‡ ‡




PRINCIPLES OF RADAR HOW DOES RADAR WORK? TR A NS M I TTE R R A DA R P U L S E C IR CU L A TO R "TA R G E T " R E CE I V E R ‡ ‡ RADAR = Radio Detection And Ranging Since radar pulses propagate at the speed of light. the difference to the ³target´ is proportional to the time it takes between the transmit event and reception of the radar echo .

± Fly lower. and most civilian airborne SARs use linear FM chirps as the modulation scheme. ± Increase the antenna gain. This requires larger antennas. This also means poorer resolution. Signal modulation is a way to increase the radar pulse length without decreasing the radar range resolution ± All civilian spaceborne SARs. . This means poorer resolution. ± Increase the pulse length. Increases atmospheric drag. requiring more fuel for orbit maintenance. ± Decrease bandwidth.PRINCIPLES OF IMAGING RADAR THE RADAR EQUATION ‡ ‡ In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for a fixed radar frequency. severely affecting the launch mass and volume. This is usually limited by the power available from the spacecraft or aircraft. one has (among others) the following options: ± Increase the transmitted power.

PRINCIPLES OF RADAR IMAGING SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR Because the r adar is moving r elative to the tar get. ‡ Range Resolution: Xr ! c 2BW sin U L v J ‡ Azimuth Resolution Xa ! v L ! 2 f DM 2 ‡ Swath Width: S! hP 2 W cos U TARGET BOTH RANGE AND AZIMUTH RESOLUTIONS ARE INDEPENDENT OF DISTANCE TO TARGET! . the r eceived signal will be shifted in fr equency r elative to the tr ansmitted fr equency by an amount fd ! fd +fDM time 2v P sinJ -fDM Tar gets ahead of the r adar will have positive Doppler shifts. and those behind the r adar have negative Doppler shifts.

PRINCIPLES OF RADAR IMAGING POINT TARGET RESPONSE ‡ The radar system transmits a series of chirp pulses: W .

t ! A.

t exp 2T .

fc t  t 2 2X 1 ® for nT  X 2 A.

During this period. the distance to the target is r .t ! ¯ 0 ° otherwise ¡   Geometry ? A vt t nT  X 2 ‡ The target will be in view of the radar antenna for a limited time period.

t ! r02  v 2t 2 ! h 2  D2  v 2 t 2 h Radar r .

t D r0 ‡ Usually. vt r0 so 2 2 that Point Target r .

t } r0  v t 2r0 .

PRINCIPLES OF RADAR IMAGING RANGE-DOPPLER PROCESSING ‡ The phase of the range compressed signal is 4Tr .

\ 4T 4T 2T 2 2 J .

followed by matched filter azimuth compression . and is usually a good approximation for most higher frequency airborne SAR systems ! The expression above is that of a chirp signal with a bandwidth of Bd 2v 2 Pr0 where T is half the time that the target is in the field of view of the antenna Note that the bandwidth of the azimuth chirp is a function of the range to the target. The range-Doppler processing algorithm uses this fact to first perform matched filter range compression.\ ! ! r02  v 2 \ 2 } r0  v \ P P P Pr0 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The last approximation on the right is valid when the antenna beamwidth is very narrow.

D o p p l e r o n e a n d R e fe r e n c e P l a n e £ £ D o p p le r one ¢ Ra n g e p h e re insert sphere A i r c r a ft P o sitio n .PRINCIPLES OF RADAR IMAGING CLASSICAL SAR PROCESSING GEOMETRY V e l o c i ty V e c to r A s s u m e d R e fe r e n c e Pla n e S c a tte r e r i s a s s u m e d a t th e i n te r s e c ti o n o f R a n g e S p h e r e .

causing char acter istic image distor tions: RADAR IMAGE PLANE ‡ b¶ appear s closer than a¶ in r adar image  LAYOVER ‡ d¶ and e¶ ar e closer together in r adar image  FORESHORTENING b¶ a¶ c¶ d¶ e¶ f¶ g¶ h¶ b e a c d f g i i¶ ‡ h to i not illuminated by the r adar  RADAR SHADOW .PRINCIPLES OF IMAGING RADAR SAR IMAGE PROJECTION A thr ee-dimensional image is pr ojected onto a two-dimensional plane.

TYPES OF IMAGING RADARS Spectral Information Spectrometers Multi-frequency Imaging Interferometer Multi-frequency Imaging Polarimeter Imaging Polarimetric Interferometer Multi-frequency Imaging Polarimetric Interferometer .

