ ⎝ L ⎠ *40 ••• Picture the Problem We can express the velocity of the center of mass of the rod in terms of its distance from the pivot point and the angular velocity of the rod. Finally.640 Chapter 9 to the weight of the bob. We’ll use the impulsemomentum relationship to derive the expression for the force delivered to the rod by the pivot.

Then the total impulse (equal to the change in momentum of the rod) exerted on the rod is: Substitute our result from (a) to obtain: Because I P = FP ∆t : I P + F0 ∆t = Mvcm and I P = Mvcm − F0 ∆t IP = 3F0 x∆t ⎛ 3x ⎞ − F0 ∆t = F0 ∆t ⎜ − 1⎟ 2L ⎝ 2L ⎠ ⎛ 3x ⎞ − 1⎟ FP = F0 ⎜ ⎝ 2L ⎠ 2L 3x −1 = 0 ⇒ x = 3 2L In order for FP to be zero: 41 ••• Picture the Problem We’ll first express the torque exerted by the force of friction on the elemental disk and then integrate this expression to find the torque on the entire disk. relate the dτ f = rdf k (1) df k = µ k gdm (2) . (a) Express the torque exerted on the elemental disk in terms of the friction force and the distance to the elemental disk: Using the definition of the coefficient of friction. We’ll use Newton’s 2nd law to relate this torque to the angular acceleration of the disk and then to the stopping time for the disk.Rotation 641 its pivot point: Substitute to obtain: α= 3F0 x ML2 Express the angular velocity of the rod in terms of its angular acceleration: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: ω = α ∆t = 3F0 x∆t ML2 vcm = 3F0 x∆t 2ML (b) Let IP be the impulse exerted by the pivot on the rod.

express the mass of the circular element: Substitute equations (2) and (3) in (1) to obtain: Because σ = dm = 2π rσ dr (3) dτ f = 2π µ kσ g r 2 dr 2 µk M g 2 r dr R2 R (4) M : π R2 dτ f = (b) Integrate dτ f to obtain the total torque on the elemental disk: (c) Relate the disk’s stopping time to its angular velocity and acceleration: Using Newton’s 2nd law. is: Substitute and simplify to obtain: τf = 2 µk M g 2 ∫ r dr = R2 0 2 3 MRµ k g ∆t = ω α α= τf I I = 1 MR 2 2 ∆t = 3 Rω 4µ k g Calculating the Moment of Inertia 42 • Picture the Problem One can find the formula for the moment of inertia of a thin spherical shell in Table 9-1. with respect to its axis of rotation. express α in terms of the net torque acting on the disk: The moment of inertia of the disk.642 Chapter 9 force of friction to µk and the weight of the circular element: Letting σ represent the mass per unit area of the disk. The moment of inertia of a thin spherical shell about its diameter is: I = 2 MR 2 3 .

035 m )2 = 4. from symmetry considerations.057 kg )(0.66 × 10 −5 kg ⋅ m 2 *43 • Picture the Problem The moment of inertia of a system of particles with respect to a given axis is the sum of the products of the mass of each particle and the square of its distance from the given axis. and h is the distance between the parallel axes. M is the mass of the object.0 kg ⋅ m 2 − (14 kg ) 2 m ( ) 2 Use the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles to express Icm: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Icm: I cm = ∑ mi ri 2 i = m1r12 + m2 r22 + m3 r32 + m4 r42 I cm = (3 kg ) 2 m + (4 kg ) 2 m 2 ( + (4 kg ) 2 m + (3 kg ) 2 m 2 ( ) ) ( ( ) 2 ) 2 = 28. Use the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: I = ∑ mi ri 2 i = m1r12 + m2 r22 + m3 r32 + m4 r42 I = (3 kg )(2 m ) + (4 kg ) 2 2 m 2 2 + (4 kg )(0) + (3 kg )(2 m ) = 56. According to the parallel-axis theorem. Express the parallel axis theorem: Solve for Icm and substitute from Problem 44: I = I cm + Mh 2 I cm = I − Mh 2 = 28. I = I cm + Mh 2 .Rotation 643 Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: I= 2 3 (0. where Icm is the moment of inertia of the object with respect to an axis through its center of mass.0 kg ⋅ m 2 .0 kg ⋅ m 2 ( ) 2 2 44 • Picture the Problem Note. that the center of mass of the system is at the intersection of the diagonals connecting the four masses.0 kg ⋅ m 2 = 56. Thus the distance of each particle from the axis through the center of mass is 2 m .

I = I cm + Mh 2 .0 kg ⋅ m 2 2 2 + (4 kg )(0) + (3 kg )(2 m ) Remarks: We could also use a symmetry argument to conclude that Iy = Ix . where Icm is the moment of inertia of the object with respect to an axis through its center of mass. (a) Apply the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles to express Ix: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ix: I x = ∑ mi ri 2 i = m1r12 + m2 r22 + m3 r32 + m4 r42 I x = (3 kg )(2 m ) + (4 kg )(2 m ) 2 2 + (4 kg )(0 ) + (3 kg )(0) = 28.0 kg ⋅ m 2 (b) Apply the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles to express Iy: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Iy: I y = ∑ mi ri 2 i = m1r12 + m2 r22 + m3 r32 + m4 r42 I y = (3 kg )(0) + (4 kg )(2 m ) = 28.644 Chapter 9 45 • Picture the Problem The moment of inertia of a system of particles with respect to a given axis is the sum of the products of the mass of each particle and the square of its distance from the given axis. M is the mass of the object. and h is the distance between the parallel axes. Use Table 9-1 to find the moment of inertia of a sphere with respect to an axis through its center of mass: Express the parallel axis theorem: Substitute for Icm and simplify to obtain: 2 I cm = 5 MR 2 I = I cm + Mh 2 2 I = 5 MR 2 + MR 2 = 7 5 MR 2 . 46 • Picture the Problem According to the parallel-axis theorem.

find formulas for the moments of inertia of the rim and spokes: I wheel = I rim + I spokes I rim = M rim R 2 and I spoke = 1 M spoke L2 3 I wheel = M rim R 2 + 6 1 M spoke L2 3 = M rim R 2 + 2M spoke L2 Substitute to obtain: ( ) 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Iwheel: I wheel = (8 kg )(0.Rotation 645 47 •• Picture the Problem The moment of inertia of the wagon wheel is the sum of the moments of inertia of the rim and the six spokes. then: dx .2 kg )(0. the moment of inertia is the sum of the products of the mass of each particle and the square of its distance from the chosen axis.5 m ) 2 = 2.5 m ) + 2(1. Once this choice is made. Express the moment of inertia of the wagon wheel as the sum of the moments of inertia of the rim and the spokes: Using Table 9-1.60 kg ⋅ m 2 *48 •• Picture the Problem The moment of inertia of a system of particles depends on the axis with respect to which it is calculated. (a) Apply the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles: (b) Set the derivative of I with respect to x equal to zero in order to identify values for x that correspond to either maxima or minima: If I = ∑ mi ri 2 = m1 x 2 + m2 (L − x ) i 2 dI = 2m1 x + 2m2 (L − x )(− 1) dx = 2(m1 x + m2 x − m2 L ) = 0 for extrema m1 x + m2 x − m2 L = 0 dI = 0 .

646 Chapter 9 Solve for x: x= m2 L m1 + m2 m2 L is. Then the elemental unit has mass dm = σ dxdy. the m1 + m2 Convince yourself that you’ve found a minimum by showing that positive at this point. Let the corner of the plate through which the axis runs be the origin. The distance of the element whose mass is dm from the corner r is related to the coordinates of dm through the Pythagorean relationship r2 = x2 + y2. relate the distance d to the center of ( ) 1 3 m a 2 + b3 ( ) I = I cm + md 2 or I cm = I − md 2 = 1 m a 2 + b 2 − md 2 3 ( ) d 2 = ( 1 a ) + ( 1 b) = 2 2 2 2 1 4 (a 2 + b2 ) . use the parallel axis theorem to relate the moment of inertia found in (a) to the moment of inertia with respect to an axis through the center of mass: Using the Pythagorean theorem. d I is dx 2 2 x= distance of the center of mass from m. 49 •• Picture the Problem Let σ be the mass per unit area of the uniform rectangular plate. (a) Express the moment of inertia of the element whose mass is dm with respect to an axis perpendicular to it and passing through one of the corners of the uniform rectangular plate: Integrate this expression to find I: dI = σ (x 2 + y 2 )dxdy I = σ ∫ ∫ x 2 + y 2 dxdy 0 0 a b ( ) = 1 σ a 3b + ab 3 = 3 (b) Letting d represent the distance from the origin to the center of mass of the plate. by definition.

use the parallel axis theorem to express their moment of inertia with respect to the axis of rotation: Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: I = I spheres + I rod 2 I sphere = 5 M sphere R 2 and 1 I rod = 12 M rod L2 2 I sphere = 5 M sphere R 2 + M sphere h 2 where h is the distance from the center of mass of a sphere to the axis of rotation.5 kg )(0. 2 1 I = 2 5 M sphere R 2 + M sphere h 2 + 12 M rod L2 { } .0400 kg ⋅ m 2 Express the moment of inertia of the two spheres and connecting rod system: Use Table 9-1 to find the moments of inertia of a sphere (with respect to its center of mass) and a rod (with respect to an axis through its center of mass): Because the spheres are not on the axis of rotation. express Iapp: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Iapp: I app = ∑ mi ri 2 = m1r12 + m2 r22 i I app = (0. (a) Using the point-mass approximation and the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles.2 m ) + (0.5 kg )(0.2 m ) 2 2 = 0.Rotation 647 mass to the lengths of the sides of the plate: Substitute for d2 in the expression for Icm and simplify to obtain: I cm = 1 m a 2 + b 2 − 1 m a 2 + b 2 4 3 = 1 12 ( m a2 + b2 ( ) ) ( ) 2 *50 •• Picture the Problem Corey will use the point-particle relationship I app = mi ri 2 = m1r12 + m2 r22 for his calculation whereas Tracey’s calculation will take ∑ i into account not only the rod but also the fact that the spheres are not point particles.

18 × 10 −9 m = 5.2 m ) + 12 (0. where a is the length of a side of the tetrahedron. 51 •• Picture the Problem The axis of rotation passes through the center of the base of the tetrahedron.05 m) 2 5 2 1 + (0.964 I 0. the distance of the three H nuclei from the rotation axis is a / 3 . We’ll begin by expressing the moment of inertia dI for the element of volume and then integrating it between R1 and R2.0415 kg ⋅ m 2 (b) The rotational inertia would increase because I cm of a hollow sphere is greater than I cm of a solid sphere.06 kg )(0. Apply the definition of the moment of inertia for a system of particles to obtain: I = ∑ mi ri 2 = mH r12 + mH r22 + mH r32 i ⎛ a ⎞ = 3mH ⎜ ⎟ = mH a 2 ⎝ 3⎠ 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: I = 1. From the geometry.5 kg )(0.41× 10−47 kg ⋅ m 2 ( )( ) 2 52 •• Picture the Problem Let the mass of the element of volume dV be dm = ρdV = 2πρhrdr where h is the height of the cylinder.3 m ) 2 } 2 = 0.5 kg )(0. The carbon atom and the hydrogen atom at the apex of the tetrahedron do not contribute to I because the distance of their nuclei from the axis of rotation is zero.0400 kg ⋅ m 2 = = 0.67 × 10−27 kg 0.0415 kg ⋅ m 2 Compare I and Iapp by taking their ratio: I app 0. .648 Chapter 9 I =2 { (0.

Find the moment of inertia of a sphere.Rotation 649 Express the moment of inertia of the element of mass dm: Integrate dI from R1 to R2 to obtain: dI = r 2 dm = 2πρ hr 3 dr 4 I = 2πρ h ∫ r 3dr = 1 πρ h(R2 − R14 ) 2 2 2 = 1 πρ h(R2 − R12 )(R2 + R12 ) 2 R1 R2 The mass of the hollow cylinder 2 is m = π ρ h R2 − R12 . 3 . so: ( ) ρ= m π h R22 − R12 ( ) Substitute for ρ and simplify to obtain: ⎛ m I = 1π ⎜ 2 ⎜ π h R2 − R2 2 1 ⎝ ( ) ( ⎞ 2 2 ⎟ h R2 − R12 R2 + R12 = ⎟ ⎠ )( ) 1 2 2 m R2 + R12 ( ) 53 ••• Picture the Problem We can derive the given expression for the moment of inertia of a spherical shell by following the procedure outlined in the problem statement. in Table 9-1: Express the mass of the sphere as a function of its density and radius: Substitute to obtain: Express the differential of this expression: Express the increase in mass dm as the radius of the sphere increases by dR: Eliminate dR between equations (1) and (2) to obtain: 2 I = 5 mR 2 m = 4 π ρ R3 3 8 I = 15 π ρ R 5 dI = 8 π ρ R 4 dR 3 dm = 4π ρ R 2 dR (1) (2) dI = 2 R 2 dm 3 Therefore. the moment of inertia of the spherical shell of mass m is 2 mR 2 . with respect to an axis through a diameter.

In part (b).508)M ⎡ 1 1. and integrate from 0 to R.26M ⎡1.650 Chapter 9 *54 ••• Picture the Problem We can find C in terms of M and R by integrating a spherical shell of mass dm with the given density function to find the mass of the earth as a function of M and then solving for C.22r dr − R ∫ 0 0 R R 2 = Solve for C as a function of M and R to obtain: (b) From Problem 9-40 we have: Integrate to obtain: 4π 1.22 5 1 5 ⎤ = R − R ⎥ 6 ⎦ R3 ⎢ 5 ⎣ R = = 0.508 dI = 8 π ρ r 4 dr 3 I = 8 π ∫ ρ r 4 dr 3 0 R R ⎤ 8π (0.22CR 3 − π CR 3 3 M R3 C = 0. substitute the earth’s density function. we’ll start with the moment of inertia of the same spherical shell.329MR 2 .22r 4 dr − ∫ r 5 dr ⎥ ⎢∫ 3 3R R0 ⎣0 ⎦ 4. (a) Express the mass of the earth using the given density function: M = ∫ dm = ∫ 4π ρ r 2 dr 0 R 4π C 3 r dr = 4π C ∫ 1.

Then the radius of the elemental ring.Rotation 651 55 ••• Picture the Problem Let the origin be at the apex of the cone. The radius r of the elemental area is I= 3 10 MR 2 R 2 − z 2 and its mass. . is σ dA = 2σ R 2 − z 2 dz . with the z axis along the cone’s symmetry axis. and solve for I to obtain: 56 ••• Picture the Problem Let the axis of rotation be the x axis. We’ll integrate z2 dm to determine I in terms of σ and then divide this result by M in order to eliminate σ and express I in terms of M and R. can be obtained from the proportion r R = . The mass dm of the z H elemental disk is ρdV = ρπr2dz. dm. We’ll integrate r2dm to find the moment of inertia of the disk in terms of R and H and then integrate dm to obtain a second equation in R and H that we can use to eliminate H in our expression for I. Express the moment of inertia of the cone in terms of the moment of inertia of the elemental disk: I= = = 1 2 1 2 ∫r H 2 dm R2 2 ⎛ R2 ⎞ z ⎜ ρπ 2 z 2 ⎟dz ∫ H2 ⎜ H ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0 H 4 ∫ z dz = 0 πρ R 4 2H 4 H πρ R 4 H 10 H Express the total mass of the cone in terms of the mass of the elemental disk: M = πρ ∫ r 2 dz = πρ ∫ 0 0 R2 2 z dz H2 = 1 πρ R H 3 2 Divide I by M. simplify. at a distance z from the apex.

Each elemental disk rotates about an axis that is parallel to its diameter but removed from it by a distance z. simplify. The mass dm of the z H elemental disk is ρdV = ρπr2dz. with the z axis along the cone’s symmetry axis. express the moment of inertia of the elemental disk with respect to the x axis: In Problem 9-57 it was established that the moment of inertia of a thin uniform disk of mass M and radius R rotating about a diameter is 1 MR 2 . Then the radius of the elemental disk. Express this result in 4 dI x = dI disk + dm z 2 where (1) dm = ρ dV = ρπ r 2 dz dI disk = 1 4 1 4 (ρπ r dz )r 2 2 2 ⎛ R2 ⎞ = ρπ ⎜ 2 z 2 ⎟ dz ⎜H ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . at a distance z from the apex. a result in agreement with the expression given in Table 9-1 for a cylinder of length L = 0. Using the parallel axis theorem. and solve for I to obtain: M = σπR 2 I= 1 4 MR 2 . can be obtained from the proportion r R = . 57 ••• Picture the Problem Let the origin be at the apex of the cone.652 Chapter 9 Express the moment of inertia about the x axis: I = ∫ z 2 dm = ∫ z 2σ dA = −R ∫z R 2 (2σ R 2 − z 2 dz ) = 1 σπR 4 4 The mass of the thin uniform disk is: Divide I by M. and the axis of rotation be the x rotation. We can use the result from Problem 9-57 for the moment of inertia of the elemental disk with respect to a diameter and then use the parallel axis theorem to express the moment of inertia of the cone with respect to the x axis.

8 m/s and .2 m )(2 rad/s ) = 0. the greater their moment of inertia and the greater the energy consumption required to set them into motion. Rotational Kinetic Energy 58 • Picture the Problem The kinetic energy of this rotating system of particles can be calculated either by finding the tangential velocities of the particles and using these values to find the kinetic energy or by finding the moment of inertia of the system and using the expression for the rotational kinetic energy of a system. the larger the cones are.4 m )(2 rad/s ) = 0.4 m/s v1 = r1ω = (0.Rotation 653 terms of our elemental disk: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: ⎡ 1 ⎛ R 2 ⎞2 ⎤ dI x = πρ ⎢ ⎜ 2 z 2 ⎟ ⎥ dz ⎜ ⎟ ⎢4 ⎝ H ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ ⎛R + ⎜ πρ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝H ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎞ z ⎟ dz ⎟ z 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ Integrate from 0 to H to obtain: 2 ⎡1 ⎛ R2 R2 4 ⎤ 2⎞ I x = πρ ∫ ⎢ ⎜ 2 z ⎟ + 2 z ⎥ dz ⎟ 4⎜ H ⎥ ⎠ 0 ⎢ ⎝H ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎛R H R H ⎞ = πρ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 20 + 5 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ H Express the total mass of the cone in terms of the mass of the elemental disk: M = πρ ∫ r 2 dz = πρ ∫ 0 0 H H R2 2 z dz H2 = πρ R H 1 3 2 Divide Ix by M. (a) Use the relationship between v and ω to find the speed of each particle: v3 = r3ω = (0. simplify. and solve for Ix to obtain: ⎛ H 2 R2 ⎞ I x = 3M ⎜ ⎜ 5 + 20 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Remarks: Because both H and R appear in the numerator.

