sockets

Socket Programming in C/C++
c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth September 24, 2004

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth

Socket Programming in C/C++

sockets

Contact Info

Mani Radhakrishnan Office 4224 SEL email mradhakr @ cs . uic . edu Office Hours Tuesday 1 - 4 PM

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth

Socket Programming in C/C++

sockets

TCP UDP

Introduction

Sockets are a protocol independent method of creating a connection between processes. Sockets can be either connection based or connectionless: Is a connection established before communication or does each packet describe the destination? packet based or streams based: Are there message boundaries or is it one stream? reliable or unreliable. Can messages be lost, duplicated, reordered, or corrupted?

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth

Socket Programming in C/C++

sockets

TCP UDP

Socket characteristics

Socket are characterized by their domain, type and transport protocol. Common domains are: AF UNIX: address format is UNIX pathname AF INET: address format is host and port number Common types are: virtual circuit: received in order transmitted and reliably datagram: arbitrary order, unreliable

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth

Socket Programming in C/C++

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP Socket characteristics (cont’d) Each socket type has one or more protocols. Ex: TCP/IP (virtual circuits) UDP (datagram) Use of sockets: Connection–based sockets communicate client-server: the server waits for a connection from the client Connectionless sockets are peer-to-peer: each process is symmetric.

sendto: write to connection (speak) recv.sockets TCP UDP Socket APIs socket: creates a socket of a given domain. type. (call waiting allowance) accept: server accepts a connection request from a client (answer phone) connect: client requests a connection request to a server (call) send. recvfrom: read from connection (listen) shutdown: end the call c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . protocol (buy a phone) bind: assigns a name to the socket (get a telephone number) listen: specifies the number of pending connections that can be queued for a server socket.

sockets TCP UDP Connection-based communication Server performs the following actions socket: create the socket bind: give the address of the socket on the server listen: specifies the maximum number of connection requests that can be pending for this process accept: establish the connection with a specific client send.recv: stream-based equivalents of read and write (repeated) shutdown: end reading or writing close: release kernel data structures c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

recv: (repeated) shutdown close c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP TCP client Client performs the following actions socket: create the socket connect: connect to a server send.

sockets TCP UDP TCP-based sockets server socket client socket bind connect listen accept close send/recv send/recv shutdown shutdown close close c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

connection based. The type argument can be: SOCK STREAM: Establishes a virtual circuit for stream SOCK DGRAM: Establishes a datagram for communication SOCK SEQPACKET: Establishes a reliable. two way communication with maximum message size. The domain is AF INET. i n t t y p e .) protocol is usually zero. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . Returns a file descriptor (called a socket ID) if successful. -1 otherwise. (This is not available on most machines. so that type defines the connection within domain. i n t p r o t o c o l ) . h> 4 i n t s o c k e t ( i n t domain .sockets TCP UDP socket API #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s . Note that the socket returns a socket descriptor which is the same as a file descriptor.

sockets TCP UDP bind #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s . h> 4 i n t bind ( i n t sid . h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . In internet protocol the address is [ipNumber. portNumber] c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . s t r u c t sockaddr ∗addrPtr . i n t l e n ) Where sid: is the socket id addrPtr: is a pointer to the address family dependent address structure len: is the size of *addrPtr Associates a socket id with an address to which other processes can connect.

// an I P a d d r e s s For unix sockets (only works between processes on the same machine) 2 4 struct sockaddr un { uint8 t sun length . // i s a p o r t number sin addr . // // = AF LOCAL // n u l l t e r m i n a t e d pathname // ( 1 0 0 i s p o s i x 1 . the second parameter of bind (of type sockaddr in *) must be cast to (sockaddr *). c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . g minimum ) 6 } When using internet sockets. short sun family .sockets TCP UDP sockaddr For the internet family: 2 struct sockaddr sa family t in port t 4 struct in addr } in { s i n f a m i l y . char sun path [ 1 0 0 ] . // = AF INET sin port .

h> 4 int l i s t e n ( int sid . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . Where size it the number of pending connection requests allowed (typically limited by Unix kernels to 5).sockets TCP UDP listen #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s . int size ). h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . Returns the 0 on success. or -1 if failure.

and when received creates a socket for it. returns the actual value. if lenPtr or addrPtr equal zero. s t r u c t sockaddr ∗addrPtr . no address structure is returned. i n t ∗ l e n P t r ) Returns the socketId and address of client connecting to socket. Waits for an incoming request. h> 4 i n t accept ( i n t sid . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP accept #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s . h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . lenPtr is the maximum size of address structure that can be called.