SCATTERED WAVES INCIDENT WAVE SCATTERER ‡ ‡ Mathematically. The elements of the scattering matrix are functions of frequency and the scattering and illuminating geometries. . These currents give rise to the scattered waves that are reradiated.SAR POLARIMETRY SCATTERER AS POLARIZATION TRANSFORMER ‡ Transverse electromagnetic waves are characterized mathematically as 2-dimensional complex vectors. electrical currents are generated inside the scatterer. the scatterer can be characterized by a 2x2 complex scattering matrix that describes how the scatterer transforms the incident vector into the scattered vector. When a scatterer is illuminated by an electromagnetic wave.

POLARIMETER IMPLEMENTATION BLOCK DIAGRAM Horizontal Transmission: Horizontal TIMING Receiver Vertical Transmitter Reception: Receiver Horizontal HH HV HH HV HH Vertical Vertical VH VV VH VV VH .

Usually displayed assuming identical transmit and receive polarizations (co-polarized) or orthogonal transmit and receive polarizations (cross-polarized).POLARIZATION SIGNATURE ‡ ‡ The polarization signature (also known as the polarization response) is a convenient graphical way to display the received power as a function of polarization. .

RADAR INTERFEROMETRY HOW IS IT DONE? B B SIMULTANEOUS BASELINE Two radars acquire data at the same time REPEAT TRACK Two radars acquire data from different vantage points at different times .

RADAR INTERFEROMETRY COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES I M P L E M E N T A T IO N S i m u lt a n e o u s B a s e li n e ADVANTAGES K n o w n b a se lin e N o te m p o ra l d e co rre la tio n T yp ica lly b e tte r p e rfo rm a n ce L o w e r d a ta ra te fro m o n e ra d a r L o w e r co st D e p e n d in g o n o rb it. a n y b a se lin e ca n b e re a lize d ¤ D IS A D V A N T A G E S D ifficu lt to g e t a d e q u a te b a se lin e in sp a ce H ig h d a ta ra te fro m tw o ra d a rs T yp ica lly h ig h e r co st T e m p o ra l d e co rre la tio n Ba se lin e n o t w e ll kn o w n a n d m a y b e ch a n g in g ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ Repe at T ra ck ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ .

INTERFEROMETRIC SAR PROCESSING GEOMETRY Ra n g e S V e lo city V e c to r S c a tte r e r i s a t i n te r s e c ti o n o f R a n g e S p here. D op pler on e a nd Ph ase Cone § § P ase ¦ § D o p p le r one ¦¥ e re insert sphere B a se lin e V e c to r A i r c r a ft P o s i ti o n one .

i ati t s t at ¨ B sin(E 2  U ) ¸ ¹ ! 0 (J 2  (J1 © 2 ª B1 sin(E 1  U ) º .DIFFERENTIAL INTERFEROMETRY HOW DOES IT WORK? ‡ H ‡ iffere t aseli es: ( B1 . (B2 . E 1 ).E 2 ) CK: E B1 E B2 ‡ I ci e ce a le t e sa e ‡ ‡ if s l te ra e t e sa e se arallel ra a r t i c a e .

DIFFERENTIAL INTERFEROMETRY ERROR SOURCES ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Uncompensated differential motion Atmospheric effects Temporal decorrelation Layover .

EMERGING SAR TECHNIQUES POLARIMETRIC INTERFEROMETRY ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Polarimetric interferometry is implemented by measuring the full scattering matrix at each end of the interferometric baseline urrently there are no single baseline systems that can acquire this type of data During the last three days of the second SIR./X-SAR mission the system was operated in the repeat-pass interferometric mode. one can also for vector differential interferograms These vector differential interferograms have been shown to measure large elevation differences in forested areas. and some fully polarimetric interferometric data were acquired Using the full scattering matrix one can now solve for the optimum polarization to maximize the interferometric coherence This problem was first analyzed and reported by loude and Papathanassiou Using interferograms acquired with different polarization combinations. and cm-level elevation differences in agricultural fields .

and to tie different azimuth profiles together By using data acquired in a crossing flight pattern. P-Band data are used since a tilted surface will show a similar behavior if the trunk-ground interaction term is relatively strong The accuracy with which one can measure the surface tilt is determined by the signal to noise ratio Once the surface tilts (surface slopes) are known. the topography can be derived requiring only a single ground control point While the accuracy of this technique is not as good as that of interferometry. crude digital elevation maps can be produced. In vegetated areas.EMERGING SAR TECHNIQUES TOPOGRAPHY FROM POLARIMETRY ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ By measuring the shift in the maximum of the polarization signature. the tilt of the surface in the azimuth direction can be estimated. . the slopes are integrated in the azimuth direction to find the topography as a series of azimuth profiles Ground control points are needed to find the correct absolute height.

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