Training & Development

Source : Chapter 12: Employee training, Personnel management by C.B.Mamoria

TRAINING
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A learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his/ her ability to perform on the job. It involves changing of  Skills  Attitude  Knowledge A process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour Training gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviour An attempt to improve performance of the current job or to prepare for an intended job

Development
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A related process Aims not only to improve performance but also tries to bring about growth of personality, help in attaining maturity and actualisation of potential capacities Intended to equip persons to earn promotion and hold greater responsibility Can also be termed as training a person for a bigger & higher job

Education
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Understanding an interpretation of knowledge No definitive answers, rather develops a logical and rational mind that can determine the relationships among pertinent variables and thereby understand the phenomena

Difference between training and development
TRAINING
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DEVELOPMENT
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Non managerial personnel Technical and mechanical operations Specific job related purpose Short term

Managerial personnel Theoretical, conceptual ideas General knowledge Long term

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Why training?
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To increase productivity
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Most evident on new employees Better informed workers make fewer mistakes Internal sources are fully tapped A chain reaction of training leading to productivity and quality improvement, better financial incentives

Improve quality Help a company fulfill its future personnel needs Improve organizational climate Improve health and safety Improving employee performance Updating employee skills Preparing for promotion Obsolescence prevention Retaining and motivation Personal growth

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Responsible for Training
` Top

Mgmt ² Frames the Trg policy ` HT Dept ² plans, establishes and evaluates ` Supervisors ² implement and apply development procedure ` Employees ² provide feedback, revision and suggestions

How to create desire for training?
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Programmes involving behavioral change which employees think as useful in personal life also Awareness about better ways of performing (more productive / satisfactory ways) and gain experience Forced demands from supervisors or higher authorities

Principles / concepts of training
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

Training tends to be most responsive when trainees feel the need to learn Learning is more effective when reinforcement given inform of rewards and punishments In the long run awards are better than punishments when behavioral change is desired Rewards are better when immediate results after training are expected Reinforcement has a positive correlation with size of reward Negative reinforcement may have a disruptive effect

Principles / concepts of training (contd..)
7)

8)

9)

10)

Participation and discussion are a must when a trainee is expected to change attitudes, values and social beliefs Feedback to the trainee on how he is performing after training is important Practice makes perfect. New skills & behavioral norms are facilitated through practice and repetition Meaningful training material through which the trainee understands the general principles is better than asking them to memorize few isolated steps

Learning theories
Training causes learning, a process which takes place within the trainee ` The 2 learning theories are 1) Connectionist theory
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Believes in stimulus-response approach

2)
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Cognitive theory
All learning leads towards a goal

Learning curves

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Time taken per trail or errors per trail are used as measures to gauge the success of a training program Plotting time in X axis and the performance after training in Y axis

Learning curves
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Varies from person to person The common elements of a learning curve are
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Initial steep rise Tendency to rise less and less rapidly in second phase Leveling off at a certain time Ups and downs on day to day basis Some times plateaus

Steps in a training process
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Discovering or identifying training needs Getting ready for the job Preparation of the learner presentation of the operations and knowledge Performance tryout Follow up and evaluation of the programme

STEP 1: Discovering / Identifying training needs

Task description analysis
1) 2)

List duties and responsibilities using JD as a guide List standards of work performance on the job Compare actual performance against standards Determine which parts of job are giving trouble to employee Determine what kind of training is needed

Determine training needs
3) 4)

5)

Tools to assist in determining training needs
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Identifying specific problems Anticipating impending and future problems Management requests Interviewing and observing personnel on the job Performance appraisal Questionnaire Check list Moral and attitude surveys

STEP 2: Getting ready for the job
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Decide who is to be trained Trainer has to prepare himself Decide on
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Support material Training period Training for different employees Training methods

STEP 3: Preparation of the learner
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Put the learner at ease State the importance and ingredients of the job and its relationship with the work flow Explain why he is being taught Create interest and try to know the trainees knowledge on the job to be trained Place the learner close to his normal working position Familiarize with training material, equipment tools and trade terms

STEP 4: Presentation and operations knowledge
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Trainer should clearly tell, show , illustrate and question in order to put the knowledge across Learner should be told of the sequence of job, why each step is important Clear instructions with emphasis on key points Audio visual aids Encourage questions

STEP 5: Performance tryout
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Trainee asked to perform the job several times slowly while explaining each step Mistakes are corrected Gradual building up of speed and skills Once a satisfactory level is achieved trainee is put on his own but not abandoned Effectiveness of the training program is checked
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Written / oral tests Observation Finding out individual / groups reaction to training while training is going on Interviews Questionnaires Opinion of top management on after training performance Results comparison in terms of productivity, quality of work

STEP 6: Follow up
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Putting trainee on his own Checking frequently to see if he has followed instructions Tapering off excess supervision and close follow-up until trainee is qualified to work under normal supervision

