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RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of Animal Structure experiment with title “Epithelial Tissue” which written by:

Name ID Group Class

: Sartika : 081404157 : VI : D (Biology ICP)

After checked by assistant and coordinator assistant, this report accepted.

Makassar, Coordinator Assistant Assistant

(Djumarirmanto, S.Pd)

(Dian Anggreini) ID: 061404056

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background In animals, tissue of closely packed cells that forms a surface or lines a cavity or tube. Epithelial cells line the inside surfaces of fluid or air-filled tubes and spaces within the body. Epithelium may be protective (as in the skin) or secretory (as in the cells lining the wall of the gut). Epithelial cells join each other side to side to make epithelial tissue. Epithelial cells are specialized cells. They protect cells below them and may also carry out special functions. For example, in the human lung epithelial cells line the alveoli (air spaces). These cells are very thin and form a large surface area in order to facilitate the absorption of oxygen and the loss of carbon dioxide during the process of gas exchange. They also make sure the alveoli remain moist at all times to keep them healthy. The epithelial cells lining the airways leading to the lung from the mouth and nose are different. Here there are many are specialized ciliated cells. These cells have tiny hairs or cilia which beat backwards and forwards. They sweep fluid up and away from the lungs to the mouth. Any dirt or bacteria that have been inhaled are taken away from the lungs where they may cause damage. Smoking harms these ciliated cells. Epithelial tissue is a layer which formed by cells with dense formation, its extracellular matrixes is just few and commonly bordering the cavities in our body or covering body surface. That kind of epithelial tissue called covering epithelium in general. Epithelial can also be found at some glands, that why some of them

called glandular epithelium. Benefit By this lab work. C. students would learn deeply about epithelial tissues and would increase students’ interest of epithelial tissues. B. Purpose The purpose of this lab work was to observe various kinds of epithelial tissues and glands. .

B. Epithelial tissue is one of four basis tissues that composing our body. the esophagus. 2009). and the two layers are separated by a basement membrane (Anonym. Other epithelial cells line the insides of the lungs. This term now uses for the entire tissue that covering some structure or channel (Keeton. Other surfaces that separate body cavities from the outside environment are lined by simple squamous. For the time being. epithelium is a tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body.CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. 2009). The outermost layer of our skin is composed of dead stratified squamous. muscle tissue and nervous tissue. and make up the exocrine and endocrine . It lies on top of connective tissue. the gastrointestinal tract. keratinized epithelial cells (Anonym. Definition of Ephitelial Tissue In biology and medicine. and part of the rectum are composed of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. the other ones being connective tissue. Many glands are also formed from epithelial tissue. In humans. or pseudostratified epithelial cells (Anonym. Location of Epithelial Tissue Epithelium lines both the outside (skin) and the inside cavities and lumen of bodies. epithelial term used for call pure colored membrane that lies on connective braided protrusion at reddening lips (epithelia: above. thele: lips). Tissue that line the inside of the mouth. 2009). columnar. 2003). the reproductive and urinary tracts. epithelium is classified as a primary body tissue.

its extracellular matrixes is just few and commonly bordering the cavities in our body or covering body surface. 2009). Structure of Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissue is a layer which formed by cells with dense formation. That’s why. One layer cube epithelium can be found bordering lumen kidney patch duct (tubule contortus distal and proximal). C. epithelia tissue can be called as cellular tissue. easilyregenerated epithelial cells (Anonym. Epithelia tissue contains cells with obvious border and lays densely one to another. and peritoneum (Anonym. Some layers flat epithelium can be found at skin epidermis and esophagus. mesothelium. The outer surface of the cornea is covered with fast-growing. There is no . Some fake layers epithelium can be found bordering lumen in trachea. Epithelial can also be found at some glands. 2000). 2009). and lymphatic vessels) is a specialized form of epithelium. Endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels. Another type. 2009). Transitional epithelium can be found bordering lumen in vesicule urinaria. the heart. that why some of them called glandular epithelium (Cleveland. pleurae. forms the walls of the pericardium. One layer flat epithelium can be found bordering lumen from blood vessel and lymph vessel. That kind of epithelial tissue called covering epithelium in general. Some layers cube epithelium can be found bordering lumen in vesicule urinaria (Adnan and Pagarra.glands. One layer cylinder epithelium can be found bordering lumen in bile poke and small intestine.

