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Training and Development:
Training and Development- Heart of a
continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance
Training- Designed to provide learners with
the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs
Development- Involves learning that goes
beyond today's job
Definition: Training is the systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. It is the act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.
Purpose of Training To increase productivity To improve quality To improve organizational climate To improve health and safety Obsolescence prevention Preparing for promotion and succession Retaining and motivating employees .
5. 3.Importance of training 1. An integral part of whole mgt. program To take advantage of new techniques Enables employees to rise in orgn. 6.s Moulds employees attitudes Heightens morale of employees Trained employees make a better use of material and equipment . 2. 4.
Learning Relatively permanent change in understanding that results from experience and that directly influences behavior .
Part Learning . Spaced Practice Whole vs.Principles of Learning Feedback Automaticity and Overlearning Production of Response Advanced Organizers Massed vs.
Practice Effort .E-Learning Aspects of e-learning ± Web-based computer training that is carefully structured. ± Success in completing online courses is dependent upon individual self-motivation and self-discipline. specific lessons plans for an individual student ± Learner motivation and participation are enhanced through reinforcement by managers.
Competency Mapping .
skill and attitude Dr. MG Jomon. XIMB .CONCEPT OF COMPETENCY Skill: ± Ability accomplish Talent: ± Inherent ability Competency: ± Underline characteristics that give rise to skill accomplishment ± Knowledge.
. Competence: A work.related concept that refers to areas of work at which the person is competent Competencies: Often referred as the combination of the above two.COMPETENCY Vs. COMPETENCE Competency: A person.related concept that refers to the dimensions of behaviour lying behind competent performer.
resource management and quality. MG Jomon.COMPETENCIES APPLICATIONS Competency frameworks: Define the competency requirements that cover all the key jobs in an organization. Competency maps: Describe the different aspects of competent behaviour in an occupation against competency dimensions such as strategic capability. Dr. This consists of generic competencies. XIMB . Competency profiles: A set of competencies that are require to perform a specified role.
COMPETENCY MAPPING Strategy structure congruence Structure Role congruence ± Each role to be unique ± Non-Repetitive ± Value adding Vertical and horizontal role congruence Ensure non repetitive tasks in two different roles Ensure core competencies for each task Link all the above and position to bring in competitive advantage .
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS Coaching and mentoring Business Games Case Study Videotapes In-basket Training Internships Role Playing Job Rotation Computer-based Training Distance Learning and Videoconferencing .
Training and Development Methods (Continued) Simulators Web-based Training: Vestibule The Internet. Training Intranets and Just-in Corporate Time Training Universities Classroom Programs Community On-the-Job Training Colleges Apprenticeship Training .
Coaching and Mentoring Emphasizes learning on one-to-one basis Coaching often considered responsibility of immediate boss who has greater experience/expertise and is in position to offer advice Mentor may be located elsewhere in organization or in another firm Relationship may be formal or informal .
Business Games Simulations represent actual business situations Try to duplicate selected factors in particular situation Participants see how decisions affect other groups .
Case Study Trainees solve simulated business problems Individuals study information in case and make decisions Used in classroom with instructor who serves as facilitator .
Videotapes Especially appealing to small businesses Behavior modeling utilizes videotapes to illustrate effective interpersonal skills and how managers function in various situations Used to train supervisors .
In-Basket Training Participants given messages that would typically be sent to manager Messages call for actions ranging form urgent to routine Participant acts on message Used in assessment centers .
Internships Effective training method Excellent means of viewing potential permanent employee at work Students are enabled to integrate theory with practice .
team problem solving .performance appraisal reviews .leadership style analysis .grievance handling .communication .conference leadership .interviewing .Role Playing Respond to specific problems they may actually encounter in jobs Used to teach such skills as: .
Job Rotation Employees move from one job to another to broaden experience Helps new employees understand variety of jobs Individuals in enlarged and enriched jobs may feel they are engaged in job rotation .
memory.Computer-Based Training Takes advantage of computer speed. and data manipulation Greater flexibility of instruction Previously called programmed instruction .
Computer-Based Training (Continued) Multimedia enhances learning with audio. graphics and interactive video Some students object to absence of human facilitator Cost of hardware and software Virtual reality permits trainees to view objects from perspective otherwise impractical or impossible . animation.
Web-Based Training: The Internet. Intranets and Just-in-Time Training E-mail on Internet is effective and efficient way to exchange information Used for accessing course material and sharing other information Can be provided to any location on earth .
increase access to training .ensure consistency of instruction .Distance Learning and Videoconferencing Historically have used videoconferencing and satellite classrooms Now interactive training Use to: .reduce cost of delivering T&D programs .
Classroom Programs Continually effective for certain types of training Instructor may give a great deal of information in a short time Improved when groups are small enough to permit discussion .
On-the-Job Training Informal approach that permits employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them Most commonly used T&D method No problem transferring what has been learned to the task Emphasis on production may detract from training process Trainers can be supervisors or peers .
Apprenticeship Training Combines classroom instruction with on-the-job training Traditionally used in craft jobs Apprentice earns less than the master craftsperson who is the instructor .
Simulators Training devices that model the real world Range from simple paper mock-ups of mechanical devices to computerized simulations of total environments May simulate automobiles and airplanes .
Vestibule Training Takes place away from production area Uses equipment closely resembling equipment actually used on the job Removes employee from pressure of having to produce while learning Emphasis on learning skills required by the job .
power positions Vacuum exists until participants talk People learn through dialogue Trainer¶s serve as facilitator Participants encouraged to learn about themselves and others in group .Sensitivity Training Participants learn about themselves and how others perceive them No agenda. leaders. authority.
Management Development All learning experiences result in upgrading of skills and knowledge needed in current and future managerial positions Requires manager¶s personal commitment Manager must take responsibility for own development .
Management Development (Continued) Reasons to conduct management training outside company Reasons for keeping management training inside the company .
Steps in training program 1. Identifying trg. Presentation of operation. needs a. task description analysis b. Performance try out . Preparing the learner 4. knowledge 5. Getting ready for the job 3. determining training needs 2.
Remove obstacles 6. Behavioral discrepancy 2. Change the job 9.Steps in Training need analysis 1. Cost-value analysis 3. Is it can¶t do or wont do situation 4. Set standards 5. Create a motivational climate . Training 8. Transfer or terminate 10. Practice 7.
To determine cost-benefit ratio 4.Why? 1. To identify strengths and weakness of HRD program 3.Evaluation of training. To decide participation in future 5. 2. To determine whether it achieves obj. To test validity of content 6. To develop future programs .
Knowledge acquired by the trainees 3. reduced absenteeism . Trainees feedback on the content and process of training 2. Results seen in individuals or organization like lower turnover.Factors used to evaluate training program 1. Change in job performance and behavior as a result of training 4. fewer accidents.
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