4 m ) + (3 kg )(0.4 m ) + (3 kg )(0.4 m/s ) + (1kg )(0.560 kg ⋅ m 2 Calculate the kinetic energy of the system of particles: K = 1 Iω 2 = 2 = 1.12 J 1 2 (0.4 kg )(0.654 Chapter 9 Find the kinetic energy of the system: 2 K = 2 K 3 + 2 K1 = m3v3 + m1v12 = (3 kg )(0. We can use the same relationship to find the new angular speed of the ball when it is supplied with additional energy. (a) Express the kinetic energy of the ball: Express the moment of inertia of ball with respect to its diameter: Substitute for I: Substitute numerical values and evaluate K: K = 1 Iω 2 2 2 I = 5 MR 2 K = 1 MR 2ω 2 5 K= 1 5 (1.6 mJ (b) Express the new kinetic energy with K′ = 2.2 m ) 2 2 2 2 + (1 kg )(0.12 J (b) Use the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: I = ∑ mi ri 2 i = m1r12 + m2 r22 + m3 r32 + m4 r42 I = (1 kg )(0.8 m/s ) 2 2 = 1.560 kg ⋅ m )(2 rad/s) 2 2 *59 • Picture the Problem We can find the kinetic energy of this rotating ball from its angular speed and its moment of inertia.2 m ) = 0.0846 J: Express the ratio of K to K′: K ' = 1 Iω ' 2 2 K' 1 Iω' 2 ⎛ ω' ⎞ = 2 =⎜ ⎟ 2 1 K ⎝ω ⎠ 2 Iω ' 2 .075 m )2 2 ⎛ rev 2π rad 1 min ⎞ × ⎜ 70 ⎟ ⎜ min × rev × 60 s ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 84.

The 2 . substitute and r2 simplify to obtain: K1 m1 ⎛ m2 ⎞ m2 ⎜ = ⎜m ⎟ = m ⎟ K 2 m2 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 1 2 62 •• Picture the Problem The earth’s rotational kinetic energy is given by K rot = 1 Iω 2 where I is its moment of inertia with respect to its axis of rotation. and r2: K1 = K2 1 2 1 2 Iω12 m1r12ω 2 m1r12 = = 2 Iω 2 m2 r22ω 2 m2 r22 r1 m1 = r2 m2 r Solve for 1 .0846 J Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω′: ω' = (70 rev/min ) = 347 rev/min 60 • Picture the Problem The power delivered by an engine is the product of the torque it develops and the angular speed at which it delivers the torque. Express the power delivered by the engine as a function of the torque it develops and the angular speed at which it delivers this torque: Substitute numerical values and evaluate P: P =τω ⎛ rev 2π rad 1 min ⎞ ⎟ = 155 kW P = (400 N ⋅ m )⎜ 3700 × × ⎜ min rev 60 s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 61 •• Picture the Problem Let r1 and r2 be the distances of m1 and m2 from the center of mass.Rotation 655 Solve for ω′: ω' = ω K' K 2. r1. Use the definition of rotational kinetic energy to express the ratio of the rotational kinetic energies: Use the definition of the center of mass to relate m1. m2. We can use the definition of rotational kinetic energy and the definition of the center of mass of the two point masses to show that K1/K2 = m2/m1.0846 J 0.

99 × 10 rad/s ) 47 2 −7 2 = 2.0 ×10 1 2 24 kg 6.4 × 106 m )( ) 2 = 9.27 × 10 rad/s ) 37 2 −5 2 = 2.0 × 1024 kg 1. Express the rotational kinetic energy of the earth: Find the angular speed of the earth’s rotation using the definition of ω: K rot = 1 Iω 2 2 2π rad ∆θ = ∆t 24 h × 3600 s h −5 = 7. we find: I = 2 MR 2 5 = 2 5 (6.27 × 10 rad/s (1) ω= From Table 9-1.50 × 1011 m = 1.83 ×10 kg ⋅ m ) × (7.656 Chapter 9 center of mass of the earth-sun system is so close to the center of the sun and the earthsun distance so large that we can use the earth-sun distance as the separation of their centers of mass and assume each to be point mass.35 × 1047 kg ⋅ m 2 ( )( ) 2 Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: K orb = 1 2 (1.25 days × 24 = 1.35 ×10 kg ⋅ m ) × (1.99 × 10−7 rad/s Express and evaluate the orbital moment of inertia of the earth: 2 I = M E Rorb = 6.67 × 1033 J .83 × 1037 kg ⋅ m 2 K rot = Substitute numerical values in equation (1) to obtain: (9.60 × 10 29 J Express the earth’s orbital kinetic energy: Find the angular speed of the center of mass of the earth-sun system: 2 K orb = 1 Iω orb 2 (2) ω= = ∆θ ∆t 2π rad h 3600 s × day h 365. for the moment of inertia of a homogeneous sphere.

89 kN ⋅ m ω= v 0.08 m/s ) = 1.30 m P = Tv = (19.6 kN )(0. We can use conservation of energy to find the angular velocity of the disk when the particle is at its lowest point and Newton’s 2nd law to find the force the disk will have to exert on the particle to keep it from falling off. the tension in the cable equals the weight of the load.Rotation 657 Evaluate the ratio K orb : K rot K orb 2.6 kN ( ) (b) Apply the definition of torque at the winch drum: (c) Relate the angular speed of the winch drum to the rate at which the load is being lifted (the tangential speed of the cable on the drum): (d) Express the power developed by the motor in terms of the tension in the cable and the speed with which the load is being lifted: τ = Tr = (19. because Uf = Ki = 0.60 × 10 J *63 •• Picture the Problem Because the load is not being accelerated. (a) Use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential energy of the system to its rotational kinetic energy when the small particle is at its lowest point: Solve for ωf: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. (a) Because the block is lifted at constant speed: T = mg = (2000 kg ) 9. 1 2 (I disk + I particle )ωf2 − mg∆h = 0 ωf = 2mg∆h I disk + I particle .6 kN )(0.30 m ) = 5.267 rad/s r 0.08 m/s = = 0.81m/s 2 = 19.57 kW 64 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the lowest point of the small particle.67 × 1033 J = ≈ 10 4 29 K rot 2. The role of the massless pulley is to change the direction the force (tension) in the cable acts.

1 2 2 I Pω max − mg∆h = 0 (1) I P = I cm + mR 2 1 2 (mR 2 2 + mR 2 ωmax − mgR = 0 ) ωmax = g R 9.75 m Substitute numerical values and evaluate ωmax: ωmax = .81 m/s 2 = 3. so the sum of the force F exerted by the disk and the gravitational force must be the centripetal force: Solve for F and simplify to obtain: F − mg = mRωf2 F = mg + mRω f2 ⎛ 8mg ⎞ = mg + mR⎜ ⎜ R(2mM ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 8m ⎞ ⎛ = mg ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 2m + M ⎠ 65 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the center of mass of the ring when it is directly below the point of support.62 rad/s 0. and ∆h and simplify to obtain: ωf = 2mg (2 R ) = 1 MR 2 + mR 2 2 8mg R(2m + M ) (b) The mass is in uniform circular motion at the bottom of the disk. because Uf = Ki = 0. We’ll use conservation of energy to relate the maximum angular velocity and the initial angular velocity required for a complete revolution to the changes in the potential energy of the ring. (a) Use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential energy of the ring to its rotational kinetic energy when its center of mass is directly below the point of support: Use the parallel axis theorem and Table 9-1 to express the moment of inertia of the ring with respect to its pivot point P: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for ωmax: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. Iparticle.658 Chapter 9 Substitute for Idisk.

and person of mass m.81 m/s 2 ωi = = 3. and the earth in the system. mass M. substitute for IP and ∆h to obtain: Solve for ωi: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or.Rotation 659 (b) Use conservation of energy to relate the final potential energy of the ring to its initial rotational kinetic energy: Noting that the center of mass must rise a distance R if the ring is to make a complete revolution.95 m 67 •• Picture the Problem We’ll solve this problem for the general case of a ladder of length L.75 m 66 •• Picture the Problem We can find the energy that must be stored in the flywheel and relate this energy to the radius of the wheel and use the definition of rotational kinetic energy to find the wheel’s radius. We’ll use . − 1 I Pω i2 + mg∆h = 0 2 − 1 (mR 2 + mR 2 )ωi2 + mgR = 0 2 ωi = g R Substitute numerical values and evaluate ωi: 9. Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at floor level and include you. Relate the kinetic energy of the flywheel to the energy it must deliver: Express the moment of inertia of the flywheel: Substitute for Icyl and solve for ω: K rot = 1 I cylω 2 = (2 MJ/km )(300 km ) 2 = 600 MJ I cyl = 1 MR 2 2 R= 2 ω K rot M Substitute numerical values and evaluate R: R= 400 2 rev 2π rad × s rev 106 J 600 MJ × MJ 100 kg = 1. the ladder.62 rad/s 0. because Ui = Kf = 0.

vr > vf . 1 2 (I person L⎞ ⎛ + I ladder )ωr2 − ⎜ mgL + Mg ⎟ = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 2 1 ⎞ 2 2 ⎛ L⎞ ⎛ ⎜ m + M ⎟ L ω f − ⎜ mgL + Mg ⎟ = 0 3 ⎠ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ M⎞ ⎛ 2 gL⎜ m + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ v r2 = M m+ 3 v r2 = vf2 M 2 M m+ 3 m+ 6m + 3M 6m + 2 M Express the ratio vr2 : vf2 Solve for vr to obtain: vr = vf Unless M . use conservation of energy to relate the initial and final momenta of the system: Substitute for the moments of inertia to obtain: Substitute vr for Lωf and solve for vr2 : ∆K + ∆U = 0 or.660 Chapter 9 conservation of energy to relate your impact speed falling freely to your impact speed riding the ladder to the ground. 1 2 mvf2 − mgL = 0 vf2 = 2 gL ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. It is better to let go and fall to the ground. is zero. because Ki = Uf = 0. because Ki = Uf = 0. the mass of the ladder. . Use conservation of energy to relate the speed with which a person will strike the ground to the fall distance L: Solve for vf2 : Letting ωr represent the angular velocity of the ladder+person system as it strikes the ground.

because Ki = Uf = 0.5 m ) 4kg + 2 kg + 1 (0.Rotation 661 Pulleys. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the two blocks and the pulley to obtain three equations in the unknowns T1. 1 2 (m + M )v 2 + 1 I pulleyω 2 − mgh = 0 2 1 2 (m + M )v 2 + 1 (1 MR 2 ) v 2 − mgh = 0 2 2 2 R Solve for v: v= 2mgh M +m+ 1 Mp 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= 2(2 kg ) 9.6 kg ) 2 ( ) = 3. and the earth.5 m below the initial position of the 2-kg block and R represent the radius of the pulley. Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be 2.08 m . Yo-Yos.95 m/s = = 49. (a) Use energy conservation to relate the speed of the 2 kg block when it has fallen a distance ∆h to its initial potential energy and the kinetic energy of the system: Substitute for Ipulley and ω to obtain: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. and R is the radius of the pulley.95 m/s (b) Find the angular velocity of the pulley from its tangential speed: 69 •• Picture the Problem The diagrams show the forces acting on each of the masses and the pulley. T2. the shelf and pulley. The initial potential energy of the 2-kg block will be transformed into the translational kinetic energy of both blocks plus rotational kinetic energy of the pulley. the mass of the hanging block is m. and a.81 m/s 2 (2.3 rad/s R 0. Let the system include both blocks. ω= v 3. and the mass of the pulley is Mp. and Hanging Things *68 •• Picture the Problem We’ll solve this problem for the general case in which the mass of the block on the ledge is M.

1 2 (m + M )v 2 + 1 I pulleyω 2 2 − mgh + µ k Mgh = 0 1 2 (m + M )v 2 + 1 (1 M p ) v 2 2 2 2 R − mgh + µ k Mgh = 0 .6 kg ) 2 3. (3) and (4) and solve for a: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: T2 − T1 = 1 M p a 2 a= m2 g m2 + m4 + 1 M p 2 (2 kg )(9.11 m/s 2 Using equation (1).5 N T2 = m2 ( g − a ) ( ) T2 = (2 kg ) 9. x 1 4 p (1) (2) (3) (4) 2 1 p and ∑F x = m2 g − T2 = m2 a Eliminate α in equation (2) to obtain: Eliminate T1 and T2 between equations (1).662 Chapter 9 Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the two blocks and the pulley: ∑F =T = m a .5 m below the initial position of the 2-kg block.4 N ( ) 70 •• Picture the Problem We’ll solve this problem for the general case in which the mass of the block on the ledge is M. evaluate T1: Solve equation (3) for T2: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T2: T1 = (4 kg ) 3. (a) Use energy conservation to relate the speed of the 2 kg block when it has fallen a distance ∆h to its initial potential energy. the mass of the pulley is Mp.81m/s2 ) = a= 2 kg + 4 kg + 1 (0. ∑τ = (T − T ) r = I α . the kinetic energy of the system and the work done against friction: Substitute for Ipulley and ω to obtain: ∆K + ∆U + Wf = 0 or.11 m/s 2 = 12. Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be 2. The initial potential energy of the 2-kg block will be transformed into the translational kinetic energy of both blocks plus rotational kinetic energy of the pulley plus work done against friction.81 m/s 2 − 3. because Ki = Uf = 0.11 m/s 2 = 13. the mass of the hanging block is m. and R is the radius of the pulley.

79 m/s 4kg + 2 kg + 1 (0. and the earth. Use energy conservation to relate the car’s speed as it hits the water to its initial potential energy: Express ωw and ωp in terms of the speed v of the rope.8 m )2 (0.81 m/s 2 (5 m ) 320 kg ⋅ m 2 4 kg ⋅ m 2 1200 kg + + (0.Rotation 663 Solve for v: v= 2 gh(m − µ k M ) M +m+ 1 Mp 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= 2 9.79 m/s = = 34.81m/s 2 (2.25)(4 kg )] = 2.08 m 71 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the water’s surface and let the system include the winch.21 m/s .9 rad/s R 0.5 m )[2 kg − (0. the car. because Ki = Uf = 0. Note that some of the car’s initial potential energy will be transformed into rotational kinetic energy of the winch and pulley.3 m )2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= ( ) = 8. We’ll apply energy conservation to relate the car’s speed as it hits the water to its initial potential energy.6 kg ) 2 ( ) (b) Find the angular velocity of the pulley from its tangential speed: ω= v 2. which is the same throughout the system: Substitute to obtain: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. 1 2 2 2 mv 2 + 1 I w ω w + 1 I pω p − mg∆h = 0 2 2 ωw = v2 v2 and ωp = 2 2 rw rp 1 2 v2 1 v2 mv + I w 2 + 2 I p 2 − mg∆h = 0 rw rp 2 1 2 Solve for v: v= 2mg∆h I I m+ w + p 2 rw rp2 2(1200 kg ) 9.

the pulley and the earth.73 m/s ( ) (b) Find the angular speed at impact from the tangential speed at impact and the radius of the pulley: (c) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the blocks: ω= v 2.3 rad/s r 0. because v0 = 0. because Ki = Uf = 0. . Choose the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at the ledge and apply energy conservation to relate the impact speed of the 30-kg block to the initial potential energy of the system. 1 2 2 m30 v 2 + 1 m20 v 2 + 1 I pω p 2 2 + m20 g∆h − m30 g∆h = 0 1 2 m30 v + m20 v + 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 ( M pr 2 ) ⎛ v2 ⎞ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎜r ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ + m20 g∆h − m30 g∆h = 0 Solve for v: v= 2 g∆h(m30 − m20 ) m20 + m30 + 1 M p 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: 2 9. (a) Use conservation of energy to relate the impact speed of the 30-kg block to the initial potential energy of the system: Substitute for ωp and Ip to obtain: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or.73 m/s = = 27. relate the speed at impact to the fall distance and the 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆h or.81 m/s 2 (2 m )(30 kg − 20 kg ) v= 20 kg + 30 kg + 1 (5 kg ) 2 = 2.664 Chapter 9 *72 •• Picture the Problem Let the system include the blocks. We can use a constant-acceleration equations and Newton’s 2nd law to find the tensions in the strings and the descent time.1 m ∑F ∑F x x = T1 − m20 g = m20 a = m30 g − T2 = m30 a (1) (2) Using a constant-acceleration equation.

Rotation 665 acceleration and solve for and evaluate a: Substitute in equation (1) to find T1: (2.81 m/s 2 + 1. (a)Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the sphere and the hanging object: ∆t = ∆h ∆h 2∆h = = vav 1 v v 2 ∆t = 2(2 m ) = 1. express the time-of-fall in terms of the fall distance and the block’s average speed: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: 73 •• Picture the Problem The force diagram shows the forces acting on the sphere and the hanging object.87 m/s 2 = 234 N ( ) Substitute in equation (2) to find T2: T2 = m30 (g − a ) = (30 kg ) 9. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to obtain two equations in a and T that we can solve simultaneously.87 m/s 2 = 238 N ( ) (d) Noting that the initial speed of the 30-kg block is zero.73 m/s ∑τ and 0 = TR = I sphereα = mg − T = ma (1) (2) ∑F x Substitute for Isphere and α in equation (1) to obtain: TR = ( 2 5 MR 2 a )R (3) .47 s 2.81m/s 2 − 1. The tension in the string is responsible for the angular acceleration of the sphere and the difference between the weight of the object and the tension is the net force acting on the hanging object.87 m/s 2 v2 a= = 2∆h 2(2 m ) 2 T1 = m20 ( g + a ) = (20 kg ) 9.73 m/s) = 1.