heart and lungs and make up the outer layers of the skin. 2000). The basement membrane provides structural support for the epithelium and also binds it to neighbouring structures (Anonym. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and help to identify the type of epithelium. is usually separated from the underlying tissue by a thin sheet of connective tissue. Squamous cells. with almost no intercellular spaces and only a small amount of intercellular substance. Epithelial tissue covers the whole surface of the body. Epithelial cells are packed tightly together. As their name implies. elliptical nuclei because of the thin flattened form of the cell. 2. They are: 1. Squamous (pavement) epithelium. Simple cuboidal epithelium. regardless of the type. This tissue is specialised to form the covering or lining of all internal and external body surfaces. blood vessels. Each cell has a spherical nucleus in the centre. flat plates. Simple squamous epithelium.blood vessel in capillary tissue. Epithelial tissue. . cuboidal cells are roughly square or cuboidal in shape. for example. tend to have horizontally flattened. 2009). According to Anonym (2009). there are some kinds of epithelia tissue. basement membrane. Epithelial tissue that occurs on surfaces on the interior of the body is known as endothelium. Food substances given to tissue with diffusion way from capillary venous which lay on the tissue bellow it (Cleveland. It is made up of cells closely packed and ranged in one or more layers. They form the lining of cavities such as the mouth. Squamous cells have the appearance of thin.

which is secreted by the goblet cells. 3. Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines. rhythmic. Ciliated columnar epithelium. ears and the taste buds of the tongue. Some columnar cells are specialised for sensory reception such as in the nose. 4. a lubricating substance which keeps the surface smooth. 5. They secrete mucus or slime. cilia on their free surfaces. Where body linings have to withstand wear and tear. they possess fine hair-like outgrowths. Stratified Epithelium. the epithelia are composed of several layers of cells and are then called compound . This movement of the cilia in a certain direction causes the mucus. Goblet cells (unicellular glands) are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum. but in addition. wavelike beatings in a certain direction. to move (flow or stream) in that direction. Columnar epithelial cells occur in one or more layers. Ciliated epithelium is usually found in the air passages like the nose. The cells are elongated and column-shaped. These cilia are capable of rapid. The nuclei are elongated and are usually located near the base of the cells. They also constitute the germinal epithelium which produces the egg cells in the female ovary and the sperm cells in the male testes. Simple columnar epithelium. It is also found in the uterus and Fallopian tubes of females. These are simple columnar epithelial cells.Cuboidal epithelium is found in glands and in the lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands. The movement of the cilia propel the ovum to the uterus.

Protection Epithelial cells from the skin protect underlying tissue from mechanical injury.or stratified epithelium. D. containing a tough. milk. 2003). . Some parts of the glandular epithelium consist of such a large number of goblet cells that there are only a few normal epithelial cells left.e. keratinised. resistant protein called keratin). Columnar and cuboidal epithelial cells often become specialised as gland cells which are capable of synthesising and secreting certain substances such as enzymes. The top cells are flat and scaly and it may or may not be keratinised (i. Sometimes a portion of the epithelial tissue becomes invaginated and a multicellular gland is formed. The lining of the mouth cavity is an example of an unkeratinisied. Multicellular glands are composed of clusters of cells. Columnar epithelium with goblet cells is called glandular epithelium. invading bacteria and from excessive loss of water. Unicellular glands consist of single. harmful chemicals. which is glandular epithelium. Beside those. The mammalian skin is an example of dry. Function of Epithelial Tissue According to Keeton (2003). sweat. the functions of epithelial tissue are: 1. wax and saliva. Most glands are multicellular including the the salivary glands (Lambert. stratified epithelium. mucus. there is another type of epithelium. isolated glandular cells such as the goblet cells. stratified epithelium. hormones.

