Mixing of Semisolid Many pharmaceutical products are homogeneous mixtures of two or more components.

Mixing can be defined as a process where two or more components are treated so as to lie as nearly as possible in contact with a particle of each of the other components. These may be mixtures of solids, semi-solids, or liquids. Mixtures containing semi-solids involves incorporating a solid and/or a liquid into a base consisting of one or more semi-solids. Examples of semi-solids dosage forms include ointments, pastes and suppositories. Semisolid pharmaceutical systems comprise a body of products, which when applied to the skin or any accessible mucous membrane tend to alleviate or treat a pathological condition or give protection to the applied surface against a harmful environment. Semisolid dosage forms usually are designed for localized drug delivery. They can be applied topically to the skin, cornea, rectal tissue, nasal mucosa, vagina, buccal tissue, urethral membrane, and external ear lining. One of their properties for them to exert their therapeutic effect is semi solids pharmaceutical systems able to cling to skin or mucous membrane for a protracted period of time due to their plastic rheologic behavior. The general method of processing semisolid pharmaceuticals products i.e. creams, jellies and ointments consists of three-step batch operation. A hot oil phase and a hot aqueous phase are brought together, thoroughly mix to cause the two phases to form a substantially homogeneous mixture and then cooled until the homogeneous mixture congeals and forms semisolids products. However, restricted production time and extensive material handling are two inconveniences of this method. Therefore, in accordance with present invention, a process for preparing semisolid dispersions is provided which can be carried out continuously and which is substantially more efficient than the previous method. The process of the present invention comprises

resulting in a figure eight pattern and also for efficient kneading of paste.combining the two immiscible phases in one vessel and circulating the mixture through a system of mixers and/or homogenizers until the desired homogeneity is achieved. For the Sigma Blade mixer. removing material from the vessel wall and transporting it to the interior. Material that finds its way to ‘dead’ spots will remain there. The major problem which arises during the mixing of semisolids is semisolids will not flow easily. For planetary mixer. This will cause the product to be transferred from blade to blade and from end to end. The blade will continuously advance along the periphery of the vessel. which sit horizontally and parallel at the bottom of the mixing trough. It contains two Sigma (∑) shaped blades. it is engineered specifically for kneading. and highly viscous products. the robust mixer will deal with stiff pastes and ointments and depends for its action on the close intermeshing of the two blades which resemble the Greek letter sigma (∑) in shape. pasty. . this mixer is suitable for powder mixing and also mixing of viscous liquid. There are two mixers for semisolids which are the Planetary Mixer and the Sigma Blade Mixer. In the other hand. the Sigma Blade mixer. The blades will rotate at different speeds in opposite directions. a small clearance between vessel and the paddle gives shear but “scraping down” several times is necessary to mix the contents well since some materials are forced to the top of the bowl. mixing and homogenizing wet. In the Planetary Mixer. For that reason suitable mixers must have rotating elements with narrow clearances between the mixing vessel and they must produce a high degree of shear mixing since diffusion and convective mixing cannot occur. The mixer is named ‘planetary’ because the paddle is impeller blades that rotate on its own axis also travels in a circular path round the mixing vessel in opposite direction.

Semisolid includes ointments. and the process is easy to control due to stable conditions. Ichthammol ointment. Plasters are solid or semisolid masses that adhere to the skin when spread upon cotton felt line or muslin as a backing material. Semi solids unlike powders and liquids. This can cause less irritation to skin and are superior to conventional semisolid dosage form. However. creams. gels. it is applicable for large or small scale operations. ointments can be prepared as topical antiseptic. which has an excellent emollient effect. gels are transparent or translucent. Creams nowadays are provided with nanoparticles and microspheres.Many pharmaceutical products involve in the process of mixing semisolid. heat and mass transfer are high. Ointments are greasy preparations. aqueous preparations. or antibacterial preparations which include sulphur ointment. For examples. and also Whitfield’s ointment. mixing of semisolids has its own advantages and also disadvantages. non-greasy. antifungal. furnish an occlusive and macerating action and bring medication into close contact with the surface of the skin. the process brings some disadvantages which include fine particles are difficult to predict and less efficient and also present of non-uniform flow patterns. Number of innovation is carrying out in gels in terms of modification of release pattern and also some . pastes. poultice and also plaster and rigid foam. kaolin suppositories. they are not easy to flow. Advantages of semisolids mixing include mixing can be rapid in uniform temperature and concentrations. with better spreadability. In addition. Pastes contain a higher proportion of finely powdered medicament compared to ointments or gels. They are mainly used to afford protection and mechanical support. and less staining than oleaginous ointments. for example: Zinc and coal tar paste that is used as antipruritic preparation. The current invention of semisolids products are non greasy since they are made up of water washable bases.

yield stress must be reached before the material starts to flow so that a substantial force must be applied before any motion takes place. In semi-solid base. In the future. amphiphilic and non-aqueous gels are also the latest innovations in gel formulations. As plastic solids have very limited flow. Suspensions or pastes containing high proportion of solids often develop high apparent viscosities at high rates of shear (dilatants flow) so that high speed mixers would be unsuitable. and spread more easily. depending on the formulation constituents. foams may be designed in ways to provide emollient or drying functions to the skin.thermoreversible gels have been carried out in research. chitosan based bioadhesive gels and TIMERx technology for controlled release. less dense. Although there is not enough clinical evidence that foam formulations can be well developed. Foams are normally easier to apply. Complex gels for Ora/ Insulin delivery. There are certain limitations on this process. these formulations show clear application advantage and continued developments in the science of supersaturating technology will be carried out. For paste showing plastic properties. . Rub out particles by the intense shear generated by rollers or cones set with a very small clearance between them. better mixing can be obtained by forcing the particles of one constituent between the particles of the other constituents. it is very difficult using primary mixers to completely disperse powder particles so that they are invisible to the eye.

References: http://www.com/Proddetails.asp?ProdID=58 http://www.pharmainfo.com/5145095.net/search/node/Novel%20Semisolid%20Dosage%20Forms .mixers.freepatentsonline.html http://www.

The Planetary Mixer .

Sigma Blade Mixer .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful