ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS

OF THE DECISIONS THAT MUST BE MADE by the designer of a multistory building, probably none is more important than the selection of the vertical

transportation

equipment-that is, the

passenger, service

and

freight elevators and the escalators. Not only these items represent a major
building expense being in the case of a 25-story office building as much as 10% of the construction cost, but the quality of elevator service is also an important factor in a tenants choice of space in competing buildings.

MOVEMENT PATTERN

VERTICAL– ELEVATORS – LIFTS

INCLINED – ESCALATORS – MOVINGSTAIRS

HORIZONTAL– CONVEYORS -- WALKWAYS

HYDRAULIC TRACTION .

ESCALATORS .

MULTI LEVEL ECSALATORS .

HYDRAULIC TRACTION .

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COMPONENTS OF GEARED ELEVATOR INSTALLATION .

COMPOSITE HOIST MOTOR AND SHEAVE ASSEMBLY .

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PASSENGER ELEVATORS ONE MUST DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN 1) RESIDENTIAL HIGH RISE 2) ELEVATORS IN NORMAL OFFICE BUILDINGS 3) ELEVATORS IN SMALL OFFICE BUILDINGS AND 4) ELEVATORS IN TALL OFFICE BUILDINGS THE ELEVATOR PLANNERS JOB IS TO 1) DETERMINE REQUIRED CAPACITY 2) CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF ELEVATORS NECESSARY 3) DEMANDS ON ELEVATORS TO BE CLEARLY DEFINED .

THE NUMBER OF HOTEL ROOMS 3) FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS--.BUILDING PARAMATERS USABLE FLOOR SPACE BASIC PARAMETERS FOR ELEVATOR TRAFFIC CALCULATIONS 1) FOR OFFICE BUILDINGS--.THE PLANNED OFFICE SPACE 2) FOR HOTELS --.THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF APARTMENTS OFFICE SPACE OR THE NUMBER OF HOTEL ROOMS OR APARTMENTS MUST BE DETERMINED FOR EACH FLOOR THE NUMBER AND HEIGHT OF INDIVIDUAL FLOORS MUST BE KNOWN .

THE FOLLOWING VALUES CAN BE CONSIDERED --. 1 PERSON / SINGLE ROOM --.2.OFFICE BUILDING WITH ONE USER 8-10 SQMT NET AREA / PERSON --.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING DEPENDING ON APARTMENT SIZE.5-1.NUMBER OF PASSENGERS THE POPULATION OF EACH STORY IS DETERMINED BY THE USABLE FLOOR SPACE .RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS AND HOTELS 1.5-1.9 PEOPLE / ROOM OR WITH SLIGHT DEVIATION --.RESIDENTIAL BUILDING 13 SQMT / PERSON --.3 OR 5 PEOPLE/ APARTMENT .OFFICE BUILDING WITH MULTIPLE USER 10-12 SQMT NET AREA / PERSON --.7 PEOPLE / DOUBLE ROOM.HOTEL 1.

REQUIRED HANDLING CAPACITY THE TOTAL PROBABLE MEAN OCCUPANCY FOR EACH FLOOR IS USED TO DETERMINE THE NECESSARY CONYENCE CAPACITY OF EACH ELEVATOR GROUP DURING IN.RUSH PERIOD THE TRAFFIC MODEL CALCULATIONS ARE BASED ON THIS PERIOD BECAUSE DEMANDS ON THESE TIMES CAN BE STANDARDIZED AND COMPARED .

OTHER BUILDINGS---25-30 SEC.17-25% AVERAGE WAITING TIME OFFICE BUILDING WITH PRESTIGE---20-25 SEC.OF PEOPLE TRANSPORTED IN FIVE MINUTES FOLLOWING ARE THE STANDARD TRAFFIC % OFFICE BUILDINGS WITH SEVERAL USERS---11-15% OFFICE BUILDINGS WITH ONE USER---17% WITH HIGH PRESTIGE--.ELEVATOR PARAMETERS FIVE MINUTE HANDLING CAPACITY THE No. RESIDENTIAL AND HOTELS---40-100 SEC .

IS DESIRABLE TIME LOST AT STOP THE TIME LOST AT STOP IS THE TIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A TRIP FROM FLOOR A TO FLOOR B WITHOUT INTERVENING STOPS AND A TRIP FROM B TO A WITH ONE INTERVENING STOP.CAB CAPACITY THE NECESSARY FLOOR AREA IS CALCULATED USING THE No. A NET FLOOR AREA OF AT LEAST 0. OF PASSENGERS TO BE TRANSPORTED EACH RUN TO ACHIEVE THE DESIGNATED HANDLING CAPACITY WITH GOOD AVERAGE WAITING TIMES.22 SQMT/ PER. PLUS A DEFINED DOOR OPENING .

BUFFER AND TENSION SHEAVE IN THE SHAFT PIT. CARS.SPEED ELEVATOR SPEED IN HIGH. THEY NEED COSTLY MEASURES TO ENSURE STRUCTURE AND AIR BORNE NOISE INSULATION AND THEY HAVE A VERY HIGH ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION . FAST ELEVATORS REQUIRE COMPLEX EQUIPMENT FOR THE DRIVE MECHANISM.RISES IS DEPENDENT ON HOISTING HEIGHT AND CHOSEN ON THE BASIS OF TRAFFIC CALCULATIONS. AND COUNTER WEIGHT DESIGN.

HIGH RISE ELEVATOR GROUPS .

ELEVATOR GROUPINGS .

ELEVATOR ZONING .

ESCALATOR DIMENSIONS .

ESCALATOR DIMENSIONS .

ESCALATOR GROUPINGS CRISS CROSS ARRANGEMENT .

PARALLEL ARRANGEMENT .

PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF THE ELEVATOR The car is a cage of some fire resistant material supported on a structural frame The cables (ropes) are connected to the cross-head (top beam of the elevator} and carry the weight of the car and its live load are made of groups of steel wires The counterweight is made up of cut steel plates stacked in a frame attached to the opposite ends of the cables to which the car is fastened. The elevator machine turns the sheave and lifts or lowers the car. It consists of a heavy structural frame on which are mounted the sheave and driving motor The shaft or hoist way is the vertical passageway for the car and counterweights .

. From the point of view of architecture and construction the major inherent advantage of hydraulic units is the absence of an overhead machine room. a penthouse. There is essentially no limit to the load that can be lifted. Cars can be lowered manually by the operation of oil valves. 4. and traction equipment. 3.Advantages of Hydraulic types of elevators. 5. The hoist way is smaller due to the absence of a counter weight and its guide rails. By contrast. traction units place a large structural load on the pent house and machine room floors and on overhead steel as well. 1. This is particularly useful and important in the event of control equipment failure or power failure. 2. The elevator load is carried by the ground and not the structure.

Ride quality is inferior to that of a good traction unit. 1. 2. and industrial applications. 3. 4. Because oil viscosity changes with temperature. and all the energy is lost in heat. require a stiff power supply to avoid problems of light flicker and other undesirable line voltage fluctuations. They are limited to low-rise. The high inrush current taken by the pump each time it starts. low-speed applications. Noise from the pump and motor plus piping noise can be disturbing. the ambient temperature of the space containing the pump and the oil storage tank must be controlled to maintain ride quality and performance. This problem can be ameliorated by moving the pump mechanism (up to 50 ft from the elevator shaft) . although it is entirely acceptable to residential. Because it is not counter weighted. mercantile. which is every time the elevator travels upwards. it requires a relatively large motor to drive the oil pump. 5.Disadvantages of Hydraulic types of elevators. The Major inherent disadvantage of the hydraulic elevator is its operating expense.

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