09478 m/s 2 = 4. T= (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the pulley and the two objects: ∑F =T −m g = m a.81 m/s 2 + 0.9524 N ( ) .666 Chapter 9 Eliminate T between equations (2) and (3) and solve for a to obtain: a= g 2M 1+ 5m 2mMg 5m + 2 M (b) Substitute for a in equation (2) and solve for T to obtain: 74 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the forces acting on both objects and the pulley.478 cm/s 2 (b) Substitute for a in equation (1) and solve for T1 to obtain: T1 = m1 (g + a ) = (0. By applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion. we can obtain a system of three equations in the unknowns T1. x 1 1 1 (1) (2) (3) 0 2 1 0 and ∑F x = m2 g − T2 = m2 a Substitute for I0 = Ipulley and α in equation (2) to obtain: Eliminate T1 and T2 between equations (1).500 kg ) 9. T2. ∑ τ = (T − T )r = I α . and a that we can solve simultaneously. (3) and (4) and solve for a to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: (T2 − T1 ) r = (1 mr 2 ) a 2 r a= (4) (m2 − m1 )g m1 + m2 + 1 m 2 a= (510 g − 500 g )(981cm/s2 ) 500 g + 510 g + 1 (50 g ) 2 = 9.

By applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion.510 kg ) 9. and α that we can solve simultaneously.09713 m/s 2 = 4.500 kg ) 9.9524 N = 0.09478 m/s 2 = 4.713 cm/s 2 Substitute for a in equation (1) and solve for T1 to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T1: T1 = m1 ( g + a ) T1 = (0. T2.0024 N (c) If we ignore the mass of the pulley.9548 N − 4. our acceleration equation is: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a= (m2 − m1 )g m1 + m2 a= (510 g − 500 g )(981cm/s2 ) 500 g + 510 g = 9.9536 N From equation (4).9548 N ( ) Find ∆T: ∆T = T2 − T1 = 4. ( ) T1 = T2 (a) Express the condition that the system does not accelerate: τ net = m1 gR1 − m2 gR2 = 0 . we can obtain a system of three equations in the unknowns T1. if m = 0: *75 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the forces acting on both objects and the pulley.81 m/s 2 + 0.Rotation 667 Substitute for a in equation (3) and solve for T2 to obtain: T2 = m2 ( g − a ) = (0.81m/s 2 − 0.

0 kg 0.37 rad/s 2 = 746 N [ ( )] .2 m ) 1.668 Chapter 9 Solve for m2: m2 = m1 R1 R2 1.2 m )2 + (72 kg )(0.4 m )](9.37 rad/s 2 = 294 N Substitute in equation (5) to find T2: [ ( )] T2 = (72 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 − (1. 0 = T1 R1 − T2 R2 = I 0α .2 m ) − (72 kg )(0.4 m (1) Substitute numerical values and evaluate m2: (b) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the objects and the pulley: m 2 = (24 kg ) ∑F ∑τ and x = m1 g − T1 = m1 a .37 rad/s 2 Substitute in equation (4) to find T1: T1 = (36 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 ) (36 kg )(1.2 m = 72.81 m/s 2 + (0. (2) = T2 − m2 g = m2 a (3) (4) (5) ∑F x Eliminate a in favor of α in equations (1) and (3) and solve for T1 and T2: T1 = m1 ( g − R1α ) and T2 = m2 ( g + R2α ) Substitute for T1 and T2 in equation (2) and solve for α to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: α= (m1 R1 − m2 R2 )g 2 m1 R12 + m2 R2 + I 0 α= [(36 kg )(1.4 m )2 + 40 kg ⋅ m 2 = 1.4 m ) 1.

(a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the cylinder about an axis through its center of mass: ∑τ and 0 = TR = I 0 a R (1) ∑F x = Mg − T = 0 (2) Solve for T to obtain: (b) Rewrite equation (1) in terms of α: Solve for α: T = Mg TR = I 0α α= TR I0 MgR 2g = 2 1 R 2 MR Substitute for T and I0 to obtain: α= (c) Relate the acceleration a of the hand to the angular acceleration of the cylinder: Substitute for α to obtain: a = Rα ⎛ 2g ⎞ a = R⎜ ⎟ = 2g ⎝ R ⎠ .Rotation 669 76 •• Picture the Problem Choose the coordinate system shown in the diagram. to find the acceleration of the hand. By applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion. together with the angular acceleration of the cylinder. In (c) we use the condition that the acceleration of a point on the rim of the cylinder is the same as the acceleration of the hand. In (b) we can use the torque equation from (a) and our value for T to findα. we can obtain a system of two equations in the unknowns T and a.

we can derive an expression for the speed of the block when it reaches the bottom of the incline. (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the cylinder and the block: ∑τ and 0 = TR = I 0α = m2 g sin θ − T = m2 a (1) (2) ∑F a= x Substitute for α in equation (1). solve for T. express the total energy of the system when the block is at height h: (d) Use the fact that this system is conservative to express the total energy at the bottom of the incline: (e) Express the total energy of the system when the block is at the bottom of the incline in terms of its kinetic energies: E = U + K = m2 gh Ebottom = m2 gh Ebottom = K tran + K rot = 1 m2 v 2 + 1 I 0ω 2 2 2 .670 Chapter 9 77 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the bottom of the incline. By applying the conservation of energy. and substitute in equation (2) and solve for a to obtain: (b) Substitute for a in equation (2) and solve for T: g sin θ m 1+ 1 2m2 1 2 T= m1 g sin θ m 1+ 1 2m2 (c) Noting that the block is released from rest. T. By applying Newton’s 2nd law to the cylinder and the block we can obtain simultaneous equations in a. and α from which we can express a and T.

T = 0 .Rotation 671 Substitute for ω and I0 to obtain: 1 2 m2 v + 2 1 2 ( 1 2 v2 m1r = m2 gh r2 2 ) Solve for v to obtain: v= 2 gh m 1+ 1 2 m2 (f) For θ = 0: For θ = 90°: a =T =0 a= g . (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the platform and the weight: 2 gh ∑τ ∑F 0 = Tr = I 0α = Mg − T = Ma (1) (2) x . We can use the same equation to find the total moment of inertia when the object is placed on the platform and then subtract to find its moment of inertia. and v= *78 •• Picture the Problem Let r be the radius of the concentric drum (10 cm) and let I0 be the moment of inertia of the drum plus platform. We can use Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational forms to express I0 in terms of a and a constantacceleration equation to express a and then find I0. and v= 2 gh m 1+ 1 2 m2 For m1 = 0: a = g sin θ . m 1+ 1 2 m2 m1 g = m 1+ 1 2 m2 1 2 1 2 T= m1a .

8 s )2 ⎤ ×⎢ − 1⎥ 2(1.672 Chapter 9 Substitute a/r for α in equation (1) and solve for T: Substitute for T in equation (2) and solve for a to obtain: Using a constant-acceleration equation.5 kg )(0.81 m/s 2 (4.948 kg ⋅ m 2 .177 kg ⋅ m 2 = 1.8 m ) ⎣ ⎦ = 3.81m/s 2 (6.2 s )2 ⎤ ×⎢ − 1⎥ 2(1.125 kg ⋅ m 2 − 1.125 kg ⋅ m 2 ( ) Solve for and evaluate I: I = I tot − I 0 = 3. shaft.1 m ) 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate I0: ⎡ 9.177 kg ⋅ m 2 ( ) (b) Relate the moments of inertia of the platform. drum. relate the distance of fall to the acceleration of the weight and the time of fall and solve for the acceleration: Substitute for a in equation (3) to obtain: T= I0 a r2 Mr 2 ( g − a ) a 2 I0 = (3) ∆x = v0 ∆t + 1 a (∆t ) 2 or.5 kg )(0. because v0 = 0 and ∆x = D.1 m ) 2 ⎡ 9.8 m ) ⎣ ⎦ = 1. and pulley (I0) to the moment of inertia of the object and the total moment of inertia: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Itot: ⎛g ⎞ I tot = I 0 + I = Mr 2 ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎝a ⎠ ⎛ g (∆t )2 ⎞ = Mr ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎜ 2D ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 I tot = (2. a= 2D (∆t )2 ⎛ g (∆t )2 ⎞ ⎛g ⎞ − 1⎟ I 0 = Mr 2 ⎜ − 1⎟ = Mr 2 ⎜ ⎜ 2D ⎟ ⎝a ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ I 0 = (2.

1 m ) Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate v: v = 2 0.Rotation 673 Objects Rolling Without Slipping *79 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on the yo-yo are shown in the figure. v = 2a∆h (1) (2) (3) ∑F and x = mg − T = ma = Tr = I 0α ∑τ 0 Tr = I 0 a r (4) mg − I0 a = ma r2 1 2 (5) mR 2 for I0 in equation mg − mR 2 a = ma r2 a= g R2 1+ 2 2r Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a= 9. relate the yo-yo’s final speed to its acceleration and fall distance: Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the forces that act on the yo-yo to its acceleration: Use a = rα to eliminate α in equation (3) Eliminate T between equations (2) and (4) to obtain: Substitute (5): Solve for a: 1 2 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆h or.5 m ) 1+ 2 2(0. because v0 = 0.81 m/s 2 = 0.0864 m/s 2 (57 m ) = 3. Using a constant-acceleration equation. We can use a constant-acceleration equation to relate the velocity of descent at the end of the fall to the yo-yo’s acceleration and Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational form to find the yo-yo’s acceleration.14 m/s ( ) .0864 m/s 2 2 (1.

674 Chapter 9 80 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the forces acting on the cylinder. Apply Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational form to obtain simultaneous equations in T. a. By applying Newton’s 2nd law of motion. a. and α that we can solve simultaneously. (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the cylinder: ∑τ and 0 = TR = I 0α = Mg − T = Ma (1) (2) ∑F x Substitute for α and I0 in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for T: Substitute for T in equation (2) and solve for a to obtain: (b) Substitute for a in equation (3) to obtain: 81 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on the yo-yo are shown in the figure. TR = ( 1 2 ⎛a⎞ MR 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝R⎠ (3) ) T = 1 Ma 2 a= 2 3 g T = 1 M (2 g ) = 2 3 1 3 Mg Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the yo-yo: ∑F and x = mg − T = ma = Tr = I 0α (1) (2) ∑τ 0 Use a = rα to eliminate α in equation (2) Tr = I 0 a r (3) . we can obtain a system of two equations in the unknowns T. and α from which we can eliminate α and solve for T and a.

81 m/s 2 = 0.81 m/s 2 − 0.192 m/s 2 = 0. Express the rotational kinetic energy of the homogeneous solid cylinder: Express the total kinetic energy of the homogeneous solid cylinder: Express the ratio K rot = 1 I cylω 2 = 2 1 2 ( 1 2 mr 2 )v r 2 2 = 1 mv 2 4 K = K rot + K trans = 1 mv 2 + 1 mv 2 = 3 mv 2 4 2 4 K rot : K K rot 1 mv 2 1 = 4 2 = 3 and (b) is correct.192 m/s 2 2 (0.962 N ( ) *82 • Picture the Problem We can determine the kinetic energy of the cylinder that is due to its rotation about its center of mass by examining the ratio K rot K .1 kg ) 9.01 m ) Use equation (1) to solve for and evaluate T: T = m( g − a ) = (0.1 m ) 1+ 2 2(0.Rotation 675 Eliminate T between equations (1) and (3) to obtain: Substitute (4): Solve for a: 1 2 mg − I0 a = ma r2 1 2 (4) mR 2 for I0 in equation mR 2 a = ma mg − r2 a= g R2 1+ 2 2r Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a= 9. Therefore. the work needed to give the cylinder this motion is equal to its kinetic energy. 3 K 4 mv 83 • Picture the Problem Any work done on the cylinder by a net force will change its kinetic energy. Express the relationship between the work needed to stop the cylinder and its kinetic energy: W = ∆K = 1 mv 2 + 1 Iω 2 2 2 .

676 Chapter 9 Because the cylinder is rolling without slipping. We can find the percentages associated with each motion by expressing the moment of inertia of the objects as kmr2 and deriving a general expression for the ratios of rotational kinetic energy to total kinetic energy and translational kinetic energy to total kinetic energy and substituting the appropriate values of k.714 = 71.4 . Express the total kinetic energy associated with a rotating and translating object: K = K trans + K rot = 1 mv 2 + 1 Iω 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 1 kmr 2 2 2 ( = 1 mv 2 + 1 kmv 2 = 1 mv 2 (1 + k ) 2 2 2 Express the ratio )v r 2 2 K rot : K K trans : K Express the ratio 1 1 K rot kmv 2 k = 1 2 2 = = 1 1+ k 1+ 1 K 2 mv ( + k ) k 2 1 1 K trans mv = 1 22 = K 1 1+ k 2 mv ( + k ) (a) Substitute k = 2/5 for a uniform sphere to obtain: 1 K rot = = 0.6% 1 K 1+ 0.286 = 28.4% K 1 + 0.13 kJ 84 • Picture the Problem The total kinetic energy of any object that is rolling without slipping is given by K = K trans + K rot . its translational and angular speeds are related according to: Substitute for I (see Table 9-1) and ω and simplify to obtain: v = rω W = 1 mv 2 + 1 Iω 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 1 2 2 = 3 mv 2 4 ( 1 2 mr 2 )v r 2 2 Substitute for m and v to obtain: W = 3 4 (60 kg )(5 m/s )2 = 1.4 and K trans 1 = = 0.

Substitute for I and ω to obtain: Letting ∆h be the change in elevation of the hoop as it rolls up the incline and ∆L the distance it rolls along the incline. because Kf = Ui = 0. Using energy conservation.5 (c) Substitute k = 1 for a hoop to obtain: 1 K rot = = 50.Rotation 677 (b) Substitute k = 1/2 for a uniform cylinder to obtain: 1 K rot = = 33.7% K 1 + 0. We can use energy conservation to relate the distance the hoop rolls up the incline to its total kinetic energy at the bottom of the incline.3% 1 K 1+ 0. express Uf: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or.0% K 1+1 85 • Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the bottom of the incline. its outer surface turns with a speed v also.0% 1 K 1+ 1 and K trans 1 = = 50. relate the distance the hoop will roll up the incline to its kinetic energy at the bottom of the incline: Express Ki as the sum of the translational and rotational kinetic energies of the hoop: When a rolling object moves with speed v.5 and K trans 1 = = 66. − Ki + Uf = 0 (1) K i = K trans + K rot = 1 mv 2 + 1 Iω 2 2 2 K i = 1 mv 2 + 2 1 2 (mr ) v r 2 2 2 = mv 2 U f = mg∆h = mg∆L sin θ − mv 2 + mg∆L sin θ = 0 . As the hoop rolls up the incline its translational and rotational kinetic energies are transformed into gravitational potential energy. Hence ω = v/r.

The forces acting on the sphere are its weight r r r Apply Apply ∑ F = ma to the sphere: ∑τ = I cm r r mg sin θ − f = macm fr = I cmα fr = I cm and (1) α to the sphere: Use the nonslip condition to eliminate α and solve for f: acm r f = Substitute this result for f in equation (1) to obtain: From Table 9-1 we have.678 Chapter 9 Solve for ∆L: v2 ∆L = g sin θ Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆L: ∆L = (9. Choose the positive direction to be down the incline. As the sphere accelerates down the incline. the angular velocity of rotation must increase to maintain the nonslip condition. r and the force of friction f acting up the incline. the acceleration of the center of mass equals the net force divided by the mass. *86 •• Picture the Problem From Newton’s 2nd law.81m/s ) sin30° = 2 (15 m/s)2 45. the normal force Fn that balances the normal component of the weight. which is related to the acceleration by the nonslip condition. for a solid sphere: I cm acm r2 I cm acm = macm r2 mg sin θ − I cm = 2 mr 2 5 . The only torque about the center of mass is due to f because both mg and Fn act through the center of mass. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law for rotation about a horizontal axis through the center of mass of the sphere to find α.9 m r r mg downward.

3° ⎣ 5g ⎦ 87 •• Picture the Problem From Newton’s 2nd law. The only torque about the center of mass is due to f because both mg and ⎛ 7 acm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 5g ⎠ r r r r r r Fn act through the center of mass. the normal force Fn that balances the normal component of the weight. The forces acting on the thin spherical shell are its weight mg downward. and the force of friction f acting up the incline. for a thin fr = I cm mg sin θ − I cm = 2 mr 2 3 .2 g ) ⎤ = sin −1 ⎢ ⎥ = 16. which is related to the acceleration by the nonslip condition. Choose the positive direction to be down the incline. As the spherical shell accelerates down the incline.Rotation 679 Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: Solve for and evaluate θ : mg sin θ − 2 acm = macm 5 θ = sin −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎡ 7(0. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law for rotation about a horizontal axis through the center of mass of the sphere to find α. the acceleration of the center of mass equals the net force divided by the mass. the angular velocity of rotation must increase to maintain the nonslip condition. Apply ∑ F = ma to the thin ∑τ = I cm r r mg sin θ − f = macm fr = I cmα I acm and f = cm acm r2 r I cm acm = macm r2 (1) spherical shell: Apply α to the thin spherical shell: Use the nonslip condition to eliminate α and solve for f: Substitute this result for f in equation (1) to obtain: From Table 9-1 we have.

2 g ) = sin −1 = 19. and the force of friction. the only force which exerts a torque about the center of mass is the frictional force. (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational form to the ball: ∑F ∑F and x y = mg sin θ − f s = ma . as the moment of inertia for a given mass is larger for a hollow sphere than for a solid one. the normal force. = Fn − mg cosθ = 0 = f s r = I 0α (1) (2) (3) ∑τ 0 Because the basketball is rolling without slipping we know that: Substitute in equation (3) to obtain: α= a r a r (4) fs r = I 0 From Table 9-1 we have: Substitute for I0 and α in equation (4) and solve for fs: I 0 = 2 mr 2 3 fs r = ( 2 3 mr 2 )a ⇒ f r s = 2 ma 3 (5) .5° 3g Remarks: This larger angle makes sense. Because the weight can be assumed to be acting at the center of mass.680 Chapter 9 spherical shell: Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: Solve for and evaluate θ : mg sin θ − 2 acm = macm 3 θ = sin −1 5acm 3g 5(0. and the normal force acts through the center of mass. 88 •• Picture the Problem The three forces acting on the basketball are the weight of the ball. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to find a system of simultaneous equations that we can solve for the quantities called for in the problem statement.

the normal force. = Fn − mg cosθ = 0 = f s r = I 0α (1) (2) (3) ∑τ 0 Because the cylinder is rolling without slipping we know that: Substitute in equation (3) to obtain: α= a r a r (4) fs r = I 0 From Table 9-1 we have: I 0 = 1 mr 2 2 . (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational form to the cylinder: a= 3 5 g sin θ 2 5 3 f s = 2 m( 5 g sin θ ) = 3 mg sin θ Fn = mg cos θ f s.max to obtain: Use the result of part (b) to obtain: Solve for θmax: 89 •• Picture the Problem The three forces acting on the cylinder are the weight of the cylinder. and the normal force acts through the center of mass.Rotation 681 Substitute for fs in equation (1) and solve for a: (b) Find fs using equation (5): (c) Solve equation (2) for Fn: Use the definition of fs. and the force of friction. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to find a system of simultaneous equations that we can solve for the quantities called for in the problem statement. the only force which exerts a torque about the center of mass is the frictional force. Because the weight can be assumed to be acting at the center of mass.max = µ s Fn = µ s mg cos θ max 2 5 mg sin θ max = µs mg cos θ max θ max = tan −1 ( 5 µs ) 2 ∑F ∑F and x y = mg sin θ − f s = ma .

Kf −Ui = 0 (2) K f = K trans + K rot = 1 mv 2 + 1 I cmω 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 1 kmR 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 1 kmv 2 2 2 = (1 + k ) 1 mv 2 2 where k is 2/3 for the spherical shell and 2/5 for the uniform sphere. The distances the spheres will travel are directly proportional to their speeds when they leave the ramp. ( v )R 2 2 Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: (1 + k ) 1 mv 2 = mgH 2 .max to obtain: Use the result of part (b) to obtain: Solve for θmax: fs r = a= ( 2 3 1 2 mr 2 )a ⇒ f r s = 1 ma 2 (5) g sin θ 1 3 f s = 1 m( 2 g sin θ ) = 2 3 Fn = mg cos θ mg sin θ f s. Express the ratio of the distances traveled by the two spheres in terms of their speeds when they leave the ramp: Use conservation of mechanical energy to find the speed of the spheres when they leave the ramp: Express Kf for the spheres: L' v'∆t v' = = L v∆t v (1) ∆K + ∆U = 0 or.682 Chapter 9 Substitute for I0 and α in equation (4) and solve for fs: Substitute for fs in equation (1) and solve for a: (b) Find fs using equation (5): (c) Solve equation (2) for Fn: Use the definition of fs.max = µ s Fn = µ s mg cos θ max 1 3 mg sin θ max = µs mg cos θ max θ max = tan −1 (3µs ) *90 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the elevation where the spheres leave the ramp. because Ki = Uf = 0.

Rotation 683 Solve for v: v= 2 gH 1+ k Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: 1+ 2 1+ k L' 3 = = = 1.09 L 91 •• Picture the Problem Let the subscripts u and h refer to the uniform and thin-walled spheres.09 2 1 + k' 1+ 5 L or L' = 1. Express the total kinetic energy of the thin-walled cylinder at the bottom of the inclined plane: Express the total kinetic energy of the solid cylinder at the bottom of the inclined plane: Because the cylinders climb to the same height: K h = K trans + K rot = 1 mh v 2 + 1 I hω 2 2 2 = mh v + 1 2 2 1 2 ( v2 mh r = mh v 2 2 r 2 ) K u = K trans + K rot = 1 mu v'2 + 1 I uω 2 2 2 = 1 mu v' 2 + 1 2 2 3 4 ( 1 2 mu r 2 ) v' r 2 2 = 3 mu v' 2 4 mu v' 2 = mu gh and mh v 2 = mh gh Divide the first of these equations by the second: Simplify to obtain: 3 4 mu v' 2 mu gh = mh v 2 mh gh 3v' 2 =1 4v 2 v' = 4 v 3 Solve for v′: . their kinetic energies at the bottom of the incline must be equal. respectively. Because the cylinders climb to the same height.

76 = 10 t s2 7 . Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the sphere: ∑F ∑F and x y = mg sin θ − f s = ma s . 2 ∆s = 1 a(∆t ) 2 2 (4) as t s2 = a c t c2 where t c2 = (t s + 2.4 ) = t s2 + 4. relate the distance traveled down the incline to its acceleration and the elapsed time: Because ∆s is the same for both objects: fsr = ( 2 5 mr 2 )a ⇒ f r s 2 = 5 mas 5 as = 7 g sin θ a c = 1 g sin θ 2 ∆s = v0 ∆t + 1 a(∆t ) 2 or.684 Chapter 9 92 •• Picture the Problem Let the subscripts s and c refer to the solid sphere and thinwalled cylinder.76 2 provided tc and ts are in seconds. = f s r = I 0α (1) (2) (3) ∑τ 0 Substitute for I0 and α in equation (3) and solve for fs: Substitute for fs in equation (1) and solve for a: Proceed as above for the thin-walled cylinder to obtain: Using a constant-acceleration equation. Because the cylinder and sphere descend from the same height. We’ll use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the accelerations to the angle of the incline and use a constant acceleration to relate the accelerations to the distances traveled down the incline. because v0 = 0. their kinetic energies at the bottom of the incline must be equal.8t s + 5. = Fn − mg cosθ = 0 . Substitute for as and ac to obtain the quadratic equation: t s2 + 4. respectively. The force diagram shows the forces acting on the solid sphere.8t s + 5.

2 kg )](6 m/s ) 2 3 = 223 J 2 .81 m/s (12.8 kg + 3 kg ) + 2 (1.324° 93 ••• Picture the Problem The kinetic energy of the wheel is the sum of its translational and rotational kinetic energies. K = K trans + K rot Express the kinetic energy of the wheel: = 1 M tot v 2 + 1 I cmω 2 2 2 = 1 M tot v 2 + 1 I cm 2 2 v2 R2 where Mtot = Mrim + 4Mspoke Express the moment of inertia of the wheel: I cm = I rim + I spokes = M rim R 2 + 4 1 M spoke R 2 3 = (M rim + 4 M spoke )R 2 3 ( ) v ]R 2 2 Substitute for Icm in the equation for K: K = 1 M tot v 2 + 1 (M rim + 4 M spoke )R 2 3 2 2 = [ [ (M 1 2 tot + M rim ) + 2 M spoke v 2 3 ] Substitute numerical values and evaluate K: K = [ 1 (7.3 s θ = sin −1 ⎢ ⎡14∆s ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 5 gts ⎦ ⎤ 14(3 m ) 2⎥ 2 ⎣ 5 9.Rotation 685 Solve for the positive root to obtain: Substitute in equation (4).3 s ) ⎦ ⎡ θ = sin −1 ⎢ ( ) = 0. Because the wheel is a composite object. simplify. we can model its moment of inertia by treating the rim as a cylindrical shell and the spokes as rods. and solve for θ : Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ : t s = 12.

The object’s initial potential energy is transformed into translational and rotational kinetic energy as it rolls down the incline.686 Chapter 9 94 ••• Picture the Problem Let M represent the combined mass of the two disks and their connecting rod and I their moment of inertia. Application of Newton’s 2nd law will allow us to derive an expression for the acceleration of the object.02 m ) 2 2 2 = 1. = f s r = Iα (1) (2) (3) ∑τ a= 0 Eliminate fs and α between equations (1) and (3) and solve for a to obtain: Express the moment of inertia of the two disks plus connecting rod: Mg sin θ I M+ 2 r (4) I = 2 I disk + I rod = 2 1 mdisk R 2 + 1 mrod r 2 2 2 = mdisk R 2 + 1 mrod r 2 2 ( ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: I = (20 kg )(0. = Fn − Mg cos θ = 0 .80 kg ⋅ m 2 a= Substitute in equation (4) and evaluate a: (41kg )(9.3 m ) + 1 (1 kg )(0. (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the disks and rod: ∑F ∑F and x y = Mg sin θ − f s = Ma .21 rad/s 2 r 0.0443 m/s 2 = = 2.02 m .0443 m/s 2 (b) Find α from a: α= a 0.81m/s 2 ) sin30° 41 kg + 1.02 m )2 = 0.80 kg ⋅ m 2 (0. The force diagram shows the forces acting on this composite object as it rolls down the incline.

of the tip of the vector r0 .63 J ( ) (d) Express the rotational kinetic energy of the disks after rolling 2 m in terms of their initial potential energy and their translational kinetic energy: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Krot: K rot = U i − K trans = Mgh − K trans K rot = (41 kg ) 9. (a) Express the coordinates of point P relative to the center of the wheel: x = r0 cosθ and y = r0 sin θ Because the coordinates of the center of the circle are X and R: (x P . y P ) = ( X + r0 cosθ .0443 m/s 2 (2 m ) = 3.63 J = 399 J ( ) 95 ••• Picture the Problem We can express the coordinates of point P as the sum of the coordinates of the center of the wheel and the coordinates.81m/s 2 (2 m )sin30° − 3. relate the speed of the disks-plus-rod to their acceleration and the distance moved: Substitute to obtain: K trans = 1 Mv 2 2 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a∆s or. Differentiation of these expressions with respect to time will give us the x and y components of the velocity of point P. relative to the center of the r wheel.Rotation 687 (c) Express the kinetic energy of translation of the disks-plus-rod when it has rolled a distance ∆s down the incline: Using a constant-acceleration equation. R + r0 sin θ ) . v 2 = 2a∆s K trans = Ma∆s = (41 kg ) 0. because v0 = 0.

688 Chapter 9 (b) Differentiate xP to obtain: v Px = d ( X + r0 cosθ ) dt dX dθ = − r0 sin θ ⋅ dt dt r0V sin θ R Note that dX dθ V = V and = −ω = − so: dt dt R v Px = V + Differentiate yP to obtain: v Py = d (R + r0 sin θ ) = r0 cos θ ⋅ dθ dt dt r0V cosθ R Because dθ V = −ω = − : dt R r r vPy = − (c) Calculate v ⋅ r : r r v ⋅ r = v Px rx + v Py ry rV ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜V + 0 sin θ ⎟(r0 cos θ ) R ⎝ ⎠ ⎛rV ⎞ − ⎜ 0 cos θ ⎟(R + r0 sin θ ) ⎝ R ⎠ = 0 (d) Express v in terms of its components: 2 2 v = vx + v y rV ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ rV = ⎜V + 0 sin θ ⎟ + ⎜ − 0 cosθ ⎟ R ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ R = V 1+ 2 Express r in terms of its components: 2 2 r0 r2 sin θ + 02 R R r = rx2 + ry2 = (r0 cosθ )2 + (R + r0 sin θ )2 r0 r02 = R 1 + 2 sin θ + 2 R R Divide v by r to obtain: ω= v V = r R .

. aC = aB − Rα and Equate equations (2) and (4) and substitute from (5) to obtain: Substitute equation (4) in equation (1) and substitute for aC to obtain: Solve for aB: Rα = aB − aC aB = 3aC (5) F − 1 Ma B = ma B 3 aB = 3F M + 3m 97 ••• Picture the Problem Let the letter B identify the block and the letter C the cylinder.Rotation 689 *96 ••• Picture the Problem Let the letter B identify the block and the letter C the cylinder. as in Problem 97. fR = I CMα f = 1 MRα 2 aC = aB + aCB CM Substitute for ICM in equation (3) and solve for f = f ′ to obtain: Relate the acceleration of the block to the acceleration of the cylinder: or. because aCB = −Rα is the acceleration of the cylinder relative to the block. Apply Apply Apply ∑F x = ma x to the block: = ma x to the cylinder: = I CMα to the cylinder: F − f ' = maB (1) (2) (3) (4) ∑F ∑τ x f = MaC . In this problem. we can find the accelerations of the block and cylinder by applying Newton’s 2nd law and solving the resulting equations simultaneously. We can find the accelerations of the block and cylinder by applying Newton’s 2nd law and solving the resulting equations simultaneously.

690 Chapter 9 Apply Apply Apply ∑F ∑F ∑τ x = ma x to the block: = ma x to the cylinder: = I CMα to the cylinder: F − f = maB (1) (2) (3) (4) x f = MaC . (b) Equate equations (2) and (4) and substitute (5) to obtain: From equations (1) and (4) we obtain: Solve for aB: aB = 3aC F − 1 Ma B = ma B 3 aB = 3F M + 3m F M + 3m Substitute to obtain the linear acceleration of the cylinder relative to the table: aC = 1 a B = 3 . therefore. CM Substitute for ICM in equation (3) and solve for f: Relate the acceleration of the block to the acceleration of the cylinder: aC = aB − Rα and Rα = aB − aC aB − aC 3aC − aC 2aC = = R R R 2F = R(M + 3m ) (5) (a) Solve for α and substitute for aB to obtain: α= From the force diagram it is evident that the torque and. because aCB = −Rα. α is in the counterclockwise direction. fR = I CMα f = 1 MRα 2 aC = aB + aCB or.

because aCB = −Rα. relate the velocity of the block to its acceleration and the distance traveled: Substitute to obtain: Apply Apply Apply 2 K B = Won block = 1 mvB 2 2 2 v B = v0 + 2 a B d or. (5) . because the block starts from rest. We can find the kinetic energy of the block from its speed when it has traveled a distance d. In part (c) we can add the kinetic energies of the block and the cylinder to show that their sum is the work done by r F in displacing the system a distance d. (a) Express the kinetic energy of the block: Using a constant-acceleration equation. and the r block.Rotation 691 (c) Express the acceleration of the cylinder relative to the block: aCB = aC − aB = aC − 3aC = −2aC = − 2F M + 3m 98 ••• Picture the Problem Let the system include the earth. the cylinder. We can find the kinetic energy of the cylinder from the sum of its translational and rotational kinetic energies. 2 vB = 2 a B d K B = 1 m(2aB d ) = maB d 2 F − f = maB (1) (2) (3) (4) ∑F ∑F ∑τ x = ma x to the block: = ma x to the cylinder: = I CMα to the x f = MaC . Then F is an external force that changes the energy of the system by doing work on it. fR = I CMα CM cylinder: Substitute for ICM in equation (4) and solve for f: Relate the acceleration of the block to the acceleration of the cylinder: f = 1 MRα 2 aC = aB + aCB or.

692 Chapter 9 aC = aB − Rα and Rα = aB − aC (6) Equate equations (3) and (5) and substitute in (6) to obtain: Substitute equation (5) in equation (2) and use aB = 3aC to obtain: aB = 3aC F − MaC = maB or F − 1 MaB = maB 3 Solve for aB: aB = F m+ 1M 3 mFd m+ 1M 3 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: KB = (b) Express the total kinetic energy of the cylinder: 2 K cyl = K trans + K rot = 1 MvC + 1 I CMω 2 2 2 2 = 1 MvC + 1 I CM 2 2 2 vCB R2 (7) where vCB = vC − vB . Substitute the initial conditions to obtain: constant = 0 and vB = 3vC Substitute in our expression for vCB to obtain: Substitute for ICM and vCB in equation (7) to obtain: vCB = vC − vB = vC − 3vC = −2vC 2 K cyl = 1 MvC + 1 2 2 ( 1 2 MR 2 ) (− 2v ) R C 2 2 (8) = 3 Mv 2 2 C . In part (a) it was established that: Integrate both sides of the equation with respect to time to obtain: aB = 3aC vB = 3vC + constant where the constant of integration is determined by the initial conditions that vC = 0 when vB = 0.

Rotation 693 Because vC = 1 vB : 3 It part (a) it was established that: 2 2 vC = 1 v B 9 2 vB = 2 a B d and aB = Substitute to obtain: F m+ 1M 3 1 9 2 (2aB d ) = 9 ⎜ ⎜ 2 vC = ⎛ F 1 ⎝m+ 3M ⎞ ⎟d ⎟ ⎠ = 2 Fd 9(m + 1 M ) 3 Substitute in equation (8) to obtain: ⎛ 2 Fd ⎞ K cyl = 3 M ⎜ 2 ⎜ 9(m + 1 M ) ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ MFd = 3(m + 1 M ) 3 K tot = K B + K cyl = = mFd MFd + m + 1 M 3(m + 1 M ) 3 3 Fd (c) Express the total kinetic energy of the system and simplify to obtain: (3m + M ) Fd = 3(m + 1 M ) 3 99 •• Picture the Problem The forces responsible for the rotation of the gears are shown in the diagram to the right. (a) Apply ∑τ = Iα to the gears to 2 N ⋅ m − FR1 = I1α1 and (1) obtain their equations of motion: (2) where F is the force keeping the gears from slipping with respect to each other. The forces acting through the centers of mass of the two gears have been omitted because they produce no torque. FR2 = I 2α 2 Because the gears do not slip R1α1 = R2α 2 . We can apply Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form to obtain the equations of motion of the gears and the not slipping condition to relate their angular accelerations.

200 rad/s 2 2 N ⋅ m − FR1 = 0 and F= 2N⋅m 2N⋅m = = 4.5 m .400 rad/s 2 Use equation (3) to evaluate α2: (b) To counterbalance the 2-N·m torque.5 m 1 kg ⋅ m 2 + 16 kg ⋅ m 2 2(1 m ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate α1: α1 = ( ) = 0.400 rad/s ) = 2 0. Use equation (2) with α1 = 0 to find F: α2 = 1 2 (0. a counter torque of 2 N·m must be applied to the first gear.694 Chapter 9 relative to each other.00 N R1 0. the tangential accelerations of the points where they are in contact must be the same: Divide equation (1) by R1 to obtain: or α2 = R1 α1 = 1 α1 2 R2 (3) 2 N⋅m I − F = 1 α1 R1 R1 F= I2 α2 R2 Divide equation (2) by R2 to obtain: Add these equations to obtain: 2 N ⋅ m I1 I = α1 + 2 α 2 R1 R1 R2 2 N ⋅ m I1 I = α1 + 2 α1 R1 R1 2 R2 Use equation (3) to eliminate α2: Solve for α1 to obtain: α1 = 2N⋅m R I1 + 1 I 2 2 R2 2N⋅m 0.

Our choice of the zero of potential energy is shown on the diagram.Rotation 695 *100 •• Picture the Problem Let r be the radius of the marble. m its mass. R the radius of the large sphere. and v the speed of the marble when it breaks contact with the sphere. The numeral 1 denotes the initial configuration of the sphere-marble system and the numeral 2 is configuration as the marble separates from the sphere. (a) Apply conservation of energy: ∆U + ∆K = 0 or U 2 − U 1 + K 2 − K1 = 0 Because U2 = K1 = 0: − mg [R + r − (R + r ) cos θ ] + 1 mv 2 + 1 Iω 2 = 0 2 2 or − mg [(R + r )(1 − cos θ )] + 1 mv 2 + 1 Iω 2 = 0 2 2 − mg [(R + r )(1 − cosθ )] + 1 mv 2 + 1 I 2 2 v2 =0 r2 Use the rolling-without-slipping condition to eliminate ω: From Table 9-1 we have: Substitute to obtain: 2 I = 5 mr 2 − mg [(R + r )(1 − cosθ )] + 1 mv 2 + 1 2 2 or ( 2 5 mr 2 )v r 2 2 =0 − mg [(R + r )(1 − cos θ )] + 1 mv 2 + 1 mv 2 = 0 2 5 Solve for v2 to obtain: v2 = 10 g (R + r )(1 − cosθ ) 7 v2 R+r Apply ∑F r = mar to the marble as it separates from the sphere: mg cos θ = m or . We can use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential energy of the marble to the sum of its translational and rotational kinetic energies as it leaves the sphere.

meaning that the force of friction must be less than the force needed to keep the ball rolling without slipping before it leaves the sphere. In part (b) we can use the definitions of translational and rotational kinetic energy to find the ratio of the final and initial kinetic energies. However.696 Chapter 9 v2 cos θ = g (R + r ) Substitute for v2: cos θ = 1 ⎡10 ⎤ ⎢ 7 g (R + r )(1 − cos θ )⎥ g (R + r ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎡10 ⎤ = ⎢ (1 − cos θ )⎥ ⎣7 ⎦ Solve for and evaluate θ : θ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎟ = 54. v1 = rω. the normal force decreases to 0 at the (b) point where the ball leaves the sphere.0° ⎝ 17 ⎠ The force of friction is always less than µs multiplied by the normal force on the marble. 49 µ k g 2 v0 . (a) From Example 9-16: s1 = t1 = 2 12 v0 . and 7 µk g 5 v0 7 v1 = 5 µ k gt1 = 2 (b) When the ball rolls without slipping. Express the final kinetic energy of the ball: K f = K trans + K rot = 1 Mv12 + 1 Iω 2 2 2 = 1 Mv12 + 1 2 2 ( 2 5 Mr 2 )v r 2 1 2 2 7 5 = 10 Mv12 = 14 Mv0 . Rolling With Slipping 101 • Picture the Problem Part (a) of this problem is identical to Example 9-16.

06) 9.88 s 7 (0. Express the rotational impulse Prot as the product of the average torque and the time during which the rotational impulse acts: Express the average torque it produces about an axis through the center of the ball: Substitute in the expression for Prot to obtain: The translational impulse is also given by: Substitute to obtain: Solve for ω0: Prot = τ av ∆t τ av = P0 (h − r ) sin θ = P0 (h − r ) where θ (= 90°) is the angle between F and the lever arm h − r.71 m/s 7 *102 •• Picture the Problem The cue stick’s blow delivers a rotational impulse as well as a translational impulse to the cue ball. The rotational impulse changes the angular momentum of the ball and the translational impulse changes its linear momentum.Rotation 697 Express the ratio of the final and initial kinetic energies: (c) Substitute in the expressions in (a) to obtain: Kf = Ki 5 14 1 2 2 Mv0 5 = 2 Mv0 7 (8 m/s) 12 s1 = = 26.06) 9.81 m/s 2 ( ) v1 = 5 (8 m/s) = 5. Prot = P0 (h − r )∆t = (P0 ∆t )(h − r ) = Ptrams (h − r ) = ∆L = Iω0 Ptrans = P0 ∆t = ∆p = mv0 2 mv0 (h − r ) = 5 mr 2ω0 ω0 = 5v0 (h − r ) 2r 2 .81 m/s 2 2 ( ) t1 = 2 8 m/s = 3.6 m 49 (0.

We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the sphere and use the condition for rolling without slipping to find the speed of the center of mass when the sphere begins to roll without slipping. = f k r = I 0α (2) (3) (4) ∑τ 0 Using the definition of fk and Fn from equation (3). Relate the velocity of the sphere when it begins to roll to its acceleration and the elapsed time: Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the sphere: v = a∆t (1) ∑F ∑F and x y = f k = ma .698 Chapter 9 103 •• Picture the Problem The angular velocity of the rotating sphere will decrease until the condition for rolling without slipping is satisfied and then it will begin to roll. = Fn − mg = 0 . The force diagram shows the forces acting on the sphere. substitute in equation (2) and solve for a: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for α in equation (4): a = µk g v = a∆t = µ k g∆t (5) α= fkr mar 5 µk g = 2 2 = I0 2 r 5 mr 5µ k g ∆t 2r (6) Express the angular speed of the sphere when it has been moving for a time ∆t: Express the condition that the sphere rolls without slipping: Substitute from equations (5) and (6) and solve for the elapsed time until the sphere begins to roll: ω = ω0 − α ∆t = ω0 − v = rω ∆t = 2 rω 0 7 µk g .

We can then solve these equations to find the constant accelerations that allow us to apply constant-acceleration equations to find the velocity of the ball when it begins to roll and its sliding time. τ av = F (h − r ) . In parts (c) and (d) we can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the ball to obtain equations describing both the translational and rotational motion of the ball. express the average torque it produces about an axis through the center of the ball: Substitute h − r for l and 90° for θ v0 = (20 kN )(2 ×10−4 s ) = 0. The rotational impulse changes the angular momentum of the ball and the translational impulse changes its linear momentum. (a) Relate the translational impulse delivered to the ball to its change in its momentum: Solve for v0: v = µ k g∆t = 2rω0 2 rω 0 µ k g = 7 µk g 7 Ptrans = Fav ∆t = ∆p = mv0 v0 = Fav ∆t m Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0: (b) Express the rotational impulse Prot as the product of the average torque and the time during which the rotational impulse acts: Letting h be the height at which the impulsive force is delivered.Rotation 699 Use equation (4) to find v when the sphere begins to roll: 104 •• Picture the Problem The sharp force delivers a rotational impulse as well as a translational impulse to the ball.02 kg 200 m/s Prot = τ av ∆t τ av = Fl sin θ where θ is the angle between F and the lever arm l .

09 m − 0. substitute in equation (2) and solve for a: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for α in equation (4): a = µk g v = a∆t = µ k g∆t (5) α= fkr mar 5 µk g = 2 2 = I0 2 r 5 mr .05 m ) 2 2(. = f k r = I 0α (2) (3) (4) ∑τ 0 Using the definition of fk and Fn from equation (3). = Fn − mg = 0 .700 Chapter 9 to obtain: Substitute in the expression for Prot to obtain: Because Ptrans = F∆t: Prot = F (h − r )∆t Prot = Ptrans (h − r ) = ∆L = Iω0 2 = 5 mr 2ω0 Express the translational impulse delivered to the cue ball: Substitute for Ptrans to obtain: Solve for ω0: Ptrans = P0 ∆t = ∆p = mv0 2 5 mr 2ω0 = mv0 5v0 (h − r ) 2r 2 5(200 m/s )(0.05 m ) ω0 = ω0 = Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω0: = 8000 rad/s (c) and (d) Relate the velocity of the ball when it begins to roll to its acceleration and the elapsed time: Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the ball: v = a∆t (1) ∑F ∑F and x y = f k = ma .

81 m/s 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate t1: (b) From Example 9-16 we have: t1 = ( ) s1 = 2 12 v0 49 µ k g .81 m/s 2 (11.5) 9.Rotation 701 Express the angular speed of the ball when it has been moving for a time ∆t: Express the speed of the ball when it has been moving for a time ∆t: Express the condition that the ball rolls without slipping: Substitute from equations (6) and (7) and solve for the elapsed time until the ball begins to roll: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: ω = ω0 − α ∆t = ω0 − 5µ k g ∆t 2r (6) v = v 0 + µ k g∆t v = rω (7) ∆t = 2 rω 0 − v0 7 µk g 2 ⎡ (0.6 s ) = 257 m/s ( ) 105 •• Picture the Problem Because the impulse is applied through the center of mass. the distance traveled to rolling without slipping. We can use the results of Example 9-16 to find the rolling time without slipping. and the velocity of the ball once it begins to roll without slipping.6 s Use equation (4) to express v when the ball begins to roll: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v = v0 + µ k g∆t v = 200 m/s + (0.5) 9.194 s 7 (0.05 m )(8000 rad/s ) − 200 m/s ⎤ ⎥ (0.81m/s 2 7⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ∆t = ( ) = 11. ω0 = 0.6) 9. (a) From Example 9-16 we have: t1 = 2 v0 7 µk g 2 4 m/s = 0.

relate the angular speed of the ball to its acceleration: α= µ k mgR I cm = µ k mgR 2 5 mR 2 = 5µ k g 2R ω = ω0 + α∆t = ω0 + 5µ k g ∆t 2R .. solve for α: Using a constant-acceleration equation.81 m/s 2 2 ( ) v1 = v1 = 5 v0 7 5 (4 m/s) = 2.e.6) 9.666 m 49 (0.702 Chapter 9 Substitute numerical values and evaluate s1: (c) From Example 9-16 we have: (4 m/s) 12 s1 = = 0. = − f k = ma (1) (2) (3) (b) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the ball to obtain: ∑τ ∑F and 0 y ∑F x Using the definition of fk and Fn from equation (2). i.86 m/s 7 Substitute numerical values and evaluate v1: 106 •• Picture the Problem Because the impulsive force is applied below the center line. (a) Express the rotational impulse delivered to the ball: Prot = mv0 r = mv0 = ( 2 5 mR 2 ω0 ) 2R = I cmω0 3 Solve for ω0: ω0 = 5 v0 3 R = f k R = I cmα . We’ll use the impulsemomentum theorem and Newton’s 2nd law to find the linear and rotational velocities and accelerations of the ball and constantacceleration equations to relate these quantities to each other and to the elapsed time to rolling without slipping. the ball will slow down. = Fn − mg = 0 . the spin is backward.

0397 mv0 v )R 2 2 7 = 10 mv 2 Substitute to find Wfr: 2 2 Wfr = 1.0397 mv 0 2 = 1. solve equation (3) for a: Using a constant-acceleration equation.238v0 (c) Express the initial kinetic energy of the ball: 2 2 K i = K trans + K rot = 1 mv0 + 1 Iω0 2 2 = mv + 1 2 2 0 1 2 2 5 ( ⎛ 5v ⎞ 19 2 mR ⎜ 0 ⎟ = mv0 ⎝ 3R ⎠ 18 2 ) 2 2 = 1.238v0 ) = 0.056mv0 (d) Express the work done by friction in terms of the initial and final kinetic energies of the ball: Express the final kinetic energy of the ball: Wfr = K i − K f K f = 1 mv 2 + 1 I cmω 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 2 1 2 ( 2 5 mR 2 2 2 7 = 10 m(0.Rotation 703 Using the definition of fk and Fn from equation (2).016mv0 .056mv0 − 0. relate the speed of the ball to its acceleration: Impose the condition for rolling without slipping to obtain: Solve for ∆t: a = −µ k g v = v0 + a∆t = v0 − µ k g∆t (4) 5µ g ⎞ ⎛ R⎜ ω 0 + k ∆t ⎟ = v0 − µ k g∆t 2R ⎝ ⎠ ∆t = 16 v0 21 µ k g Substitute in equation (4) to obtain: ⎛ 16 v0 ⎞ 5 v = v0 − µ k g ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 21 µ g ⎟ = 21 v0 k ⎠ ⎝ = 0.

Because the ball has a forward spin. (a) and (b) Relate the velocity of the ball when it begins to roll to its acceleration and the elapsed time: Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the ball: v = v0 + a∆t (1) ∑F ∑F and x y = f k = ma . = f k R = I 0α (2) (3) (4) ∑τ 0 Using the definition of fk and Fn from equation (3).704 Chapter 9 107 •• Picture the Problem The figure shows the forces acting on the bowling during the sliding phase of its motion. We’ll apply Newton’s 2nd law to find the linear and rotational velocities and accelerations of the ball and constantacceleration equations to relate these quantities to each other and to the elapsed time to rolling without slipping. substitute in equation (2) and solve for a: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for α in equation (4): a = µk g v = v 0 + a∆t = v 0 + µ k g∆t (5) α= fk R maR 5 µk g = 2 = 2 I0 2 R 5 mR 5 µk g ∆t 2 R Relate the angular speed of the ball to its acceleration: Apply the condition for rolling without slipping: ω = ω0 − 5 µk g ⎞ ⎛ v = Rω = R⎜ ω0 − ∆t ⎟ 2 R ⎝ ⎠ 5 µk g ⎞ ⎛ 3v = R⎜ 0 − ∆t ⎟ ⎝ R 2 R ⎠ . the friction force is in the direction of motion and will cause the ball’s translational speed to increase. = Fn − mg = 0 .

(a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the cylinder: ∑F ∑F and x y = − f k = Ma . = Fn − Mg = 0 . We’ll use Newton’s 2nd law to find the linear and rotational velocities and accelerations of the ball and constantacceleration equations to relate these quantities to each other and to the distance traveled and the elapsed time until the satisfaction of the condition for rolling without slipping.Rotation 705 ∴ v = 3v0 − Equate equations (5) and (6) and solve ∆t: Substitute for ∆t in equation (6) to obtain: (c) Relate ∆x to the average speed of the ball and the time it moves before beginning to roll without slipping: 5 µ k g∆t 2 (6) ∆t = 4 v0 7 µk g v= 11 v0 = 1. = f k R = I 0α (1) (2) (3) ∑τ 0 Use fk = µkFn to eliminate Fn between equations (1) and (2) and solve for a: a = −µ k g . The friction force will cause the cylinder’s translational speed to decrease and eventually satisfy the condition for rolling without slipping.735 0 49 µ k g µk g *108 •• Picture the Problem The figure shows the forces acting on the cylinder during the sliding phase of its motion.57v0 7 1 2 ∆x = vav ∆t = (v0 + v )∆t 11 ⎞⎛ 4v0 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ = 1 ⎜ v0 + v0 ⎟⎜ 2 7 ⎠⎜ 7 µ k g ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ = 2 v2 36 v0 = 0.

706 Chapter 9 Using a constant-acceleration equation. eliminate fk between equations (2) and (3) and solve for α: Using a constant-acceleration equation. relate the angular speed of the cylinder to its acceleration and the elapsed time: Apply the condition for rolling without slipping: v = v0 + a∆t = v0 − µ k g∆t α= 2µ k g R ω = ω0 + α∆t = 2µ k g ∆t R ⎛ 2µ g ⎞ v = v0 − µ k g∆t = Rω = R⎜ k ∆t ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ = 2 µ k g∆t ∆t = v0 Solve for ∆t: 3µ k g Substitute for ∆t in the expression for v: (b) Relate the distance the cylinder travels to its average speed and the elapsed time: v = v0 − µ k g 3µ k g 1 2 v0 = 2 v0 3 ⎛ v0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 3µ k g ⎠ ∆x = vav ∆t = (v0 + 2 v0 )⎜ 3 ⎜ 2 5 v0 = 18 µ k g (c) Express the ratio of the energy dissipated in friction to the cylinder’s initial mechanical energy: Express the kinetic energy of the cylinder as it begins to roll without slipping: Wfr K i − K f = Ki Ki K f = 1 Mv 2 + 1 I cmω 2 2 2 = 1 Mv 2 + 1 2 2 = ( 1 2 MR 2 v )R 2 2 2 3 3 ⎛2 ⎞ 1 2 Mv 2 = M ⎜ v0 ⎟ = Mv0 4 4 ⎝3 ⎠ 3 . relate the speed of the cylinder to its acceleration and the elapsed time: Similarly.

Once we have determined the ball’s acceleration.Rotation 707 Substitute for Ki and Kf and simplify to obtain: 109 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on the ball as it slides across the floor are its weight mg. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational form to obtain a set of equations that we can solve for the acceleration of the ball. we can use constant-acceleration equations to describe how long it will take the ball to begin vf − v = a∆t = − µ k g∆t and ωf = µ k gmr I ∆t . the normal force Fn exerted by the floor. and the friction force f . we can use constantacceleration equations to obtain its velocity when it begins to roll without slipping. the friction force is the net (decelerating) force. (a) Apply 2 2 Wfr 1 Mv0 − 1 Mv0 1 3 2 = = 2 1 Ki 3 2 Mv0 r r v ∑ F = ma to the ball: r r ∑F and x = − f = ma = Fn − mg = 0 (1) (2) (3) ∑F y From the definition of the coefficient of kinetic friction we have: Solve equation (2) for Fn: Substitute in equation (3) to obtain: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: f = µ k Fn Fn = mg f = µ k mg − µ k mg = ma or a = −µk g Apply ∑τ = Iα to the ball: fr = Iα Solve for α to obtain: α= fr µ k mgr = I I (4) (5) Assuming that the coefficient of kinetic friction is constant*. Because the weight and normal force act through the center of mass of the ball and are equal in magnitude.