When the processing on that connection is completed. the socket is closed. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . a child process is forked off to handle the connection. Forking server: After an accept. Concurrent single server: use select to simultaneously wait on all open socketIds. and next connection can be accepted. Variation: the child processes are preforked and are passed the socketId. and waking up the process only when new data arrives.sockets TCP UDP accept styles There are basically three styles of using accept: Iterating server: Only one socket is opened at a time.

sockets TCP UDP Pro and Con of Accept styles Iterating server is basically a low performance technique since only one connection is open at a time. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . unless performed with threads. Forking servers enable using multiple processors. however present a very fragile programming environment. But does not benefit from multiprocessors. Concurrent single server: reduces context switches relative to forking processes and complexity relative to threads. Threads. But they make sharing state difficult.

flag is either 0: default MSG OOB: Out-of-band high priority communication c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . i n t len . const char ∗ b u f f e r P t r . (Must be a bound socket). h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . h> 4 i n t send ( i n t sid . i n t f l a g ) Send a message. Returns the number of bytes sent or -1 if failure.sockets TCP UDP send #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s .

flags can be either 0: default MSG OOB: out-of-bound message MSG PEEK: look at message without removing c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . h> 4 i n t recv ( i n t sid .sockets TCP UDP recv #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s . h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . i n t f l a g s ) Receive up to len bytes in bufferPtr. i n t len . char ∗ b u f f e r P t r . Returns the number of bytes received or -1 on failure.

h> 4 i n t shutdown ( i n t s i d . h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . i n t how ) Disables sending (how=1 or how=2) or receiving (how=0 or how=2). Returns -1 on failure.sockets TCP UDP shutdown #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s . acts as a partial close. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

-1 otherwise. s t r u c t sockaddr ∗addrPtr . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . and returns a 0 if successful. h> 4 i n t connect ( i n t sid . i n t l e n ) Specifies the destination to form a connection with (addrPtr). h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t .sockets TCP UDP connect this is the first of the client calls #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s .

sockets TCP UDP Denoting Connections Note that a connection is denoted by a 5-tuple: from IP from port protocol to IP to port So that multiple connections can share the same IP and port. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

sockets TCP UDP Port usage Note that the initiator of communications needs a fixed port to target communications. This means that some ports must be reserved for these “well known” ports. Port usage: 0-1023: These ports can only be binded to by root 1024-5000: well known ports 5001-64K-1: ephemeral ports c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

ntohs. hostname pairs gethostbyname: hostent of a specified machine htons. htonl.sockets TCP UDP APIs for managing names and IP addresses We next consider a number of auxiliary APIs: The hostent structure: describes IP. ntohl: byte ordering inet pton. inet ntop: conversion of IP numbers between presentation and strings c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

h> 2 i n t g e t h o s t n a m e ( c h a r ∗hostname . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . 0 on success.sockets TCP UDP gethostname #i n c l u d e <u n i s t d .h>. Returns -1 on failure. s i z e t nameLength ) Returns the hostname of the machine on which this command executes (What host am i?). MAXHOSTNAMELEN is defined in <sys/param.

6 c h a r ∗∗ h a d d r l i s t } 2 // // // // . int h length . c h a r ∗∗ h a l i a s e s . 4 int h addrtype . // o f f i c i a l ( c a n o n i c a l ) name o f t h e h o s t n u l l t e r m i n a t e d a r r a y of a l t e r n a t i v e hostnames h o s t a d d r e s s t y p e AF INET o r AF INET6 4 o r 16 b y t e s IPv4 or IPv6 l i s t of a d d r e s s e s Error is return through h error which can be: HOST NOT FOUND TRY AGAIN NO RECOVERY NO DATA c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP hostent structure struct hostent { c h a r ∗h name .

c s . >s 4 hostEntity− >h a d d r l i s t [ 0 ] . Example: struct hostent ∗hostEntity = g e t h o s t b y n a m e ( ” b e r t . hostEntity− >h l e n g t h ) . 2 c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . h> 2 s t r u c t h o s t e n t ∗ g e t h o s t b y n a m e ( c o n s t c h a r ∗hostname ) Translates a DNS name into a hostent. edu ” ) .sockets TCP UDP Gethostbyname Auxiliary functions #i n c l u d e <n e t d b . memcpy ( s o c k e t A d d r− i n a d d r . u i c .