hormones and lubricating fluids. Reduces Friction The smooth. 3. Absorption Certain epithelial cells lining the small intestine absorb nutrients from the digestion of food. Specialised epithelial tissue containing sensory nerve endings is found in the skin. eyes. 8. tightly-interlocking. Excretion Epithelial tissues in the kidney excrete waste products from the body and reabsorb needed materials from the urine. they are ideal for the diffusion of gases (eg. epithelial cells that line the entire circulatory system reduce friction between the blood and the walls of the blood vessels. liquids and nutrients. Sweat is also excreted from the body by epithelial cells in the sweat glands. 6. 4. walls of capillaries and lungs). epithelial tissue is specialised to secrete specific chemical substances such as enzymes. Because they form such a thin lining. Cleaning Ciliated epithelium assists in removing dust particles and foreign bodies which have entered the air passages. ears. Sensation Sensory stimuli penetrate specialised epithelial cells. Diffusion Simple epithelium promotes the diffusion of gases. . nose and on the tongue.2. 7. Secretion In glands. 5.

March 26th. Human skin C. Watched the nucleus of epithelial cell that was thin and long. Materials a.CHAPTER III LAB WORK METHODE A. 2009 : At 02. Tool a. Microscope 2. Mammal kidney b. b. Prepared a mammal kidney object glass. we did nine observations which the procedures were: 1. Observation I a. Work Procedures In this lab work. Observed carefully endothelium from vessel. g. Tool and Materials 1. Trachea of rabbit e.00 pm : In Eastern Biology Laboratory of FMIPA of Universitas Negeri Makassar (UNM) B. Time and Place Day/Date Time Place : Thursday. contained with endothelium cells and basal membrane. Intestine/duodenum c. .00 – 04. Papilla sirkumvalata Pancreas Adrenal gland d. f.

Drew cylindered epithelial with 10 x 40 zoom in. c. goblet cell and basal membrane. ciliated cylinder epithelial. . Observed carefully parietal layer of Bowman’s capsule. Observation II a. b. which consisted of lumen. cube epithelium cells and basal membrane. 4. especially in borderer epithelial layer at mucous layer. b. This structure has thinner epithelial cells than tubule contortus proximal. Observed carefully the epithelial tissue that bordering lumen. Observation IV a. Observed carefully the atwarthy slice of intestine. This structure was beginning segment from neuron and crooky and bordered by simple cuboidal epithelium. Observed carefully tubule contortus proximal of kidney. Observation III a. Prepared a mammal kidney object glass. c. Prepared a rabbit trachea object glass. Prepared an intestine object glass. Observed carefully tubule contortus distal of kidney. Watched basal cell position. Watched the nucleus from epithelial that had flat and long shape and then basal membrane.c. 3. 2. flat epithelial cells and basal membrane. which consisted of lumen. b.

Observed carefully serosa and nucleus of sentra-asiner. And also observed one of Langerhans island. stratum spinosum. Observed carefully the epithelial tissue at tongue papilla sirkumvalata epidermis zone. Drew the observation result. c. stratum granulosum. Observation V a. Observed carefully crypt of lieberkuhn position between intestine viles at mucosa area. 6. stratum granulosum. Observation VII a. Prepared an intestine object glass. c. Watched stratum germinativum. b. stratum lusidium. stratum corneum and basal membrane positions. 5. watched lamina propria area and serosa gland position. b. stratum spinosum. Observed carefully goblet cell position between intestine epithelial cells and argentafin cell. 7. b. . Watched the stratum germinativum. Prepared a papilla sircumvalata and pancreas object glasses. c. Observed carefully the epithelial tissue at skin epidermis.c. Prepared a human skin object glass and papilla sirkumvalata at tongue. Observation VI a. Observed carefully papilla sircumvalata. stratum hisidum. stratum corneum and basal membrane positions.

Observed carefully cortex area. b. b. Those zones were obvious separated. Observation IX a. Observed carefully sweat gland. c. Watched epithelia cells which were chromaffin cell that compose and forming dense fish-net. Observed carefully sebaceous gland around hair folikelle. . Observation VIII a. Prepared a human skin object glass. Watched sekretory segment from its duct segment. Watched glomerulose. Prepared an adrenal gland object glass. c. vasikulata. Observed carefully medulla area. and reticule zones. 9.8.