708 Chapter 9 rolling without slipping: Once rolling without slipping has been established. General Problems *110 • Picture the Problem The angular velocity of an object is the ratio of the number of revolutions it makes in a given period of time to the elapsed time. v = rωf and: 2 2 2 2 1 ⎛ 1 1 1 2⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 1 ⎛ ⎞ v ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 1 + I / mr 2 ⎛ ⎟ = mv K = m⎜ ⎟ v + I⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎝ 1 + I / mr 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 1 + I / mr 2 ⎠ r 2 2 ⎝ 1 + I / mr ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 1 2⎛ 1 ⎞ mv ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ 1 + I / mr ⎠ * Remarks: This assumption is not necessary. . One can use the impulse-momentum theorem and the related theorem for torque and change in angular momentum to prove that the result holds for an arbitrary frictional force acting on the ball. we also have: Equate equations (5) and (6): ωf = vf r (6) vf µ k gmr = ∆t r I ∆t = vf I µ k gmr 2 Solve for ∆t: Substitute in equation (4) to obtain: ⎛ vf I ⎞ vf − v = − µ k g ⎜ ⎜ µ gmr 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ k ⎠ I = − 2 vf mr vf = Solve for vf: 1 I 1+ mr 2 v (b) Express the total kinetic energy of the ball: K= 1 2 1 2 mvf + Iωf 2 2 Because the ball is now rolling without slipping. so long as the ball moves along a straight line and the force is directed opposite to the direction of motion of the ball.

because ω0 = 0.66 × 10−6 rad/s 111 • Picture the Problem The moment of inertia of the hoop. Apply the parallel axis theorem: I = I cm + Mh 2 = MR 2 + MR 2 = 2mR 2 112 •• Picture the Problem The force you exert on the rope results in a net torque that accelerates the merry-go-round. relate the angular displacement of the merry-go-round to its angular acceleration and acceleration time: Solve for and evaluate α: ∆θ = ω 0 ∆t + 1 α (∆t ) 2 or. is related to its moment of inertia with respect to an axis through its center of mass by the parallel axis theorem. its angular acceleration. (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.3 days rev 24 h 3600 s = 2.Rotation 709 The moon’s angular velocity is: ω= 1rev 27.0873 rad/s 2 = 6.2 m ) = 572 N ⋅ m I= τ net 572 N ⋅ m = α 0. 2 ∆θ = 1 α (∆t ) 2 2 α= 2∆θ 2(2π rad ) = = 0.3 days 1rev 2π rad 1day 1h = × × × 27. about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the hoop and through its edge.55 × 103 kg ⋅ m 2 . and the torque you apply are related through Newton’s 2nd law. The moment of inertia of the merry-go-round.0873 rad/s 2 2 2 (∆t ) (12 s ) (b) Use the definition of torque to obtain: (c) Use Newton’s 2nd law to find the moment of inertia of the merry-goround: τ = Fr = (260 N )(2.

40 N ⋅ m α= τ net I = τ net 1 2 MR 2 α= 2(2. because ω0 = 0. The diagram shows the stick in its initial raised position and when it has fallen to the ice. The disk’s rotational kinetic energy can be found from its definition.12 m ) ω = ω 0 + α∆t or. the center of mass of the stick will not move in the horizontal direction.710 Chapter 9 113 • Picture the Problem Because there are no horizontal forces acting on the stick. relate the angular velocity of the disk to its angular τ ≡ FR = (20 N )(0. find the initial coordinate of the right end of the stick: Because the center of mass has not moved horizontally: Substitute to find the displacement of the right end of the stick: ∆x = x2 − x1 x1 = l cos θ = (1 m ) cos30° = 0. We can relate these quantities to the moment of inertia of the disk through Newton’s 2nd law and then use constant-acceleration equations to find the disk’s angular velocity the angle through which it has rotated in a given period of time. (a) Use the definition of torque to obtain: (b) Use Newton’s 2nd law to express the angular acceleration of the disk in terms of the net torque acting on it and its moment of inertia: Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: (c) Using a constant-acceleration equation.7 rad/s 2 2 (5 kg )(0. Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the horizontal position of the center of mass.866 m = 0. ω = α∆t .12 m ) = 2. Express the displacement of the right end of the stick ∆x as the difference between the position coordinates x2 and x2: Using trigonometry.40 N ⋅ m ) = 66.866 m x2 = l = 1 m ∆x = 1 m − 0.134 m 114 •• Picture the Problem The force applied to the string results in a torque about the center of mass of the disk that accelerates it.

the angular acceleration of the rod and then. first. We can use conservation of energy to find the angular velocity of the center of mass of the rod when it is vertical and then use this value to find its linear velocity. the acceleration of any point on the rod. from α. later. 2 (e) Using a constant-acceleration equation.00 kJ ∆θ = ω 0 ∆t + 1 α (∆t ) 2 or. The center of mass is denoted by the numerals 0 and 1.Rotation 711 acceleration and the elapsed time: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω: (d) Use the definition of rotational kinetic energy to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Krot: ω = (66. (a) Relate the acceleration of the center of the rod to the angular a = lα = L α 2 . as it swings through its vertical position.7 rad/s 2 )(5 s ) = 333 rad/s K rot = 1 Iω 2 = 2 1 1 2 2 ( MR 2 ω 2 ) K rot = 1 4 (5 kg )(0. relate the angle through which the disk turns to its angular acceleration and the elapsed time: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆θ : (f) Express K in terms of τ and θ : ∆θ = 1 α (∆t ) 2 ∆θ = 1 2 2 (66. We can use Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form to find.12 m )2 (333 rad/s)2 = 2.7 rad/s )(5 s) 2 2 = 834 rad ⎛τ ⎞ 2 2 K = 1 Iω 2 = 1 ⎜ ⎟(α∆t ) = 1 ατ (∆t ) 2 2 2 ⎝α ⎠ = τ ∆θ 115 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the rod in its initial horizontal position and then. Let the length of the rod be represented by L and its mass by m. because ω0 = 0.

81 m/s 2 = 18.8 m ) 18.4 rad/s 2 = 14.7 m/s 2 ( ) (c) Relate the linear velocity of the center of mass of the rod to its angular velocity as it passes through the vertical: Use conservation of energy to relate the changes in the kinetic and potential energies of the rod as it swings from its initial horizontal orientation through its vertical orientation: Substitute to obtain: Substitute for ∆h and solve for ω: v = ω∆h = 1 ωL 2 ∆K + ∆U = K1 − K 0 + U 1 − U 0 = 0 or.8 m ) 1 2 ( ) (0.81 m/s 2 (0.8 m )(18.4 rad/s 2 ) = 7.4 rad/s 2 2(0.36 m/s 2 aend = Lα = (0. because K0 = U1 = 0.43 m/s ( ) .712 Chapter 9 acceleration of the rod: Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the torque about the suspension point of the rod (exerted by the weight of the rod) to the rod’s angular acceleration: Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: (b) Relate the acceleration of the end of the rod to α: L 3g τ α= =1 2 = 2 I 3 ML 2L Mg α= a= 3 9. K1 − U 0 = 0 1 2 I Pω 2 = mg∆h 3g L 3g = L 1 2 ω= Substitute to obtain: v=1L 2 3 gL Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= 1 2 3 9.8 m ) = 2.

into gravitational potential energy. Kf −Ui = 0 1 2 Mv 2 + 1 Iω 2 − Mgh1 = 0 2 v 2 = 10 gh1 7 h2 = 10 7 gh1 = 2g 5 7 h1 *117 •• Picture the Problem To stop the wheel. We can find the stopping torque and the force from the average power delivered by the force during the slowing of the wheel. The number of revolutions made by the wheel as it stops can be found from a constant-acceleration equation. (a) Relate the work that must be done to stop the wheel to its kinetic energy: W = 1 Iω 2 = 2 1 1 2 2 ( mr 2 ω 2 = 1 mr 2ω 2 4 ) . The initial potential energy of the marble is transformed into translational and rotational kinetic energy as it rolls down the track to its lowest point and then. the tangential force will have to do an amount of work equal to the initial rotational kinetic energy of the wheel. because the portion of the track to the right is frictionless. because Ki = Uf = 0. relate h1 to the kinetic energy of the marble at the bottom of the track: Substitute for Kf and Ui to obtain: Substitute for I and solve for v2 to obtain: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. Using conservation of energy. relate h2 to the kinetic energy of the marble at the bottom of the track: Substitute for Ki and Uf to obtain: Solve for h2: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. because Kf = Ui = 0.Rotation 713 116 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the bottom of the track. eventually. − Ki + U f = 0 − 1 Mv 2 − Mgh2 = 0 2 h2 = v2 2g (1) Using conservation of energy. into translational kinetic energy and.

6 m ∆θ = ωav ∆t ⎛ 1100 rev/min ⎞ ∆θ = ⎜ ⎟ (2. relate the angular displacement of the wheel to its average angular velocity and the stopping time: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆θ: F= τ R = 90. .714 Chapter 9 Substitute numerical values and evaluate W: W= 1 4 (120 kg )(1.5 min ) 2 ⎝ ⎠ = 1380 rev 118 •• Picture the Problem The work done by the four children on the merry-go-round will change its kinetic energy.3 N ⋅ m Relate the stopping torque to the magnitude of the required force and solve for F: (c) Using a constant-acceleration equation. We can use the work-energy theorem to relate the work done by the children to the distance they ran and Newton’s 2nd law to find the angular acceleration of the merry-go-round.5 min )(60 s/min ) τ= (1100 rev/min )(2π rad/rev)(1 min/60 s ) 2 = 90.4 m )2 2 ⎡ rev 2π rad 1min ⎤ × ⎢1100 × × min rev 60 s ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ = 780 kJ (b) Express the stopping torque is terms of the average power required: Solve for τ : Pav = τω av τ= ωav Pav Substitute numerical values and evaluate τ : 780 kJ (2.3 N ⋅ m = 151 N 0.

21 kJ 119 •• Picture the Problem Because the center of mass of the hoop is at its center.6 m ) = 302 J Wnet force = ∆K = K f − 0 = 4 F∆s Wnet force = 4(26 N )(11. The distance moved by the center of the hoop can be determined using a constantacceleration equation.6 m (b) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to express the angular acceleration of the merry-go-round: Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: (c) Use the definition of work to relate the force exerted by each child to the distance over which that force is exerted: (d) Relate the kinetic energy of the merry-go-round to the work that was done on it: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Wnet force: α= τ net I = 1 2 4 Fr 8F = 2 mr mr α= 8(26 N ) = 0.6 m ) = 1.Rotation 715 (a) Use the work-kinetic energy theorem to relate the work done by the children to the kinetic energy of the merry-go-round: Substitute for I and solve for ∆s to obtain: Wnet force = ∆K = Kf or 4 F∆s = 1 Iω 2 2 ∆s = Iω 2 1 mr 2ω 2 mr 2ω 2 = 2 = 8F 8F 16 F 2 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆s: ⎡ ⎤ (240 kg )(2 m ) ⎢1rev × 2π rad ⎥ rev ⎦ ⎣ 2.8 s ∆s = 16(26 N ) = 11. we can use Newton’s second law to relate the acceleration of the hoop to the net force acting on it. relate the distance the ∆s = 1 a cm (∆t ) 2 2 . (a) Using a constant-acceleration equation.433 rad/s 2 (240 kg )(2 m ) W = F∆s = (26 N )(11. as can the angular velocity of the hoop.

65 m ) 15. M its mass.716 Chapter 9 center of the travels in 3 s to the acceleration of its center of mass: Relate the acceleration of the center of mass of the hoop to the net force acting on it: Substitute to obtain: a cm = Fnet m ∆s = F (∆t ) 2m 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆s: (b) Relate the angular velocity of the hoop to its angular acceleration and the elapsed time: Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the angular acceleration of the hoop to the net torque acting on it: Substitute to obtain: (5 N )(3 s )2 ∆s = 2(1. We’ll apply Newton’s 2nd law and the conservation of mechanical energy to determine the initial angular acceleration and the maximum angular velocity of the wheel. and m the mass of the load attached to the handle. r the radius of the handle. (a) Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the acceleration of the wheel to the net torque acting on it: α= τ net I = 1 2 mgr MR 2 + mr 2 .5 kg ) ω = α ∆t = 15. Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be where the 25-kg load is at its lowest point.4 rad/s 120 •• Picture the Problem Let R represent the radius of the grinding wheel.5 kg )(0. we’ll treat the 25-kg load as though it were concentrated at a point.0 m α= τ net I = FR F = 2 mR mR ω= ω= F∆t mR Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω: (5 N )(3 s ) = (1. In the absence of information to the contrary.

because Ki = Uf = 0.65 m ) = 9.81 m/s 2 (0. K f.45 m ) + (25 kg )(0. 1 2 1 2 mv 2 + 1 2 2 2 ( 1 2 MR 2 ω 2 − mgr = 0 . height. Then the length. respectively.65 m ) + (60 kg )(0.65 m ) 2 2 2(25 kg )(0.45 m ) and ω= Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω: ω= ( ) = 4. and moments of inertia of the two blocks. Let the numeral 1 denote the smaller block and the numeral 2 the larger block and express the ratios of the surface areas.81m/s2 )(0.65 m ) 2 2 1 2 (60 kg )(0. and width of the larger block are Sl.Rotation 717 Substitute numerical values and evaluate α: α= (25 kg )(9. masses.trans + K f.58 rad/s 2 (b) Use the conservation of mechanical energy to relate the initial potential energy of the load to its kinetic energy and the rotational kinetic energy of the wheel when the load is directly below the center of mass of the wheel: Substitute and solve for ω: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. 4mgr 2mr 2 + MR 2 4(25 kg ) 9.38 rad/s *121 •• Picture the Problem Let the smaller block have the dimensions shown in the diagram.rot − U i = 0 . and Sw. 1 4 ) mr ω + MR 2ω 2 − mgr = 0 . Sh. (a) Express the ratio of the surface areas of the two blocks: A2 2(Sw)(Sl ) + 2(Sl )(Sh ) + 2(Sw)(Sh ) = A1 2wl + 2lh + 2wh = S2 (2wl + 2lh + 2wh ) 2 wl + 2lh + 2 wh = S2 .

solve for Ix: Ix = Iy I z = 2I x Ix = 1 Iz = 2 1 2 ( 1 2 MR 2 = ) 1 4 MR 2 123 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the center of the disk when it is directly below the pivot. By symmetry: Express Iz in terms of Ix: Letting M represent the mass of the disk.718 Chapter 9 (b) Express the ratio of the masses of the two blocks: M 2 ρV2 V2 (Sw)(Sl )(Sh ) = = = M 1 ρV1 V1 w lh = S3 (wlh ) = S3 wlh (c) Express the ratio of the moments of inertia. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the force exerted by the pivot to the weight of the disk and the centripetal force acting on it at its lowest point. of the two blocks: I2 = I1 = 1 12 M 2 (Sl ) + (Sh ) 2 2 1 12 M 1 l + h 2 [ 2 M 2 S2 l 2 + h 2 ⎛ M 2 ⎞ 2 =⎜ ⎟ ⎜M ⎟S M1 l2 + h2 ⎝ 1⎠ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ( ) In part (b) we showed that: M2 = S3 M1 I2 = (S3 )(S2 ) = S5 I1 Substitute to obtain: 122 •• Picture the Problem We can derive the perpendicular-axis theorem for planar objects by following the step-by-step procedure outlined in the problem. about the axis shown in the diagram. (a) and (b) I z = ∫ r 2 dm = ∫ x 2 + y 2 dm = ∫ x 2 dm + ∫ y 2 dm = Ix + Iy ( ) (c) Let the z axis be the axis of rotation of the disk. . The initial gravitational potential energy of the disk is transformed into rotational kinetic energy when its center of mass is directly below the pivot.

Because we’ll need to take moments about the point of rotation (point P). . we’ll need to use the parallelaxis theorem to find the moments of inertia of the two parts of this composite structure.rot and U i : Use the parallel-axis theorem to relate the moment of inertia of the disk about the pivot to its moment of inertia with respect to an axis through its center of mass: Solve equation (1) for ω and substitute for I to obtain: (b) Letting F represent the force exerted by the pivot. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form to the structure to express its angular acceleration in terms of the net torque causing it to fall and its moment of inertia with respect to point P.Rotation 719 (a) Use the conservation of mechanical energy to relate the initial potential energy of the disk to its kinetic energy when its center of mass is directly below the pivot: Substitute for K f. use Newton’s 2nd law to express the net force acting on the swinging disk as it passes through its lowest point: Solve for F and simplify to obtain: ∆K + ∆U = 0 or. K f. because Ki = Uf = 0. Let the numeral 1 denote the vertical member and the numeral 2 the horizontal member.rot − U i = 0 1 2 Iω 2 − Mgr = 0 (1) I = I cm + Mh 2 or I = 1 Mr 2 + Mr 2 = 3 Mr 2 2 2 ω= 4g 3r Fnet = F − Mg = Mrω 2 F = Mg + Mrω 2 = Mg + Mr = Mg + 4 Mg = 3 7 3 4g 3r Mg 124 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows a vertical cross-piece.

cm + m2 d 2 where d 2 = (l 1 + 1 w) + ( 1 l 2 − w) 2 2 2 2 d= (l 1 + 1 w)2 + ( 1 l 2 − w)2 2 2 d= [3.610 m )2 ] (2) = 1.610 m )] 2 + [1 (1.281ft l 1 = 12 ft × Using Table 9-1 and the parallelaxis theorem.281ft 1m w = 2 ft × = 0.720 Chapter 9 (a) Taking clockwise rotation to be positive (this is the direction the structure is going to rotate).66 m + 1 (0. express the moment of inertia of the horizontal member about an axis through point P: Solve for d: Substitute numerical values and evaluate d: I1P ⎛ w⎞ = m l + m1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 2 = m1 1 l 1 + 1 w 2 4 3 1 3 2 1 1 2 ( ) I1P = (350 kg ) [ (3. l 2 .cm = 12 m2 l 2 2 = 3.66 m .83 m ) − 0.60 × 103 kg ⋅ m 2 I 2 P = I 2. express the moment of inertia of the vertical member about an axis through point P: Substitute numerical values and evaluate I1P: Using the parallel-axis theorem.66 m) + 1 3 2 1 4 (0. and 3.281ft 1m l 2 = 6 ft × = 1. apply τ = I Pα : ⎛l ⎞ ⎛ w⎞ m2 g ⎜ 2 ⎟ − m1 g ⎜ ⎟ = I Pα ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ∑ Solve for α to obtain: α= or m2 gl 2 − m1 gw 2I P g (m2 l 2 − m1w) 2(I1P + I 2 P ) (1) α= Convert l 1 . 3. and w to SI units: 1m = 3.610 m 3.86 m From Table 9-1 we have: Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: I2P = 1 12 m2l 2 + m2 d 2 2 = m2 ( 1 12 l2 + d 2 2 ) .610 m] 2 2 2 1 I 2.83 m .