TRAINING METHODS / TECHNIQUES

Classification of training methods
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

7)

On the job Vestibule Demonstration and examples Simulation Apprenticeship Classroom methods  Lectures  Conference  Case study  Role play  Programmed instruction Other training methods 1) Associations 2) Audiovisual aids

On the job training (OJT)
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Most commonly used Trainees earn as they learn under the watchful eyes of a master mechanic or craftsmen, receive immediate feedback, practice in the actual work environment and associate with the same people they are will work with after training Primarily concerned with developing and employee·s repertoire of skills and habits consistent with the existing practices of an organization and with orienting him to his immediate problems

On the job training (OJT) (contd..)
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OJT mostly used for unskilled and semi skilled jobs Learning by doing : personal observation and practice Difficult to simulate jobs and jobs which can be learnt by watching and doing Variety of OJT methods. They are
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Understudy Job rotation Special assignments or committees

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Understudy
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Also known as internship or apprenticeship Employee trained by immediate superior Internship is generally for managerial position Apprenticeship is used to impart skills requiring long periods of practice as in crafts and technical fields Management trainee is moved from one job to other job at certain intervals The jobs vary in content Over all exposure to company

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Job rotation
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Special assignments / committees
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For lower level executives Provides first hand experience of actual problems Various department executives working as a committee or a board need to analyze practical problems and recommend solutions to top management

Merits of On the job training (OJT)
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Trainee learns the actual equipment in use and in the true environment ` Gets a feel of the actual production conditions and requirements ` Makes transfer from training center or school to production floor much easy Highly economical as no additional personnel or facilities required for training Trainee learns the rules, regulations and procedures by observing day to day applications Suitable alternative when the no of jobs is equal to the no of people in the organization Most appropriate for teaching the knowledge and ksills which can be acquired in a short period

Demerits of On the job training (OJT)
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Instructions are highly disorganized and haphazard Not properly supervised as the skilled employee cannot devote time Breakdown of the job because of instructions Noisy distractions

Job Instruction Training (JIT)
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Similar to OJT Requires skilled trainers Known as training through step by step learning Need for extensive job analysis, training schedules and prior assessment of trainee·s job knowledge Trainee put into actual work site by trainer and shown how the work is done step by step and trainee has to try out and errors are corrected Demerit: interfere with production and quality

Vestibule training
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Used for semi skilled workers Attempts to duplicate on the job situations in a classroom Classroom has equipments and machines which are identical to the place of work. Trainee can concentrate on learning the new skill rather than performing an actual job Once theory is completed in classroom practical work will be carried out in production line

Vestibule training (contd..)
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Merits
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Minimal distractions Trained instructor can be effectively used Correct methods can be taught Trainee don·t have to fear supervisor·s wrath and other persons ridicule Splitting of responsibilities leads to organizational problems Additional investments in equipment Artificial training situation

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Demerits
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Demonstration and examples
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Trainer describes and displays something as when he teaches how to do something by actually performing the activity himself and by going through a step by step explanation of why and what he is doing Effective method as showing how to do a job is better than asking a person to go through manuals Can be used in conjecture with lectures, pictures, text material etc.. Not useful for managerial jobs

Simulation
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Trying to duplicate the actual conditions encountered in a job as nearly as possible Vestibule training is an example Best used in aeronautical industry Trainee shows interest and motivation as the actions of trainee closely duplicate real job conditions Used where an error in actual job can cause injury, destruction of valuable material and resources Generally expensive

Apprenticeship
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Used for jobs like machinist, draughtsman, mechanic, carpenters etc Major part of time is spent on the job productive work Each apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to a pre determined schedule Merits
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Skilled work force is maintained Immediate returns from training Better workmanship Lower hiring costs and reduced turnover

In basket technique
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It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator

Procedure of the In basket Technique
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In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role. The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes place. In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions. The trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably.

Classroom or Off the job methods
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Lectures Conferences Group discussions Case studies Role play Programme instruction T-Group training

Role play
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Definition : a method of human interaction which involves realistic behavior in the imaginary situations Demonstrates the gap between thinking and doing Trainees are given a role as in a stage play They are given a situation but no lines are given to act out Trainees now have to do a preliminary planning and act out the play Primarily hiring, firing, grievance procedure type of roles played

Merits of role play
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Learning by doing is emphasized More stress on human sensitivity and interactions Knowledge of results is immediate High level of trainee interest and involvement Useful when simulating on the job ocnditions in classroom Brings on desired changes in behavior and attitudes

Evaluation of training
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Objective : to determine the ability of the participant to perform the jobs for which they have been trained Methods
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Questionnaires or structured interviews Use of experimental and control groups Longitudinal or time series analysis Pre and post training tests

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