LATHE

Definition
Lathe is a machine, which removes the metal from a piece of work to the required shape and size Common types of lathes: Engine Lathe: The most common form of lathe, motor driven and comes in large variety of sizes and shapes. Bench Lathe: A bench top model usually of low power used to make precision machine small work pieces. Tracer Lathe: A lathe that has the ability to follow a template to copy a shape or contour. Automatic Lathe: The lathe in which the work piece is automatically fed and removed without use of an operator. Cutting operations are automatically controlled by a sequencer of some form. Turret Lathe: The lathes which have multiple tools mounted on turrent either attached to the tailstock or the cross-slide, which allows for quick changes in tooling and cutting operations. Computer Controlled Lathe: Highly automated lathes, where cutting, loading, tool changing, and part unloading are automatically controlled by computer coding. The figure (1) shows Photographic view of Engine Lathe

Fig (1) Engine Lathe Centre lathe – constructional features • • • • • • • Head stock Tail stock Bed Carriage Feed rod Lead screw Feed change gear box Lathe specifications • • • • • • Distance between centers Swing over the bed Swing over the cross slide Horse power of the motor Number of speeds Number of feeds Lathes and Lathe Operations • • Lathes are the oldest machine tools Lathe Components .

turning tools).• • • • • • Bed: supports all major components Carriage: slides along the ways and consists of the cross-slide. to resist deflection and absorb vibrations during cutting Carriage Feed • Longitudinal Feed or “Turning” . tool post. supplies power to the jaws and has various drive Speeds Tailstock – supports the other end of the work piece Feed Rod and Lead Screw – Feed rod is powered by a set of gears from the headstock LATHE BED • • The bed is the base of the lathe and supports all the major components of lathe. milling tools). ( fig . Fig (2) shows single point cutting tool .g. Lathe bed material made of grey cast iron . apron Headstock – Holds the jaws for the work piece.The tool is fed along the work.g. Tail Stock: It’s like a stationary drill press It is centered with your work piece For drilling use a drill chuck that fits your bits Jam the drill chuck into the tail stock To remove the chuck turn the tail stock back to zero and the chuck should pop out Cutting Tools There are basically two types of cutting tools: • • Single point (e. • Cross Feed or “Facing” – The tool is fed across the work.2 ) Multiple point (e.

curved.to produce a hole Cutting off – to cut off a work piece Threading – to produce threads Knurling – produces a regularly shaped roughness Fig (3) shows different types of lathe operations .Fig ( 2) Various lathe operations • • • • • • • Turning – produces straight. conical. or grooved work pieces Facing – produces a flat surface at the end of the part Boring – to enlarge a hole Drilling .

and lathe centers are used to hold and drive the work while it is being machined on a lathe.Fig (3) Types of Lathe operations Work holding Devices for Lathes: Many different devices. collets. Work pieces can be held by various methods • • • • Work piece mounted between centers Work piece mounted within a single chuck Work piece mounted within a collet Work piece mounted on a faceplate Three Jaw chuck: It usually has three jaws. such as chucks.4). drive plates. the jaws are moved simultaneously within the chuck (fig. mandrels. faceplates. .

Face plates: The face plate is used for irregularly shaped work pieces that cannot be successfully held by chucks or mounted between centers (fig. 3 JAW CHUCK 4 JAW CHUCK Fig. Collet chuck : Collet chuck is used to hold small work pieces. which are adjusted individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws(fig.6).Four Jaw chuck: This is independent chuck generally has four jaws .(4) Fig.5).(5) FACE PLATE . Magnetic chuck: Thin jobs can be held by means of magnetic chucks. Mandrels: A work piece which cannot be held between centers because its axis has been drilled or bored and which is not suitable for holding in a chuck or against a faceplate is usually machined on a mandrel.

6 Face plate Formulas: Cutting speed (V) = ΠDN/1000 M/min Depth of cut (D) = (D1-D2)/2 mm Where D1=original diameter and D2 = final diameter of the work piece Metal Removal Rate (MRR) = Π x D x d x f mm3 In terms of cutting speed (V in mm/min).D2)/2L where α = angle of taper D1= major diameter in mm D2= minor diameter in mm L= Length of taper in mm The conicity K of the taper is defined as K= (D1.. MRR=1000 x V x d x f Where D represents original diameter of the work piece in mm Where N represents revolution per minute (rpm) Where d represents depth of cut in mm Where f represents feed in mm/rev Taper Turning Tan α = (D1.Fig.D2)/L .

62° Reference • • work shop Technolgy by Hajra choudry Advances in Manufacturing Technology C.Lathe simple problems Problem -1 A mild steel rod having 50 mm diameter and 500 mm length is to be turned on a lathe.com www. Lj = 80 mm (with usual notations) or α = 10.7 mm/rev Substituting the values of v and D in V = ΠDN/1000 M/min Required spindle speed as: N = 191 rpm Problem -2 Determine the angle at which the compound rest would be swiveled for cutting a taper on a work piece having a length of 150 mm and outside diameter 80 mm. f = 0.com • • . Lj = 500 mm v = 30 m/min. Determine the machining time to reduce the rod to 45 mm in one pass when cutting speed is 30 m/min and a feed of 0. engbasics.620 tan α = (80-50) / 2×80 The compound rest should be swiveled at 10. Solution Given data: D1 = 80 mm. Solution Given data: D = 50 mm.J Thomas Website www. D2 = 50 mm. The smallest diameter on the tapered end of the rod should be 50 mm and the required length of the tapered portion is 80 mm. efunda.7 mm/rev is used.

What are the different machining operations that can be performed on a lathe? Explain any five in detail. 4. What is an apron? 7. grooving d. Define automatic lathes. Explain the different methods of holding the work piece in a lathe with suitable sketches. write short notes on a. a. thread cutting 7. What are the components that can be turned on a copying lathe? 19. List any four holding devices? 12. universal scroll chuck c. (Part –B) 1. mention the tools required for each operation 3. centers 6. State the various parts mounted on the carriage? 5. Explain the following operations performed on lathe with suitable sketch. . State any two specification of lathe? 8. collet chuck b. State any two specifications of capstan lathe & turret lathe? 14. What are all the principle parts of the lathe? 3. What are the different operations that can be performed on a lathe? also . 2. State the various feed mechanisms used for obtaining automatic feed? 11. facing c. What are the different drives used in copying lathe? 18. Explain the different components of a lathe with neat sketch. What do you mean by lathe? 2. What are all the various operations can be performed on a lathe? 2. magnetic chuck d. What are the different operations performed on the lathe? 13. What do you mean by semi-automatic lathe? 10. Difference between three jaw chuck and four jaw chuck 4. turning b.(Part-A) 1. write four types of tool post 6. Define tooling? 16. Explain the different work holding devices used in a lathe? 5. List any four types of lathe? 9. Compare the advantage of capstan lathe & turret lathe? 15. What are the three stage of a tool-layout? 17. knurling d.

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