61m m ( = 0.610 m )2 + (1.44 m Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a = 0.44 m ) = 0.61m)] = 2 2(1.86 m ) 2 [ 2 ] = 2.81m/s )[(175 kg )(1.66 × 103 kg ⋅ m 2 Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate α: α= (9.83 m) − (350 kg )(0.440.Rotation 721 Evaluate I2P: 1 I 2 P = (175 kg ) 12 (1.664.610 m )2 = 4.66 m + 0.546 m/s 2 l1 + w R m+ ) 3.525 m/s 2 .83 m − 0.123 rad/s 2 (b) Express the magnitude of the acceleration of the sparrow: a = αR where R is the distance of the sparrow from the point of rotation and R 2 = (l 1 + w) + (l 2 − w) 2 2 Solve for R: Substitute numerical values and evaluate R: R= (l 1 + w)2 + (l 2 − w)2 R= (3.66)× 10 kg ⋅ m 3 2 0.83 m ) + (3.60 + 2.546 m/s 2 ( ) (c) Refer to the diagram to express ax in terms of a: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ax: a x = a cos θ = a ax = 0.123 rad/s 2 (4.

the forces acting on the spool will be its weight. the normal force exerted by the incline. K f.rot − U i = 0 . The force diagram shows the forces acting on the spool when there is enough friction to keep it from slipping. The initial potential energy of the spool is transformed into rotational and translational kinetic energy when the spool reaches the bottom of the incline. (a) In the absence of friction. A component of its weight will cause the spool to accelerate down the incline and the tension in the string will exert a torque that will cause counterclockwise rotation of the spool. We can apply the conservation of mechanical energy to find an expression for its speed at that location. trans . K f.722 Chapter 9 125 •• Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the bottom of the incline. We’ll use Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational form to derive an expression for the static friction force. and the tension in the string. ∆K + ∆U = 0 or.rot and U i : Substitute for ω and solve for v to obtain: The spool will move down the plane at constant acceleration. 1 2 Mv 2 + 1 Iω 2 − MgD sin θ = 0 2 (1) 1 2 v2 Mv + I 2 − MgD sin θ = 0 r 2 1 2 and v= 2MgD sin θ I M+ 2 r .trans + K f. Use the conservation of mechanical energy to relate the speed of the center of mass of the spool at the bottom of the slope to its initial potential energy: Substitute for K f. spinning in a counterclockwise direction as string unwinds. because Ki = Uf = 0.

up the incline.75mg F (0. We can relate the angular acceleration to the acceleration of the end of the meterstick using a = Lα and use Newton’s 2nd law in rotational form to relate α to the moment of inertia of the meterstick.25mg F (1 m ) = F (1.Rotation 723 (b) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the spool: ∑F ∑τ fs = x = Mg sin θ − T − f s = 0 = Tr − f s R = 0 Mg sin θ . use Newton’s 2nd law to express the force F acting on a coin: Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the angular acceleration of the system to the net torque acting on it: Relate a(x) and α: Fnet = mg − F ( x ) = ma( x ) or F ( x ) = m(g − a ( x )) (1) L τ 3g α = net = 1 2 = 2 I 2L 3 ML Mg a( x ) = xα = x 3g = gx 2(1. hence.75 m ) = mg (1 − 0.75 m): Evaluate F(1 m): F ( x ) = m( g − gx ) = mg (1 − x ) F (0. We can relate this force the linear acceleration of the rod through Newton’s 2nd law and the angular acceleration of the rod.5 m ) = 0 *127 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the force the hand supporting the meterstick exerts at the pivot point and the force the earth exerts on the meterstick acting at the center of mass. varies along its length. .25 m ) = 0.5 m ) = mg (1 − 0. R 1+ r 0 Eliminate T between these equations to obtain: 126 •• Picture the Problem While the angular acceleration of the rod is the same at each point along its length. the linear acceleration and.25 m ) = F (1.5 m ) = 0. Letting x be the distance from the pivot.5 m): Evaluate F(0.5mg F (0.75 m ) = 0.25 m): Evaluate F(0. the force exerted on each coin by the rod.25 m ) = mg (1 − 0.5 m ) Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Evaluate F(0.

724 Chapter 9 (a) Relate the acceleration of the far end of the meterstick to the angular acceleration of the meterstick: Apply a = Lα (1) ∑τ P = I Pα to the meterstick: Solve for α: ⎛L⎞ Mg ⎜ ⎟ = I Pα ⎝2⎠ α= MgL 2I P From Table 9-1. for a rod pivoted at one end.81 m/s 2 ) = 14.7 m/s 2 2 3g x 2L Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: (b) Express the acceleration of a point on the meterstick a distance x from the pivot point: Express the condition that the meterstick leaves the penny behind: Substitute to obtain: a= a = αx = a>g 3g x>g 2L x> Solve for and evaluate x: 2 L 2(1 m ) = = 66.7 cm 3 3 . we have: Substitute to obtain: 1 I P = ML2 3 α= a= 3MgL 3g = 2ML2 2 L 3g 2 3(9.

2 kg )(0. (a) Express the net inward force acting on each of the 0. L the 1.4 m = 230 N/m (b) Using the work-energy theorem. for a solid cylinder about a diameter through its center: For a disk (thin cylinder).8-m length. I = 1 mr 2 4 I m = 1 mr 2 + mx 2 4 1 I = 1 Mr 2 + 12 ML2 + 2(1 mr 2 + mx 2 ) 2 4 1 = 1 Mr 2 + 12 ML2 + 2m(1 r 2 + x 2 ) 2 4 Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: . We can use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the radial forces on the masses to the spring’s stiffness constant and use the work-energy theorem to find the work done as the system accelerates to its final angular speed.8 m )(24 rad/s)2 0. relate the work done to the change in energy of the system: Express I as the sum of the moments of inertia of the cylinder and the masses: From Table 9-1 we have. and x + ∆x the distance from the center of the objects whose mass is m.Rotation 725 128 •• Picture the Problem Let m represent the 0.8-kg mass of the cylinder.2-kg masses: Solve for k: ∑F radial = k∆x = m(x + ∆x )ω 2 m( x + ∆x )ω k= ∆x k= 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate k: (0. L is small and: Apply the parallel-axis theorem to obtain: Substitute to obtain: W = K rot + ∆U spring = 1 Iω 2 + 1 k (∆x ) 2 2 I = I M + I 2m 1 = 1 Mr 2 + 12 ML2 + 2 I m 2 2 (1) 1 I = 1 mr 2 + 12 mL2 4 where L is the length of the cylinder. M the 0.2-kg mass.

Using the work-energy theorem. L the 1.2 m )2 + (0.8 kg )(1. for a solid cylinder about a diameter through its center: For a disk (thin cylinder).492 N ⋅ m )(24 rad/s) 2 2 + 1 (230 N/m )(0.8 m )2 ] 4 = 0.492 N ⋅ m 2 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: W = 1 2 (0. relate the work done to the change in energy of the system: Express I as the sum of the moments of inertia of the cylinder and the masses: From Table 9-1 we have.8 m )2 ] 4 = 0.8-kg mass of the cylinder.8-m length.8 kg )(0.8 kg )(0. I = 1 mr 2 4 I m = 1 mr 2 + mx 2 4 1 I = 1 Mr 2 + 12 ML2 + 2 1 mr 2 + mx 2 2 4 1 = 1 Mr 2 + 12 ML2 + 2m 1 r 2 + x 2 2 4 ( ( ) ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: I= 1 2 1 (0.2 m )2 + 12 (0.8 m )2 + 2(0.2 m )2 + 12 (0.2-kg mass. and x + ∆x the distance from the center of the objects whose mass is m.2 kg )[1 (0. L is small and: Apply the parallel-axis theorem to obtain: Substitute to obtain: W = K rot + ∆U spring = 1 Iω 2 + 1 k (∆x ) 2 2 I = I M + I 2m 1 = 1 Mr 2 + 12 ML2 + 2 I m 2 2 (1) 1 I = 1 mr 2 + 12 mL2 4 where L is the length of the cylinder. M the 0.492 N ⋅ m 2 .2 m )2 + (0.2 kg )[1 (0.8 m )2 + 2(0.8 kg )(1.726 Chapter 9 I= 1 2 1 (0. We can use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the radial forces on the masses to the spring’s stiffness constant and use the work-energy theorem to find the work done as the system accelerates to its final angular speed.4 m ) = 160 J 2 2 129 •• Picture the Problem Let m represent the 0.

2 rad/s (0.8 m ) 1 2 (0. We can use Newton’s 2nd law in both translational and rotational forms to relate the linear and angular accelerations to the forces acting on the cylinder.4 m ) 2 2 = 41. and solve for α: α= τ net I = FR 2F = 2 1 MR 2 MR acm = Fnet F = M M α' = acm F = = 2α R MR τ net = 2 FR = Iα and α= 2 FR I .2 rad/s) 2 2 + 1 (60 N/m )(0.4 J 130 •• Picture the Problem The force diagram shows the forces acting on the cylinder.2-kg masses: Solve for ω: ∑F ω= radial = k∆x = m(x + ∆x )ω 2 k∆x m( x + ∆x ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω: Substitute numerical values in equation (1) to obtain: ω= W= (60 N/m )(0.2 kg )(0.Rotation 727 Express the net inward force acting on each of the 0. is to the right.492 N ⋅ m )(12. Because F causes the cylinder to rotate clockwise. (a) Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the angular acceleration of the center of mass of the cylinder to F: Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the acceleration of the center of mass of the cylinder to F: Express the rolling-without-slipping condition to the accelerations: (b) Take the point of contact with the floor as the ″pivot″ point.4 m ) = 12. f. express the net torque about that point. which opposes this motion.

728 Chapter 9 Express the moment of inertia of the cylinder with respect to the pivot point: Substitute to obtain: I = 1 MR 2 + MR 2 = 3 MR 2 2 2 α= 3 2 2 FR 4F = 2 MR 3MR 4F 3M Express the linear acceleration of the cylinder: Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the forces acting on the cylinder: Solve for f: acm = Rα = ∑F x = F + f = Ma cm f = Macm − F = = 1 3 4F −F 3 F in the positive x direction. choose the initial potential energy to be zero. Apply conservation of mechanical energy: Express the total potential energy when the bucket has fallen a distance y: U f + Kf = U i + Ki = 0 + 0 = 0 (1) U f = U bf + U cf + U wf ⎛ y⎞ = −mgy − mc'g ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ where mc' is the mass of the hanging part of the cable. mechanical energy is conserved. and L: Substitute to obtain: mc' mc m = or mc' = c y y L L mc gy 2 U f = −mgy − 2L . Apply conservation of mechanical energy to obtain an expression for the speed of the bucket as a function of its position and use the given expression for t to determine the time required for the bucket to travel a distance y. Assume the cable is uniform and express mc' in terms of mc. 131 •• Picture the Problem As the load falls. As in Example 9-7. y.

41 0.4 0.81 1.5 1/2gt^2 0.Rotation 729 Noting that bucket.3 0.5 v(y) 0.33 0.5 10 0.4 0.08 1.35 .0 0.0 0.52 y 0.21 1.33 0.47 0.52 t(y) 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.5 Algebraic Form y0 y + ∆y v0 4mgy + 2mc gy 2 L M + 2m + 2mc F10 F9+$B$8/((E10+E9)/2) ⎛v +v ⎞ t n−1 + ⎜ n−1 n ⎟∆y 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 2 J9 A M= R= m= mc= L= B 10 0.00 0.27 0.5*$B$7*H9^2 C kg m kg kg m m/s^2 m D E F G H gt 2 I J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 g= 9.47 0.85 1.23 0.41 0.1 0. cable.00 0.1 y 0.00 0.23 0. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell Formula/Content D9 0 D10 D9+$B$8 E9 0 E10 ((4*$B$3*$B$7*D10+2*$B$7*D10^2/(2*$B$5))/ ($B$1+2*$B$3+2*$B$4))^0. and rim of the winch have the same speed v.91 t(y) 0.00 0.3 0.5 5 3.48 1.54 0. express the total kinetic energy when the bucket is falling with speed v: K f = K bf + K cf + K wf = 1 mv 2 + 1 mc v 2 + 1 Iωf2 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 1 mc v 2 + 1 (1 MR 2 ) 2 2 2 2 = 1 mv 2 + 1 mc v 2 + 1 Mv 2 2 2 4 v2 R2 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: − mgy − mc gy 2 1 2 + 2 mv 2L + 1 mc v 2 + 1 Mv 2 = 0 2 4 Solve for v: v= 4mgy + 2mc gy 2 L M + 2m + 2mc A spreadsheet solution is shown below.71 1.81 dy= 0.

25 2. 20 18 16 14 12 y' free fall y (m) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.24 2. we note that if the tension is small.25 2.2 1.0 0.6 9.8 9.6 9.0 24.26 2.09 25. Now consider the point of contact of the cylinder with the surface as the “pivot” point.85 25.08 9. then there can be no slipping.28 2. From the diagram we see that: θ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎛r⎞ ⎝R⎠ .27 2.6 2. and the system must roll.8 9.7 9.8 1. If τ about that point is zero.28 9.24 2.7 9. the system will not roll.0 t (s) 132 •• Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the forces acting on the cylinder when it is stationary.730 Chapter 9 105 106 107 108 109 9.26 2.13 9.03 9.19 9.0 9.58 The solid line on the graph shown below shows the position y of the bucket when it is in free fall and the dashed line shows y under the conditions modeled in this problem.9 10.34 25.24 2.9 10. First.61 24.4 0. This will occur if the line of action of the tension passes through the pivot point.27 2.

57 r 2 1. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction of motion of the block whose mass is M (downward) is the positive y direction.7 N T2 = T1e 0.57T1 − T1 ) r = I a r I 0.57(0. T2. α. a.91 kg )a Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: (9. We can use the given µ ∆θ relationship T 'max = Te s to relate the tensions in the rope on either side of the pulley and apply Newton’s 2nd law in both rotational form (to the pulley) and translational form (to the blocks) to obtain a system of equations that we can solve simultaneously for a.91 kg )a − mg = ma .57T1 (1) α= a r (2) (3) (4) ∑F y = ma y to the two T1 − mg = ma and blocks to obtain: Mg − T2 = Ma Apply obtain: ∑τ = Iα to the pulley to (T2 − T1 ) r = I a r Substitute for T2 from equation (1) in equation (4) to obtain: Solve for T1 and substitute numerical values to obtain: (2.Rotation 731 *133 •• Picture the Problem Free-body diagrams for the pulley and the two blocks are shown to the right. we can relate the angular acceleration. T1. (a) Use T 'max = Te s to evaluate the maximum tension required to prevent the rope from slipping on the pulley: (c) Given that the angle of wrap is π radians. of the hanging masses by: Apply µ ∆θ T 'max = (10 N ) e (0. express T2 in terms of T1: Because the rope doesn’t slip.35 kg ⋅ m 2 T1 = a= a 2 (5) 1. and M.3 )π = 25. of the pulley to the acceleration.15 m ) = (9.3π = 2.

We can use Newton’s 2nd law to obtain equations that we can solve simultaneously for a and f. (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the cylinder: ∑F and x = T + f = ma (1) (2) ∑τ = Tr − fR = Iα Substitute for I and α in equation (2) to obtain: Solve equation (3) for f: Tr − fR = 1 mR 2 2 f = Tr 1 − ma R 2 2T ⎛ r⎞ ⎜1 + ⎟ 3m ⎝ R ⎠ T ⎛ 2r ⎞ ⎜ − 1⎟ 3⎝ R ⎠ 2T ⎛ r⎞ ⎜1 + ⎟ 3m ⎝ R ⎠ a 1 = 2 mRa (3) R (4) Substitute equation (4) in equation (1) and solve for a: Substitute equation (5) in equation (4) to obtain: (b) Equation (4) gives the acceleration of the center of mass: a= (5) f = a= .91 kg ) (1. the cylinder will roll forward and r the friction force will be in the direction of T .0 N = 3.732 Chapter 9 Solve for and evaluate a: a= mg g = 9.91 kg − m 9.10 m/s 2 ) = 10.91 kg −1 1 kg (b) Solve equation (3) for M: M = T2 g −a Substitute in equation (5) to find T1: Substitute in equation (1) to find T2: Evaluate M: T1 = (9.0 N M = 28.10 m/s 2 134 ••• Picture the Problem When the tension is horizontal.81 m/s = = 1.9 N ) = 28.91 kg − 1 m 2 9.10 m/s 2 9.9 N T2 = (2.81 m/s 2 − 1.21 kg 9.57 )(10.

These forces result in a rotation of the stick—and its center of mass—about the pivot.e. − 1 Iω 2 + Mg 2 L L cosθ − Mg cosθ 0 = 0 2 2 ω2 = 3g (cosθ − cosθ 0 ) L Express the centripetal force acting on the center of mass: Fc = M L 2 ω 2 L 3g (cosθ − cosθ 0 ) =M 2 L 3Mg (cosθ − cosθ 0 ) = 2 Express the radial component of Mg : Express the total radial force at the hinge: r (Mg )radial = Mg cosθ F|| = Fc + (Mg)radial . in the direction of T . i. 135 ••• Picture the Problem The system is shown in the drawing in two positions. We’ll apply the conservation of mechanical energy and Newton’s 2nd law to relate the radial and tangential forces acting on the stick. with angles θ0 and θ with the vertical. Use the conservation of mechanical energy to relate the kinetic energy of the stick when it makes an angle θ with the vertical and its initial potential energy: Substitute for I and solve for ω2: Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 or.Rotation 733 (c) Express the condition that a > T : m 2T ⎛ r⎞ T 2⎛ r⎞ ⎜1 + ⎟ > ⇒ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ > 1 3m ⎝ R ⎠ m 3⎝ R⎠ or r> (d) If r > 1 R : 2 1 2 R r f > 0. The drawing also shows all the forces that act on the stick. and a tangential acceleration of the center of mass. because Kf = 0..

734 Chapter 9 = = Relate the tangential acceleration of the center of mass to its angular acceleration: Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the angular acceleration of the stick to the net torque acting on it: Express a⊥ in terms of α: Solve for F⊥ to obtain: 3Mg (cos θ − cos θ 0 ) + Mg cos θ 2 1 2 Mg (5 cos θ − 3 cos θ 0 ) a⊥= 1 Lα 2 α= τ net I = Mg L sin θ 3g sin θ 2 = 2 1 2L 3 ML a⊥= 1 Lα = 2 3 4 gsinθ = gsinθ + F⊥/M F⊥ = − 1 Mg sin θ where the minus sign 4 indicates that the force is directed oppositely to the tangential component of r Mg. .

By definition. the angle between them is 90°.. (b) is correct. Hence. (c) is correct.Chapter 10 Conservation of Angular Momentum Conceptual Problems *1 • r r r r ˆ (a) True. 2 • r r Determine the Concept The cross product of the vectors A and B is defined to be r r r r r ˆ A × B = AB sin φ n. The cross product of the vectors A and B is defined to be A × B = AB sin φ n. 4 • r r r r r Determine the Concept L and p are related according to L = r × p. r r Doubling r doubles L. (b) True. r 735 . The direction of a torque exerted by a force is determined by the definition of the cross product. i. 3 • r r r r r Determine the Concept L and p are related according to L = r × p. L and p are perpendicular. Because the motion is along a line that passes through point P. (c) True. If A and B are parallel. sinφ = 0. r = 0 and so is L. the cross product is a maximum when sinφ = 1. ω is along the axis. *5 •• r r r r r Determine the Concept L and p are related according to L = r × p. This r r condition is satisfied provided A and B are perpendicular.e. From this definition of the cross product. (a) Because L is directly proportional r to p : (b) Because L is directly proportional r to r : r r r r r Doubling p doubles L.

(e) is correct. Hence. Hence. 9 • Determine the Concept If L is constant. *12 •• Determine the Concept The pull that the student exerts on the block is at right angles to r r r its motion and exerts no torque (recall that τ = r × F and τ = rF sin θ ). all we can say for sure is that the angular momentum (the product of I and ω) is constant.. Imagine rotating the top half of your body with arms flat at sides through a (roughly) 90° angle. a radially inward force is required just to prevent you from sliding outward. 11 •• Determine the Concept It is easier to crawl radially outward. Referring to the diagram. Because the moment of inertia of the top half of your body is larger than it was previously. a force must act over some distance.e.736 Chapter 10 6 •• Determine the Concept The figure shows a particle moving with constant speed in a straight line (i. In each ″inelastic collision″ the force of static friction does not act through any distance. we know that the net torque acting on the system is zero. i. the bottom half of your body rotates in the opposite direction. 10 •• Determine the Concept No. *8 •• Determine the Concept Yes. The magnitude of L is given by rpsinφ = mv(rsinφ).. so mustω. You can repeat this process as necessary to rotate through any arbitrary angle. 7 • False. the angle which the bottom half of your body rotates through will be smaller. if τ net is zero. with constant velocity and constant linear momentum). leading to a net rotation. where L = Iω. In fact. There may be multiple constant or time-dependent torques acting on the system as long as the net torque is zero. note that the distance rsinφ from P to the line along which the particle is moving is constant. Now extend your arms out and rotate the top half of your body back.e. If I changes. Because the net angular momentum of the system is 0. The net torque acting on a rotating system equals the change in the system’s angular momentum. we . In order to do work. Therefore. τ net = dL dt . mv(rsinφ) is constant and so r L is constant. you can.

however. and the egg may start rotating again after momentarily stopping for this reason. . The student does. it is difficult to get the viscous fluid inside a raw egg to start rotating. stopping the shell will not stop the motion of the interior fluid. rotate your wrist until your fingers point south. Note that your thumb points downward. Express the rotational kinetic energy of the object: Relate the angular momentum of the object to its moment of inertia and angular velocity: Divide the first of these equations by the second and solve for K to obtain: K = 1 Iω 2 2 L = Iω K= L2 and so (b) is correct. (b) is correct. 14 • r r False. (b) is correct. 17 •• Determine the Concept One can use a right-hand rule to determine the direction of the torque required to turn the angular momentum vector from east to south. the body of the helicopter will tend to rotate on the main axis due to angular momentum being conserved. 2I 16 • Determine the Concept The purpose of the second smaller rotor is to prevent the body of the helicopter from rotating. 15 • Picture the Problem We can divide the expression for the kinetic energy of the object by the expression for its angular momentum to obtain an expression for K as a function of I and L. however. once it is rotating. The relationship τ = dL dt describes the motion of a gyroscope independently of whether it is spinning. Letting the fingers of your right hand point east. do work in displacing the block in the direction of the radial force and so the block’s energy increases. *13 •• Determine the Concept The hardboiled egg is solid inside. By contrast. so everything rotates with a uniform velocity.Conservation of Angular Momentum 737 can conclude that the angular momentum of the block is conserved. If the rear rotor fails.

the front end of the suitcase will dip downward. The torque about the center of the pole is clockwise and of magnitude RT. Because L is constant (angular momentum is conserved) 2 and her moment of inertia is greater with her arms extended. the force on the wheels on one side (or the other) will increase and car will tend to r tip. and the system rotates about its center of mass. 21 •• Determine the Concept The rotational kinetic energy of the woman-plus-stool system is given by K rot = 1 Iω 2 = L2 2 I . These problems can be averted by having two identical flywheels that rotate on the same shaft in opposite directions. (b) is correct. If L points forward and car turns left or right. 19 •• (a) The lifting of the nose of the plane rotates the angular momentum vector upward. the torque points down. (d ) is correct. It veers to the right in response to the torque associated with the lifting of the nose. 23 •• Determine the Concept The center of mass of the rod-and-putty system moves in a straight line. . So L must decrease and (e) is correct. The ball rotates counterclockwise.738 Chapter 10 18 •• Determine the Concept In turning east. 20 •• r Determine the Concept If L points up and the car travels over a hill or through a valley. where R is the pole’s radius and T is the tension. (b) The angular momentum vector is rotated to the right when the plane turns to the right. the man redirects the angular momentum vector from north to east by exerting a clockwise torque (viewed from above) on the gyroscope. the front (or rear) of the car will tend to lift. The nose will move downward. As a consequence of this torque. In turning to the right. *22 •• Determine the Concept Consider the overhead view of a tether pole and ball shown in the adjoining figure.

67 kg ⋅ m 2 [ 2 ] I arms out = 1. i.00 kg ⋅ m 2 + 2.00 kg ⋅ m 2 + 2 (4 kg )(0.2 m )2 = 1. The net external torque acting a system equals the rate of change of the angular r r dL momentum of the system. its angular momentum is constant but not necessarily zero. her angular momentum will remain constant during her pirouette.32 kg ⋅ m 2 Express her total moment of inertia with her arms in: = 1.00 kg ⋅ m 2 I arms = 2 1 (4 kg )(1 m ) 3 = 2.. minus her arms: Modeling her arms as though they are rods.67 kg ⋅ m 2 = 3.67 kg ⋅ m 2 I arms in = I body + I arms = 1.2 m ) [ 2 ] . ∑ τ i.ext = . calculate its moment of inertia of her body. Because the net external torque acting on her is zero. Express the conservation of her angular momentum during her pirouette: Li = Lf or I arms outω arms out = I arms inω arms in I arms out = I body + I arms (1) Express her total moment of inertia with her arms out: Treating her body as though it is cylindrical. Let’s also assume that her arms are 1 m long and that her body is cylindrical with a radius of 20 cm. If the net torque on a body is zero. calculate their moment of inertia when she has them out: Substitute to determine her total moment of inertia with her arms out: I body = 1 mr 2 = 2 1 2 (50 kg )(0.e. Estimation and Approximation *25 •• Picture the Problem Because we have no information regarding the mass of the skater. we’ll assume that her body mass (not including her arms) is 50 kg and that each arm has a mass of 4 kg.Conservation of Angular Momentum 739 24 • (a) True. dt i (b) False.

17 rev/s 26 •• Picture the Problem We can express the period of the earth’s rotation in terms of its angular velocity of rotation and relate its angular velocity to its angular momentum and moment of inertia with respect to an axis through its center.552 s 24 h 3600 s × d h −6 .32 kg ⋅ m 2 = 4.3 × 1019 kg (1d ) 3 6 × 10 24 kg ( ( ) ) = 6. Express the period of the earth’s rotation in terms of its angular velocity of rotation: Relate the earth’s angular velocity of rotation to its angular momentum and moment of inertia: Substitute to obtain: T= 2π ω ω= L I 2π I L T= Find dT/dI: dT 2π T = = dI L I dT dI ∆I = or ∆T ≈ T T I I ∆T ≈ mr 2 5m T= T 2 2 3M E 5 M E RE 2 3 Solve for dT/T and approximate ∆T: Substitute for ∆I and I to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆T: ∆T = 5 2.5 rev/s) 1.67 kg ⋅ m 2 (1.39 × 10 −6 d × = 0. We can differentiate this expression with respect to I and then use differentials to approximate the changes in I and T.39 × 10 d = 6.740 Chapter 10 Solve equation (1) for ω arms in and substitute to obtain: ω arms in = = I arms out I arms in ω arms out 3.

In part (b).22 × 1052 Because l >>1.29 × 10 26 The quantization of angular momentum is not noticed in macroscopic (c) physics because no experiment can differentiate between l = 2 × 10 26 and l = 2 × 10 26 + 1. approximate its value with the square root of l(l + 1) : l ≈ 2.40 ×10 −8 kg ⋅ m 2 /s (b) Solve the equation L = l(l + 1)h for l(l + 1) : Substitute numerical values and evaluate l(l + 1) : l(l + 1) = L2 h2 2 ⎛ 2.059 1.Conservation of Angular Momentum 741 27 • Picture the Problem We can use L = mvr to find the angular momentum of the particle.05 × 01−34 J ⋅ s ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 5. *28 •• Picture the Problem We can use conservation of angular momentum in part (a) to relate the before-and-after collapse rotation rates of the sun.059MRsun = 0.69 × 10 46 kg ⋅ m 2 ( )( ) 2 . (a) Use the definition of angular momentum to obtain: L = mvr = (2 × 10−3 kg )(3 ×10 −3 m/s )(4 × 10−3 m ) = 2. approximate the moment of inertia Ib of the sun before collapse: I bωb = I aωa (1) 2 I b = 0. (a) Use conservation of angular momentum to relate the angular momenta of the sun before and after its collapse: Using the given formula.99 × 1030 kg 6.96 × 105 km = 5. we can express the fractional change in the rotational kinetic energy of the sun as it collapses into a neutron star to decide whether its rotational kinetic energy is greater initially or after the collapse.40 × 10 −8 kg ⋅ m 2 /s ⎞ l(l + 1) = ⎜ ⎜ 1. In (b) we can solve the equation L = l(l + 1)h for l(l + 1) and the approximate value of l.

) 29 •• Picture the Problem We can solve I = CMR 2 for C and substitute numerical values in order to determine an experimental value of C for the earth.15 × 108 ⎠ ⎜ 1 rev/25 d ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 energy increases by a factor of approximately 7×108.86 × 10 7 rev/d The additional rotational kinetic energy comes at the expense of gravitational potential energy.15 × 108 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 1 rev ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 25 d ⎠ = 2.99 ×10 30 kg (10 km ) ) 2 = 7. the rotational kinetic =⎜ ⎟⎜ K b ⎝ 7.15 × 108 ωb Given that ωb = 1 rev/25 d.02 × 10−3 s 2π rad 1d 1h 7 rev 2.86 × 10 × × × d rev 24 h 3600 s ∆K K a − K b K a = −1 = Kb Kb Kb (b) Express the fractional change in the sun’s rotational kinetic energy as a consequence of its collapse and simplify to obtain: I aωa2 = −1 2 I bωb 1 2 1 2 = Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆K/Kb: I aωa2 −1 2 I bωb 7 1 ∆K ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 2.e. We can then compare this value to those for a spherical shell and a sphere in which the mass is uniformly distributed to decide whether the earth’s mass density is greatest near its core or near its crust.15 × 108 (i.69 × 10 46 kg ⋅ m 2 ωb = ωb Ia 7. which decreases as the sun gets smaller.96 ×1037 kg ⋅ m 2 ωa = Ib 5.96 × 1037 kg ⋅ m 2 = 7. Note that the rotational period decreases by the same factor of Ib/Ia and becomes: Ta = 2π ωa = 2π = 3. evaluate ωa: ωa = 7.742 Chapter 10 Find the moment of inertia Ia of the sun when it has collapsed into a spherical neutron star of radius 10 km and uniform mass distribution: Substitute in equation (1) and solve for ωa to obtain: 2 I a = 5 MR 2 = 2 5 (1..86 × 10 rev/d ⎞ ⎟ − 1 = 7. .

its moment of inertia would be: I spherical shell = 2 MR 2 3 I solid sphere = 2 MR 2 5 Because experimentally C < 2/5 = 0.81 m/s 9. the mass density must be greater near the center of the earth. to estimate ω and L. it appears that he sprang about 3 m in the air. Express the diver’s angular velocity ω and angular momentum L: ω= and ∆θ ∆t (1) (2) L = Iω Using a constant-acceleration equation.Conservation of Angular Momentum 743 (a) Express the moment of inertia of the earth in terms of the constant C: Solve for C to obtain: I = CMR 2 C= I MR 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate C: C= ( 8. *30 •• Picture the Problem Let’s estimate that the diver with arms extended over head is about 2.03 ×1037 kg ⋅ m 2 2 5. express his time in the air: ∆t = ∆t rise 3 m + ∆tfall 6 m = 2∆yup g + 2∆ydown g Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆t: Estimate the angle through which he rotated in 1.81 m/s 2 ∆θ ≈ 0. together with their definitions. From the photo.89 s: ∆t = 2(3 m ) 2(6 m ) + = 1.5 rev = π rad . the moment of inertia of the earth would be that of a thin spherical shell: If the mass of the earth were uniformly distributed throughout its volume. and that the diving board was about 3 m high.98 × 1024 kg (6370 km ) ) = 0.4.89 s 2 9. We can use these assumptions and estimated quantities.331 (b) If all of the mass were in the crust. We’ll also assume that it is reasonable to model the diver as a uniform stick rotating about its center of mass.5 m long and has a mass M = 80 kg.

which is not too bad considering the approximations made here.5 m and that the angle between the force exerted by the board and a line running from his feet to the center of mass is about 5°.744 Chapter 10 Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate ω: Use the ″stick rotating about an axis through its center of mass″ model to approximate the moment of inertia of the diver: Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate L: ω= π rad 1. To estimate his angular momentum.70 m/s cos 5° ( ) .2 kg ⋅ m 2 /s ≈ 70 kg ⋅ m 2 /s Remarks: We can check the reasonableness of this estimation in another way. I = ∆p = Mvi). If we estimate that the lever arm of the force is roughly l = 1. Because he rose about 3 m in the air. We can estimate his angular velocity when he has curled himself into a ball from the ratio of his angular momentum to his moment of inertia. is 1 m. and the angle between the force exerted by the board and a line running from his feet to the center of mass is about 5°. we’ll guess that the lever arm l of the force that launches him from the diving board is about 1. relate the speed with which he left the diving board v0 to his maximum height ∆y and our estimate of his angle with the vertical direction: Solve for v0: ω= L I (1) 2 0 = v0 y + 2a y ∆y where v0 y = v0 cos 5° v0 = 2 g∆y cos 2 5° Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0: v0 = 2 9.89 s = 1. 31 •• Picture the Problem First we assume a spherical diver whose mass M = 80 kg and whose diameter.5 m ) (1. the initial impulse acting on him must be about 600 kg⋅m/s (i.81m/s 2 (3 m ) = 7.5 m. when curled into a ball.e. we obtain L = Ilsin5° ≈ 78 kg⋅m2/s..66 rad/s ) 2 = 69.66 rad/s 1 I = 12 ML2 1 L = 12 ML2ω 1 L = 12 (80 kg )(2. Express the diver’s angular velocity ω when he curls himself into a ball in mid-dive: Using a constant-acceleration equation.

15 m and a mass of 60 kg.70 m/s )(1.6 m = 2 2∆y g .81m/s 2 (0. Finally.Conservation of Angular Momentum 745 Approximate the impulse acting on the diver to launch him with the speed v0: Letting l represent the lever arm of the force acting on the diver as he leaves the diving board. 2 0 = v0 sin 2 45° − 2 g∆y Solve for v0 to obtain: v0 = 2 g∆y 2 g∆y = 2 sin 45° sin 45° Substitute numerical values and evaluate v0: Use its definition to express Goebel’s angular velocity: Use a constant-acceleration equation to express Goebel’s ″air time″ ∆t: v0 = 2 9. relate his takeoff speed v0 to his maximum elevation ∆y: 2 v 2 = v0 y + 2a y ∆y or. We can then find his take-off speed and ″air time″ using constant-acceleration equations.5 m )sin 5° 2 2(0. We’ll also assume that we can model him as a 2-m long cylinder with an average radius of 0. Using a constant-acceleration equation. v = 0.6 m ) = 4. together with the definition of rotational velocity. and use the latter.1 rad/s *32 •• Picture the Problem We’ll assume that he launches himself at an angle of 45° with the horizontal with his arms spread wide. express his angular momentum: Use the ″uniform sphere″ model to approximate the moment of inertia of the diver: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: I = ∆p = Mv0 L = Il sin 5° = Mv0l sin 5° 2 I = 5 MR 2 ω= Mv0l sin 5° 5v0l sin 5° = 2 MR 2 2R2 5 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω: ω= 5(7. to find his initial rotational velocity. and