o r d e r f o r long (32 b i t ) v ). Intel is little endian). o r d e r f o r long (16 b i t ) v ). 4 // Host t o n e t w o r k b y t e uint 32t htonl ( uint 32t 6 // Network t o h o s t b y t e 8 u i n t 1 6 t ntohs ( u i n t 1 6 t 10 // Network t o h o s t b y t e o r d e r f o r l o n g ( 3 2 b i t ) uint 32t ntohl ( uint 32t v ). (Sparc is big endian. 2 // Host t o n e t w o r k b y t e o r d e r f o r s h o r t s ( 1 6 b i t ) u i n t 1 6 t htons ( u i n t 1 6 t v ) .sockets TCP UDP Network byte ordering Network ordering in big endian. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

’p’ stands for presentation. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . Hence.sockets TCP UDP IP Number translation IP address strings to 32 bit number In what follows. we have 4 representations: IP number in host order IP number in network order Presentation (eg. these routines translate between the address as a string and the address as the number. dotted decimal) Fully qualified domain name Only the last needs an outside lookup to convert to one of the other formats. Hence.

Finally. void ∗addrPtr ) . returns 1 if OK. 0 if presentation error. -1 error Where family is either AF INET or AF INET6. addrPtr points to either the 32 bit result (AF INET) or 128 bit result (AF INET6). h> 2 4 i n t i n e t p t o n ( i n t family . const char ∗strPtr . The strPtr is the IP address as a dotted string.sockets TCP UDP inet pton #i n c l u d e <a r p a / i n e t . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

Finally. s i z e t l e n ) . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . addrPtr points to either the 32 bit (AF INET) or 128 bit (AF INET6). char ∗s tr Pt r . h> 2 4 i n t i n e t n t o p ( i n t family .sockets TCP UDP inet ntop #i n c l u d e <a r p a / i n e t . returns 1 if OK. const char ∗addrPtr . The strPtr is the return IP address as a dotted string. Length is the size of destination. 0 if presentation error. -1 error Where family is either AF INET or AF INET6.

2 s o c k a d d r &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) s e r v e r A d d r . s i n a d d r . 22 c l o s e ( connectFd ) . 5). which means that it serves one connection at a time.sockets TCP UDP Example: TCP/IP Server Code Without error checking. 8 s e r v e r A d d r . sockaddr in serverAddr . NULL ) . shutdown ( c o n n e c t F d . 10 s e r v e r A d d r . r e a d and w r i t e o p e r a t i o n s on c o n n e c t F d . // any i n t e r n e t i n t e r f a c e on t h i s s e r v e r . SOCK STREAM . ( s o c k a d d r ∗) NULL . . 6 b z e r o (& s e r v e r A d d r . } Note that the above is an iterative server. s i n f a m i l y = AF INET . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . 12 b i n d ( l i s t e n F d . 0 ) . s i n p o r t = htons ( 1 3 ) . . &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t . 2 ) . 20 // . . 4 // g e t a t c p / i p s o c k e t i n t l i s t e n F d = s o c k e t ( AF INET . s i z e o f ( s e r v e r A d d r ) ) . s a d d r = h t o n l (INADDR ANY ) . s i z e o f ( s e r v e r A d d r ) ) . 16 for ( . 14 l i s t e n ( listenFd . serverAddr . ) { 18 i n t connectFd = a c c e p t ( l i s t e n F d .

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . The parent process closses connectFd. and communicates using connectFd.sockets TCP UDP Concurrent Server To build a concurrent server: a fork is performed after the accept. The child process closes listenFd. and then loops back to the accept to wait for another connection request.