Lumen 3. 1. Lumen . Cuboidal epithelium Parietalis layer of Bowman’s capsule. Basal membrane 4. 1. Basal membrane 3. Nucleus 2.CHAPTER IV OBSERVATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. Observation Result Endothelium of blood vessel in kidney. Nucleus 2.

Basal membrane 2. Lumen Cuboidal epithelium in tubule contortus distal. Basal membrane 2. Nucleus 3. 1. Nucleus 3.Cuboidal epithelium in tubule contortus proximal. 1. Lumen .

Basal membrane 2. 1. 1. Vile 3. Basal membrane 3. Nucleus 2. Columnar epithelium 4.Artwarthy slice of intestine. Lumen . Lumen Columnar epithelium.

Stratified flat epithelium in trachea. Basal membrane Horned flat stratified epithelium 1. Goblet cell 5. Stratum corneum 2. 1. Stratum germinativum . Cillia 2. Stratum granulosum 3. Columnar epithelium 3. Stratum spinosum 4. Basal cell 4.

Papilla sircumvalata.Goblet cell. 1. Epithelial cell 2. Serosa gland . Connective tissue 4. Mucosa gland 5. Lamina propria 3.

Glomerulosa zone 2. Reticularis zone . Cell α 2. Vesiculata zone 3. Blood capillary Adrenal cortex. 1. 1. Cell β 3.Pancreas.

Basal membrane 2. Nucleus Sweat gland. . 1.Adrenal medulla.

.Sebaceus gland.

Simple squamous epithelium cell. The other as place of attached epithelium cells. In this observation of epithelium type. widened in the nucleus place. This membrane contained many kinds of macromolecule like lamina. fibronektin. Simple squamous epithelium consists of flat and thin cell in the ferifer not regulation. but has . when we looked from inside. and preventing the form of upper epithelium tissue. Parietal capsule Bowman layer generally has structure of tissue at similar. this looked like string that separated by nucleus place I the center. and lumen or cavity. each other to close up formed a layer which complete. simple squamous epithelium. nucleus. works as selective filter. Basal membrane or basal lamina was the connective tissues that was lay under epithelium tissue. we observed simple squamous ephitelium mammal kidney. basal membrane functioned as block to prevent microorganism enter the parts of the body. Nucleus from the each cells is sircular and concentric place.B. Observation I At the observation I. ephitelium tissues composed of endothelium blood vessels which consist of basal membrane. and entaktin. we would observed simple squamous epithelium origin from endoderm. to prevent water and cell liquid loss from body. that was endothelium blood vessel and parietal capsule Bowman’s. At the horizontal of cells cytoplasm like thin. Discussion 1.

Cornered shaped change is trapezium if the cell be group in the lumen around small layer. 3. connective tissues enter in the cells area. We called simple cuboidal epithelium because the cut trans section with is surface. At the enlargement 10 x 10. At the lumen seem intestine lining and we found vili. 2. In the vertical notched. seem diagonal from intestine. The cytoplasm nearly saw but we could saw in the nucleus area. these tissues has functioned as to support of epithelium tissues. After that enlargement 10 x 10 and the part of the vili seem simple columnar epithelium with it par. we observated simple columnar epithelium place the duodenum. Observation III At the observation III.oval shaped or formed like capsule. each cells like box or cube. where the cytoplasm seems to blow up. Found connective tissue. we observated simple cuboidal epithelium at the tubules contorts proximal and tubules contorts distal. These cells cytoplasm is clear particle. Another . Observation II At the observation II. the cell like cornered with circular nucleus in each cell central. and in the last limited cells commonly not clear in the notched material. Between both haven’t to different structure tissue of contrax. this endothelium modification to enlargement absorption area. If the surface shaped polygonal. that only the tubules contorts distal cuboidal epithelium cels smaller than tubulescontorts proximal. At the .

4. and inside like columns to close up vertical section with nucleus oval shaped. Those keratinocytes found in the stratum basale are sometimes referred to as "basal cells" or "basal keratinocytes. cylincrical cells. that is basal cells. like pseudostratified. constituting 95% of the cells found there. Observation V a) Human brown skin The keratinocyte is the major constituent of the epidermis. This caused the pkace nucleus raised not strength. This epithelium called pseudostratified because have diagonal trans section. Membrane basal lower found based lamina.surface like cuboids epiyhelium. and goblet cell basal shaped cuboidalwith found nucleus and higher is lower Cilyndrical cilia at the help to prevent the lungs is cleaned it way to snare the dust and other particle and sweat them back above trachea. . we observated pseudostratified epithelium trachea of rabbit. Observation IV At the observation IV. to smooth or to smear the surface of duct and kept it damp like generally the epithelium so support in basal membrane. Goblet cells or mucus cells secretion the solution which called mucus. This epithelium is build by three types of cells. 5. proximal place toward basal membrane.

Observation VI a) Goblet cells Goblet cells are glandular simple columnar epithelial cells whose sole function is to secrete mucus. 7. impermeable barrier. While keratinized epithelium occurs mainly in the skin. tend to have horizontally flattened. Observation VII a) circumvallate papillae In this area was found stratified squamous-keratinized. Squamous cells. As their name. for example. 8. and retikularis zone . providing a tough. They use both apocrine and merocrine methods for secretion.6. it is also found in the mouth and nose. feziculata zone. flat plates. elliptical nuclei because of the thin flattened form of the cell. stratified squamous are combine from more than one Squamous cells have the appearance of thin. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and help to identify the type of epithelium. Observation VIII a) Cortex and adrenal medulla In this area was found cubodial epithelial which divide into three part are. glomerulous zone.

they are found in greatest abundance on the face and scalp. Myoepithelial cell contractions squeeze the gland and discharge the accumulated secretions. b) Sebaceous gland Sebaceous glands are microscopic glands in the skin which secrete an oily matter (sebum) in the hair follicles to lubricate the skin and hair of animals. Both gland types contain myoepithelial cells.9. . specialized epithelial cells located between the gland cells and the underlying basal lamina. The secretory activities of the gland cells and the contractions of myoepithelial cells are controlled by both the autonomic nervous system and by the circulating hormones. In humans. Observation IX a) Gland sweat The skin contains two different groups of sweat glands: apocrine sweat glands and merocrine sweat glands. though they are distributed throughout all skin sites except the palms and soles.

if we look from upper side. Pseudostratified epithelium has cilia. Conclusion After did the observations. Simple cuboidal epithelium consists of cube shaped cells with same wide and length. . that looks hexagonal and has circular nucleus. Such a pillar to closes up trans section. the shape is unregulated and cell’s compound stand of basal membrane. 2. we could take conclusions such: 1. pseudostratified epithelium. Simple squamous epithelium consists of one layer flat shaped cells. goblet cells. 4. Disk shaped nucleus.CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. but from upper side. Simple columnar epithelium consists of cylinder shaped liner cells and erect from basal membrane. basal cells or basal membrane. in inside that is cube shaped tray. 3. oval nucleus and lays like basal.

Better if the students prepared themselves well by learn from lab work guide book so the lab work progress wouldn’t disturb by themselves. the students wouldn’t find any defect object glass that made the students couldn’t find any vision when they observed from microscope. Better if the object glasses prepared well before lab work starts so when the lab work in process. Suggestion 1.B. . 2.

2003. Cleveland. Keeton. Penuntun Praktikum Struktur Hewan. Makassar: FMIPA UNM.vanderbilt. sixth edition. http://en. Anonym. Epithelium. Wm. 2000.wikipedia. 2009. . Glandular Epithelium. fifth edition. USA: Norton & Company Inc. P. Accessed at March 31. Biology of Animals.edu/ histology/word/2003/glandularepithelium03. Accessed at March 31. W. 2009. Wayne. Brown Publisher. Biological Science. Lambert.htm.org/wiki/Epithelium#Types_of_ Epithelial_Tissue. C. T. 2003. 2009. 2009.mc. http://www.BIBBLIOGRAPHY Adnan and Halifah Pagarra.

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