SOCK STREAM . s i n p o r t = htons ( 1 3 ) . 14 // . 12 c o n n e c t ( sockFd . 4 // g e t a t c p / i p s o c k e t i n t s o c k F d = s o c k e t ( AF INET . s i n a d d r ) . 2 ) . s i z e o f ( s e r v e r A d d r ) ) . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . 2 s o c k a d d r &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) s e r v e r A d d r . 16 c l o s e ( s o c k F d ) . s e r v e r N a m e . r e a d and w r i t e o p e r a t i o n s on s o c k F d . s i z e o f ( s e r v e r A d d r ) ) . serverAddr . . 8 s e r v e r A d d r . 6 b z e r o (& s e r v e r A d d r . shutdown ( sockFd . 0 ) . s e r v e r A d d r C a s t . s i n f a m i l y = AF INET . . s e r v e r A d d r .sockets TCP UDP Example: TCP/IP Client code sockaddr in serverAddr . // h o s t I P # i n d o t t e d d e c i m a l f o r m a t ! 10 i n e t p t o n ( AF INET .

recvfrom (repeated) shutdown close c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP Connectionless communication Communication is symmetric (peer-to-peer) socket bind: bind is optional for initiator sendto.

sockets TCP UDP Connectionless communication client socket bind sendto/ recvfrom shutdown close c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

sockets TCP UDP UDP variations It is not necessary for both sockets to bind The receiver gets the address of the sender It is possible for a UDP socket to connect In this case. send/recv (or write/read) must be used instead of sendto/recvfrom. Asynchronous errors can be returned (using ICMP) c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

s i z e t bufferLength . h> 4 6 i n t sendto ( i n t sid . h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . Returns number of bytes sent or -1 on error. bufferPtr. s t r u c t sockaddr ∗addrPtr . of length bufferLength to address specified by addrPtr of size addrLength. const void ∗bufferPtr . int flag . s o c k l e n t addrLength ) Send a buffer.sockets TCP UDP sendto for connectionless protocols #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

void ∗bufferPtr . Sender address returned in addrPtr. i n t f l a g . sockaddr ∗addrPtr . i n t ∗addrLengthPtr ) Receive a buffer in bufferPtr of maximum length bufferLength from an unspecified sender. int bufferLength . h> 4 int recvfrom ( int sid . of size *addrLengthPtr.sockets TCP UDP recvfrom for connectionless protocols #i n c l u d e <s y s / t y p e s . Returns number of bytes receive or -1 on error. h> 2 #i n c l u d e <s y s / s o c k e t . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

s i n a d d r . // a l l o w c o n n e c t i o n t o any a d d r on h o s t // f o r h o s t s w i t h m u l t i p l e n e t w o r k c o n n e c t i o n s // and a s t s e r v e r p o r t . &s i z e ) . SOCK DGRAM. &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t . clientAddrCast . // r e p l y t o t h e c l i e n t j u s t r e c e i v e d from sendto ( socketId . 0 . sin port = htons ( s e r v e r P o r t ) . 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 // r e c e i v e from a c l i e n t int size = sizeof ( clientAddr ). s o c k a d d r &c l i e n t A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) c l i e n t A d d r . s o c k a d d r &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) s e r v e r A d d r . recvfrom ( socketId . serverAddr . buffer . bufferSize . size ). s i n f a m i l y = AF INET . s e r v e r A d d r . c l i e n t A d d r C a s t . buffer . // a s s o c i a t e p r o c e s s w i t h p o r t b i n d ( s o c k e t I d . close ( socketId ). clientAddr . 0 . s e r v e r A d d r .sockets TCP UDP Example: UDP—server i n t s o c k e t I d = s o c k e t ( AF INET . sockaddr in serverAddr . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . bufferSize . s i z e o f ( a d d r ) ) . s a d d r = INADDR ANY . 0 ) .

sockaddr in serverAddr . sin port = htons ( s e r v e r P o r t ) . s i z e ) . memcpy ( ( c h a r ∗)& s e r v e r A d d r . 0 . s o c k a d d r &c l i e n t A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) c l i e n t A d d r . 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 recvfrom ( socketId . buffer . bufferSize . 0 ) . sendto ( socketId . buffer . s i n f a m i l y = AF INET . bufferSize . &s i z e ) . ( c h a r ∗) hp− >h a d d r . serverAddrCast . // s p e c i f y s e r v e r a d d r e s s . s t r u c t h o s t e n t ∗hp = g e t h o s t b y n a m e ( hostName ) . hp− >h l e n g t h ) . serverAddr . s i n a d d r . // no n e e d t o b i n d i f n o t p e e r−to−p e e r int size = sizeof ( serverAddr ).sockets TCP UDP Example: UDP—client i n t s o c k e t I d = s o c k e t ( AF INET . close ( socketId ). SOCK DGRAM. s o c k a d d r &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) s e r v e r A d d r . 0 . p o r t s e r v e r A d d r . clientAddr . s e r v e r A d d rC a s t . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .