HOTELS & RESORTS VVORLDVV I DE. INC.

The information contained in this document has been developed to assist you
understand and implement Starwood Hotels & Resorts' s requirements for fire
and life safety systems and practices at your location. The Fire and Life Safety
Standards contained in this document are based on existing Starwood
requirements and have been revised to reflect the most up-to-date changes
found in generally accepted codes and standards worldwide, such as VdS,
AFNOR, LPC, NFPA, etc.
The focus of these standards is to ensure a reasonable level of safety for all
building occupants, including hotel guests and staff. Starwood's philosophy is
that a guest should not have to wonder as to which code or quality standard a
Starwood hotel has been built. Starwood guests should be reasonably assured
that, regardless of the hotel ' s size, height or its location in the world, a
reasonable level of fire safety, in accordance with Starwood standards, has been
established.
Fire and life safety standards have been developed by many countries, states
and provinces throughout the world. Many of these standards vary in content,
some establishing detailed requirements, others specifying more generalized,
non-specific requirements. This document has been created to provide
Starwood's employees, owners, architects, engineers, etc. with a reference to
consult when fire and life safety issues arise.
I am confident that you and your operations team will find this document useful
and informative to you in your day-to-day operations when questions on fire and
life safety arise.
If you should have any further questions about these standards, please contact
the Starwood Director of Environmental Health, Fire and Life Safety, April Berkol .
1111 Westchester Avenue, White Plains, New York,10604 T (914) 640-8100
Table of Contents
..
General Introduction ........ ........ .... ........ ... ....... ....................................... ,,, .................................. .
· VII
Starwood Fire and Life Safety Philosophy ................... " ........................................ ... ........ ... ...... . · VII
••
Fire and Life Safety Standards
Important Assumpt ions
....... , ..................................................................................... .. ... . · VII
......... ........... ... .................. .................. ... .... .. ........ .. ....................... .......... VIII
1 Fire Prevention ............... ....... ............ .. , ... .. .. ......... .. .. ..... ......... ....... ... ..... ..... .. .. .. . " .... .... ....... 1-1
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.3
1 .3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.4
Introduction ........................................ ... .. .......................................................................
Control of Ignition · ... ........ .... .................................. ..... ...... ............................................. .
External Ignition Control
Internal Ignition Control
.........................................................................................
..... ... .... ..... .... .... ..... ............................................................
Initial Fire Growth · .............................. .... ........ ... ..................... .. .......... ...... ..................... .
Fuel for Ignition ........................ ....... ... .............................. ........... ... .... .......... .......... .
Interior Finish ••••••••• • •••••••••••••• •• •• •• •• •• •••• • • •••• •••••••••••••••••••••• •• • • ••••• •• •• ••••• ••••••• • • •• •••••••••••
Decorations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Special Requirements •••• •••• •••••••••• • ••• •• ••••••••••••••••••• • ••••••• • ••••••• •••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••
Fire Duration • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
1.4.1 Fuel Load ......... ............. .......................................................................... ....... .... ... .
1.4.2 Standard Time Temperature Curve Requirements ............... ............. ..... ........... ....
Appendix 1-A - Steiner Tunnel Test ..............................................................•.. ... ......................
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-6
Appendix 1-B - Fire Tests for Flame Resistant Textiles and Films
•••• ••••• •• •••••• •••••• •
.................... 1-7
2 Construction ........................................................................................................ ...... ..... .... 2-1
2.1 Introduction ............ ......... ...................................................................... .. ... ......... ... .... .... 2-1
2.2 Structural Resistance to Fire ....... . . ..... ........ .. .. ........... .... .... .... .... .. .. ......... ........................ 2-1
2.2.1 Rating of Structural Elements ... .. .... .. .. .. .. ........ .... .... ....... ......................................... 2-1
23 Building Height and Area ............................ .... ................................. ..... ................. .. .. .... 2-2
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
2.4.6
2.4.7
2.4.8
2.4.9
Fire Barriers
Floors
••••• •• • • •••• ••••• •••••••• •••• ••••••••••••••••••••••• •• •• • •• •• • •• ••••• •••• ••••• • •• • • • •••••••••••••••••••••••• • •••• •
...... ..... .. ..... ............... .. .... ... ........ .. ....... ... .. ... ........ .... ....... ...............................
Walls ......... .... .... .... ........................................ .... .. ....... .......... ... .............................. . .
Partitions •• • •• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••• ••• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••• ••• •
Corrl·dor Walls
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • •••••••••••••••• •••• •••••••• ••• •••••
.......................................................................... ... ...... ..... ......
......................................................................... ......................
Exit Stair Enclosures
Elevator Enclosures
Other Shafts · .. ....................................................................... , ...................... .... ..... .
Escalators .... , ...................................................................................... .... .. .. ... ...... .. .
Atria .... .. ................................................ ......................... ... ............ .... .... ................. .
2.4.10 Separation of Use Spaces .......................................................... .... ....................... .
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2.4.11 Other Areas ....... .... ........ ..... ... .. ..... ................. .. .... .......... ... ...................................... 2-4
2.5
2.5.1
.. .. ........................................................ ........................................... ..... .. Smoke Barriers
Physical Barriers ................................................... , ............. ................... .... ........ ... .
2.5.2 Smoke Management Systems ........................................................... .... ................
2.5.3 Other Features ............................................................................. .. ........................
Appendix 2-A - Spray Nozzle Method ...................................................................................... .
••
"
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-7
3 Fire Detection and Alarm ...... .................................................. .. ...... ..... ..... ..... .... .. .......... .... 3-1
3.1 Fire Detection Principles and General Information ... .. .............. ... ....... .... .... .. ...... .... ....... 3-1
3.1 .1 General Requirements ................. ..... .......... ........................................................... 3-1
3.1.2 Human .... ................ .... ......... ... .......................................................................... ..... . 3-1
3.1.3 Heat ........................................................................................................................ 3-1
3.1.4 Smoke ....... ..... ...... ..... .......... .............................................................................. .. ... 3-1
3.1.5 Detection System Components .............................................................................. 3-2
3.1.6 Discussion/Classification of Hotel Types ................................................................ 3-8
3.2 Alarm Processing and Communicat ion ........................................................................ 3-12
3.2.1 Fire Command Center .............................................. .. ... ......... ... ...... .. .... .... ......... .. 3-12
3.2.2 Supervisory and Trouble Signals .. ................ ....................................................... 3-12
3.2.3 Emergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) Systems ........ ......................... 3-14
3.2.4 Fire Fighter's Telephone System .............. ............ .............. ......... .... ..... ............... 3-15
3.2.5 Combination Systems ................................................ .......... .. ........... .. ................. 3-16
3.2.6 System Integration .... , ............................................................... ........................... 3-18
3.3 Basic Detection and Alarm Application Concepts .................. ... ......... .. ................ .... .... 3-23
3.3.1 Fire Detection Systems ........................................................... ... ............. ... ...... .... 3-23
3.3.2 Nuisance Alarm Problem ...................................... .. ............... .............................. . 3-25
3.3.3 Control Units and Terminals ................................................................................. 3-29
3.3.4 Multiplex Systems ........ .... ......... ........................................................................... 3-30
3.3.5 Auxiliary Control Outputs ........................................................... ...................... .... . 3-31
3.3.6 Alarm and Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Systems ............................. 3-33
3.3.7 Selection Criteria for Evacuation Systems ........................................................... 3-39
3.3.8 Emergency Handling Procedures Using EVAC Systems ..................................... 3-39
3.3.9 Considerations for Alarm Organizations ... ...................................... ...... .. ........ .. .... 3-41
3.3.10 Protection of Guests with Disabilities .. .. .. ...................... ... .. ....... .. ......... .......... .. ... . 3-42
3.4 Planning for Fire Detection and Alarm Systems .......................................................... 3-44
3.4.1 Procedure for Planning a Fire Detection System ................................................. 3-44
3.5 Guidelines for Installation ............................................................................................. 3-68
3.5.1 General. ................................................................................................................ 3-68
3.5.2 Scope of Work for Supplier and Installer .............................................................. 3-68
3.5.3 Environmental Conditions ... ........ ........ .. .. ................. ... .............. .. .. ..... ... ........ ..... .. 3-69
3.5.4 Wiring Guidelines .. ........... ... ........ ......... ..................... ............... .... .. ...... ........... ..... 3-71
3.5.5 Installation and Connection of Equipment.. .... ...................... ........... .. .......... .. ....... 3-77
3.5.6 Accessibility ................ .... ........... ............... .. .. ..... ................... .. .......... ... ...... ....... .... 3-78
3.5.7 Control Equipment. ....... .... ......... .... ................ .................................. .... ,., .... .......... 3-79
3.6 Commissioning and Acceptance Test .......................................... ........ ........................ 3-79
3.6.1 Commissioning ......................................................................... .................... ........ 3-79
3.6.2 Acceptance Tests ................................................................................................. 3-80
3.6.3 Certificate of Compliance ..... .. .. ......... .. .. .. .. .... ................................ .......... .......... ... 3-82
3.7 Operation and Maintenance ...................... , ... , ....... , .................................... , ............ , .... 3-82
3.7.1 Responsibility ...................................... , .................. , .................. ,., ..................... ,., 3-82
3.7.2 General Tasks .................. , .............. " ................................................................... 3-82
3.7.3 System Maintenance ............................................................................................ 3-84
3.7.4 Protection of Installed System Components ....................... ..... ............................ 3-87
3.7.5 Documentation ........................................................................... ............ .............. 3-88
3.8 Summary of Technical Requirements ............................................... ........... .. .......... ... . 3-89
•••
'"
3.8.1
3.8.2
3.8.3
3.8.4
3.8.5
3.8.6
3.8.7
General .............. .......... ... ... . , ........... ....... .... ..... ... ... ............. , .... " ............................ 3-89
Smoke Detectors .......... .......... ..... ............. , .................................. ..... .... ... .... ... ..... . 3-89
Guest Rooms .................................................................................... .............. " ... 3-89
Manual Pull Stations .............. ..................... .... .... ........ ........ .............. " .................. 3-90
Wiring .............. ..................... .......... ..................................................................... . 3-90
Emergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) Systems ................................. 3-90
Fire Alarm Control Panel .................................................................... ...... ... ......... 3-90
Appendix 3-A - Nuisance Alarm Problem .............................................................. ... .. ............. 3-92
Appendix 3-B - Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) ..... ..... ............................. .. .... ............... 3-96
Appendix 3-C - Additional Information on Electromagnetic Compatibility .. .......... ... .............. ... 3-98
4 Fire Suppression .......................... .. .... .... ................................ , ........ , .................................. 4-1
4.1 Introduction ... ... ....... .... .......................................... ......................................................... 4-1
4.2 Classification of Hotel Types ...... ... .. ........... .... .............................................................. . .4-1
4.2.1 General Requirements ......... .... ....... ... ......... .......................................... ........ .. .... .. .4-1
4.3 Automatic Fire Suppression ................................................ .......................................... .4-7
4.3.1 Detection Matched to Hazard ................................................. ............................... .4-7
4.3.2 Agent Matched to Hazard ................................................ ...... .. .. ............................ .4-7
4.3.3 Zoning ..... .. .. ........................................... ........................ ........................................ 4-9
4.3.4 Sprinkler Systems - General Requirements ...................... ................................... .4-9
4.3.5 Sprinkler Systems - Design Criteria .................................................................... .4-10
4.3.6 Sprinkler Systems - Components ....................................................................... .4-11
4.4 Methods of Design ............................................................................. ... .... .................. ,4-23
4.4.1
4.4.2
Hydraulic Calculations ................................................. ... .... .......... ....................... .4-23
Pipe Schedule Method ................................................................................ ........ .4-27
4.5 Sprinkler Requirements Based on Hazard .................................................................. .4-27
4.5.1 Guestrooms ...... " ................................ " ............. ,",.,., ........ ................ , .................. 4-27
4.5.2 Guestroom Corridors ........................................................................................... .4-32
4.5.3 Ceilings and Ceiling Voids ................... ... ...... ..... ..................................... ......... .... .4-34
4.5.4 Computer Rooms .... , ......... ,", .. , ...... " ... , ..... ,', .... ......... , ................... ,', .... ,', .. ... ,' "", ,4-36
4.5.5 Laundry and Garbage Chutes ..................... ................... .. .... ............................... .4-37
4,5,6 Atria , ...... ,' , ...... ,"""", .. " ...... ," " , .. , ... ," "" , .. ,' ,. ,"", ...... ,. ............. , .. , .. ,"", .. " ...... "., ... 4-39
4,5.7 Escalators" ",""', ...... " .. ,"""", .. ,""""""" "" ', .. " .. , ..................... ,", .. " .. ,' ........ " ', .. ,4-41
4,5.8 Cold Rooms ... " , .. " ... , .. ," """ "', .... ," , .. ,', ..... , ............. ,.,", .. ,"" " " """" ",.," ......... ,' .. 4-42
4.5.9 Recreation Areas (Indoor Pools, Spa Baths, etc.) .......... .... .... .... ... .. .................... .4-42
4.5.10 Special Suppression Systems ....................................... ... .. .. ... .. ... ....................... .4-42
4.6 Manual Fire Suppression ....................................................... .. ................................... .4-44
4.6.1
4.6.2
Portable Extinguishers .................................................. ....... .. .......................... .. . .4-44
Standpipe and Hose Systems ............................................................................. .4-45
4.7 Water Supplies .... ,', ...... ,', ... ". ,"" , .. ,",.,""", ..... ,', ... , ....... , .. ,""',. '. '. '. '." ' ........ " ........ ,", ... 4-50
4,7.1 General ........... , .... , .. ,",."., .. ," , ........ , .. ,", ..... , .......... ,""""""'" '."." .... ' .... , ....... , .. ,., .. 4-50
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
Municipal Water Supplies .... , ........................ ".,""""', ............................ ,""', .. , .. , ,4-52
Private Water Supplies ............ ,',.,', ...... ,"", .. ,"""", .. , ......................... " .. ,",." .. , .. , .4-52
Water Storage Requirements .............. .. .................................................. ............ .4-53
Pumps " ... ,""', .. , .. , ... ,., .................. ,.,', .. ,""', .... ,"""',., ........................ ,', .. ,""', ..... , .4-55

IV
4.8 Private Service Mains ., ......... " ........... , ......................... , ..................................... ........ . .4-60
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
4.8.5
4.8.6
4.8.7
4.8.8
4.8.9
4.8.10
General ...... .. ... ........................................ ............................. .. ...... .. ... .....•.. ... ..... .. . .4-60
Water Supply Requirements •• •• ••• • • ••• •• • •• •••• • •••• • • • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • •••••••••••••••
Valves ............................................... ..... ................................................... .......... .
.4-61
.4-61
4-62 Hose Houses and Equipment. ...................................... ..... .................. ... .. ... ... .. ... .
Hydrant Number and Locations ........................................................................... .
Fire Department Vehicle Access .... , •••.•...•..•••••••..•...................•..•..• •••• ..................
.................................................... " ....... " .. " ........ ... .............. . Underground Piping
Valve Pits ............................................................................................................
4-62
4-63
4-64
4-64
Testing ....... .. .... ........ ... ........................................... .......... ................•.... ............... . 4-65
Flushing ...................................................................................................... , ........ . 4-65
4.9
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
· ....... .. ...... .... .. .. ... ... .. .. .. .. ........... ..... .. .................................................. . Fire Department
Hydrants
4-65
4-65
4-65
.4-66
4-66
· ................... ..... .......... .. .. .. ..... ....... ......................................................... .
Siamese - Sprinkler and Standpipe .....................................................................
FI're Command Center ......................................................... " .. , .............. , ........ , .. .
Dedicated Elevators .............................................................................................
Access .................... . ................................................... " .................... , .................. . 4-66
4.10 Commissioning and Acceptance Tests ..................................................... .................. .4-67
4.11 Operation and Maintenance ........................................................................................ .4-67
.4-67
.4-68
.4-68
.4-71
4.11 .1 Responsibility ••••••• •• •••••••• • • • •• • •••••••• •• • • •• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
4.11.2 General Tasks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
4.11 .3
4.11.4
........................................................................ ................... System Maintenance
Documentation • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
4.12 Summary of Technical Requirements ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 4-71
4.12.1 Automatic Fire Suppression - Sprinkler Systems . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. ....................... 4-71
4 12.2 Automatic Fire Suppression - Special Fire Suppression Systems ....................... 4-71
4.12.3 Manual Fire Suppression - Standpipe Systems ................................................... 4-71
4.12.4
4.12.5
4.12.6
Water Supplies ................................................................................................... .
Fire Pumps · ........................................................................................................ .
Private Fire Service Mains • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • •
.4-71
.4-72
.4-72
5 Life Safety (Emergency Egress) .. ........ ... .... ........ ....... .... ................... ................................. 5-1
5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.22
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
Introduction ................................................................. , .................................................. 5-1
Exit Access .... ...... .. ........................................................................ .. .. ............................ .
Separated Exits .................................................................... .... ............................. .
Capacity · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .. . . . . . . . Travel Distance
Enclosure • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •• • • ••••••••••••••••
.................................................................................................................... Exit System
Capacity ................................................................................................................
Means of Egress Components ....... ................... .................... .................................
Enclosure •••••••••••••••••••••••• • • •• •••••• • • •• •••••••••••••••••••• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
5-7
5-8
DI' mensl'ons · ......................................................................................................... .
Security ........................ ...... ........... .... ...................................................................
.. 5-9
5-10
............................................... . , ................................. ..... ...................... . Exit Discharge
Capacity · ............................................................................................................. .
Location ................................................................................ ............................... .
v
5-10
5-10
5-10
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
..... ........................................................................................................ Enclosure
Security • •• •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Lighting, Marking & Emergency Power ........................... .. ........ .... ....•••....... .................
Lighting ..................................................................................................... ....
Exit Signs/ Marking ............................. , ....................................... ... ..... .................. .
Emergency Power .................................................. ................ ... .......................... .
VI
5-10
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-11
5-12
General Introduction
Fire and life safety standards have been developed by many countries, states
and provinces throughout the world. Many of these standards vary in content, some
establishing detailed requirements, others specifying more generalized, non-specific
requirements. Starwood has developed this website, which contains its Fire and Life
Safety requirements for all Starwood properties worldwide. This website has been
created to provide Starwood's employees, owners, architects, engineers, etc. with a
reference to consult when fire and life safety issues arise.
The Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards website has been developed for
utilization by two different use groups - (1) the general user, which includes hotel
owners, managers, employees, etc, and (2) the technical user, which includes
designers, architects, engineers, etc. The general user section of the website, provides
the user with a broad overview of important fire and life safety issues and definitions
applicable for hotel facilities. The technical user portion of the website goes beyond the
general user section, by providing detailed fire and life safety requirements important
when designing a new hotel or upgrading an existing facility.
The Fire and Life Safety Standards contained on this website were based on
existing Starwood requirements. These were supplemented by applicable NFPA
requirements. Overall, the most restrictive requirements (including Starwood, national
or local regulations) should be adopted.
Starwood Fire and Life Safety Philosophy
Starwood has developed fire and life safety requirements for all of its hotel
properties. The focus of these standards is to ensure a reasonable level of safety for all
building occupants, including hotel guests and staff. Starwood's philosophy is that a
guest should not have to wonder as to which code or quality standard a Starwood hotel
has been built. Starwood guests should be reasonably assured that, regardless of the
hotel's size, height or its location in the world, a reasonable level of fire safety, in
accordance with Starwood standards has been established. As a result when national
or local regulations differ from those contained on the Starwood Fire and Life Safety
Standards website, the most restrictive requirements should be enforced.
Fire and Life Safety Standards
The Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards have been divided into five major
components, which include the following:
• Fire Prevention - This section addresses the fire safety precautions, intended to
prevent fires or keep fires from rapidly developing. Additional topics covered in
this section include the control of ignition sources and limitations on interior finish
materials.
• Building Construction - This section addresses the building features (i.e.,
compartmentation), designed to limit fire and smoke spread. The various types
••
VII
of construction and limitations on building height and area (based on occupancy)
are also addressed in this section.
• Fire Detection and Alarm - This section covers the requirements for the detection
systems installed to provide advanced warning of potentially hazardous
conditions. Alarm system requirements designed to alert building occupants,
including staff and guests, are also addressed in this section. Early detection
and notification are essential as many occupants are not familiar with the layout
of the hotel.
• Fire Suppression - This section addresses the design of fire protection systems
provided to extinguish fires. Topics discussed in this section include automatic
and manual fire suppression, and fire department access. It should be noted that
all new hotels are required to be provided with automatic suppression systems
installed throughout the hotel.
• Life Safety - This section discusses exit systems provided for the purpose of
allowing building occupants a safe means of egress from the hotel. This section
discusses such topics as exits, exit discharge, emergency lighting and power,
and exit marking.
Important Assumptions
A list of critical assumptions for the protection of Starwood facilities has been
developed. These assumptions are summarized below:
• All new hotels should be provided with an automatic sprinkler protection
system installed throughout the hotel. This system shall be designed based
on the requirements contained in the Fire Suppression Section of this
website.
• The Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) should be consulted throughout the
design process to ensure compliance with applicable local and national
codes. Careful interpretation of these standards is important and the AHJ
should be contacted to ensure agreement with interpretations.
• The local fire department should be consulted throughout the design process
so they are aware of the potential hazards. Careful review of the fire
detection and alarm system should also be discussed with the local fire
department.
• Deviation from the Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards and local or
national codes should be limited, but may be necessary and can be
considered providing a full technical justification discussing the variance is
presented and approved by the Starwood Director of Environmental, Health
Fire and Life Safety (apriI.Berkol@starwoodhotels.com). The AHJ should
also be consulted whenever a variance from Starwood, local or national
codes has been requested.
• A registered or licensed professional architect/engineer is primarily
responsible for designing/documenting fire safety features for the Starwood
property-in accordance with the Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards.. It
is also the architect/engineer's responsibility to ensure that any local
regulations are also complied with.
• The property owner has the ultimate responsibility in following and enforcing
all Starwood fire and life safety requirements .
• • •
VIII
1 Fire Prevention
1.1 Introduction
Fire prevention begins with an understanding of:
• the types of fires that may occur in a hotel environment,
• the methods to controillimit fires and fire spread both inside and outside the hotel ,
• the ways fire growth occurs due to the interior finish and decorative materials used in
the hotel , and
• the length of the duration of the fire, which is a result of the amount of combustible
contents (e.g., furnishings, structural elements) provided within the hotel.
1.2 Control of Ignition
Control of ignition is an important aspect of fire prevention. Hazards include those located
both inside and outside the facil ity. Adequate protection shall be provided for both
potential hazard classifications.
1. 2. 1 Extemallgnition Control
1. General Requirementsllnformation
• Hazard of ignition from a fire posed by conditions outside the hotel, such as
fires in adjacent structures or surrounding buildings.
2. Technical Requirements/Information
(a) A hotel can be threatened by a fire that starts at an adjacent property.
(b) Exposure protection is required to prevent ignition from an adjacent
building. May be accomplished by:
• Physical separation between buildings
• Increasing exposed building's fire resistance.
(c) Where Required:
• Exposure protection is required where the nearest building is within 30 It
(9.1 m) of the facility.
• Figure 1-1 details where exposure protection is required.
(d) Degree of Protection
• Non-bearing exterior walls with 1 hour fire resistance rating: 1-hour fire
protection rating where used for vertical openings or exit enclosures, or
Y. hour fire protection rating where used elsewhere.
• Non-bearing exterior walls with 1 hour fire resistance rat ing: Y. hour
opening protectives required.
I - I

EXPOSING BUll..DVIIG SAME HEIGHT OR HIGHER
I kAUI CIt 1m
I .'Ial CIt 1m
+--<3J
(!On)
EXPOSING BUllOING LOWER
T

fl (15m)
.1. __
4-- < 3J ft. - ~ - j ,
(!On)
- -- -
<-- <3Jft. - -IO
(!On)
wcporl-g
building
-.,- ' IQ
r=.+",'U
Fran &;-,6+ III
"'" tnt ms' WW'ICO
< 1,5 1'1'.
"'"
h PSIJ'anca
rating :t 1,5 1'1'
Figure 1-1 - Conditions for Exposure Protection
1-2
1.2.2 Internal Ignition Control
1. General Requirementsllnformation
• Hazard of ignition from a fire posed by condit ions inside the building, such
as human acts (smoking, arson) and malfunction of electrical/mechanical
equipment.
2. Technical Requirements/Information
(a) Sources of internal ignition in a hotel may include:
• Electrical and Mechanical systems
• Human acts - smoking, arson, etc.
(b) To prevent ignition, electrical systems shall be designed to accommodate
the maximum anticipated power loadings without causing electrical faults or
short circuits.
(c) Special use areas (kitchens, woodworking faci lities, etc.) shall have
electrical/mechani cal systems designed for the specific use.
(d) Design/installation of electrical systems shall meet NFPA 70, National
Electric Code.
1.3 Initial Fire Growth
1.3.1 Fuel for Ignition
1. General Requirements/Information
• Combustible materials including interior finish materials and furnishings.
2. Technical Requirements/Information
(a) Studies have shown that fires originate in storage areas, primaryl auxiliary
function rooms, and special use areas (kitchens, laundry areas, etc.).
(b) Storage of combustible materials shall not be permitted to accumulate in
corridors, etc. Such materials shall be kept in designated storage rooms.
(c) Use of highly flammable materials (polyurethane foam, foamed plastics,
etc.) for interior finish or furnishings is discouraged.
(d) The design of such spaces shall anticipate the changing needs of the
facility and shall also consider the large amounts of combustible materials
that can accumulate.
(e) These spaces shall be separated from other parts of the building by fire
resistive barriers.
(f) Where these materials are used, they shall be enclosed in fire resistant
barrier materials or shall be listed for use without a barrier material.
1.3.2 Interior Finish
1. General Requirements/Information
• Includes exposed materials applied to the surface of walls, floors, ceilings
and other structural members. These materials are tested and rated in
accordance with industry standards.
2. Technical Requirements/Information
(a) Includes exposed surfaces of construction systems including:
• Fixed/movable walls
• Floors, ceilings
• Columns, beams
(b) Materials used on these surfaces include:
1-3
• Paneling
• Carpeting
• Cei ling tiles
(c) Materials are tested in accordance with ASTM E-84, NFPA 255 - Standard
Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials or
UL 273, also known as the "Steiner Tunnel Test" (see Appendix 1-A).
(d) Flame spread ratings shall not exceed 25 in exit stai rs, 75 in lobbies and
exit corridors, and 200 in all other spaces.
(e) Smoke development ratings shall not exceed 450.
(I) For addi tional information on required fire tests of finishes and furnishings,
contact the Director EHF & LS.
(g) Table 1-1 details the maximum ratings permitted for interior finish materials.
Table 1-1 - Maximum Ratings for Interior Finish
Maximum Flame Spread Ratings (Source - NFPA 101, 2000 edition)
Maximum Rating
Occupancy
Exit Access to Exits Other Spaces
ASSEMBLY

300 occupants or less 75 75 200

Greater than 300 occupants 75 200 200
HOTEL

New
75 200 200

Existing
200 200 200
MERCANTILE

New 200 200 200

Existing, Class A1 or B2
200 200 Ceilings - 200
Walls - 200

Existing Class C3 200 200 200
BUSINESS 200 200 200
STORAGE 200 200 200
Notes:
1. Class A - Mercanti le occupancies with total gross area greater than 30,000 ttl (2787.1 m
2
), or with
more than 3 levels (excluding mezzanines).
2. Class B - Mercantile occupancies with more than 3000 tr (278.7 m
2
), but less than 30,000 ff
(2787.1 m
2
) or using floors above or below the street level floor.
3. Class C - Mercantile occupancies with not more than 3000 ttl (278.7 m
2
) .
4. Assumes complete sprinkler protection throughout facility.
1.3.3 Decorations
1. General Requirementsilnformation
• Include curtains, fabrics and other materials used for decorative purposes
in hotels. These materials are tested and rated in accordance with industry
standards.
2. Technical Requirements/Information
(a) Items such as curtains, fabrics and films must pass an approved test for
flame resistance (i.e., NFPA 701 - Standard Methods of Fire Tests for
F/ame Propagation of Textiles and Films, UL 214 - Fire Tests for Flame
Resistant Textiles and Fi lms - see Appendix 1-8).
(b) For additional information on required fire tests of finishes and furnishings,
contact the Director EHF & LS.
1-4
1.3.4 Special Requirements
1. Carpeting shall not be used on ceilings or walls.
2. Rubberized hair and felt padding shall be used for carpet padding. Use of
synthetic padding is discouraged. Foam padding is prohibited.
1.4 Fire Duration
1.4.1 Fuel Load
1. Technical Requirementsllnformation
• Fire Load is the maximum amount of combustible materials expected in a
given area. Combustible materials include structural elements (walls,
ceilings, floors) and contents, furnishings found in the building. Measured
in Ibs/ft'.
1.4.2 Standard Time Temperature Curve Requirements

u.
'"
~
:J
-
'"
~
'"
Cl.
E
'"
f-
(a) ASTM E-119, UL 263 and NFPA 251, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of
Building Construction and Materials - Test method, which uses the Standard
Time-Temperature Curve to evaluate fire resistance of structural elements,
such as walls, floors, doors, etc."
(b) Figure 1-2 displays the Standard TimelTemperature Curve.
2400
2000
1600
1200
BOO
400
a
0
-+-+-+-+- -f- -
-t-
1
-+--+- -+-f- -t- -
++- -l- -++- -++-+--+-
-
-
+
- -
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time in Hours
1315
1095
B70
650
425
205
Figure 1-2 - Standard Time Temperature Curve
1-5
U
Q)
~
:J
-
'"
~
Q)
Cl.
E
Q)
f-
Appendix 1-A - Steiner Tunnel Test
• ASTM E84, NFPA 255, and UL 273 also known as the Steiner Tunnel Test was
developed by A. J. Steiner at the end of World War I. These standards should be
consulted for more detailed information.
• Sample - This test uses a 20 in. (50.8 cm) by 25 ft. (7.6 m) specimen, placed on a ledge
in the top of the furnace in a face down position. The removable lid is set in place and
sealed, exposing a 17 in (43.2 cm) by 25 ft (7.6 m) area.
• Exposing Elements - A double jet gas burner, located 1 ft (0.3 m) from the air intake end
of the tunnel, provides approximately 5000 Btu/min during the 10 minute test period. An
induced air now of 240 ftlmin (73.2 m/min) is drawn through a 3 in (7.6 cm) by 17Y> in.
(44.5 cm) intake opening. This draws the gas name approximately 4Y> ft (1.4 m) down
the tunnel, leaving 19Y> ft (5.9 m) for the name to propagate.
• The rating is determined by the distance the name advances down the material, and the
time combustion continues to take place.
• Flame spread ratings and smoke development ratings are developed based on cement-
asbestos board (arbitrarily assigned a rating of 0), and red oak nooring (arbitrarily
assigned a rating of 100).
1-6
Appendix 1-B - Fire Tests for Flame Resistant Textiles and Films
• Fire tests for flame resistant textiles and films are based on NFPA 701 and UL 214.
These standards should be consulted for more detailed information.
• These tests are not applicable for materials used for clothing or applied to the surfaces
of building/backing materials as interior finish.
• Large scale and small scale tests are performed.
• Large Scale Test Specimens - Uses ten specimens measuring 7 in (17.8 cm) wide by 7
ft (2.1 m) long and four specimens measuring 25 in (63.5 cm) wide by 7 ft (2.1 m) long.
• Small Scale Test Specimens - Uses ten specimens measuring 3)1, in. (8.9 cm) by 10 in.
(25.4 cm) - five in the direction of the warp and fire in the direction of the fill.
• In both tests, the material is exposed to an open flame, with the material in the vertical
position. For the small scale tests, the flame is removed after 12 seconds, while the
flame is removed after 2 minutes for the large scale tests.
• The material continues to burn and the test continues, until flaming and afterglow stop.
• Conditions for acceptance of the material are as fol lows:
(a) Both tests - Flaming stops within 2 seconds of removal of ignition source.
(b) Both tests - Material which breaks/drops from the specimen does not continue to
flame after falling.
(c) Small scale test - Length of charring does not exceed values specified in the test.
(d) Large scale test - Length of charring does not exceed 10 in. (25.4 cm).
(e) Large scale test - Surface spread of flame in a folded specimen does not exceed 35
in. (88.9 cm), (afterglow may spread in the folds).
1-7
2 Construction
2.1 Introduction
In the event a fire occurs, it is important to limit fire and smoke spread throughout the
hotel. One way this can be accomplished is by dividing the hotel into fire resistive
compartments using fire rated barriers such as walls, floors, ceilings, etc. New hotel
facilities are required to be designed to prevent the disbursement of fire and smoke
throughout the building.
The type of construction for a building is determined based on the types of occupancies in
the building. Based on the specific occupancy, the building height and area can be
determined. The building height and area will impact the means of egress out of the
building and the ease of fire fighting operations.
2.2 Structural Resistance to Fire
2.2.1 Rating of Structural Elements
(a) The construction type shall be based on the requirements of NFPA 101, the
model building code in effect for the site, or other applicable locallnational
regulations.
(b) The integrity of columns, beams and bearing elements is essential if the
building is to withstand fire.
(c) As buildings increase in size, the ability of the structural frame to perform when
exposed to fire becomes more critical.
(d) The ability of the structural frame to withstand fire is measured using ASTM E-
119, UL 263, and NFPA 251, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building
Construction and Materials.
(e) ASTM E-119 - This test method evaluates the ability of the structural element
to withstand the standard fire. Results of this test are expressed as fire
resistance ratings.
(f) Fire resistance rating of the structural elements is related to the type of
construction used.
(g) Types of Construction
• Type 1: Fire Resistive Construction - Buildings constructed of non-
combustible materials (i.e., steel, concrete). Have a high level of fire
endurance.
• Type 2: Non-Combustible Construction - Similar to Type 1, buildings do not
have as high a level of fire endurance as Type 1.
• Type 3: Exterior Masonry Wall Construction - Exterior walls constructed
entirely of non-combustible materials such as brick or concrete block.
Interior structural members are constructed of wood or metal.
• Type 4: Heavy Timber Construction - Fire resistance rating is achieved by:
o Specifying minimum sizes of wood structural members and minimum
thickness and composition of wood floors and roofs.
o Proper protection of concealed spaces under floors and roofs,
o Use of approved fastenings, construction details and adhesives for
structural members, and
o Providing the proper degree of fire resistance rating in exterior and
interior walls.
• Type 5: Wood Frame Construction - Buildings with exterior and interior walls,
and interior framingldecking constructed of wood.
• Types 3B and 5B Construction are not permitted.
2-1
(h) The minimum fire resistance rating of structural elements shall , at a minimum,
meet the requirements of NFPA 101 , Life Safety Code. If building code
requirements or other codes are more restrictive, then these requirements shall
be enforced.
2.3 Building Height and Area
The maximum building height and area allowed shall be based on the requirements of
NFPA 101 , Life Safety Code which references NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building
Construction.
2.4 Fire Barriers
Fire barriers are an important method to limit fire and smoke spread within a building. The
following sections summarize the types of fire barriers and associated requirements:
2.4. 1 Floors
Typically first major barrier to be exposed to fire. The longer this system
withstands the fire, the longer people have to evacuate the building.
2.4.2 Walls
(a) Highly reliable barrier installed to limit fire spread. Commonly used to separate
different occupancies, to subdivide floors of excessive area and as horizontal
exit barriers. Shall have sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to
allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.
(b) Must be constructed of non-combustible materials.
(c) All penetrations in fire rated walls must be properly protected.
(d) 3 hr or 4 hr walls: 3 hr rated doors andl or dampers
(e) 2 hr walls: 1 Y, hr rated doors andlor dampers
(f) Doors, dampers and fire stopping materials must be listed by UL or other
nationally recognized testing laboratory.
2.4.3 Partitions
(a) Any wall with a fire rating of 2 hours or less, that is not a "fire wall ". Used to
separate different use spaces within the same occupancy.
(b) Shall be continuous from top of floor surface below to the underside of the
floor/roof slab or deck above.
(c) Any penetrations must be sealed with non-combustible material for full
thickness and equal to the fire resistance rating of the barrier.
(d) Duct openings: Must be provided with fire dampers, if the wall being
penetrated has a fire resistance rating of 2 hours or more.
(e) 2 hour partition: 1 Y, hour rated doors
(f) 1 hour partition: Y, or Y. hour rated doors
2.4.4 Corridor Walls
(a) Used to separate use spaces from path of travel to the use spaces.
(b) Guestroom Corridors - 1 hr fire resistance rating, with self-closing 20 minute
fire rated door assembl ies. All guestroom doors shall have automatic closers
and shall be positively latching. Exception: NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, allows
y. hour fire rated corridor walls, where automatic sprinkler protection is installed
2-2
throughout the hotel. This exception can be applied if other codes do not
require more restrictive ratings
(c) Fire doors that are frequently held open, shall be provided with electromagnetic
hold open devices, that will release when activated (i .e., smoke detector, water
flow device).
2.4.5 Exit Stair Enclosures
(a) Not permitted to be used for the storage of any materials. In addition, the
construction of storage rooms in stairwells is not permitted.
(b) Serving more than 4 stories: 2 hour fire-rated enclosure required, with 1 Y, hr
rated door assemblies.
(c) Serving 4 stories or less: 1 hour fire-rated enclosure required, with 1 hour rated
door assemblies.
(d) Penetrations in stairwells are only permitted for exit doorways, piping for fire
suppression, conduit for electrical equipment, ductwork for ventilation, and
openings for stairwell pressurization.
2.4.6 Elevator Enclosures
(a) Shall be of 2 hour fire resistive construction.
(b) Maximum of four elevators permitted per shaft.
(c) All penetrations in the enclosure must be grouted or sealed to the full thickness
of the wall and dampered.
2.4.7 Other Shafts
(a) Used for ventilation equipment, electrical wiring, trash chutes, linen chutes,
dumbwaiters, etc.
(b) Shall be protected by enclosures with fire resistance rating of 2 hours, with all
penetrating openings protected.
2.4.8 Escalators
(a) Must be enclosed with barriers if part of the exit system.
(b) If not enclosed as required for exit stairwells, the floor opening must be
protected to limit the possible spread of fire vertically.
(c) For additional information on ways to enclose escalators refer to Appendix 2-A,
Spray Nozzle Method.
2.4.9 Atria
(a) Large vertical opening that spans two or more floors.
(b) Must have a minimum horizontal dimension of 20 ft (6.1 m) and a minimum
area of 1000 ft2 (92.9 m
2
).
(c) Floor openings that do not meet the dimensional requirements for atria shall be
limited to a total of three stories and shall be protected by the Spray Nozzle
Method, refer to Appendix 2-A.
(d) Atria are permitted in hotels provided the following requirements are met:
• Type 1 A, 1 B or 2A are the only types of construction in which atria are
permitted.
• The amount of combustible furnishings and decorations contained within
the atrium shall be limited.
• Smoke detectors are required to be installed on the underside of the floor
protruding into the atrium, at the atrium roof, and adjacent to each return air
intake from the atrium.
2-3
• Separation - The atrium must be separated from adjacent spaces with 1
hour fire rated walls and automatic/self-closing opening protectives.
Exception: A glass wall with closely spaced sprinklers may be used in lieu
of tire barriers, provided the sprinklers are spaced no more than 6 ft (1. 8 m)
apart and are within 1 ft (0.3 m) of the glass wall. The glass shall be wired,
laminated or tempered glass in a steel frame held in place by the gasket
system, which permits the glass framing system to deflect without loading
the glass before the sprinklers operate.
• Smoke Exhaust Systems
o Atria with volumes less than 600,000 ft 3 (17,003 m
3
) shall be provided
with a smoke exhaust system at the ceiling capable of exhausting
40,000 CFM (1,134 m
3
/min) or six air changes per hour, whichever is
greater. For volumes greater than 600,000 ft3 (17,003 m
3
), the system
shall be capable of exhausting four air changes per hour.
o Gravity supply inlets shall be provided at the lowest level of the atrium
and shall be sized for 50% of the exhaust for atria 55 ft (16.8 m) or less
in height. Atria greater than 55 ft (16.8 m) in height shall have supply
air mechanically introduced near the bottom of the atrium and directed
upward toward the top of the atrium at a rate equal to 50% of the
exhaust.
o An acceptable alternative to the smoke exhaust system requirements
detailed above can be found in NFPA 92B, Guide for Smoke
Management Systems in Malls, Atria, and Large Areas.
o The atrium smoke exhaust system shall be activated by the sprinkler
system, atrium smoke detectors, andl or manual controls provided for
use by the fire department.
• Up to three levels of the hotel may be open to the atrium, provided this
space is included in the total volume used for smoke management systems.
• Exits must be separately enclosed from the atrium.
• Existing atriums shall be reviewed by a fire protection engineer to
determine what systems need to be added or upgraded.
2.4.10 Separation of Use Spaces
(a) Major building use categories shall be separated from each other.
(b) Separation requirements shall be based on local building codes or other
standard enforced by local AHJ.
(c) When two occupancies with different fire resistance ratings are to be
separated, the higher fire resistance rating for the barrier shall be used.
2.4.11 Other Areas
(a) Based on the potential hazard of some spaces, fire resistance rated barriers are
required between different spaces.
(b) At a minimum, the following areas shall be provided with fire resistant rated floors
and walls as described below:
• 1-HOUR
o Kitchens
o Computer Rooms
• 2-HOUR
o Boiler Rooms
o Transformer Rooms
o Switchgear and Emergency Switchgear Rooms
2-4
o Laundry Rooms
o Combustible or Flammable Liquid Storage/Use Rooms
o Carpenter Shops
o Furniture Refinishing Rooms
o Dry Cleaning Rooms
o Projection Booths
o Fire Pump Room
o Transformer Switch Room
o Generator Room
o Combined Computer/PBXlPABX Room
• For new construction and where practical in existing facilities, the following
shall be constructed as wholly separate spaces:
o Fire Pump Room
o Electrical Switchgear Room
o Emergency Generator Room
o Emergency Switchgear Room
o Emergency Power Transfer Switch Room
2.5 Smoke Barriers
There are many ways to restrict the movement of smoke, including physical barriers and
smoke management systems.
2.5.1 Physical Barriers
(a) During a fire, the atmosphere in the room is mixture of smoke, fire gases and
hot air. As the fire grows, the pressure and temperature of the air increase.
This increase in pressure is great enough to force smoke and fire through any
openings in the room.
(b) Doors are important barriers to help prevent the spread of smoke. Doors
opening into any portion of the exit system shall be provided with self-closing or
automatic closing devices and positive latching hardware. This equipment is
not required on doors leading to rooms with low amounts of combustibles, such
as restrooms.
(c) Spaces around penetrations, such as pipes, conduits, or ducts, should be
sealed with a non-combustible material.
2.5.2 Smoke Management Systems
(a) Smoke management systems are not required by Starwood.
(b) Barriers, such as walls and doors, will influence the spread of smoke in a
building. The presence of automatic fire suppression systems will also
minimize the amount of smoke generated.
(c) An engineered smoke control system uses building HVAC fans to help maintain
tenable conditions in the means of egress during evacuation and to limit the
spread of smoke throughout the building.
(d) The objective of smoke management system is to provide a relative negative
pressure in the fire zone. This can be accomplished by stopping both the
supply fan serving the zone containing the fire and the exhaust fan(s) serving
all other areas of the building, and by starting the exhaust fan in the fire zone
and the supply fan(s) in all other areas.
(e) In order for the fire department to have a clear understanding of which areas
are affected by the supply and exhaust fans, a graphic display of the hotel
2-5
showing the areas serviced by each fan shall be mounted near the manual
controls.
(f) For detailed requirements for smoke management systems refer to NFPA 92A,
Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems.
2.5.3 Other Features
Stairwell pressurization is not required by Starwood; however, many jurisdictions
require these systems if the building is classified as a high-rise.
2-6
Appendix 2-A - Spray Nozzle Method
• Closely spaced sprinklers (creating a water curtain) are recommended for the
protection of large floor openings, such as those created by escalators or atria.
• Sprinklers shall be spaced no more than 6 ft (1.8 m) apart and 6-12 in. (15.2-
30.5 cm) from the opening. Cross baffles shall be installed for sprinklers spaced
closer than 6 ft apart.
• Sprinklers shall be hydraulically designed to discharge 3 gpm per lineal foot (38
Umin per lineal meter), with no sprinklers discharging less than 15 gpm (58.6
Umin).
• The number of sprinklers calculated shall be the number in length, corresponding
to the length parallel to the branch lines in the design area.
• The demand of the system shall be added to the demand of the hydraulically
calculated system for the area of operation.
2-7
3 Fire Detection and Alarm
3.1 Fire Detection Principles and General Information
3.1.1 General Requirements
(a) Fi res may be detected by automatic devices (smoke detectors, heat
detectors, activation of sprinkler system) or by human senses.
(b) Install ation of fire alarm/detection systems shall be supervised by
qualified/experienced personnel.
3.1.2 Human
(a) If a fire is detected by a person, information regarding the fire should be
transmitted as quickly as possible.
(b) Means to activate/send alarms include manual alarm stations.
(c) Manual alarm stations shall be located near exits, assembly areas
(restaurants, dining rooms, etc.) and at the hotel desk or other
continuously supervised locations.
(d) The travel distance to a manual alarm station shall not exceed 150 ft .
(46 m).
(e) Manual alarm devices shall be connected to the bui lding alarm system.
(f) Activation of the device shall be received at the Fire Command Center
and the local fire department.
(g) For areas where nuisance alarm problems are anticipated, a double-
action alarm station (requires two actions to be performed in sequence
in order to activate an alarm) may be used.
3. 1.3 Heat
(a) The automatic sprinkler system serves as the automatic heat detection
system. Sprinkler systems are heat activated and are required to be
installed in all Starwood hotels.
(b) Generally sprinklers are required throughout the bui lding, however there
are a few locations where sprinklers may be omitted, such as
transformer rooms, elevator machine rooms, etc. In these areas
combination heat/smoke detectors are required.
3. 1.4 Smoke
(a) Smoke detectors are required in all areas of the bui lding.
(b) Type of smoke detector shall be selected based on the specific
application.
(c) Where nuisance alarm problems are anticipated, nuisance alarm
reduction methods can be applied. Appendix 3-A contains additional
information on nuisance alarm reduct ion methods.
(d) Interconnected smoke detectors shall be installed in every guestroom,
for new construction and major renovat ions. These detectors shall
sound a local alarm in the room and shall be annunciated at the Fire
Command Center. In addition, the detectors shall be fully supervised,
such that a trouble indication is activated if the detector is removed or
not reporting.
3-1
(e) Single station smoke detectors, receiving primary power from non-
switchable building AC circuit may remain in use in existing hotels.
(f) If the guestroom/ suite contains more than one bedroom, a detector
shall be installed in the access to each sleeping area.
(g) In rooms designed for accessibility for the hearing impaired, the
smoke detectors shall be equipped with a visual strobe light.
3.1.5 Detection System Components
A fire detection system typically found in hotels may consist of the
following components:
(a) Automatic fire detection devices
• General
o Initiating devices include automatic fire detection devices,
sprinkler waterfiow detectors, and manually activated fire
alarm stations.
o Evaluate the environment for smoke, flames, radiation or heat.
o Devices within a distinctive geographical area are connected
together to form an annunciation zone.
o Upon detection of an alarm condition, a signal is transmitted to
the control unit which provides operating power to the
detectors. The entire zone wiring and all detectors are
supervi sed by the control unit.
o Devices shall be protected against mechanical damage.
Mechanical guards shall be listed for such use.
• Spot Type Smoke Detectors - Are able to detect fire in early
stages, before flames occur. Smoke detectors shall be marked
with the nominal production sensitivity (percent per foot
obscuration). Types of smoke detectors include:
o Ionization-type Smoke Detectors respond to visible and
invisible products of combust ion. These detectors are widely
used, however there are minor restrictions with regard to the
environmental conditions of the area they monitor (high air
velocity, humidity, etc.) Figure 3-1 shows typical ionization
type smoke detectors.

Figure 3-1 - Typical Ionization Smoke Detectors
3-2
o Optical Smoke Detectors respond to visible products of
combustion, especially light-reflecting smoke. Suitable for the
protection of general areas in hotels and for electrical
installations. Figure 3-2 shows typical optical smoke
detectors.
Figure 3-2 - Typical Optical Smoke Detectors
o Smoke Detectors for Air Duct Monitoring consist of a
smoke chamber, which is connected to the air duct by means
of an air bypass syslem. Figure 3-3 shows a typical air duct
monitoring unit.
Figure 3-3 - Typical Air Duct Monitoring Unit
• Linear Beam-Type Smoke Detectors
o Most common linear beam type smoke detectors operate on
theory of obscuration.
o Use an invisible light beam, when the beam becomes
obscured by smoke (at a pre-determined level), an alarm is
generated.
o Suitable for the protection of large spaces - ballrooms,
corridors, atriums, etc.
o A typical linear beam-type smoke detector set is shown in
Figure 3-4.
3-3
Figure 3-4 - Typical Linear Beam Type Smoke Detector Set
• Incipient Type Fire Detection Systems
o Operate on one of two basic methods - light scattering or
cloud chamber detection.
o Utilize a network of sampl ing tubes located within a protected
area.
o If smoke particles exist in the air sample, they are detected by
one of the methods described above.
o Respond faster than standard spot-type detectors.
o Suitable for clean environments and areas where detection is
required at the earliest possible stage. Also suitable for large
spaces which are inaccessible to spot-type detectors such as
atriums and large ballrooms subject to multiple configurations.
• Spot-Type Heat Detectors - Suitable for environments where rapid
fire development is expected and where smoke detectors can't be
used because of envi ronmental conditions and where sprinklers
can't be installed due to water sensitivity of equipment. Heat
detectors shall be marked with color coding per the requirements
of NFPA 72.
Types of Heat Detectors include:
o Rate of Rise Heat Detectors - can detect rapid temperature
changes, typically associated with open flames fires. Typically
used in dirty or greasy environments, such as kitchens,
mechanical workshops, elevator machine rooms, etc.
o Fixed Temperature Heat Detectors - go into alarm when pre-
set temperature is exceeded. Should be used when rate of
rise type detectors are not suitable - above cooking stoves
and deep fryers.
o Dual Element Heat Detectors - combine the features of rate of
rise and fixed temperature heat detectors. Suitable for
extremely dirty/dusty environments such as underground
garages with insufficient ventilation, tunnels, etc.
o Line-type Heat Detectors - typically consist of two actuators
encased in heat sensitive material. When the critical
temperature is reached, the insulation material melts, contact
3-4
is made between the two conductors and an alarm is initiated.
All line-type detectors respond to heat appli ed which does not
have to be the result of an open flame.
o Rate Compensated Heat Detector - responds when the
temperature of ai r reaches a pre-determined level,
independent of the rate of temperature rise. Typically not used
in hotels.
o A combination rate-of-rise/fixed temperature heat detector is
shown in Figure 3-5.
o Heat detectors are not required in most areas of fully
sprinklered buildings.
Figure 3-5 - Combination Rate-of-Rise/
Fixed Temperature Heat Detector
• Flame Detectors - Respond to the effects of open flames.
o Actually respond to the optical radiation effect of flames, such
as color (wavelength) and flickering.
o Typically used in high, wide, open spaces such as terraces,
patios, etc., where smoke/heat wil l not accumulate to make the
other types of detectors respond.
o Typicall y not used in hotels.
o A typical flame detector is shown in Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6 - Typical Flame Type Detector
(b) Manual Al arm Stations
• Allow manual activation of fire detection system.
• Should be located near exits, at the entrance to stairwells, in high-
risk areas, etc.
3-5
o Should be mounted so they are highly visible, yet accessible to
persons with disabilities.
o Should be on separate annunciation zones from automatic
detection devices.
o The location and spacing of these devices shall meet the
requirements of NFPA 72.
o Examples of types of manual alarm stations are shown in Figure
3-7.
Figure 3-7 - Examples of Manual Alarm Stations
(c) Sprinkler System Water Flow Monitoring
o The activation a sprinkler can be monitored by flow or pressure
switches installed on the sprinkler system.
o Initiation of the alarm signal shall occur within 90 seconds of water
flow at the alarm initiating device.
o Water flow and pressure switches can be installed at the main
supply and on various branch lines of the system. This will help
determine the location of the fire.
o Other conditions such as water tank level, electrical pump
readiness, etc. may be monitored by the fire alarm system. Any
abnormal conditions would result in a trouble or supervisory
condition.
o All sprinkler systems are required to be monitored by the fire
alarm system.
o All control valves should be supervised to ensure the system is
available when needed.
3-6
(d) Optional Monitoring Devices
• In general, devices not related to fires should not initiate an alarm,
but should indicate trouble or supervisory condition.
• It may be advisable to monitor devices related to the building's life
safety equipment, such as standpipes/hose systems, water
supplies, valves, etc.
• Hose Reel Monitoring - Useful where unwarranted removal of fire
hoses may occur. Monitoring points could include a switch which
signals opening of a hose cabinet or removal of hose, and a flow
switch which indicates that water is being discharged.
• Manual Fire Extinguisher Monitoring - Removal of fire
extinguisher can be signaled, indicating use or theft.
(e) Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP) Unit
• Information center of the fire alarm system.
• Evaluates incoming signals from detection devices, manual alarm
stations, etc.
• Initiates alarms and fire control measures (door closure, fan
control)
• Must be equipped with backup power supply.
• May be combined with operator's terminal to form operational
center of the fire alarm system.
• In larger installations, several control units may report to a single
operator's terminal.
• Main functions of the FACP include:
1. Electronic monitoring of all connected activation devices
(detectors, manual alarm stations, water flow/tamper switches,
etc.)
2. Provision of electrical supply to the detectors
3. Control of operator's terminal, local or remote
4. Activation of internal alarms
5. Automatic alarm transmission to the fire brigade
6. Activation of control outputs
• The control unit consists of an enclosure with printed circuit
boards, uninterruptible power supply, and wiring terminals for
input/output connections.
• The operator's terminal consists of the operation and indication
panel, which allows full operation of the system in all situations.
• Typical control units are subdivided into the following sections:
1. Annunciat ion Section - provides alarm, trouble and active
lights per zone and displays the overall conditions of the
system.
2. Operation/Control Section - consists of a set of push buttons
and switches which allow alarm/trouble acknowledgement,
zone and system reset. Other commands may be given to the
control unit depending on the complexity of the installation.
3-7
3.1.6 Discussion/ Classification of Hotel Types
(a) Type A - Roadside Hotels/Motels
II
II
Figure 3-8 - Roadside HotelslMotel
• Single or double-story buildings, usually spread out over a large
area.
• Escape routes are usually simple and fire fighter access is normally
uncomplicated.
• Buildings are usually of very light construction and do not provide
much resistance to fire. Due to the light construction, the possibility
of spreading fire quickly is high.
3-8
(b) Type B - Regional Hotels
Figure 3-9 - Regional Hotel
o ' Low-rise' buildings, typically five floors or less.
o Easily accessible via the parking lots surrounding the building.
o Escape routes are slightly more complex than for Type A buildings,
since guestrooms may only be accessible via a main lobby
arrangement.
o May have central AC systems and air handling units, which would
increase the potential for smoke distribution.
o The fire detection system should control the air conditioning system
via its output controls.
o As a general guideline, the exhaust fans should be running and the
supply fans should be stopped for zones in alarm. This creates an
underpressure in the area of smoke and an overpressure in smoke-
free areas.
o Escape routes such as stairwells are usually switched to 100% fresh
air supply and kept pressurized as long as the emergency situation
exists.
3-9
(e) Type C - Metropolitan Hotels
Figure 3-10 - Metropolitan Hotel
• Typically consist of a single building block, with more than six
stories.
• Fire fighter access is far more difficult than Type A and B buildings.
• Escape routes may be complex and include separate, distributed
exit stairwells leading directly to the outside.
• Typically, access to guestrooms is through a central lobby,
surrounded by elevators.
• Smoke control systems should be considered due to the AC and air
handling systems installed in Type C buildings.
• The Fire Command Center should preferably contain a control panel
from which the fire chief can override any automatic controls.
3-10
(d) Type 0 - High-Rise Hotel Buildings
Figure 3-11 - High Rise Hotel
• Buildings have a large number of stories and rooms.
• Escape routes are extremely important. Elevators shall not be used
in case of fire, therefore emergency stairwells are the only means of
evacuating the building in a conventional manner.
• High degree of fire resistance for construction and early fire
suppression by mandatory sprinkler systems provide the occupants
a long period of time in which to vacate the building.
• Smoke is one of the greatest hazards in high-rise hotels. Early
smoke detection by sensitive and reliable detectors is extremely
important.
• The potential for panic should be recognized for high-rise hotels and
should be compensated for by the following measures:
1. Make guests feel familiar with the premises (permanently
displayed safety and emergency instructions in room).
2. Clearly mark all escape routes
3. Initially, alert only endangered areas
3-11
4. Give clear directions to escaping persons via live voice
communication.
• Elevators for use by fire-fighters shall be automatically recalled to
designated floor.
• The status of all elevators shall be provided on an elevator status
panel located in the Fire Command Center.
• A display panel for the HVAC systems should also be provided in
the Fire Command Center.
• The fire officer in charge should remain in the Fire Command Center
during an emergency. This person can inform and direct escaping
persons and communicate with the fire fighters via the emergency
telephone system.
• The emergency telephone system is an important means of
communication in high-rise hotels. This system is required for
Starwood high-rise hotels.
3.2 Alarm Processing and Communication
3.2.1 Fire Command Center
1. General Requirementsilnformation
After the fire has been detected, the alarm signal is sent to the hotel's
Fire Command Center. At this point, the signal is analyzed and the
appropriate actions are determined.
2. Technical Requirements/Information
(a) Shall be located in a portion of the facility near the main entrance.
This should be coordinated with local AHJs.
(b) The command center is the base of fire department operations, and
is used to house the communication and fire system control panels.
(c) Information displayed at the Fire Command Center shall also be
displayed at satellite panels located in the telephone operators'
area, near the front desk and in the facility engineering offices of a
large complex.
3.2.2 Supervisory and Troub/e Signals
(a) Personnel monitoring the hotel's Fire Command Center must be able to
differentiate between a fire alarm signal, a trouble signal (result of
system/device failure) and a supervisory signal (initiated by a piece of
supervised equipment).
(b) The Fire Command Center shall be designed for the strict needs of the
operator. Specifications shall require
• Permanently mounted clear operating instructions and labeling,
• Understandable hotel nomenclature, and
• Clear zone layouts
(c) Fire alarm systems will be divided into zones. The size of the zone is
dependent on the size of the facil ity and the individual use spaces.
(d) Zoning shall be by building, floor and device type, with no zone
exceeding 20,000 ft' (1 ,858.1 m' ).
(e) Table 3-1 summarizes the actions to be taken when signals are
received at the Fire Command Center.
3-12
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3-13




• •








3.2.3 Emergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) Systems
(a) Every Starwood property shall be provided with a complete detection
and emergency voice alarm communication system.
(b) Shall consist of an audio control panel and speaker circuits located
throughout the building.
(c) From the Fire Command Center, the speakers can be fed from a variety
of signals including
• Alert tone
• Evacuation message
• Taped, digitized, or live voice
• Evacuation tone
(d) Shall be able to communicate with the entire hotel as well as selected
areas such as lobbies, elevator cars, hotel guestroomlsuites, etc.
(e) The EVAC system shall be independent of the day to day publ ic
address system.
(f) Inputs from Fire Detection System
• In automatic mode, the EVAC uses control signals from the fire
detection system's control outputs for automatic selection of the
appropriate speaker zones.
• EVAC systems should be located in the Fire Command Center.
• Manual operation of the alarm and voice communication system will
override the automatic control signals.
• The highest priority is given to the master microphone's talk switch,
allowing live messages to override all other signals.
• The EVAC shall be wired to override the publ ic address system.
• Control inputs from the fire detection system shall be fed to the
following modules:
1. Speaker zone selection matrix to allow automatic selection of
zones to be alerted; minimum one zone per floor.
2. Alarm tone generator. In cases where coded messages are
desired, the control signals select the codes to be broadcast.
3. Audio amplifier increases sound level to minimum requirements
in each zone.
4. Selection switch, in cases where an automatic selection
between prerecorded messages and alarm tones is desi red.
• Figure 3-12 displays a block diagram of an automatically activated
EVAC system.
(g) Speaker Zone Circuits
• Fire alarm and EVAC speakers are supervised by the fire alarm
system.
• The circuits must be Class A wired.
• If a malfunction is detected, TROUBLE indications must be given.
• The system's internal modules, such as amplifiers, must be
supervised. Redundant modules are required in special cases.
When the primary module exhibits a fault condition, the system
automatically switches over to the secondary module.
3-14

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Figure 3-12 - Block Diagram of An Automatically Activated Voice
Communication/Evacuation System
(h) Battery Standby Power
• Typically the entire system is provided with standby battery power to
allow full operation in case the main power fails.
• Batteries should be rechargeable and automatically be kept
charged.
• Batteries should be supervised.
3.2.4 Fire Fighter's Te/ephone System
(a) Required in buildings greater than 3 stories in height.
(b) Are part of dedicated system to be used by firefighters in an emergency.
(c) Provide two-way communication between the Fire Command Center
and various locations throughout the building.
(d) The system consists of a master station and control unit, and separately
zoned telephones or telephone jacks.
(e) The operator can communicate with any single or combination of
remote stations (maximum of 5 stations) simultaneously.
(f) Remote stations are typically installed in the following locations:
• Elevators
• Elevator lobbies
• Near the fire fighter's entrance
• Near entrances to stairwells and the exit levels
• At each level of an enclosed exit stair
• Emergency generator room
• Fire pump room
3-15
• Designated area of refuge
(g) When an emergency telephone is lifted off the hook or a portable
handset is plugged in, an audible signal is given at the master station
and a display identifies the location.
(h) Figure 3-13 displays a block diagram of a Fire Fighter's Telephone
System.
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D-EotCAT£O SUSSTATIONS OA JACtcS
l I-IROUGHOl.,tl Tl-IE BUll OJ-lG
MASfER ST It. no"!
rOR FRf MARSHAl.
HANDSETS FOR FIRa..EN
Figure 3-13 - Block Diagram of An Emergency Telephone System
3.2.5 Combination Systems
1. General Requirements/Information
• Combining the various systems (fire detection, emergency voice
alarm communication, fire fighter's telephone and security alarm
systems) into a single unit has many advantages - including
reduction in costs, space, wiring, etc.
2. Technical Requirements/Information
(a) Transponder Systems
• Rather than wiring all zones directly to the main control
cabinet, the zones within a given area are connected to
Remotely Located Control Panels (RLCPs). RLCPs (often
called transponders, data-gathering panels, etc.) are typically
connected to the central controller over a 4-wire multiplex
communication network. A multiplexed system shall be
capable of:
1. Relaying local fire, hold-up, or burglar alarm information
with satellite and zone location from the transponders to
the central controller.
3-16
2. Transmitting switching commands for loudspeaker or
telephone zones from the central controller to the
transponder units.
3. Providing continuous supervision of the multiplexed
communication network, the zone wiring and the
transponder units themselves.
• In addition to the multiplexed communication network cable,
common lines for audio signals, emergency telephone, and
control power are used. Instead of using hundreds of wires in
heavy multi-core cable, this method allows as few as 10 to 12
wires to carry all information for a large building.
(b) Correlation Between Initiating Device and Voice Communication
Zone Switching
• The main advantage in using a single microprocessor-based
integrated system package utilizing multiplex communication
techniques lies in the ability to program output functions based
on alarm inputs. This is often called 'control-by-vent'

programming.
• An example of such correlation is found in the 'standard' high-
rise concept. This correlation makes audible evacuation signals
possible on the floor where a fire was detected, as well as on the
adjacent floors, with alert signals being sounded on other floors.
With transponder systems, it is possible to program any
combination and correlation, thus allowing exact tailoring of a
system to a particular building.
• In addition, modern multiplex systems allow on-site
programming of a switching matrix. If a building's layout is
changed or expanded, the system can then easily be adapted to
the new circumstances.
(c) Manual Zone Selection With Priority
• Although combination systems may perform several functions,
fire alarms must always have the highest priority. The central
operating terminal then, should be programmed with the
following priorities:
1. 1 st priority: Fire alarm
2. 2nd priority: Security
3. 3rd priority: Building Services
4. 4th priority: Supervisory Alarms
5. 5th priority: Trouble Conditions
• In case of a fire alarm, automatic zone selection based on the
programmed correlation is desired. In an emergency it may be
advantageous to perform manual zone selection along with
transmission of live voice messages.
• In transponder systems, this is performed by arranging manual
selection panels in the control room. In addition to rows of push
buttons for the actual selection, built in lights indicate the zones
already switched on and also the areas from which the fire alarm
signals originated.
3-17
3.2.6 System Integration
1. General Requirements/Information
• This section covers basic principles/concepts of combining the fire
detection and alarm systems and fire suppression and smoke
venting systems.
2. Technical Requirementsllnformation
(a) Multiple Systems
• Most of today's fire detection control panels are microprocessor
controlled.
• These systems are in a position to evaluate various types of
input signals (e.g., from smoke, heat and fiame detectors,
manual alarm stations, etc.) and derive from them the
appropriate output or control signals.
• If multiple systems are installed, one of the following
combinations may be used:
1. Signal inputs only (from other systems to fire detection/alarm
systems) for alerting and evacuation purposes.
2. Signal inputs to fire detection/alarm systems for alerting,
evacuation and alarm processing, and signal outputs to the
other systems (in case of alarm) for control purposes
• Figure 3-14 details typical system interconnections for multiple
systems.
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Figure 3-14 · Typical System Interconnections
3-18
(b) Signal Inputs to Fire Detect ion/Alarm Systems
• In addition to the input signals from the automatic detectors and
manual stations, the following signals should be fed into the fire
detection control panel:
1. Sprinkler flow switches (A)
2. Sprinkler tamper switches (S)
3. Fire extinguishing and hose reel monitoring (S) (if indicated)
4. Smoke damper actuation (S)
• It is important that the alarm signals (A) and the supervisory
signals (S) are treated differently, i.e., indicated and transmitted
accordingly.
(c) Signal Outputs to Fire Suppression Systems
• In special cases the fire detection system is used to control the
actuation of a fire suppression system (e.g., deluge system, pre-
action sprinkler system). Note: If the detection system is used
to actuate the fire suppression system, the detection system
shall be listed by a nationally recognized agency for the specific
application.
• Pre-Action Sprinkler Systems
1. Used for areas exposed to either below freezing or very high
temperatures, as well as in water sensitive installations such
as computer rooms.
2. As shown in Figure 3-15, when the automatic fire detector
responds, the dry valve automatically opens and water is
released into the pipe. The sprinkler system is now
comparable to a wet system, with each head responding
immediately when the actuation temperature is reached .
--
--
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Figure 3-15 - Principle of A Pre-Action Sprinkler System
3-19
• Deluge Systems
1. Deluge systems spray water over an entire area, as open
nozzles are installed.
2. As shown in Figure 3-16, water from an existing supply is fed
via an alarm valve to the open nozzles. In this case, these
nozzles merely represent a means of distributing water,
whereas fire detection is performed by the fire detection
system.
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Figure 3-16 - Principle of Detector Activated Deluge System (Common Activation)
I
3. Water release is controlled automatically, by the fire
detection system's control unit, or manually.
4. Water Curtain System
o In cases where fire compartmentation is incomplete (e.g.
in large open halls, underground garages or escalators
between floors), a water curtain system may be effective.
o A water curtain installation may be considered a fireproof
division between protected and unprotected areas.
o Figure 3-17 displays the principle of water curtain
protection.
Figure 3-17 - Principle of Water Curtain Protection
3-20
(d) Detector Activated Extinguishing Systems
• Hotels may contain specific hazards that are unusual when
compared with the overall fire potential in the facility. Such
"special areas" would include, but are not limited to:
1. Kitchen cooking equipment, exhaust hoods and ducts
2. Major computer rooms
3. Transformer switchgear and elevator equipment rooms
• When considering these special areas from a design standpoint,
the unique nature of the hazards will often indicate that a "multi-
level protection" approach is required to achieve the highest
possible probability that a fire in one of these areas would be
detected and suppressed.
• The first level of protection should be aimed at assuring that the
special hazard area is designed to have as much inherent safety
as possible, regardless of the presence of an automatic
suppression system.
• The basic automatic fire sprinkler system installed throughout
the building will generally serve as an effective fire extinguishing
medium for most of these special hazard areas. Beyond that,
certain special hazard extinguishing systems which are better
suited to the hazard can be considered as an extra level of
protection. Such special hazard systems would often be
expected to respond faster than automatic sprinklers and be
more effective in extinguishing the fire more quickly.
• Water spray mist and other special hazard extinguishing
systems are now available for application in areas previously
protected by dry chemical or gas systems. It is anticipated that
other effective, less harmless gaseous systems will soon
become available. Halon 1301 is no longer permitted for use in
new or renovated Starwood hotels.
• Where Special Hazard Systems Are Installed:
1. The system should have a readily accessible means of
manual activation, and be clearly identified so it cannot be
confused with other systems.
2. The system should be coordinated with other systems that
are expected to function in case of fires or emergencies.
3. The system should be designed to automatically disconnect
energy sources.
4. The electronic supervision of the protected areas and the
special extinguishing systems should be an integral part of
the central Detection/Alarm/Emergency Communication
System.
• Planning
1. The planning and designing of dry extinguishing systems is a
very specialized task and should only be attempted by
companies competent in this field. The system must be in
compl iance with national , regional , and local codes and
regulations.
3-21
2. Dry extinguishing systems which operate on the principle of
oxygen exclusion such as CO
2
, are not permitted in
Starwood properties.
• Two Zone Detector Arrangements (Cross Zoning)
In order to prevent accidental discharge, the activating detectors
are typically arranged to form two separate zone circuits within
the area to be protected. This means that, unless both detector
zones are in alarm, the gas is not released. If only one detector
zone responds, a warning is given locally and at the fire
detection system terminal.
• Extinguishing Event Sequence
In case of a two-zone response, or if a manual alarm station in
the area is activated, the following sequence of events is
automatically initiated by the control unit:
o The in-house intervention force is alerted.
o Warning panels light up in the endangered area and audible
signals are given to evacuate the area.
1. The public fire department is automatically alerted.
2. Pre-selected electrical installations and air conditioning
systems are shut down.
3. Fire doors, dampers, and windows are closed.
o After a brief delay period, during which the extinguishing
process may be manually aborted:
1. The extinguishing valve opens automatically.
2. The room is flooded with extinguishing agent.
(e) Connection to Smoke Venting or Smoke Control Systems
• Dedicated systems to extract smoke and hot combustion gases
from a building are used, and may be required by national or
local codes. These systems basically serve two purposes:
1. To remove smoke and toxic fumes in order to reduce the
hazard for both occupants and fire fighting personnel.
2. To let hot combustion gases escape in order to reduce the
pressure resulting from open flame fires, and to delay or
inhibit flashover. Flashover occurs when certain materials
such as decorations or furniture, emit combustible gases due
to the heat of fire. Should this gas concentration reach a
certain level and mix with oxygen, it can ignite an explosion-
like flashover.
• Smoke venting systems typically consist of dampers located
near the roof of a building. These dampers are often driven by
pneumatic or hydraulic mechanisms which the fire department
will manually activate. Other models are spring loaded and
need maintenance action after they have been actuated.
Activation or opening of any damper should always be
annunciated at the central fire detection system display.
• Smoke control systems use electrically driven fans activated
manually or by signals from the fire detection system. Upon
receipt of an alarm at the control panel, all fans are shut off or air
is supplied to or exhausted from parts of the building. Where
fans may be exposed to high temperatures in case of fire, the
fans must be constructed to withstand the extreme heat.
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• The application of smoke control concepts is extremely
dependent on the building construction, the air conditioning
systems, and other factors. It is strongly recommended to
consult the fire department and local codes and regulations
before concepts are applied.
3.3 Basic Detection and Alarm Application Concepts
3.3.1 Fire Detection Systems
(a) Zoned Systems
• A common zoned system is the tradit ional method for connecting
detection devices to a control unit.
• Starwood requires Class A wiring for all zoned systems.
• A single zone typically consists of several detectors connected to
the control unit, using a single pair of wires.
• The zone shall reflect the physical layout of a building section and
shall meet local codes - often a maximum of 15,000-20,000 ft'
(1393.5-1858.1 m' ). This is important because only the zone
address will be displayed if one or several detectors in the zone go
into alarm. The actual detector that caused the alarm must still be
located by personal investigation.
• The maximum number of detectors per zone depends on the
national and local regulations. For common zoned systems, this
seldom exceeds 20-25 detectors. This is a function of both
electrical limitations of the systems and the need for quick response.
• Manual fire alarm devices should be zoned separately so it is
evident that the fire was detected by a person.
• Sprinkler system water flow alarm devices and valve supervisory
switches should also be zoned separately.
(b) Addressable Detector Systems
• Contain multiple devices on a common signaling line circuit, each
with its own unique address, which identifies the exact location of
the detector that alarmed.
• Up to 128 detectors may be connected to a single zone line circuit,
provided this meets local and national codes.
• Manual alarm stations may be zoned with the automatic devices,
since the location and type of initiating device can be identified by
the fire alarm system.
• Some addressable detector systems allow the connection of control
modules to the same signaling line circuits. This provides for an
economical means of driving local annunciation devices, closing of
fire doors or control of other local devices.
(c) Intelligent Detector Systems
• Similar to addressable systems with unique address on common
circuit.
• Are able to send information to and receive information from the
control panel in addition to simply reporting their location.
• The benefit of this two-way communication system allows for
nuisance alarm features including sensitivity adjustment from the
control panel and the transmission of "detector dirty' or
3-23
"maintenance required" signals from the detector to the control
panel.
(d) Analog Reporting Detector Systems
o In addition to having the features of intelligent detector systems,
have the ability to transmit changes in the conditions sensed in the
detectors sensing chamber.
o Transmit the actual signal they sense to the control panel , which
contains the decision making ability. This allows the sensitivity to be
varied based on location, time of day, etc., and provides a means to
monitor dirt accumulation over time.
o Some devices look at fire signatures, such as temperature changes,
in addition to sensing the presence of smoke. This is another
method used to reduce nuisance alarms.
o Some analog detector systems have the ability to automatically
compensate for environmental condit ions, including dirt
accumulation.
o Although the alarm thresholds are adjustable, they must still meet
the limits specified by the regulatory agencies.
(e) Single Station Smoke Detector Systems
o Completely self-contained, with their own buzzer, indicator and reset
mechanism.
o System connected smoke detectors are required in guestrooms.
o Existing single station smoke detectors may remain in use, provided
they meet the following:
1. Single station smoke detectors for guestrooms must be
approved by recognized listing agencies
2. Use of single station smoke detectors without a central ized fire
alarm system are not permitted.
3. The power supply to single station smoke detectors must be
from centralized electrical panel with non-switchable building AC
circuits connected to the emergency generator.
4. Battery operated single station smoke detectors are not
permitted.
(I) Special Considerations for Existing Hotels
o Existing hotels sometimes carry a higher fire risk than modern
structures, due to low fire resistance (compartmentation) and
materials used.
o Installation of "Regular" Fire Detection Systems
1. Installation of new fire detection systems in existing hotels
requires a lot of work.
2. It may be necessary to shutdown portions of the hotel.
3. Costs can be minimized if careful coordination of work is
planned for renovations.
o Radio (Wireless) Transmission Fire Detection Systems
1. Detector/transmitter stations are battery powered only.
2. If these systems are used, must have approval of Starwood and
local authorities.
3. Reliability of these systems has not yet been proven.
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3.3.2 Nuisance A/arm Problem
1. General Requirementsllnformation
Nuisance alarms are a major issue for fire alarm systems. Unwanted
alarms should be reduced as soon as possible.
(a) Nuisance alarms are often caused by:
• Mischievous use of the system (blowing smoke at a detector,
pulling alarm stations, etc.)
• Maintenance work in monitored area (welding, painting, etc.)
• Deceptive phenomena (insects, dust, steam, sunlight, etc.)
• Corrosion of contacts (due to environment)
• Electromagnetic influence and radio frequency influence (walkie-
talkies, cellular phones, etc.)
• Detectors which are of the wrong type, improperly
placed/installed, dirty, etc.
(b) Methods to Reduce Nuisance Alarms
• False alarms due to maintenance work can be avoided by
proper organization, training and supervision.
• Due to microprocessor technologies, some fire detection
equipment manufacturers have been able to incorporate
nuisance reduction features into their equipment.
• Cross Zoning
o Based on the concept that two separate zones must respond
before a general fire alarm signal is activated.
o Response of a single zone leads to pre-alarm condition,
which is announced to in-house staff.
o Recommended for areas in the hotel where there may be
heavy smoking.
o Always used when detectors are used to activate
extinguishing systems.
o Can be performed with either traditional zoning/devices or
intelligent devices.
o For traditional zoning methods, detectors must be wired to
guarantee proper two-zone response in case of fire.
o For intelligent detection systems, cross zoning may be
accomplished by careful formation of grou ps in the software.
• Pre-Signal (Alarm Sequencing) Concept
o Method of alarm verification used to help reduce the chance
of panic in crowded areas (retail areas, ballrooms, etc) .
o First response from a detector is "silently" announced to key
personnel, who have been assigned the task of investigating
the alarm.
o If a second detector responds, a general fire alarm is given.
o A general alarm is also initiated if either a manual pull station
or the sprinkler system water flow switch are activated.
• Alarm Verification Concept
o Appl icable in areas where puffs of smoke or gas are
common in the environment.
o When the detector first responds, an automatic reset
command is issued and the alarm is suppressed.
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o When the detector responds a second time (within a
particular time period), an alarm is immediately issued.
o The time limit varies based on the manufacturer, however
usually limited by local or national codes. NFPA 72 limits the
time delay to 60 seconds.
o This concept is not applicable for heat detectors, manual
alarm stations or water flow switches. An alarm from any of
these devices cause a general alarm signal without delay.
• Positive Alarm Sequencing
o Utilizes a dual timing principle for delaying a general alarm.
o Similar in concept to cross-zoning, however requires only a
single device in alarm.
o This method can only be used when a system operator is
present at all times.
o The operating sequence requires two levels of device priority
and two system timers (T1 and T2) .
1. Priority 1 - Immediate general alarm/fire department
notification (manual alarm station, water flow device)
2. Priority 2 - Delayable alarm (smoke detector)
• When there is a response by a priority '2' detector,
delay T1 is started. When T1 time runs out without a
response by an operator, the fire department is called
and a general alarm signal is activated. If the alarm
is acknowledged while T1 is running, the system
interprets this as a sign that an operator is present.
In this case, timer T2 is started, allowing time for
investigation.
• Time periods T1 and T2 are often regulated by local
or national codes. NFPA 72 limits T1 to 15 seconds
and T2 to 180 seconds.
• If the investigation verifies the existence of a fire or if
time T2 runs out, the fire department can be
summoned by initiating any manual alarm station.
• However, if the investigation determines that only a
minor fire exists that can be extinguished easily, or
that it is not an actual alarm, the fire alarm control
panel can be reset while T2 is still running without
sounding a general alarm.
• Sensitivity Compensation
o Detector feature that maintains a constant sensitivity over
time, compensating for component aging and dirt
accumulation.
o Useful in areas of high dirt build-up or where detectors are
difficult to access.
o This detector feature does not eliminate the need for regular
detector maintenance.
o Helpful in reducing long-term maintenance costs by
identifying which detectors need to be cleaned or replaced.
• Variable Sensitivity Settings
o Similar in concept to sensitivity compensating detector.
Several systems have the ability to automatically or manually
3-26
change between fixed sensitivity levels either at the detector
or at the control panel.
o For intelligent detector systems, a detector may have two or
more preset sensitivity levels. The control panel can be
programmed to shift between the various sensitivities at
specific time intervals. It is also possible to program different
sensitivity levels based on the location of the devices.
o For analog reporting detector systems, the sensitivity
adjustments are often made at the control panel. The
sensitivity levels can be adjusted by device, groups of
devices and by time of day.
o Sensitivity levels must remain in the range specified by the
regulatory agencies such as UL or VdS.
o These systems are useful in facilities where various
environmental conditions exist.
• Signals Indicative of Dirty Detectors
o In many of the intelligent detector systems, a signal is
provided which indicates the need to clean the detector.
o Waiting for a dirty detector signal should not be used as an
alternative to scheduled maintenance.
• Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
o Many control units contain built-in interference protection,
intended to minimize the effects of electromagnetic
interference, radio frequency interference (RFI), and
electrical transients (induced voltage and current spikes).
o Level of protection is dependent on the requirements of
various regulatory agencies.
o Additional protection may be required to reduce the
occurrence of nuisance alarms resulting from these
phenomenon.
o Refer to Appendix 3-8 for additional information on
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
o Interference Factors which influence EMC include:
1. Lightning
2. High frequency or radio interference
3. Interference pulses
4. Electrical or magnetic interference fields
5. Transmission of electrical interference currents via
resistive coupling
6. Electrostatic Charging/Discharging
o Interference Protection Measures
1. All fire detection and alarm equipment must meet the
current revision of applicable standards, which require
equipment to be designed with adequate EMI and RFI
protection features.
2. However, some equipment may be exposed to
abnormally high levels of interference.
3. Typically, the use of shielded cable or cable installed in
properly grounded metall ic conduit will negate a majority
of the interference. In some cases, additional protection
may be required.
3-27
4, Protection is available in the form of filters or other
suppression devices, which can be installed on the
detection devices, on the installation wiring or at the
control panel. The manufacturer should be consulted
when additional protective devices are to be installed,
5, The use of fiber optic cable instead of cable using
metallic conductors provides for an alternate means of
protection, Fiber optic cable are immune to EMI and RFI
as they use light signals to transmit data instead of
electronic signals,
o Additional Transient Protection Measures
1, All fire alarm equipment must meet the current revision of
applicable standards, By meeting these standards, the
equipment is designed with adequate transient voltage
protection for systems used within a single building,
2, For any circuits extended outside the building, ex1ra
precautions must be taken to protect the equipment from
damage caused by high voltage transients being induced
on the circuits from nearby lightning strikes or other
outside sources, These circuits should be run in metallic
conduit that is properly bonded to a good earth ground,
and external transient protection must be installed on
each of those circuits,
3, The ex1ernal transient protection required for each circuit
depends on the characteristics of the circuit and, where
lightning is a concern, the degree of lightning activity
expected at the geographical location of the installation,
4, If it is apparent that there will be a high degree of
lightning activity at the installation, it is recommended
that additional transient protection be installed on
equipment to prevent damage,
5, Additional transient protection is needed on multiplex
communication network lines (signaling line circuits) and
audio communications lines are routed underground from
building to building in PVC conduit. Twisted shielded
pairs with the shield earth grounded should be used
within the PVC conduit, or twisted pairs in metal conduit.
Audio circuits should be shielded independently from
each other and from signal circuits,
6, When shielded cable is used, it is important that the
equipment manufacturer be contacted for specific
requirements regarding termination of the shield,
7, In all cases, it is extremely important that all ground
connections be made to an 8 It (2,5m) driven ground rod
or equivalent water pipe connection,
8, The equipment manufacturer should be consulted when
additional transient and interference protection is
required to ensure compatibility with the installed
equipment.
3-28
9. If high voltage transients are anticipated in advance, the
installation of fiber optic cable instead of cable using
metall ic conductors is an option.
3.3.3 Control Units and Terminals
(a) The control unit is the heart and brain of the fire detection system. It is
important to provide an uncomplicated interface between the operator
and the system.
(b) Location of Terminals
• It is extremely important to properly locate the operating and display
terminals.
• The code requirements and local fire marshal should be consulted
before selecting the final location.
• Hotels should have a terminal at a permanently staffed location -
such as the main lobby.
• It may be beneficial to have full access terminal at a central location
and remote terminals, which allow limited operation of the system.
This is suitable for hotels consisting of multiple buildings and larger
hotels.
• Larger hotels may also require a local indication panel on each floor
to provide selected and detailed information, as illustrated in Figure
3-18.
' ....
'1C¢t J
..
"
.....
,.-. ."'"
- ---
I •
• •

COlao. tOOo'I
VII _ (t (tAli .
::..='"" ='=
Figure 3-18 - Typical Terminal Installations for Larger Buildings
3-29
(c) Displays
• Each indicator should be clearly labeled and easily understood by
hotel management and fire department personnel. Text used on the
displays should be discussed with representatives of hotel
management and the local fire department and agreed upon prior to
system installation.
• Lamp Type Indicators and Annunciators
o Indicators include alarm, trouble, supervisory, acknowledge,
reset, etc.
o In many cases the flashing of the lamps indicates the status of
the panel or action to be performed.
o It is important that the operator understand the meaning of the
indicators so they system can be correctly operated.
• Graphic Annunciator
o Common display used in many buildings.
o Graphic indication of the building is provided showing a floor
plan or building elevation with lamps provided indicating the area
of the fire.
o The building graphic should be identical to the building layout.
As modifications are made to the building is modified, the
grapbic annunciator should be updated to reflect these changes.
• Alphanumeric Light Emitting Diode (LED) or Liquid Crystal Display
(LCD)
o Displays provide text information concerning the type of device
and location of the device and alarm.
o Are often provided with a selector switch for scrolling through
messages.
o This type of display typically provides more information than the
lamp-type annunciators.
o Text should be clear, concise and accurate as to the type of
device and location of the device sending the signal.
• Video (CRT) Displays
o Typically use computer monitors to display 40+ lines of text.
o Able to provide much more detailed information as to the
location of the alarm, type of device in alarm and steps to be
taken in the event of an alarm.
• ColorlGraphic Display
o Similar to the video display, this type of system uses monitors to
display graphics of the building.
o Can be used to display the building, floor plan and room of alarm
on the video monitor.
o Graphics must be updated as the building is modified.
• Printers
o Can be used to display alarms in emergency situations and are
also good for logging system alarms, troubles, etc.
3.3.4 Multiplex Systems
(a) Are used to connect remotely located control panels (RLCPs)
throughout a hotel complex by means of digital communication network.
(b) These systems are economical if:
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• The hotel is retrofitted
• The hotel contains more than approximately five control units
• User friendly interfacing is desired
• Large distances exist between the control units
• Other functions (i.e., security, gas detection, building services) are
to be integrated into the central control unit.
(c) Protocols and Event Logs
• Allow for supervision of operators and can lead to more responsible
action and maintenance.
• Allow for verification and reconstruction of events after an
emergency or drill.
• Typically contain the times and dates when the following events
occurred:
1. All alarms
2. All acknowledging actions
3. All resetting actions
4. All fault and trouble alarms
5. Corrected faults
• Installation of at least one printer is recommended for multiplex
systems.
(d) Arrangement in High-Rise Buildings
• Multiplex systems are suitable for high-rise hotel buildings.
• Typically economical for hotels more than 15 stories (control unit
installed on every third floor, 5 or more control units - multiplex is
usually economical)
• Fire detection on the floors is achieved by detectors and manual
alarm stations.
• In many cases, intelligent detector systems are preferable because
they allow high zone capabilities and provide precise indication of
the alarm source.
3.3.5 Auxiliary Control Outputs
(a) Auxiliary control outputs of the fire detection system are used to:
• Close fire doors held open by electromagnetic devices
• Close fire dampers
• Control fire pumps and emergency generators
• Control escalators and return elevators to designated level
• Control HVAC systems
• Control pressurization fans
• Control the evacuation and alarm system
• Control remote signaling devices
(b) Configuration of Control Outputs'
• Control outputs can be available on local basis or on a central basis
via a multiplex system.
• The outputs consist of changeover style contacts and allow for most
universal application and exact tailoring to a particular requirement
in a hotel.
• The activation of every single control output can be made
dependent on many system conditions including:
1. Devices
3-31
2. Zone number(s)
3. Zone Status (AlarmlTrouble/Normal)
4. Alarm Status (Acknowledged/Unacknowledged)
5. Operating Mode (Day or Night)
6. Alarm type (Fire, Security, Gas, Building Services,
Extinguishing)
• Interconnection to HVAC System
o One of the major uses for control outputs is to activate the
HVAC system supply and exhaust fans for smoke management.
o In most cases, these devices are simply used to turn off all fans
when an alarm signal is initiated.
o These devices may also be used for smoke control or
engineered smoke management systems, as discussed in NFPA
92A, Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems.
o Smoke management systems are used to inhibit the flow of
smoke into any means of egress, exit passageways, etc.
o Two basic types of smoke management systems - shaft
protection and floor protection. The selection of which system to
se is based on the building, occupancy, life safety requirements,
and other national and local codes.
o Shaft protection - Stair tower is pressurized to prevent or
minimize smoke into the stairwell during egress and fire fighting
operations. In this type of system, the pressurization fan is
activated by a control output from the fire alarm system.
o Floor protection (zoned smoke control system) - the intent is to
have negative pressure within the area of alarm and positive
pressure in surrounding areas. The negative pressure in the
area of the fire serves to aid in the exhaust of smoke, while the
positive pressure in the surrounding area minimizes the
migration of smoke from the fire area into other zones.
o Indicators should be provided at the Fire Command Center to
show the status of the fans.
• Elevator Recall
o Each elevator having a travel of 25 ft (7.6 m) or more above or
below the designated level of fire fighter access and occupant
egress should be provided with both manual and automatic
elevator recall devices.
o Manual devices consist of a key activated control that recalls the
elevators to the level of fire fighter access. At this point, the
elevators can only be controlled manually with a dedicated key.
o Automatic elevator recall is also recommended upon activation
of any manual alarm station, sprinkler system water now switch
or elevator lobby smoke detectors.
o All local and national codes and regulat ions should be followed.
If no such code is available, the recommended method for
elevator recall and firefighter's service can be found in American
National Standards Institute's Standard A 17.1 - Safety Code for
Elevators and Escalators.
3-32
3.3.6 Alarm and Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Systems
(a) General
• Additional emergency planning is important for high-rise buildings
where exiting is difficult and conventional fire fighting methods
cannot be appl ied.
• Buildings with active and passive fire protection measures may be
able to provide a reasonable time period between the detection of a
fire and the initiation of the evacuation process.
(b) Planning Considerations - The following factors should be considered:
• Construction of building, its fire resistance and protection
• Height of the building, number of floors and area of floors
• Maximum number of occupants
• Complexity, capacity and safety of egress routes
• Efficiency of active measures
• Effectiveness of in-house fire brigade
• Efficiency and response of local fire department
(c) Staff Notification
• Alarms from detection systems, waterflow sensors and manual fire
alarm systems shall be arranged to notify the hotel staff without any
delay.
• Any required investigation should start immediately upon in-house
staff notification.
• May be alerted by:
1. Sounding of buzzers/horns in staff areas only (i .e., control room,
plant room, front desk, etc.)
2. Use of paging systems
3. Pre-signal (discrete) messages over the hotel's PA system,
directed to selected personnel.
• Responsibilit ies of Personnel - must be clearly identified, so each
person is aware of his/her duties in case of an alarm. Goals should
include:
1. Investigate and report back to central point.
2. Initiate general alarm and alarm to fire department. This can be
done by activating the nearest fire alarm station.
3. Attempt to extinguish small fires using extinguishers, hose reels,
etc.
4. Direct fire fighters to control room and location of fire.
5. Start emergency equipment where needed.
6. Assist in evacuation.
7. When the fire department arrives, they are in chargel
(d) Fire Department Notification
• Typically the local fire department is located remote from the hotel.
• All hotels shall have automatic alarm transmission capability to
avoid delays in notifying the fire department.
• Automat ic transmission of alarms shall occur upon activation of
smoke/heat detectors (excluding guestroom detectors), water flow
sensors or manual pull station devices.
• Complete as-built drawings, technical service instructions, and
concise operator instructions shall be readily available in the Fire
Command Center. The Fire Command Center shall be located in
3-33
the same room as the telephone switchboard and should be
constantly attended by hotel staff.
• Staff members should have the ability to communicate directly with
the fire department to verify alarms have been received and to
provide additional information. This manual method of notification
can be accompl ished using the public telephone system.
• Alarm transmission methods vary. The following methods are often
applied (listed in order of suggested preference):
1. Dedicated cable between the hotel and fire department, or the
central station of the alarm company, fully supervised.
2. Dedicated, DC-coupled telephone line, supervised.
3. Normal telephone line connection to the fire department,
supervised.
4. Overlay transmission over existing telephone lines for regular
use, supervised
5. Using automatic dialing equipment to dial the fire department's
dedicated telephone number in case of an alarm.
• Alarm signals can be automatically transmitted to the fire
department by one of the following three methods
1. Central Station Signaling System - Operated by private alarm
companies, which contract with the hotel to receive fire alarm
and supervisory signals and take appropriate action.
2. Auxiliary Signaling System - Use municipal fire alarm circuits to
send alarms from the hotel to the municipal communications
center.
3. Remote Station Signaling System - Use electrically supervised
circuits to send alarm signals from the hotel to alarm signal
receiving equipment in a remote station such as a muni ci pal fire
alarm headquarters or a fire station. (NFPA 72)
• For areas using a central station at an alarm company, it may be
preferable to transmit the alarm to the alarm company, who will
notify the fire department.
(e) Occupant Notification
• Hotel occupants shall be notified via audible/visual fire alarm signals
or the emergency voice alarm communication system, upon
actuation of heat/smoke detectors (excluding guestroom detectors),
water flow sensors or manual pull stations.
• Smoke detectors used for elevator recall and heat detectors used
for elevator power shutdown, shall not be required to activate the
hotel evacuation alarm, provided these detectors are monitored by
the fire alarm system and activation of these detectors results in an
audible/visible alarm in a constantly attended location.
• Detectors used for releasing devices (i.e., door or damper closing
and fan shutdown) shall not be required to activate the hotel
evacuation alarm.
• Design of occupant alarm must take into account the type of
building and number of escape routes.
• For buildings over 3 stories in height - the floor of alarm (or fire area)
and the floors (or fire areas) immediately above and below the floor
of alarm shall be notified by the emergency voice communicat ion
3-34
system. The AHJ and local fire department shall determine if
additional areas need to be notified.
• For buildings 3 stories in height or less - activation of any device
shall sound the hotel evacuation system.
• Audible alarm devices shall be a minimum of 15 dBA above the
ambient noise level. A slow whoop siren or other electronic tone
sounded over the fire alarm rated speakers capable of supporting
voice communication is required.
• Audible devices in guestrooms near the bed shall be 72 dBA.
• Choice of Alarm Signal - Visual and audible alarm devices are
required in all Starwood hotels.
1. Uncoded (Tone) Signals
o For an uncoded alarm system, there are a number of bells,
electronic sounders or other signaling devices, which provide
audible signals in parts of the hotel.
o This method can only provide very limited information. A
hotel guest hearing the sound is only aware that something
is happening, but the location and severity of the incident is
not evident.
o Not permitted in new or renovated hotels, except those less
than 3 stories in height above grade, with direct exits from
each guestroom to the outside.
2. Coded Signals
o This method uses bells, chimes or horns to create alarm
signals by coding the signal to either indicate the location of
the alarm source or alert particular staff members.
o Not permitted in new or renovated hotels, except hotels less
than 3 stories in height above grade, with direct exits from
each guestroom to the outside.
3. Prerecorded or Synthesized Voice Messages
o Able to direct occupants to safe areas.
o In international hotels, it may be necessary to repeat the
message in different languages.
o Loudspeakers must be installed throughout the building and
should be zoned with other systems - to provide different
messages based on the different zones.
4. Live Voice Communication
o Provides an optimal means of minimizing panic, provided
that the speaker is properly trained.
o Using zoned loudspeaker networks, occupants can be
directed to safety, using up-to-date information provided by
the fire detection system and fire fighters in the area.
5. Evacuation Message Examples
o General Alarm Condition Requiring Total Building
Evacuation
"May I have your attention please. May I have your attention
please. A fire alarm has been reported in the building.
While this report is being verified, you are asked to proceed
to the nearest stairway and walk to the ground floor. Please
do not use the elevators, but proceed to the nearest
3-35
stairways. Please walk to the ground floor and leave the
building."
o Evacuation of Fire Floor, Floor Above and Floor Below
Fire Floor
"May I have your attention please. May I have your attention
please. A fire alarm has been reported in your area. While
this report is being verified, you are asked to proceed to the
nearest stairways and walk to the ground floor. Please do
not use the elevators, but proceed to the nearest stairways.
Please walk to the ground floor and leave the building.
o Message to the Occupants of Elevators
"May I have your attention please. May I have your attention
please. A fire alarm has been reported in the building and
has directed all elevators to the lobby or an alternate safe
floor. Once the elevator stops, leave the elevator and walk
to the nearest exit and leave the building. "
OR
"May I have your attention please. May I have your attention
please. The signal tone (alarm signal) which you just heard
indicates a report of a fire in the building. If your floor
evacuation signal sounds after this message, proceed to the
nearest stairway exits and leave the floor. While this report
is being verified, occupants on other floors should await
further instructions."
• Zoning Considerations
1. The format ion of meaningful zones impacts the effectiveness of
the alarm and emergency voice communication system.
2. General Alarm Methods
o Alarm signal sounded throughout the entire building by
means of defined audible signal.
o Automatically activated by the fire detection system or
manually in the control room.
o The total building alarm is not recommended for large hotels.
However, general alarm signaling may be required by local
codes or regulations.
3. Selective Alarm Methods
o This method allows selective alerting and evacuation of
occupants both by zone or throughout the building as
required.
o In high-rise buildings, usually the floor where the alarm
originated and adjacent floors are alerted and evacuated.
o The choice of zones to be alarmed may be pre-selected and
automatically performed once the control outputs of the fire
alarm system have been programmed.
(I) Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Systems
• Can transmit audible tones of varying types and intensity and
spoken messages and directions.
• Voice communication can be on a general (entire building) or, as
recommended, on a selective basis.
3-36
• In case of simultaneous transmission of alarms and voice
communications, spoken messages have priority and should
override any alarm signals.
• Audio modules in an EVAC system will:
1. Drive all loudspeakers - used for both alarm signals and voice
communication
2. Synthetically generate alarm tones upon automatic initiation by
the fire direction system or manual actuation
3. Play pre-recorded messages or transmit live voice messages.
4. The entire loudspeaker network shall be supervised. The
existence of faults will result in a trouble condition.
• The system can be programmed to perform the following tasks
automatically after the fire detection system is activated:
1. Transmit coded and uncoded alert signals
2. Transmit pre-arranged evacuation signals upon manual
activation
3. Transmit pre-recorded messages on a selective basis
4. Transmit live voice messages which will override other signals
• Controlled EVAC System
1. A controlled system refers to the discrimination between warning
and evacuation messages automatically transmitted to relevant
areas.
2. Typically, evacuation signals are sounded in the zone in which
the fire is detected - immediate danger for occupants in this
zone is assumed.
3. For the adjacent areas, alert signals are transmitted to
occupants to prepare them for possible evacuation.
4. The ability to manually select any combination of zones for voice
messages is important, so messages can be directed to the
affected areas only.
5. Loudspeakers may be activated automatically by the fire
detection system, as a function of the initiating zone or manually
by means of selection switches (one switch per zone, plus an 'all
zones' switch).
6. Automatic zone switching can be programmed via the fire
detection system as illustrated in Figure 3-19.
3-37
WAAiUO
WAAl4IIIO'
n ........
" .... "1 fll
Figure 3-19 - Example Matrix for Warning and Evacuation Signals
(g) Alarms Via In-House Telephone Systems
• Existing in-house telephone systems may sometimes be used as
interim measure to alert hotel occupants in the event of an
emergency.
• This type of system should be considered a back-up or as an interim
measure until a dedicated system is installed.
• When the telephone system is used, it must be capable of ringing
pre-definable groups of sets as well as all phones in the building
simultaneously.
(h) Visual Alarm Devices
• In addition to audible notification devices, all publ ic spaces (i.e.,
public restrooms, ballrooms, meeting rooms) and guestrooms for
the hearing impaired must be provided with visual alarm notification
devices (strobe lights).
• In areas subject to high noise levels (i.e., machine rooms, boiler
rooms), visual devices are recommended as a supplement to
audible devices.
(i) Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Loudspeaker Supervision
• Loudspeakers used as alarm or warning devices should be fire-
resistant and fully supervised.
• Where existing public address loudspeakers are used, it is
recommended that dedicated fire alarm speakers also be provided.
• Combinations of fire alarm and background music/paging systems
should be avoided. Such combinations are only permitted if the
music/paging function is part of a fully supervised emergency
communication system and may be overridden at any time by a
higher priority message. NFPA Style Z (Class A) supervision is
required. Systems must be approved by Starwood.
• Existing public address! emergency communicat ion systems may
remain in use until a dedicated system can be installed.
3-38
3.3.7 Selection Criteria for Evacuation Systems
(a) The central control unit of an alarm and communication system should
have its own dedicated power supply.
(b) Many modern units are constructed on a modular basis so they can be
tailored for a particular hotel building.
(c) Fire resistant loudspeakers in metal enclosures should be given
preference. An audio power handling capacity between 0.25 and 20 W
per speaker is applicable. Multitap speakers allow easy adaptation to
the sound power requirements of a particular location.
(d) Each loudspeaker zone must be monitored for fault conditions, including
all wiring. Loudspeaker zones and ampl ifier output circuits should be
designed so a fault in a single circuit does not affect other circuits or
result in damage to the EVAC system. Class A (Style Z) wiring is
required.
(e) It is acceptable for systems to reduce supervision capability when
operating under emergency power. (Acceptable when done to reduce
battery drain).
(I) The EVAC system front panel should contain at least two indicators per
loudspeaker zone:
• Red - Zone active (selected for transmission)
• Yellow -Trouble condition
(g) Audio amplifiers should be of modular construction and AC/ DC
supervised. There should be at least one standby amplifier per four
regular modules. In case of a malfunction of a regular amplifier, the
stand-by unit shall take over automatically. The condition must be
indicated at the fire alarm panel.
(h) In case of conflicting commands, the system should automatically select
the correct transmission priority, according to the following scheme:
1. Live voice messages via built-in microphone
2. Taped or synthesized voice messages
3. Alarm (EVAC) signals
4. Warning (alert) signals
5. Chime sound for paging purposes'
6. Public-address messages'
7. Background music'
'Note: 5, 6 and 7 are not recommended.
3.3.8 Emergency Handling Procedures Using EVAC Systems
The following examples demonstrate the use of modern EVAC systems to
assist with emergency situations. Figure 3-20 provides an illustration of the
following steps:
1. An automatic smoke detector responds to smoke phenomena.
2. The control unit initiates a pre-alarm to alert the staff; staff personnel
hurry to the scene to investigate.
3. The control unit stops the ventilation on the relevant fioor.
4. The fire develops into a serious incident. Another detector responds.
5. The control unit automatically alerts the fire department.
3-39
6. The control unit commands the EVAC system to send alarm signals to
the fl oor where the fire initiated and warning signals to the floors above
and below.
7. The control unit automatically starts the pressurization fans for the
stairwells.
8. Persons are leaving the endangered areas. Someone activates an
alarm station in the staircase. This is annunciated at the control panel,
along with the other alarms.
9. Hotel staff (who are not normally equipped with self contained
breathing apparatus [SCBAj, protective clothing or other devices) rush
to the scene to help with evacuation and to combat the fire if it is still in
its incipient stage.
10. Automatic sprinkler system activates.
11 . The municipal fire department arrives; the commanding fire officer
analyzes the display on the control unit (location, type of responses,
etc.).
12. Fire fighters rush to the scene to combat the fire. They report back to
the commanding officer in the control room using the emergency
telephone system.
13. The commanding officer decides to use live voice communication to first
evacuate the most endangered floor, then the floors above and below,
and then also the second floor above the fire.
14. The fire fighters report via the emergency telephone that the fire is
under control.
15. The commanding officer halts the evacuation process by using the 'all
call' feature of the EVAC system.
16. Nobody was injured, there was no panic and thanks to the early
warning, damage to property is minimal.
17. Fire suppression, detection and alarm system restored to normal
(sprinkler heads replaced, valves opened, hoses dried and equipment
maintained, etc.).
1'-2
'0
10 i1J
12 13 14 5
Figure 3-20 - Emergency Handling with EVAC System
3-40
3.3.9 Considerations for A/arm Organizations
(a) Alarm organization defines a 'master plan' to be executed in certain
emergency situations.
(b) These actions may be executed automatically or manually.
(c) Alarm organizations must meet local codes/regulations.
(d) 'All Alarms Direct' Concept
• Recommended for small hotels [i.e., Roadside Inns (Type A)].
where exits and escape routes are freely accessible and the
potential for panic is minimal.
• As shown in Figure 3-21, all alarms will be issued simultaneously
upon a signal received from either an automatic detector (excluding
guestroom smoke detectors), a manual fire station, or a sprinkler
flow switch.
• Credibility of Detection Source
1. Smoke detectors in guestrooms, more than in other areas, are
often a source of nuisance alarms (due to deceptive
phenomenon such as heavy smoking in a confined area, playing
with a detector, etc.).
2. It is always requi red to provide a local alarm in guestrooms to
alert the occupants if there is smoke in the room.
3. Because they are prone to nuisance alarms, however,
guestroom smoke detectors should not sound a building-wide
alarm.
4. In new hotels, where system connected smoke detectors are
installed in guestrooms, activation should sound a supervisory
signal at the control panel. In the case of guestrooms
designated for persons with disabilities, this individual room
identification signal can also serve to initiate a faster response
for those who may need it most.
" '0\0 _1.(
....
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..... , .....
.... l'.'"
1r-

.... '0',

..o'!l ' " .....
"" ...... tu
' '''' tou" .. .. . ...... .
Figure 3-21 - Flow Chart of ' All Alarms Direct' Concept
(e) Alarm Concepts for Supervising Staff
• In this concept, when an alarm from a corridor detector is activated
and the hotel staff is not present the following events occur:
1. Timer T1 in the control unit is started
2. The hotel staff is alerted by a silent alarm
3-41
• Provided that a staff member acknowledges the alarm on the fire
detection system terminal before the timer T1 has elapsed, the
location and type of the alarm (as indicated by the terminal) is
known. With the acknowledgement of the alarm within the time limit
allowed by T1, the system will automatically:
1. Silence the horn in the control room
2. Start timer T2
• Within the time limit T2, the staff can now proceed with the
investigation of the reason for the alarm.
• If the alarm was caused by a fire, the activation of any manual alarm
will generate a GENERAL ALARM. Similarly, if no staff is present to
acknowledge the system prior to the time-out of T1 , the system will
generate a general alarm.
• If the fire was only minor and can be handled by the staff within the
time limit of T2, the system can be reset before the time lapse of
timer T2 and no general alarm is generated.
(f) Typical European Alarm Concept
• This concept is another version of the basic idea of supervising the
in-house intervention force (investigation team). It was designed by
CERBERUSAG and is used in many European hotels.
• The concept involves the in-house staff (when present) in
investigating and confirming a fire alarm. These concepts are
based on the following principles:
1. Activation of any manual alarm station will always alarm the fire
department directly and without delay.
2. During the unoccupied mode of operation, when availability of
staff is unlikely, all alarms from automatic detectors, including
guestrooms, should alert the fire department directly.
3. During the occupied mode of operation, when staff is likely to be
present, the procedures for 'staff present' and 'investigation
period timing' will be followed .
3.3.10 Protection of Guests with Disabilities
(a) General
• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) establishes guidelines for
accessibility in the United States.
• Starwood requires that the provisions of the ADA relating to fire
detection, alarm and emergency communication be met for all US
properties and newly constructed/renovated hotels worldwide.
(b) Measures to Protect Occupants with Disabilities in the Event of a Fire
• Objectives of Protective Measures
1. The protective measures provided should give persons with
disabilities the same opportunities as everyone else.
2. Occupants should be able to trigger an alarm, become aware of
a fire condition, and escape or be brought to safety.
• Technical Measures in Public Areas
1. Installation of fire detection and suppression systems
2. Installation of both audible and visual emergency warning
signals.
3-42
3. Audible devices shall be at least 15 dBA above the ambient
background sound level or produce a signal which is at least 5
dBA above the maximum expected sound level for at least 60
seconds, whichever is louder.
4. Visual devices shall meet the following requirements
• Shall be a xenon-strobe type or equivalent.
• The color of the light shall be clear or nominal white.
• In addition, the maximum pulse duration shall be 0.2
seconds, with a maximum duty cycle of 40%. (A pulse
duration is defined as the time interval between initial and
final points of 10% of maximum signaL)
• The intensity shall be a minimum of 75 cd.
• The flash rate shall be a minimum of 1 Hz and a maximum of
3 Hz.
• The device shall be 80 in. (203.2 cm) above the highest floor
level or 6 in. (15.2 cm) below the ceiling, whichever is lower.
• In general , no place in any room required to have a visual
notification device shall be more than 50 ft (15.2 m) from the
signal (in the horizontal plane). In rooms exceeding 100 ft
(30.5 m) across, without obstructions 6 ft (1 .8 m) above the
floor, devices may be placed around the perimeter of the
room, provided they are spaced a maximum of 100 ft (30.5
m) apart.
• No place in common corridors or hallways in which visual
devices are required, shall be greater than 50 ft (15.2 m)
from the signal.
• Manual fire alarm boxes must be within easy reach of
persons in wheelchairs [U.S.A. max. height = 44 in. (111 .8
cm) above the floor, other countries may permit up to 60 in.
(152.4 cm) above the floor, however a maximum height of 44
in. (111 .8 cm) is recommended] .
• Technical Measures in Guestrooms
1. Designated guestrooms should be specially constructed
and equipped for persons with mobility and hearing
impairments in accordance with ADA requirements.
These rooms should be identified on the hotel 's "Room
Management System"
2. In addition to the required fire detection, alarm and
emergency communicat ion systems, the following should
be provided in guestrooms for persons with disabilities:
• A dedicated 115/220 VAC outlet, connected to
emergency power. Power should be uninterrupted
upon loss of normal AC voltage. The outlet should
be wall-mounted at bedside.
• A fire evacuation horn with strobe light or speaker
with strobe light connected to the building fire alarm
system and mounted in direct view of the headboard
of the bed.
• Audible alarm notification appliances of at least 15
dBA above the normal background level , or which
produce a signal of 5 dBA above the maximum
3-43
expected sound level, continuous for 60 seconds,
whichever is louder.
• Visual alarm notification devices shall meet the
following requirements:
a. Shall be a xenon-strobe type or equivalent.
b. The color of the light shall be clear or nominal
white.
c. In addition, the maximum pulse duration shall be
0.2 seconds, with a maximum duty cycle of 40%.
(A pulse duration is defined as the time interval
between ini tial and final points of 10% of
maximum signaL)
d. The intensity shall be a minimum of 75 cd.
e. The nash rate shall be a minimum of 1 Hz and a
maximum of 3 Hz.
f. The device shall be 80 in. above the highest noor
level or 6 in. below the ceiling, whichever is lower.
g. In general , no place in any room required to have
a visual notification device shall be more than 50
ft from the signal (in the horizontal plane).
3.4 Planning for Fire Detection and Alarm Systems
3.4.1 Procedure for Planning a Fire Detection System
The fire detection system must be planned as part of the total fire protection
system outlined in Starwood Fire Safety Standards.
(a) National, Local and Starwood Requirements
• The national and local regulations with which the hotel must comply
need to be identified at the beginning of the design process. The
requirements contained in these standards must be followed in
addition to Starwood requirements. Where conflicts exist, the most
restrictive requirements govern.
(b) Ex1ent of Monitoring
• The extent of monitoring refers to which fire detection devices are
connected to the central fire alarm system.
• Complete Central Monitoring
o Required in all Starwood properties
o The entire building is monitored by the central fire alarm system
for fire conditions. Typically includes - system connected
smoke detectors in public areas, corridors, back of house
spaces and guestrooms, and monitoring of sprinkler system
water now and tamper switches installed throughout the hotel.
o The following areas must always be monitored (whether a
completely monitored or partially monitored systems is used):
1. Service rooms, workshops, storage areas, etc.
2. Laundries (including laundries on guestroom noors)
3. Elevator lobbies and machine rooms
4. Escape routes
5. Electrical , mechanical and telephone equipment rooms
3-44
6. Lobbies and concierge areas
7. Guestrooms (may not be centrally monitored in existing
hotels)
• Partial Central Monitoring
o Not permitted in new hotel construction.
o With partial monitoring, guestroom smoke detectors may be
excluded from monitoring by the central alarm system.
o Partial monitoring may be used as an interim measure in
existing hotels. However when planning for future upgrades,
should take into account the feasibility of expansion to complete
monitoring system.
• Object Monitoring
o In addition to the monitoring of specific areas, it can be
beneficial to monitor equipment, such as transformers, electrical
cabinets or motors, by installing a detector in their immediate
vicinity.
o Object monitoring helps to detect fire/smoke from a high risk
object in the early stages, allowing time to implement
countermeasures and thus possibly avoiding damage.
o For hotels, object monitoring should only be used as a
complement to complete area monitoring.
o If a specific detector orientation must be used, the detector must
be listed for the purpose.
(c) Zoning Considerations
• When a smoke detector or manual alarm station, initiates an alarm,
the central fire alarm system must indicate the precise location of
the alarm. Since several devices may be connected to form groups,
zoning must done in such a way that it allows easy recognition of
building locations.
• The following shall be considered when establishing fire alarm
zones:
1. No zone is permitted to exceed code requirements (local or
national) for area covered.
2. No zone should cover more than a single fire compartment.
3. A detection zone should be limited to one floor (with the
exception of stairwells, elevator shafts, etc, which should always
have their own zone).
4. Manual alarm stations should be zoned separately from
automatic detectors
5. Sprinkler water flow switches should be zoned separately.
6. Raised floors, spaces above suspended ceilings, and air
conditioning systems must be zoned separately.
7. Guestrooms and escape routes (corridors, stairwells, etc.) must
not be combined in the same zone.
8. Detectors in rooms that present a particular fire hazard, and
detectors in rooms with low risk should not be combined in the
same zone.
9. In systems using standard detection devices, no zone should
consist of more than 25 detectors.
3-45
10. In systems using intelligent detection devices, a line should have
no more than 90% of the allowable devices connected to it, with
a maximum of 120 devices in total.
• Regionalnocal codes should be consulted for detector zone
configuration. The fire department should also be contacted for
input.
(d) Selection of Fire Detection Devices
• The first priority in detection device selection for hotels is the
protection of life.
• The goal is to detect a fire in the earliest possible stage, while
limiting the number of nuisance alarms.
• Incipient Fire Detection Systems
o Provide very early warning of fire situation.
o Use air sampling networks, which provide flexibility in the
application of the systems for large or geometrically alterable
areas (i.e., ballrooms)
o Sampling ports can be located throughout an area.
o Fire detection systems are recommended for use in the following
areas:
1. Atria
2. Ballrooms
3. Convention Halls
o Manufacturer of the equipment and fire protection engineer
should be consulted during system design
• Spot-Type Smoke Detection Systems
o Smoke detectors vary in sensitivity - some have a greater
tolerance for environmental disturbances than others, but are
less responsive to actual combustion products.
o In general, optical (photoelectric type) smoke detectors with a
2.5% to 4% obscuration per foot sensitivity are recommended
for the hotel environment. This should be reviewed with the fire
protection engineer.
o To minimize nuisance alarms, smoke detectors should not be
located in locations subject to the conditions described below:
1. Humidity in excess of 85% RH (no condensation)
2. Air currents in excess of 15 ftls (4.8 m/s) (except for certain
types of optical detectors)
3. Environment is excessively dirty, greasy or wet
4. Vapors and gases from welding or brazing processes are
present
o Smoke detectors are not recommended for the following areas:
1. Commercial kitchens and food prep areas where cooking
takes place [do not mount within 30 ft (9.1 m) of kitchen
areas]
2. Kitchen areas in hotel suites
3. Garages
o Smoke detectors are required in the following areas, however
nuisance alarm features must be employed:
1. Areas with decorative open fires (fireplaces, etc.)
2. Rooms with low ceilings [below 9 ft (2.7 m)]- Use of
detectors with bui lt-in signal integration or detector which
3-46
employ alarm verification features are recommended. These
features prevent the transmission of an alarm condition,
unless the smoke detected is present for a set period of
time, usually between 10-30 seconds.
3. Mechanical workshops and technical plant rooms
4. Elevator machine rooms
5. Lounges, restaurants, nightclubs, etc., physically separated
from constantly attended areas - complete smoke detection
coverage (employing nuisance alarm reduct ion strategies) is
required. Exception - In lounges, restaurants, nightclubs,
etc., located in open areas, unseparated by walls from main
lobbies, smoke detection may be omitted if the hotel is fully
sprinklered, primary exits do not end in the lobby, and the
adjacent lobby has staff in attendance 24 hours a day. For
these situations, it is expected that the staff will detect fires
and that egress from these areas will not be obstructed by
smoke should the fire grow.
o Detectors with adjustable sensitivity may be suitable to reduce
nuisance alarms in problem areas, as these detectors may be
fine-tuned to the environment.
o The sensitivity of an ionization smoke detector may be affected
by high altitudes. For hotels more than 4500 ft (1371.6 m)
above sea level, the detector manufacturer should be consulted.
o The location and spacing of smoke detectors shall meet the
requirements of NFPA 72.
o Factors that influence the location and spacing of smoke
detectors include the following:
1. Ceiling shape and surface
2. Ceiling height
3. Ventilation
4. Burning characteristics of combust ibles
• Heat Detection Systems
o Most common detectors include rate of rise and fixed
temperature devices.
o These devices are suitable for most areas where smoke
detectors are restricted.
o It should be noted that heat detectors respond at a much later
time during fire development than smoke detectors (about the
same time as fast response sprinkler head). Therefore, they are
not suitable for areas where early warning is important.
o For fully sprinklered facilities, heat detectors are not required in:
1. Kitchens (unless used to actuate extinguishing systems)
2. Parking Garages
o Heat detectors are required in:
1. Elevator machine rooms
2. Transformer rooms
3. Emergency generator rooms and other rooms/areas not
provided with automatic sprinkler protection where smoke
detectors are not permitted.
3-47
o Heat detectors are not recommend in rooms with a ceiling height
greater than 22.5 ft (6.9 m) or where smoldering rather than
open-flame type fires can be expected.
o Rate of rise heat detectors may produce false alarms where
installed above heaters, ovens, fryers, steam pipes, etc.
e The location and spacing of heat detectors shall meet the
requirements of NFPA 72.
(e) Arrangement of Fire Detection Devices
o The location and spacing of all detection devices shall meet the
requirements of NFPA 72.
o The area to be monitored by each detection device and its location
are important for early fire detection.
o Monitored Area (Am)
o The area to be monitored by a particular detector is impacted by
the manner of fire phenomena (smoke, heat and radiation)
spread.
o In general, the smaller the monitored area per detector, the
shorter the distance from the fire to the detector, the more
sensitive the fire detection system will be.
e Influence of Room Height
\
..
1. The higher a room is, the greater the distance between the
fire and the detector in which larger clouds of uniform smoke
concentration can be found .
2. As illustrated in Figure 3-23, with increasing room height, the
monitored area per detector may also increase.
3. However, the sensitivity of the system will be reduced as the
smoke concentration in the air will be less, due to the greater
volume.
/

Figure 3-23 • Monitored Area (Am) as a Function of Room Height (h)
o Selection of Monitored Area (Am)
1. Example 1 - Selection of Monitored Area (Am) by device
This section describes one method of selecting Am. Using
this method, an appropriate risk factor (1, 2 or 3) and ceiling
3-48
( II)
9'.4
..
height must be selected. The risk factor is based on the fuel
loading, type of fuel, anticipated size of fire, and use of
rooms, with 1 being the highest risk and 3 being the lowest
risk.
n .• ,of--+- - - - - - -.!..-H- - - -+-1-
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Assumptions:
Flat ceiling
Room height = 12 ft (3.6 m)
Risk Factor = 2
Acceptable Monitored Area = 490 to 860 ft2 (45.5 to 79.9 m
2
)
If a ri sk factor of 3 was used, the monitored area could be
increased to 1080 ft2 (100.4 m
2
).
2. Example 2 - Selection of Monitored Area (am)
Included in NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code is an
Engineering Guide for Automatic Fire Detector Spacing
(Appendix) . This guide provides a means for determining
the area of coverage by providing installed spacing
guidelines for the detector based on the ceiling height, the
fire growth rate anticipated and the size of fire at the time of
detection.
In all cases, the guide does not recommend that the installed
spacing be less than 30 ft (9.1 m) on center, unless
engineering judgement shows that such reduced spacing
would be a benefit. This statement is based on the theory in
3-49
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detection. Also, the increase in the amount of detectors in a
given space may increase the probability of nuisance
alarms.
For rooms or spaces with higher ceiling heights,
considerable increases over the 30 ft (9.1 m) spacing is
allowable. This is illustrated in Figure E-1 , Figure E-2, and
Figure E-3.
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C£lU1<C IIEICIIT (Il)
Figure E-3
3-52
For example, if we were to select a ballroom with a 20 ft (6.1
m) ceiling, and we wanted to detect a 500 BTUls (530 kW)
medium growth rate fire, using Figure E-2 we see that the
allowable spacing can be increased to approximately 40 ft
(12.2 m) on center, providing a monitored area of 1,600 ft'
(148.6 m').
The rule of thumb, when using NFPA 72, is to install smoke
detectors at 30 ft (9. 1 m) on center spacing, providing an
area coverage of 900 ft' (83.6 m') per device. (This can be
increased somewhat for special configurations such as
corridors as allowed in NFPA 72.) Any deviation from this
spacing should only be made as a result of a complete risk
analysis and engineering evaluation of the unique situation
at hand by a qualified fire protection engineer.
o Influence of Ventilation
1. In ventilated rooms, the 'natural' spread of smoke is
disrupted.
2. The more frequently the air is exchanged, the lower the
concentration of products of combustion.
3. The partial dispersion of smoke leads to reduced response
sensitivity. This can be compensated for by reducing the
monitored area per detector or by increasing detector
sensitivity (within allowable limits).
4. Table 3-2 specifies reduction factors for Am, which can be
used to determine the reduced area per detector.
Table 3-2 - Reduction Factors for Am, Due to Influence of Vent i lation
AIR CHANGES PER HOUR REDUCTION FACTOR FOR Am
More than 10, Less than 20 0.9
More than 20, Less than 30 0.8
More than 30, Less than 40 0.7
More than 40, Less than 50 0.6
More than 50 0.5
o Maximum Distances Between Detectors
1. The maximum distance between detectors and walls can be
calculated either as a function of the monitored area (Am) or
by guidelines provided in such standards as NFPA 72. The
following describes an alternative method to NFPA 72 for
use in locations where NFPA standards are not used or
referenced.
2. As illustrated in Figure 3-24, in principle, each detector
monitors a circular area Am. Therefore the maximum
distance between detectors can be estimated by the
diameter.
3-53



The maxirrun fI'Of'Jh,;hg .,.. A.. ..
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Am equiYe'p -. wCh the r«hlngJ. ' . ..
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Figure 3-24 - Approximation of Am
3. However, building areas are rarely circular. A rectangle can
be drawn around the circle, where the diameter of the circle
is either the length or the width the rectangle. The other
dimension needs to be reduced so the rectangle falls within
the area of the circle.
o If the maximum distance between detectors is required, due to
ceiling geometry or obstructions, the maximum area Am must
always be maintained.
o Figure 3-25 and Figure 3-26 illustrate the maximum distance
between detectors and walls.
-
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MaJOmum utilization 01
"stance between deteclorl
Dma .. . s. 1 2 • .JAm
Figure 3-25 - Maxi mum Distances Between Detectors
3-54
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Figure 3·26 • Determining Distances to Walls
o Examples for the determination of detector spacing are incl uded
in Figure 3·27 and Figure 3·28.
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Figure 3·27 • Example for Determination of Detector Spacing (English)
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Figure 3·28 • Example for Determination of Detector Spacing (Metric)
3·55
NOTE:
o Detectors Mounted on Walls
1. In some instances (such as hotel guestrooms) it is desirable
to mount smoke detectors on walls instead of the ceiling.
2. Fire tests have shown that the response of a smoke detector
mounted on a wall varies only slightly compared to one
mounted on the ceiling. Response is dependent on such
factors as the relationship between the detector and the fire,
the ventilation, the type of detector, and the detector
manufacturer.
3. Figure 3-29 details recommendations for detector placement
on wall s.
MI N
.. IN
1-- 10 0 1-
ACCEPTABLE HERE
NEVER
TOP OF DETECTOR
ACCEPTABLE HERE
" IN
10 eM
MIN
12 IN
30 CM
.\lAX
MEASUREMENTS SHOWN ARE TO THE
CLOSEST EDGE OF TilE DETECTOR.
Figure 3-29 - Guidelines for Wall Mounted Smoke Detectors
o If detectors are to be wall mounted, the fire department should
first be consulted to determine whether this is permitted by local
codes and regulations.
o Minimum Distances to Building Structures
• Walls/Partitions - As shown in Figure 3-30, ceiling
mounted, spot type detectors should be mounted at least 12
in. (30.5 cm) from any wall or partition .
..
II is leconwnenc:h d thai • minimum
of 12 inches (3Oem) be kept 10
any or watl- like shudufU
Figure 3-30 - Minimum Distance to Wall
3-56
h
o Structural Elements - As illustrated in Figure 3-31 , at least
16 in. (40.6 cm) should be maintained between deteclors
and structural elements, such as girders or ventilation ducts,
which protrude more than 6 in. (15.2 cm) below the ceil ing.
, s ""
' . -c ..
, ....
Figure 3-31 - Minimum Distance to Structural Elements
o Storage Racks, Stored Goods - As shown in Figure 3-32,
racks or stored goods must be classified as walls if they are
within 18 in. (45.7 cm) of the ceiling.
h,
Racks or stored goods
that extend towards
the ceiling can obstrUC1
distri>vtion and must
be considered as woOs
~ h, is less than
'8 inches (45.7cm)
Figure 3-32 - Minimum Clearance to Stored Items
o Influence of Roof Structures - If a roof structure is
connected to a monitored room and exceeds 10% of the
total ceiling area, it must be regarded as a separate room.
o Suspended Ceilings with Grid Patterns - Commonly used
to hotels for decorative purposes. These arrangements
al low various amounts of smoke penetration and also
influence smoke spread.
1. Open Ceilings - An accessible dropped ceiling shall be
considered "open" if at least Yo of the surface is
uncovered by lattice work. If the openings are relatively
small and cover more than Yo of the area, the ceiling is
considered 'closed' and the spaces above and below
must be monitored separately. If the fire protection
3-57
engineer is convinced that smoke can penetrate the
open ceiling sufficiently, it may be adequate to install
smoke detectors above the dropped ceiling only. The
maximum area (Am) depends on the distance between
the floor and the lattice work.
2. Smoldering Fires - Typically produce little heat and
therefore provide no significant thermal air current to
distribute smoke. For these types of fires, smoke may
not reach the detector even if the ceiling openings are
generously proportioned. The use of a second level of
smoke detectors below the lattice work is recommended.
Optical detectors are found to be the most suitable for
this type of application.
• Galleries and Inside Balconies - If a gallery-like structure
penetrates inside a monitored space, the area below must
be monitored by separate smoke detectors. (Figure 3-33)
ClttCtOliS _ l 1M' UOoMIII) a",o.aAuUt I ' 0111
I.Al CONI'S AS $toO""' •• IS wo-t T"""-'t J "II '
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Figure 3-33 - Monitoring the Area Below Galleries
• Suspended Ceilings with Restricted Smoke Partitions -
As illustrated in Figure 3-34, where ceilings or light fittings
restrict smoke penetration, detectors must be installed
sl ightly lower than the ceiling and project into the space
below the ceil ing. In all cases, detector mounting must meet
the manufacturer's recommendations and applicable codes
and standards.
. .. .
Figure 3-34 - Siting Detectors in Cases of Restricted Smoke Penetration
o Ventilated and Air Conditioned Spaces
3-58
o Smoke detectors installed in ventilated and air conditioned
spaces must be installed with sufficient sensitivity to detect
smoke even if all fans are switched off.
o Figure 3-35 provides recommendations for locating smoke
detectors in ventilated areas.
o Return air monitoring can be accomplished with duct
sensors as illustrated in Figure 3-36 .
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_ '.'$ro 6 I T 01 "''''u.
CCUC1O'JS ,, : U AST S H('
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Figure 3-35 - Siting of Detectors in Vent i lated Areas
3-59
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Figure 3-36 - Siting of Detectors i n Ventilated Areas (Return Air)
o Special Areas
1. Laundry and Dry Cleaning Facilities
• All laundry areas must be fully sprinklered.
• It is recommended that these areas have their own self-
contained ventilation/air conditioning systems with
automatically closing fire dampers to prevent smoke
migration.
2. Trash Refuse Areas
• These areas should be self-contained fire compartments,
with no connections to guestroom areas.
• Shall be completely protected by automatic sprinklers.
• Ventilation and air conditioning ducts serving refuse
collection areas must have automatically operating fire
3-60
dampers and should not connect to other areas in the
hotel.
3. Battery Rooms
• Are common in hotels where emergency power is
provided, especially for the phone and computer
equipment.
• The danger of corrosion and explosion must be
considered when selecting detectors and planning
detector arrangements.
4. Refuse and Linen Chutes
• Great amounts of dirt and dust accumulation can be
expected in these areas.
• Automat ic sprinkler protection is required for linen
chutes.
5. Garages
• Enclosed garages are considered high risk areas,
especially if they are located underground.
• Automatic sprinkler protection is required.
• These areas also present a hazard to human life
because of the potential for smoke development and the
danger of panic resulting from difficult escape routes.
Clear escape route identification is a vital necessity.
• Smoke detectors are not permitted. If detection is
required in lieu of automatic sprinklers, heat detectors
must be used.
• Adequate ventilation must also be provided to prevent
the build up of carbon monoxide.
6. Computer Rooms, Telephone Exchange, Telex Rooms
• Risks and fire loads can be relatively low in these areas,
however the value of the installed equipment is
extremely high.
• Automatic sprinkler protection and smoke detection is
required.
• Air sampling type detection systems provide the best
coverage in terms of fastest response and immunity to
ambient conditions.
• As an alternative, linear beam type smoke detectors or
spot type smoke detectors installed with reduced spacing
can be considered. These alternatives may result in
significantly slower response times due to the ambient
room conditions. To increase this time somewhat,
detectors with higher sensitivities could be used. To
minimize potential nuisance alarms, spot type smoke
detectors employing a pre-alert signal feature (based on
percent of smoke obscuration sensed) should be
considered.
• The cable area under raised ftoors must be considered in
addition to the room area.
3-61
7. Technical Plant Rooms
• May be treated as normal rooms, provided these areas
are clean and have no excessive air movement.
• Special consideration should be given to any electrical
and electronic cabinets in the area.
8. Stairwells
", · et ,I, DliiXi O!'l (fiX.
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(Of lAW,}
,,*1"101
Figure 3-37 - Mounting Detectors in Stairwells
• Exit stairwells are often the primary escape routes in
hotel buildings.
• At least one detector is required on the top floor ceiling of
any stairwell.
• If the upper floors are separated from the lower ones by
smoke barriers or fire doors within the stairwell , then
detectors must be installed in each stairwell smoke
compartment.
9. Heating Plants and Boiler Rooms
• Automatic sprinkler protection is required.
• Smoke detection is strongly recommended.
3-62
10. Fuel Storage Areas
• Oil storage tank rooms are required to be protected by
automatic sprinklers.
• Unless a danger potential exists due to ignition sources
(such as electrical installations, light fixtures, etc.),
monitoring is only necessary for pump areas and support
rooms.
• Unit monitoring of individual equipment can be
considered if a potential problem is identified.
11 . Risers and Supply Shafts
• Risers, supply and elevator shafts need not be monitored
by smoke detectors if the building is fully protected with
automatic sprinklers and provided with area smoke
detectors (unless specifically required by local codes or
standards) .
• Where sprinklers are not provided in vertical shafts and
sloping ducts with an incline of less than 75", smoke
spread is usually obstructed by service platforms,
fixtures, etc., therefore smoke detection is
recommended. The detectors should be installed as
follows:
o At least one detector shall be installed at the highest
point in the shaft, where smoke is likely to
accumulate.
o One detector at least every 25 ft (7.6 m), or beneath
each fireproof partition. (The distance of 25 ft (7.6 m)
per detector may be increased to 45 ft (13.7 m) if the
angle of slope is less than 75" .)
• The application of linear beam type detectors should be
considered.
12. Elevator Shafts
• At least one smoke detector instal led in the elevator
equipment room is required to initiate elevator recall.
• Installation of smoke detectors in elevator shafts is not
recommended, as monitoring of the elevator shaft and
maintenance of the detectors are difficult.
13. Suspended Ceilings and Raised Floors
• Where areas above false suspended ceilings and below
raised floors are required to be monitored, maximum
monitored areas can be obtained from Tab/e 3-3.
Table 3-3 - Monitored Area for Suspended Ceilings/Raised Floors
Depth of Suspended Ceiling/Raised Floor Maximum Monitored Area
< 1 ft (0.3 m) 270 ft' (25.1 m' )
1 ft to 3 ft (0.3 to 0.9 m) 430 ft' (39.9 m' )
> 3 ft (0.9 m) 650 ft' (60.4 m' )
3-63
14. Corridors
• In general, detectors should not be spaced more than 30
It (9.1 m) apart, and not more than 15 It (4.6 m) from any
wall. However, in corridors not wider than 10 It (3 m), the
maximum distance between detectors may be extended
to 41 It (12.5 m) .
15. Kitchens, Cooking Kettles and Deep Fryers
• Large cooking kettles, frying pans, and deep fryers
represent a very serious fire hazard in hotel kitchens.
• The installation of an automatic fire extinguishing system
is mandatory, therefore additional detection is not
required.
• If additional detection is desired, fixed temperature heat
detectors are best suited for the application. Smoke
detectors are not recommended for monitoring these
areas.
16. Atria
• Atria present unique fire detection/suppression problems
due to their physical arrangement. Because of the high
ceilings generally associated with atrias, spot-type
detection is usually not feasible. Appropriate detection
devices include linear beam type smoke detectors or
incipient (air sampling) type fire detection systems.
• Linear beam type smoke detectors can be used in a
number of ways. In any case, the manufacturer
should be consulted for proper application and
installation of these devices.
o They can be installed horizontally across the atria at
various levels accounting for smoke stratification
which may occur due to HVAC system features and
possible thermal gradients.
o They can be set-up at angles looking vertically along
the height of the atria. In this manner, depending
upon the height of the atria, a set (or sets) of linear
beam detectors can provide complete coverage of
the atria from top to bottom.
• Incipient (air sampling) type fire detection systems can
be also used for the protection of atrias.
o Air sampling ports can be run along the height of the
atria providing sampling at various levels.
o Where air return or exhaust fans are in continuous
operation, sampling ports can also be provided within
the HVAC ductwork servicing the atria.
o The equipment manufacturer should be consulted
and the hotel's energy conservation modes should be
reviewed conceming proper application and
installation of such devices in this particular
application.
• Where obstructions are anticipated in an atria the use of
an incipient fire detection system is recommended.
3-64
• Some hotels may be configured such that guestroom
egress corridors are open to an atria. This configurat ion
could result in a delay in identifying the room, or even
floor of origin due to the wide open space of the atria.
Because of this, system connected guestroom smoke
detectors with individually reporting addresses are
required in all hotels which have egress corridors open to
an atria. Existing hotels with this configuration (egress
corridors open to an atria) where single station smoke
detectors are provided in the guestrooms must be
upgraded to system connected smoke detectors in the
guestrooms at the earliest feasible time.
• Smoke detectors are not required in the egress corri dor
open to the atria provided that adequate area smoke
detection is provided in the atria, or an alternate egress
route (protected by automatic sprinklers and smoke
detectors) is provided from each guestroom.
• Any request for deviation from these requirements must
be forwarded, with appropriate engineering rationale
from the project's fire protection engineer in writing, for
review. The engineering rationale must include factors
such as the volume of the atria, and the fuel loading and
air movement in the atria.
(f) Practical Planning Examples
• Protection of Typical Guestrooms
o Early warning capability and the avoidance of false alarms must
be considered.
o Critical Zone
1. Consists of the bed and its immediate surroundings.
2. Not only is there a high fuel load and great potential for
smoke production, but also a major source of fire outbreaks.
3. A person lying in bed (and most likely asleep) is more
vulnerable than in other zones in the guestroom.
o Detector Arrangements
1. Smoke detectors (ionization or optical type) are
recommended for protecting the critical zone in guestrooms.
2. The detector should be installed as far away as possible
from potential sources of deceptive phenomena, including -
air conditioning units, bathroom door, and sitting areas.
3. For new construction, the detector is required to be system
connected and recommended to be individually addressable.
4. For typical one-bed guestrooms, a single detector of high
quality and stability may be sufficient.
5. For suites or larger rooms, it may be advisable to use a
multi-detector arrangement, covering the entire bed zone(s).
If a guest suite consists of two rooms, separated by a
closable door, installation of a smoke detector in each room
is recommended.
6. Unless individually identifiable detectors are used, it is
recommended that each guest room detector be fitted with a
3-65
remote response indicator, mounted outside the room and
visible from the corridor. This will help identify an individual
room quickly.
7. It is preferred that detectors be installed on the ceiling, at
least 12 in. (30 cm) away from walls or obstructions.
However, the detector may also be mounted on the wall.
o Other Zones
1. Bathrooms - Due to potential deceptive phenomena (i.e.,
steam, hair spray), these areas are rarely monitored.
2. Entrances and Closets - Although there is potential for
high fuel load, these areas are rarely monitored as the
bedroom detector is expected to protect these spaces.
3. Living Area of the Guestroom - Typically the risk
associated with this area is relatively low and the bedroom
detector is expected to protect this area.
(g) Zoning of Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Systems
1. General lnformation/Requirements
• The basic concept of the alarm and communication system must
be discussed with the local fire department to develop an
appropriate philosophy that complies with local codes and
approved procedures.
2. Technical Information/Requirements
• Choice of Messages
o Alarm Messages - All alarm signals should be selected and
specified in cooperation with the local fire department and in
accordance with national codes.
o Voice Communication
1. Required in al l Starwood properties.
2. This system allows the giving of clear directions to
occupants in emergency situations.
3. Pre-taped messages may be useful, especially when the
Fire Command Center is initially unmanned.
o Recommended Systems (see Figure 3-38)
1. Class A (Roadside Hotel) and Class B with less than 3
stories (Regional Hotel) - General alarm and voice
communication system
2. All Other Buildings - Selective alarm and voice
communication system
3. A emergency voice alarm communication system may
not be required in buildings less than 3 stories in height
above grade with direct exits from each guestroom to the
outside (no interior, enclosed egress corridor).
3-66
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ben., trtjn.:I trrfl'OYII. end lhM olin
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I
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a .. u s A a.ASS'
cvss e CUSID
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2 • • ....,
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7 STORES rod _
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.
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Figure 3·38 - Recommended Systems for Rescue and Evacuation
o Alarm Notification Devices for Voice Communication Systems
o Loudspeakers are used as alarm notification devices for
emergency and voice alarm communication systems.
o Should have a power handling capacity between 0.25 and
15 watts (nominal).
o The sit ing of loudspeakers shall be performed by trained
personnel. The loudspeakers should still be audible after all
fire doors have been closed.
o Alarm devices should be installed such that uniform alarm
sound levels are maintained throughout an area. Therefore
it is preferable to distribute several alarm devices, rather
than to use fewer units with high sound power.
o Separate speakers in guestrooms are required by Starwood
in all new construct ion and recommended in existing hotels.
o To ensure that audible evacuation signals are heard, NFPA
recommends that the signal sound level be at least 15 dBA
above the ambient noise level or 5 dBA above the maximum
sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds,
measured 5 ft above the floor of the occupied room.
o Emergency Telephone Systems
3·67
o An emergency telephone system dedicated for use by
firefighters is recommended for all Class C (Metropolitan
Hotel), Class D (High Rise Hotel), and Class B with more
than 2 stories (Regional Hotel) buildings.
o The exact location of the command center, substations, and
phone jacks should be selected in cooperation with the local
fire department.
3.5 Guidelines for Installation
3.5.1 General
1. General Information/Requirements
• The installation of fire detection systems is subject to various (and
sometimes conflicting) regulations. As such, it is recommended that
installation be performed by recognized/approved local contractor in
compliance with system manufacturer's recommendations and
engineering specifications.
2. Technicallnformation/Requirements
(a) Acceptable codes for the installation of fire detection systems in
areas where no local codes exist include the following:
• NEC, Article 760 (USA)
• NFPA 101 - Life Safety Code (USA)
• NFPA 72 - National Fire Alarm Code (USA)
• VdS, DIN - Germany
• FOC - Great Britain
(b) The installation must meet the general standards of workmanship
and should also be aesthetically acceptable, especially in hotel
buildings. The system, especially the detectors and alarm
devices, should match the hotel's interior.
(c) In all cases the following guidelines shall be followed:
• In the front of house area, cables are to be hidden above
suspended ceilings or in partitions.
• Conduits or cables should be run in a straight manner, parallel
to walls or ceilings, preferably concealed in comers or
incorporated into the decor.
3.5.2 Scope of Work for Supplier and Installer
1. Installer Requirements
(a) Install all equipment in accordance with local and national codes,
system manufacturer's recommendations, Starwood requirements
and the engineering specifications.
(b) Provide all necessary installation materials as specified.
(c) Perform all work necessary to install the system and repair any
damage (patch holes, firestop fire barriers, etc.)
(d) Protect detectors during construction phase.
(e) Provide specified warranty on material and labor.
3-68
(I) Check install ation wiring for ground faults, continuity, shorts, opens,
and extraneous voltages prior to connecting it to the control
equipment.
(g) Conduct acceptance testing of all devices and circuits in the
presence of Starwood fire protection engineer, hotel chief engineer,
project engineer and local authorities.
(h) Shall not relocate devices unless approved by fi re protection
engineer, system manufacturer and hotel safety representative.
2. System Manufacturer Requirements
(a) Provide the installed with required equipment on time.
(b) Provide detailed instal lation instructions for each component.
(c) Provide drawings to specify the exact location for each component.
(d) Supervise the installation, if required.
(e) Commission the system and hand it over to the hotel
representatives.
(I) Perform training sessions for the operating staff.
(g) Assist in establishing contact between the hotel and local fire
department.
(h) Warranty all system components according to contract for the
specified length of time.
3.5.3 Environmental Conditions
1. Fire detection, alarm and emergency voice communication systems
should be protected against ex1reme environmental conditions. The
following data are recommended maximum values for environmental
conditions for the instal lation of detection and alarm systems.
Manufacturers ' data sheets should also be consulted to determine
maximum acceptable conditions.
2. Detectors
(a) Ionization smoke detectors
• Operating Temperature - 32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C)
• Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C)
• Operating Humidity - <85% RH, no condensation
• Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF)
• Air Velocity - <15 ftlsec (4.5 mi se c)
• Avoid - Deceptive phenomena (i.e. , dust, dirt, grease, high
altitude)
(b) Photoelectric smoke detectors
• Operating Temperature - 32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C)
• Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C)
• Operating Humidity - <85% RH, no condensation
• Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF)
• Avoid - Deceptive phenomena (i.e., dust, dirt, grease)
(c) Differential heat detectors
• Operating Temperature - 15 to 140· F (-10 to 60· C)
• Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C)
• Operating Humidity - <90% RH (90% RF) contin o
3-69
o Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF)
o Avoid - Deceptive phenomena (i.e., steam pipes, heaters)
(d) Fixed temperature heat detectors
o Operating Temperature - -4 to 160· F (-20 to 70· C)
o Storage Temperature - -20 to 120·F (-30 to 50·C)
o Operating Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF) contino
o Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF)
o Avoid - Areas where early warning is desired.
(e) Infrared name detectors
o Operating Temperature - 15 to 140· F (-10 to 60· C)
o Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C)
o Operating Humidity - <85% RH, no condensation
o Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF)
o Avoid - Excessive heat, deceptive phenomena
3. Control Units and Terminals
(a) Control Units
o Operating Temperature - 32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C)
o Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50·C)
o Operating Humidity - <85% RH (90% RF) no condensation
o Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF) no condensation
o Avoid - Excessive heat, condensation
(b) Terminals
o Operating Temperature - 32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C)
o Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C)
o Operating Humidity - <85% RH (90% RF) no condensation
o Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF) no condensation
o Avoid - Excessive heat, dirt, condensation
(c) Video display terminals
o Operating Temperature - 32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C)
o Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50·C)
o Operating Humidity - <85% RH (90% RF) no condensation
o Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF) no condensation
o Avoid - Excessive heat, dirt, condensation, sunlight
(d) Printers
o Operating Temperature - 32 to 100· F (0 to 35·C)
o Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C)
o Operating Humidity - <85% RH (90% RF) no condensation
o Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF) no condensation
o Avoid - Excessive heat, dirt, dust, condensation
(e) Graphic display terminals
o Operating Temperature - 32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C)
o Storage Temperature - -20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C)
o Operating Humidity - <85% RH (90% RF) no condensation
o Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF) no condensation
o Avoid - Excessive heat, sunlight, condensation
(f) Floppy disk storage units
o Operating Temperature - 32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C)
3-70
• Storage Temperature - -20 to 120'F (-30 to 50'C)
• Operating Humidity - <85% RH (90% RF) no condensation
• Storage Humidity - <95% RH (95% RF) no condensation
• Avoid - Excessive heat, dirt, condensation
3.5.4 Wiring Guidelines
• The following guidelines are applicable for low-voltage networks (max
48 VDC).
1. Generallnformation/Requirements
(a) Installation of systems are subject to extensive local regulations and
should be made by certified installers, using material readily
available and commonly used.
(b) Starwood requires that wiring must be Class A for all initiating,
indicating (notification) applicable circuit and signaling line circuits.
2. Technical Information/Requirements
(a) Responsibility
• The owner (through the project manager), fire protection
engineer, and representative of the manufacturer of the fire
detection system are responsible for ensuring correct installation
and inspection of each system component.
• The manufacturer shall provide all necessary technical
installation documents including floor plans and wiring diagrams.
• The project manager and fire protection engineer must
determine the location of all equipment in accordance with
relevant codes and system manufacturer's guidelines.
• The primary rules of wiring installation are:
o Consult the manufacturer's instructions
o Meet applicable codes and standards
(b) Installation Materials
• Wire and Cable
o General Wiring Guidelines
1. All field wiring shall meet the requirements of local and
national codes.
2. AC power lines should never be run in the same conduit
as initiating line circuits and signaling line circuits.
3. Initiating line circuits and signaling line circuits should be
run in separate conduits from lines such as unfiltered
signal circuits and audio evacuation andlor paging
circuits. If this is not possible, each circuit must be
individually shielded and properly grounded.
4. Avoid running initiating line circuits and signal line circuits
through rooms containing electromagnetic fields.
Circuits installed to protect such rooms shall be run in
properly grounded metallic conduit.
5. Ensure that the wire used on all circuits is sized properly
so as not to exceed the max. line resistance for the
particular circuit (see Table 3-4).
3-71
Table 3-4 - Wire Resistance
American Wire Gauge (AWG) mm) Ohms/1 ,OOO ft (Ohm/305 m)
LOAD
0.5A
1.0
1.5
2.0
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
2.6 1.00
2.05 1.59
1.63 2.53
1.29 4.02
1.02 6.39
0.813 10.15
0.643 16.14
0.511 25.67
6. It is important that the wire size for al l indicating circuits
be determined on the basis of load and distance of the
run (see Table 3-5).
Table 3-5 - Wiring Guidelines for Horn and Light Circuits
Wire Sizes for 24 VDC Signal Circuits
Approximate Pair Distance in Feet to Last Device (Class B)
or Including Return to Panel (Class A)
1BAWG 16AWG 14AWG 12AWG 10AWG* BAWG*
400' 620' 1000' 1600' 2500' 4000'
100' 300' 500' 800' 1250' 1900'
130' 210' 330' 520' 840' 1300'
100' 160' 250' 400' 620' 1000'
• • • • .
Note 1. Some equipment terminals can not accept wire size greater than 12AWG. Care should be taken to size
wire, device loading and distances accordingly.
Note 2: 51 Conversion: 1n = O.3048m
Note 3: Maximum line loss 10%
7. When twisted pairs are specified, cables with individually
twisted pairs having a minimum of three twists per foot
are recommended.
8. A system ground must be provided for earth detection
and lightning protection for the devices as per NFPA 780.
o Microprocessor Based Control Panel Circuits
1. For signaling line circuits with intelligent reporting
devices, cables with individually twisted wires having a
minimum of three twists per foot are recommended ,
unless specifically accepted by manufacturer's
requirements.
2. If RFI (or other electromagnetic influences) are
suspected, the areas should be tested using a field
strength meter. Readings should be taken at
frequencies of 27 MHz, 150 MHz, 400 MHz and 800
MHz. If the signal strength exceeds 50 VIM for any of
3-72
RESISTANCE
PER 1000FT
WIRE PAIR
AWG (ohms)
#6
2
0.8
#8
2
1.28
#10
2
2.0
#12 3.2
#14 5.2
#16 8.0
#18 13.0
#20 20.0
#22 32.6
LOAD IMPEDANCE
these frequencies, individually shielded twisted pairs are
required.
3. Signaling line circuits for intelligent detectors should not
be run outside of buildings. If this cannot be avoided, the
precautionary measures detailed in the Electromagnetic
Compatibi lity - Transient Protection Measures Section
(Refer to Appendix 3-C) must be fol lowed.
o Audio Circuits
1. Audio circuits should not be run in the same conduit as
initiating circuits, unless approved by the equipment
manufacturer in writing.
2. Unless specifical ly accepted by the equipment
manufacturer, all audio circuits must be individually
twisted pairs.
3. If multiple speaker zones are run in a common riser or
cable tray, individually shielded twisted pairs should be
used (with the shields terminated per the equipment
manufacturer's recommendations) .
4. Guidelines for audio circuit installation are listed in Table
3-6.
Table 3-6 - Wiring Guidelines for Speaker Circuits
25 VOLT LINES
MAX MAX LENGTH OF WIRE'
SAFE SAFE (12% MAXIMUM POWER LOSS)
CURRENT POWER
(A) (W)
10W 25W 50W 100W
50 1250 4550 1820 910 455
,
35 875 2850 1140 570 285
25 625 1810 725 362 181
20 500 1137 455 227 113
15 375 700 280 140 70
6 150 450 180 90 45
3 75 287 115 57 28
1 25 175 70 35 17
.5 12.5 112 45 22 11
(OHMS) 61 .5 24.4 12.2 6.1
3-73
200W
227
142
90
56
35
22
14
8.7
5.6
NIA
70.7 VOLT LINES
RESISTANCE MAX MAX LENGTH OF WIRF
PER 1000FT SAFE SAFE 2% MAXIMUM POWER LOSS)
WIRE PAIR CURRENT POWER
AWG
¥a ~ ~
10W 25W 50W 100W
36480 14560 7280 3640
1.28 35 2450 22800 9120 4560 2280
#10' 2.0 25 1750 14500 5800 2900 1450
#12 3.2 20 1400 9100 3640 1820 910
#14 5.2 15
~ ~ ~
1120
~ #16 8.0 6 720
#18 13.0 3 210 2300 920 460 230
#20 20.0 1 70 1400 560 280 140
&to
32.6 .5 35 900 360 180 90
1
~ ..!2.
NoteT
I
Nole 2:
Note 3: Care should be taken to keep speaker circui t wire runs as short as possible. Care should be taken to size
wire, device loading, amplifier output and wire distances accordingly.
o Physical Protection
1. Cables shall be adequately supported and terminated in
approved fittings.
2. Cables shall be installed in such a way that maximum
protection against physical injury is guaranteed by
building construction or alternatively run in conduits.
3. All wire and cable shall be adequately protected against
fire and physical damage.
4. If not run in conduit, all wire and cable used in detection,
alarm and emergency voice communication systems
shall be Teflon coated or mineral insulated cable and
comply with the flame resistance requirements for
plenum cable as specified by recognized standards.
5. If Teflon coated or mineral insulated cable meeting the
required flame resistance rating is not available, wire and
cable listed for use by a nationally recognized agency
(UL, FM, FOC VdS, etc.) for fire detection and alarm
system application may be used, provided it is installed
in metall ic conduit. PVC or other approved conduits or
ducts may be used if allowed by local codes and with the
prior written authorization by Starwood.
6. All vertically run wire and cable, not in conduit, shall be
protected by 2-hour fire rated construction (i.e., in a 2-
hour fire rated shaft/pipe chase).
7. The primary and secondary (return) legs of NFPA Style 6
(Class A) signaling line circuits shall not be run in the
same cable, conduit or raceway. The primary and
secondary legs should be separated by a minimum
construction having a fire resistance rat ing of 2 hours.
3-74
200W
-m%
725
455
280
180
115
70
45
24.5
8. The emergency voice communication system shall be
designed and installed such that attack by fire in a
paging zone causing loss of communication to this
paging zone shall not impact any other paging zone. In
addition, the system shall be designed and installed such
that attack by fire causing failure of equipment or a fault
on one or more installation wiring conductors of one
communication path shall not result in total loss of
communication to any paging zone.
• Exception NO. 1: The fire command station and the
central control equipment.
• Exception NO. 2: Where there is a separate means
acceptable to the AHJ for voice communication to
each floor or paging zone.
• Exception NO. 3: Where the installation wiring is
enclosed in a 2-hour fire rated enclosure, other than
a stairwell.
• Exception No. 4: Where the installation wiring is
enclosed within a 2-hour fire rated stairwell that is
fully sprinklered in accordance with the latest edition
of NFPA 13.
• Exception NO.5: When a paging zone is directly
attacked by fire within the zone.
o Installation Hints
1. Although fully enclosed, metallic conduit is
recommended, both open and closed ducts are
permissible if acceptable to local authorities. PVC ducts
may be used for feeding cables through floors in non-
extreme conditions (some codes, e.g., USA, call for
metal conduit only, check with local authorities).
2. Cable feeder boxes are used for feeding cable and wire
through long lengths of conduit.
3. Crossover boxes permit the crossover of power lines,
telephone or other circuits by leads of the fire detection
system.
4. Terminal boxes or other connect ions must be approved
by the project planner.
5. Wiring may be fed through under floor and parapet ducts,
ridges, dividing walls or conduits if:
• It is kept apart from telephone lines, etc.
• No leads carrying external voltages are included
(main power to the fire detection system is
considered external) .
6. Conduit Sizing - To find the conduit size required for
cables of common type and combinations of different
size cables, follow the steps below (SI units in
parenthesis ):
• Square the outside diameter (from the
manufacturer's catalog) of each cable and total the
results.
3-75
• Multiply the total by 0.7854 (5.07 cm) . This is the
total area of the cables in square inches (square cm).
• Using Table 3-7, select conduit size with area equal
to or greater than the total area.
• For three or more cables within a single conduit, the
maximum permissible area to be occupied by the
cables is 40% (NFPA 70), (although a single cable is
permitted to occupy 53% and two cables are limited
to 31 % conduit fill, 40% conduit fi ll is often used as a
guide). For a single cable, use 0.5927 (3.82) in step
(b); for two cables, use 1.1034 (7.12), and for three
or more cables, use 0.7854 (5.07).
Table 3-7 -
Conduit Size Permissible Area
Yo in. (1 .27 cm) 0.12 in' (0.77 cm')
y. in. (1 .91 cm) 0.21 in' (1 .35 cm')
1 in. (2.54 cm) 0.34 in' (2.19 cm')
1Y. in. (3.18 cm) 0.60 in' (3.87 cm')
1 Yo in. (3.81 cm) 0.82 in' (5.29 cm')
2 in. (5.08 cm) 1.34 in' (8.65 cm')
2Y. in. (5.72 cm) 1.92 in' (12.4 cm')
3 in. (7.62 cm) 2.95 in' (19.0 cm')
3Yo in. (8.89 cm) 3.96 in' (25.5 cm')
4 in. (10.16 cm 5.09 in' (32.8 cm' )
4Yo in. (11.43 cm) 6.38 in' (41.2 cm')
o Intermediate Distributors (Terminal Cabinets)
1. Although not recommended, large installations
sometimes require intermediate terminal cabinets to
connect wiring from detector zones, alarm devices, or
small control units to multicore cables (such as the main
cable). If used, care should be taken to maintain the
required Class A wiring (Style 6 or 7) for each circuit. In
addition, manufacturer's recommendations, local and
national codes and standards must be followed.
2. Intermediate distributors should be sited based on
economic considerations and located where they can
form a center for various signal wires such as floors or
wings. They should be installed in dry rooms with easy
access for servicing (such as electrical equipment
rooms). The recommended mounting height is 4.5 ft (1 .5
m) on center, with the lower edge no less than 1 ft (0.3
m) and the upper edge no more than 9 ft (2.7 m) from the
floor. Intermediate distributors must be labeled as "Fire
Alarm Circuit". Doors or cover plates must be fitted with
locks or screws.
3-76
3. Terminations must be in accordance with the project
planner's instructions. No more than two pairs of wires
may be connected in parallel and properly anchored.
3.5.5 Installation and Connection of Equipment
(a) Install ation of Special Devices
• Detectors Mounted on Suspended Ceilings
o Detectors should be mounted as shown in Figure 3-39.
CONCRETE

I
STEEL

I
SUSPENDED
CEILING
Figure 3-39 - Mounting Detectors on Suspended Ceilings
o It is important that the steel conduit rod between the detector
and the j unction box is strong enough to stabilize the detector for
future maintenance work. Therefore, it should allow removal of
a detector without damaging the ceiling elements.
• Installation of Manual Alarm Stations
o As required in the United States, manual alarm stations should
be installed approximately 44 in. (111 .8 cm) above the floor, so
they are accessible by persons with disabilities. Other countries
may permit up to 60 in. (152.4 cm), however 44 in. (111 .8 cm) is
recommended.
o Should be visible and accessible to persons entering the room
(do not locate behind door).
(b) Connections
• Identification of Wires
o All cable sheathing must be continued through the entry sockets
into the equipment. The same color wire must be used
throughout a zone circuit.
o When it is not possible to maintain the color code, the ends of
cables must be marked by colored insulation tubing.
3-77
o All wire and cable must be identified with metallic or phenolic
labels indicating their circuit.
• Check of Installation Wiring - Before connecting the installation
wiring to the terminals provided on the control panel, check the
wiring for extraneous voltages, short, open, and ground circuits.
(c) Precautions with High-Voltage Equipment
• The sharing of cables between fire detection systems and other
installations is not permitted. Separate cables must always be used
and separation must be maintained in shared raceways (not
permitted in shared conduit).
• All wiring of the fire detection system must be installed to prevent
flashovers from high-voltage cables or systems. In high-voltage
rooms, all detectors must be safely accessible. Only detector
exchangers with insulated rods are allowed in these areas.
• Wiring and equipment may not be mounted above any live
installations (in case metal parts, such as detectors or tools, fall).
Only non-conductive conduits such as PVC may be used in such
instances.
• Installations in high-voltage areas require special permission, which
should be obtained by the customer and should only be entered
after special permission has been obtained. Ladders may only be
used if all high-voltage gear has been switched off and is grounded
in accordance with the relevant operation codes.
• Protective Distances
o One centimeter per 1000 volts must be used, with a minimum
distance of 2.5 in. (6.4 cm).
o All equipment must be installed outside the safety barriers in
high-voltage areas, wherever possible in the open gangways.
o Leads and cables of the fire detection system should not be run
in parallel to any high-voltage or high-current lines.
3.5.6 Accessibility
The accessibility of all system components is vital for inspection, testing,
and maintenance.
(a) Detectors
• Must be easily accessible at all times.
• A clearance of at least 20 in. (50.8 cm) on all sides is required to
allow for maintenance work.
• It must be possible to test and remove the detector from
immediately below its installation position.
(b) Response Indicators
• Built-in Response Indicators
o Detectors with built-in response indicators are recommended for
hotels.
o All detectors must be installed to keep the response indicators
visible to the investigation squad.
• External Response Indicators
3-78
o Recommended for areas that are temporarily inaccessible
(guestroom) and for detectors that are not of the individually
identifiable, system connected type.
o Installation of the external indicator right above the door leading
to the detector is recommended.
o External indicators are not required for intell igent reporting
detection systems.
3.5.7 Control Equipment
(a) All control units shall be installed in accordance with engineering
specifications, manufacturer's recommendations and local/national
codes and regulations.
(b) Control units and associated operating devices (i.e., terminals, printers
and displays) shall be installed in accessible locations.
(c) Environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity and dirt
accumulation, must be considered.
(d) It is the responsibility of the fire protection engineer, together with the
manufacturer and the hotel safety engineer, to determine a suitable
location for each control panel. The locations for such devices shall be
indicated on all contract drawings.
(e) The cables and wire entries into the control panels shall be equipped
with strain relief to prevent disconnection of the terminations due to
work performed in another part of the system. All cables into and out of
the control panel shall be suitably marked and indicated as part of the
fire alarm system.
(I) Each control panel shall have a separate circuit breaker in the electrical
distribution cabinet specifically marked 'FIRE ALARM SYSTEM' .
(g) The central control equipment shall be located in fire-resistive areas and
shall have a minimum of a 3 ft (0.9 m) clearance around the face of the
fire command station and central control equipment.
(h) Should the fire command station, used for control and selection of the
emergency voice communication circuits, be remote from the central
control equipment monitoring the detection devices, the wiring between
the two shall be installed in conduit between the two control panels.
The maximum amount of conduit should not exceed 100 ft (30.5 m) or
must be enclosed in a 2-hour fire rated enclosure.
3.6 Commissioning and Acceptance Test
3.6.1 Commissioning
(a) Before connecting the installation wiring to the terminals provided on the
control panel, check the wiring for extraneous voltages, short, open, and
ground circuits.
(b) Technical Aspects of Commissioning
o Ensure that system complies with guidelines and maximum ratings.
o Program the control unit with user data.
o Carry out a comprehensive performance check of the fire detection,
alarm and voice communication system, including control functions
as required by the acceptance testing procedures.
3-79
• Give system a trial run for one month making modifications to
operating features to ensure "nuisance alarm free" operation.
(c) Training Aspects of Commissioning
• The person responsible for the system must be instructed and
understand the following:
1. Explanation of the extent of monitoring, the types of detectors
used, the form of alarm and fire control installations.
2. Operation of the fire detection, alarm and voice communication
system.
3. Procedure to follow in case of trouble.
4. Servicing checks, carried out periodically by the system
operator.
5. Record all events in a log book.
6. Note addresses and telephone numbers of the maintenance
service which can be called any time.
(d) System Documentation - After commissioning work has been
completed, the installer must provide two complete sets of up-to-date
technical documentation (as-built drawings, manufacturer's manuals,
operating instructions, log book).
(e) System Identification - A permanently mounted placard should be
located near the protective signaling system. It should contain the
following information:
• Names, addresses, and telephone numbers of the installation and
servicing contractors.
• Reference to the NFPA or other standards, including its date of
issue to which the system conforms.
• Description of the primary (main) and the secondary (standby)
power supplies, which should include the following information:
1. Physical location and identification of allover current devices
and switches which control the primary and secondary power
supplies
2. Type of secondary supply
3. Standby battery specification, including ampere hour capacity,
voltage per cell, number of cells, and the battery type
4. If a standby generator is used, include the type and quantity of
the stored fuel and transfer time
5. Names of the authorities having jurisdiction, including their
inspection references and dates
6. Location of the as-built drawings and the system operating and
maintenance instructions
3.6.2 Acceptance Tests
Are complete operational tests, conducted on the entire installation for the
purpose of verification of compliance with the applicable standards and with
the tender of the solicited system.
(a) Every initiating device must be tested to ensure operation, proper
annunciation and control of output functions. All indicating circuits and
devices must be tested for audibility (and visibility where applicable) and
proper transmission of signals.
3-80
(b) The following are general guidelines for testing procedures. Further
details can be found in NFPA 72.
(c) Scope of Testing
• Installation Wiring - Check whether measurements on each circuit
have been made after installation or during commissioning for:
o Stray voltage
o Ground faults
o Short circuits
o Loop resistance
• System Testing
o Visually inspect system for mechanical integrity.
o Verify that the system is in normal supervisory condition.
o Test each initiating device circuit, indicating appliance circuit and
signaling line circuit to confirm that the integrity of installation
conductors is being properly monitored. One connection on
each circuit should be opened and the proper response at the
control unit verified.
o Test each initiating device and indicating appliance for alarm
operation and proper response at the control panel.
o Test the system for all intended functions in accordance with the
manufacturer's manual.
o Test all supplementary functions for proper response.
o Test all primary (main) and secondary (standby) power supplies.
• Additional Tests on Multiplex Systems - The following procedures
describe additional acceptance test methods to verify multiplex-type
protective signaling system performance. The manufacturer's
manual and the as-built drawings should be used to verify proper
operation after the initial testing phase has been performed.
o Starting from the unpowered condition, initialize the system per
the manufacturer's manual. Tests should be conducted to verify
that communication exists between the central processing unit
and the connected peripheral devices.
o Each initiating device circuit and signaling line circuit (intelligent
report ing systems) should be tested for its alarm reporting
capability by operating at least one of the connected initiating
devices. Upon completion of this test, an open circuit trouble
condition should be made to verify open circuit fault detection.
Additional tests should be conducted to verify all possible status
modes that the initiating device circuit should provide.
o Verify that each test signal is properly received and processed
by the Fire Command Center equipment (main fire alarm control
panel).
o Conduct tests from the multiplex interface to verify trouble
indications for common mode failures, such as AC power failure.
To test for the AC power, remove the AC power supply to the
satell ite control unit and activate at least one initiating device.
Consult the manufacturer's manual for other common mode
failures and conduct the described testing procedures. Verify
proper receipt and processing at the Fire Command Center.
3-81
o Test each communication circuit between RLCP and the Fire
Command Center main fire alarm control panel to confirm that
the integrity of installation conductors is properly monitored.
o Each of the fault conditions that the system is required to detect
should be introduced on the signaling line circuit. Verify the
proper receipt and the proper processing of the signal at the Fire
Command Center.
o When multiplex protective signaling systems are equipped with
various optional features unique to these systems, the
manufacturer's manual should be consulted to determine the
proper testing procedures for verifying the proper operation of
the optional features. This is intended to address such items as
verifying controls performed by individually addressed or
grouped devices, sensitivity monitoring, pre-alarm or verification
functionality and similar.
• Testing of Smoke Management Systems
o The lack of agreement on a single method for testing smoke
management systems has often caused delays at the time of
acceptance testing.
o It is strongly recommended that the fire protection engineer work
closely with the hotel's owner (and manager) and the local
authority to develop a clear testing procedure, which meets the
objectives of all parties concerned.
o NFPA 92A, Recommended Practices for Smoke Control
Systems, provides recommended test methods and equipment
that can be utilized.
3.6.3 Certificate of Compliance
(a) A certificate of compliance shall be prepared for each system. An
example is provided in the latest edition of NFPA 72.
(b) A copy of the certificate shall be given to the system owner and AHJ
after the completion of the operational acceptance tests.
3.7 Operation and Maintenance
3.7. 1 Responsibility
(a) A safety/security person and/or hotel chief engineer should be
responsible for all active fire protection measures, systems and
emergency planning. This person should be employed by the hotel and
should report directly to the general manager.
(b) In smaller facilities, the hotel manager must carry the responsibility
himself, probably delegating technical tasks to the hotel's engineer.
(c) In many areas, the responsibility is regulated by regional or local codes;
contacting the local fire department for advice is recommended.
3.7.2 General Tasks
(a) Table 3-8 provides a generalized list of operation and maintenance
tasks for various fire protection systems.
3-82
Table 3-8 - Overview of General Operation and Maintenance Tasks
Task
Recommended Time
Peri od
A fire evacuation drill is to be conducted for all employees and hotel
Annually
guests urged to participate.
All emergency procedures are to be reviewed, tested for their
effectiveness, updated and coordinated with the Fire Department (i.e., Annually
evacuation drills, bomb threats, earthquake, etc.).
New employees must be made familiar with the building and the
emergency measures, as well as their personal responsibility in case of Start of employment and
fire and evacuation. Fire and Emergency Procedure training to be every 6 months thereafter
conducted for all new employees.
Emergency instructions and exit egress signage in guestrooms must be
Every 4 months
verified.
Fire and Emergency Procedure Training is to be conducted for Telephone
Quarterly
Operators and Night Managers.
Employees must be advised about any changes in planning, building
Quarterly or as required
construction, escape routes, fire loads, procedures, equipment, etc.
Fire drills are to be conducted; the time of drill should be varied so that all
shifts participate during the year. (Hotel guests do not have to Monthly
participate.)
All areas of the building must be inspected to detect any changes in fire
load, accumulation of trash or dirt (particular attention to the kitchen area
Monthly
for accumulation of combustible materials such as oil and grease and
laundry areas for lint build-up).
All dedicated electric service closets, switchgear rooms, transformer
vaults/closets, etc., are to be inspected to verify they are not being used Monthly
for storage of any material, combustible or otherwise.
The proper storage of grease and oil rags (i .e., approved containers) is to
Monthly
be verified.
The safe laundering of rubber-backed bath mats, grease rags, etc., is to
Monthly
be verified.
Manual fire fighting equipment (i.e., hose reels and fire extinguishers)
must be inspected for their availability and accessibility. Monthly
(Missing/defective items must be replaced immediately.)
Escape route identification must be checked, and missing signs must be
2 to 6 weeks
replaced, any obstructions must be removed.
The fire emergency signage in the elevator foyers are to be verified. Weekly
Escape routes must be checked for obstructions and accessibility
Weekly
(especially locked or blocked doors).
The punctual emptying of waste baskets, trash cans and ashtrays is to be
checked. Ensure all trash has been removed from noors at end of day Weekly
shift.
The continuance of the building's fire compartmentation must be checked
Weekly
(e.g., doors held open or missing).
Where required, nameproofing certificates for fabric materials are to be As required andl or
obtained and updated. after dry cleaning.
The availability of emergency instructions in guestrooms (room cards)
Daily, with room make-up
must be checked.
3-83
Table 3-8 - Overview of General Operation and Maintenance Tasks
Task
Recommended Time
Period
The proper designation of 'no smoking' regulations must be checked. Continuously
(b) The tasks discussed in this table may be expanded based on the
particular hotel.
(c) Local and national regulations should be consulted to determine if there
are more stringent requirements than those listed in the table.
3.7.3 System Maintenance
(a) Ideally, a service contract exists whereby the manufacturer, supplier or
licensed contractor is responsible for periodic inspection and testing.
(b) The service contract should establish that an engineer is on call at all
times and that telephone requests for emergency service are promptly
met. Common contracts require that service will be made available
within 4-6 hours on a 24-hour, 7 -days-a-week basis.
(c) If a service contract does not exist, a minimum of 2 hotel employees
should be trained by the equipment manufacturer, supplier, installer or
contractor, to allow emergency servicing (replacement of fuses,
detectors, etc.). Therefore the hotel must carry a supply of spare parts.
(d) Tab/e 3-9 provides a recommended maintenance schedule for various
fire protection systems. All equipment must be tested and maintained
per the manufacturer's recommendations and in compliance with
local/national codes.
Table 3-9 - Recommended Maintenance Schedule and Requi rements
Equipment Maintenance Schedule
Operate entire fire alarm system including all initiating and alarm
Emergency Standby Battery indicating devices (bells, horns, etc., for five (5) minutes on standby)
Test emergency power. Where emergency voice communication system is
used, operate on standby battery power for five (5) minutes.
Electric Fire Pump Test monthly

Test weekly (minimum 30 minutes run time). Note: Generator and
fire pump must be started and/or observed running by operating
Diesel Fire Pump personnel. Open test valve to simulate water flow conditions when
start testing fire pump.

Annually - Conduct flow test
Emergency Generator/Fire Weekly - Check voltage and output of battery charger. Perform battery
Pump Battery cell hydrometer float test

Weekly - Visually inspect sealed valves.

Monthly - Visually inspect locked valves, valves with tamper
Fire Standpipe System switches and post indicator valves.

Annually - Test post indicator valves. Perform standard
maintenance procedure on all valves.

Monthly - Visually inspect hydrants.
Fire Hydrants (Private)

Semi-annually - Perform maintenance procedure.

Annually - Open and close hydrants.
Fire Department Monthlv - Visuallv inspect pump test header. roof manifolds and
3-84
Table 3-9 - Recommended Maintenance Schedule and Requirements
Equipment Maintenance Schedule
Connections Siamese connections.
0
Monthly - Perform visual inspection.
Fire Hoses/Nozzles
0
Annually - Re-rack fire hoses/nozzles.
Every 5 years - Professionally test hoses per applicable standards
0
(e.g., NFPA, VdS, FOC, etc.) and recommendations.
0
Quarterly - Test water now alarm devices (audible or visual signals)
by opening main drain. Flow test main drain(s) (blowdown).Visually
Fire Sprinkler System
inspect sprinkler heads, sprinkler piping (readily accessible) and
hangers for corrosion and damage.
0
Test antifreeze specific gravity (if applicable).
0
Every 5 years - Verify calibration of pressure gauges.
0
Daily - In cold weather, inspect heating mechanism (if applicable).
Fire Sprinkler System
0
Monthly - Visually inspect water level.
Gravity Tanks 0
Semi-Annually - Test tank level indicator.
0
Every 2 years - Visually inspect condition of tank.
0
Daily -In cold weather, inspect heating mechanism (if applicable).
Fire Sprinkler System
0
Monthly - Inspect water level and pressure.
0
Semi-annually - Test tanks.
Pressure Tanks
Every 2 Years - Visually inspect condition of tank. Test high and low
0
air pressure switches.
0
Daily - In cold weather, inspect heating mechanism (if applicable).
0
Weekly - Inspect air and water pressure.
0
Quarterly - Inspect priming water supply.
Dry/Pre-actioniDeluge 0
Semi-Annually - Test quick opening devices (AKA accelerator or
Systems quick opening device).Test deluge detection device.
0
Annually (in Fall) - Flow test low point drains (blowdown).
0
Annually (in Spring) - Trip-test dry pipe test dry pipe valves.
0
Every 3 Years (in Spring) - Full flow trip test dry pipe valves.
0
Monthly - Verify proper zone annunciation, ensure each zone can be
reset and the entire system is free of all trouble conditions. Verify the
proper operation of LED's and lamps. Send alarm signal to central
monitoring company or fire department.
Fire Alarm Detection
0
Every 2 Months - Test pre-alarm voice/tone devices (voice tested if
System P.A. is provided).
0
Semi-Annually - Test general alarm voice/tone devices (operate as
during full property evacuation).
0
Annually - Test battery backup (operate entire voiceltone system for
5 minutes on standby emergency power).
0
Monthly test 1/12 of the total devices
0
Annually test all devices as follows:
1 . Pull stations tested by pulling handle.
2. Single station smoke detectors tested by operating test button or
Fire Alarm Detection
magnet (or test set).
3. System connected smoke detectors tested in place by smoke or
System Devices
other manufacturer accepted aerosol.
4. Heat detectors tested by heat source equipment. (If non-
restorable, fixed temperature heat detector device, test a sample
and then replace.)
5. Water flow switch tested by operating inspector test valves.
3-85
Table 3-9 - Recommended Maintenance Schedule and Requi rements
Equi pment Mai ntenance Schedule
6. Valve supervisory (tamper) switches tested by turning valve Y.
turn.
7. Fire fighter's telephones tested by communicating through the
system.
8. Flame detectors test in accordance with
instructions.
All connections made to other equipment, such as fire pumps,
Other Equipment Monitored emergency generators, etc. , which provide a supervisory signal
by the Fire Detection & indicating operation of said device should be tested for signal
Alarm System transmission at the time of the individual equipment test, but no less then
once per year.
Multiplex Communication

Annually - Where primary and secondary (return) communications
paths are provided (NFPA Style 6, Class A), remove primary path,
Wiring Between Control
verify receipt of trouble condition at control panel and verify
Units (Style 6, Class A)
operation of system on secondary communication path.

Weekly - Test for a minimum 30 minutes run time.
Emergency Generator

Annually - Test automatic transfer switches by simulated power
failure. Perform full load test.

Monthly - Take inventory and perform visual inspection (sign and
date each extinguisher tag).
Fire Extinguishers

Annually (or more frequently if required by code) - Have
extinguishers professionally serviced.

Every 12 years (or more frequently if required by code) - Perform
discharge and hydrostatic tests.
Kitchen Exhaust Hood Fire

Monthly - Visually inspect.
Every 6 months (or more frequently if required by code) - Have
Extinguisher System

system professionally inspected/tested/maintained.
Kitchen Exhaust Hood
Weekly (or more frequently if required) - Clean/degrease.
Filters
Continuous Service Kitchen Every 2 months (or more frequently if required) - Chemically
Exhaust Hood Duct System cleanlfireproof.
Infrequently Used Kitchen
Annually (or more frequently if required) - Chemically clean/fireproof.
Note: Ensure there are adequate access panels to facilitate c/ean-out of
Exhaust Hood Duct System
the entire kitchen exhaust hood duct system.
Emergency Lighting Every 6 months (areas where emergency power is not available or
(Battery Operated) required by code) - Operate for 90 seconds.
Escape Routes/Exit Signs Monthly - Visually inspect entire building.
Door Release:

Verify door closes when associated detector is tested - test with

Single-Dedicated detector schedule.
Smoke Detector

Monthly - Verify door closes when the fire alarm system is in the
Actuated alarm state.

Any Alarm Activation

Annually - Test each device. Verify door closure when detector is

Combination door activated.
closer/smoke detector

Annually - If possible, remove link and verify door closure.
activated

Fusible Link (Fire Door)
Fire Exit Doors Monthly - Visually check operation.
Laundry Dryer Exhaust
Every 6 months (or more frequently if required) - Inspect and clean.
Ducts
3-86
Table 3-9 - Recommended Maintenance Schedule and Requi rements
Equipment Maintenance Schedule
Laundry Room Exhaust
Every 6 months (or more frequently if required) - Inspect and clean.
Note: Ensure there are adequate access panels to facilitate clean-out of
System Ducts
the entire dryer exhaust system and room exhaust system.
Laundry Dryer lint
Screens/lint Collection Daily - Clean equipment.
Devices
Trash & linen Chute Doors Monthly - Check for proper operation.
Fire Cart/Fire Suitcasel Back
Monthly - Inventory.
Pack
Main Gas Valve(s) Annually - Check for proper operation by gas utility company.
Elevator Pits
Monthly - Cleaned by elevator service company (not to be done by in-
house employees).

Annually (or more frequently if required by code) - Perform
Elevators professional safety inspection

Annually - Test elevator recall function
Boiler and Pressure Vessels
Annually (or more frequently if required by code) - Perform professional
safety inspection
3.7.4 Protection of Instal/ed System Components
(a) Care should be taken to ensure all installed systems are protected
against abuse.
(b) Recommendations for the protection of system components are
provided in Table 3-10.
3-87
Table 3-10 - Recommendations for the Protection of Installed System Components
Activity Proper Measure
• Paint spraying of walls and ceilings
Cover detector and base with plastic bag or remove
• Sanding of plastered walls and wood
detector and cover up detector base
• Carpet cleaning (dry cleaning)
Washing and cleaning of walls and Do not apply any cleaning solvents to detectors, remove
ceilings or cover up detector
Painting of walls and ceilings Do not paint over detector; remove or cover up detector
Testing of detectors with test gas Use manufacturer-approved compounds (aerosols) only
Manual stations in exposed locations
Protect them with guard rails from being hit by food
carts, vehicles, etc.
(c) If detector housing needs to be painted for aesthetic reasons, consult
detector manufacturer.
3.7.5 Documentation
(a) Operation and maintenance instructions should be provided by the
manufacturer, suppl ier, installer or contractor. These instructions
should outline rout ine procedures and specify test intervals.
(b) Detailed maintenance and test procedures should be prepared using
provided documentation.
(c) Logbook
• The safety/security engineer or other designated employee must be
responsible for keeping record of all fire protection measures.
• The logbook should include information such as:
o Changes in emergency plan/ procedures
o Fire or evacuation drills
o Training sessions
o Inspection of escape routes and emergency instruction
measures
o Inspection/testing/maintenance of manual fire extinguishers
o Testing of sprinkler, hose reel , fire detection, EVAC, and
emergency telephone systems
• The logbooks should also contain record of all fire and system
related events (with time and date), including:
o Fire, nuisance and supervisory alarms
o Trouble conditions
o Malfunctions
o Tests and drills
o Replacement actions (batteries, detectors, etc.)
(d) InspectioniTesting/Maintenance Certificates
• The hotel management must request certificates for all inspection,
testing, servicing, maintenance, repair or replacement of fire safety
equipment performed by a manufacturer, supplier or contractor
• Generally, such certificates should be kept on fire for at least 10
years, local/ national codes should be consulted for additional
requirements.
3-88
3.8 Summary of Technical Requirements
3.8.1 General
• Upon activation of elevator lobby or machine room smoke detector, all
elevators shall return to the main level of guest exiting or other area
approved by the local AHJ.
• All equipment shall be UL listed for use in the United States. For other
countries, systems shall have proper approval from the public agency
responsible for that particular area. For countries where no special
codes exist, it is recommended to select systems that have been
approved by at least two of the agencies listed below:
1. Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) - USA
2. Factory Mutual (FM) -USA
3. Verband der Sachversicherer (VdS) - Germany
4. Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR) - France
5. British Standards (BS) - Great Britain
6. Fire Offices Committee - Great Britain
7. Canadian Standards Association - Canada
8. Underwriter's Laboratories Canada (ULC) - Canada
9. Australian Standards (SAA) - Australia
• A fire fighter's telephone system shall be provided in at least one
stairwell at each level (preferable the stairwell with roof access) .
• A 16-hour training program shall be conducted for selected members of
the hotel staff by the alarm installer. Training documents shall be
available to the hotel staff.
• A complete, written description of the hotel fire alarm system,
components, circuits, operating sequence, and maintenance
requirements shall be established and shall be made available to the
entire hotel staff.
3.8.2 Smoke Detectors
• System connected smoke detectors should be installed in all
guestrooms, public spaces and back-of-the-house areas, except areas
not recommended for smoke detector installation (i.e., kitchens, areas
exposed to dirty environments).
D Sensitivity shall range between 2.5% and 4.0% obscuration.
D All smoke detectors installed in public meeting rooms shall be
provided with a nuisance alarm reduction feature.
D If complete area smoke detection is provided throughout the hotel ,
HVAC exhaust duct smoke detection is not required, unless
required by other local code.
3.8.3 Guest Rooms
• Shall be provided with an audible alarm device.
• Where emergency communications systems are installed, loudspeakers
shall be installed.
• Guest rooms for persons with disabilities, shall be provided with system
activated strobe lights in addition to audible devices.
3-89
• System connected smoke detectors shall not activate the hotel
evacuation alarm, however an internal (supervisory) alarm shall be
initiated to alert hotel staff. Individual guestroom audible devices and
visual devices (if provided) shall also activate upon initiation of smoke
detector.
3.8.4 Manual Pull Stations
• Shall be installed throughout the hotel, next to all exits and at other
strategic locations.
• Double action type pull stations are recommended.
• The maximum distance between pull stations shall not exceed 150 It
(46 m).
• These devices shall be mounted 44 in. (111 .8 cm) above the floor to the
centerline of the device.
3.8.5 Wiring
• All fire detection, alarm and emergency communication systems shall
be wired Class A and must be supervised.
• The feed and return wiring risers must be in separate conduit remote
from each other. Wiring is to be of copper conductors or optical fibers.
• If an intelligent or multiplex system is installed wiring must be twisted
pair (and shielded if recommended by the manufacturer or if electrical
interference is anticipated).
3.8.6 Emergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) Systems
• A complete EVAC system shall be provided for all new and retrofit
renovations.
• The main fire detection and emergency voice alarm communication
control panels shall be located in the Fire Command Center (FCC).
• The emergency voice alarm communication system shall be provided
with a minimum 24-hour standby with 15-minute full system operation
battery back-up. If the EVAC system is supplied by an emergency
generator, the standby requirement can be reduced to 4-hour standby
with 15-minute full system operation.
3.8.7 Fire Alarm Control Panel
• The main fire alarm control panel shall annunciate by floor and type of
device.
• The main fire alarm control panel shall be mounted in a 24-hour
supervised, secure, fire-safe location. This area must be provided with
emergency lighting.
• The fire alarm control panel must have Alarm and Trouble indication by
zone (by device, if intelligent type system).
• Water flow switches and valve supervisory devices shall be connected
to the main fire alarm panel. The activation of water flow switches shall
have the same alarm priority as manual pull stations.
• All fire alarm system control panels in the FCC shall be provided with a
minimum of either 24-hour battery backup (full system operation) or 4-
3-90
hour battery backup (full system operation) when connected to the
hotel's emergency generator.
• All fire alarm control panels, remote annunciators, and the emergency
communication control panels shall be designed with a minimum of 20%
spare capacity for expansion.
3-91
Appendix 3-A - Nuisance Alarm Problem
(a) Nuisance alarms are often caused by:
• Mischievous use of the system (blowing smoke at a detector,
pulling alarm stations, etc.)
• Maintenance work in moni tored area (welding, painting, etc.)
• Deceptive phenomena (insects, dust, steam, sunlight, etc.)
• Corrosion of contacts (due to environment)
• Electromagnetic influence and radio frequency influence (walkie-
talkies, cellular phones, etc.)
• Detectors which are of the wrong type, improperly
placed/installed, dirty, etc.
(b) Methods to Reduce Nuisance Alarms
• False alarms due to maintenance work can be avoided by proper
organization, training and supervision.
• Due to microprocessor technologies, some fire detection
equipment manufacturers have been able to incorporate nuisance
reduction features into their equipment.
• Cross Zoning
a Based on the concept that two separate zones must respond
before a general fire alarm signal is activated.
a Response of a single zone leads to pre-alarm condition, which
is announced to in-house staff.
a Recommended for areas in the hotel where there may be
heavy smoking.
a Always used when detectors are used to activate extinguishing
systems.
o Can be performed with either traditional zoning/devices or
intelligent devices.
a For traditional zoning methods, detectors must be wired to
guarantee proper two-zone response in case of fire.
a For intelligent detection systems, cross zoning may be
accomplished by careful formation of groups in the software.
• Pre-Signal (Alarm Sequencing) Concept
a Method of alarm verification used to help reduce the chance of
panic in crowded areas (retail areas, ballrooms, etc) .
a First response from a detector is -silently' announced to key
personnel, who have been assigned the task of investigating
the alarm.
o If a second detector responds, a general fire alarm is given.
o A general alarm is also initiated if either a manual pull station
or the sprinkler system water flow switch are activated.
• Alarm Verification Concept
a Applicable in areas where puffs of smoke or gas are common
in the environment.
a When the detector first responds, an automatic reset
command is issued and the alarm is suppressed.
a When the detector responds a second time (within a particular
time period), an alarm is immediately issued.
3-92
o The time limit varies based on the manufacturer, however
usually limited by local or national codes. NFPA 72 limits the
time delay to 60 seconds.
o This concept is not applicable for heat detectors, manual alarm
stations or water flow switches. An alarm from any of these
devices cause a general alarm signal without delay.
• Positive Alarm Sequencing
o Utilizes a dual timing principle for delaying a general alarm.
o Similar in concept to cross-zoning, however requires only a
single device in alarm.
o This method can only be used when a system operator is
present at all times.
o The operating sequence requires two levels of device priority
and two system timers (T1 and T2) .
1. Priority 1 - Immediate general alarmlfire department
notification (manual alarm station, water now device)
2. Priority 2 - Delayable alarm (smoke detector)
o When there is a response by a priority '2' detector, delay T1 is
started. When T1 time runs out without a response by an
operator, the fire department is called and a general alarm
signal is activated. If the alarm is acknowledged while T1 is
running, the system interprets this as a sign that an operator is
present. In this case, timer T2 is started, allowing time for
investigation.
o Time periods T1 and T2 are often regulated by local or
national codes. (NFPA 72 limits T1 to 15 seconds and T2 to
180 seconds.)
o If the investigation verifies the existence of a fire or if time T2
runs out, the fire department can be summoned by initiating
any manual alarm station.
o However, if the investigation determines that only a minor fire
exists that can be extinguished easily, or that it is not an actual
alarm, the fire alarm control panel can be reset while T2 is still
running without sounding a general alarm.
• Sensitivity Compensation
o Detector feature which maintains a constant sensitivity over
time, compensating for component aging and dirt
accumulation.
o Useful in areas of high dirt build-up or where detectors are
difficult to access.
o This detector feature does not eliminate the need for regular
detector maintenance.
o Helpful in reducing long-term maintenance costs by identifying
which detectors need to be cleaned or replaced.
• Variable Sensitivity Settings
o Similar in concept to sensitivity compensating detector.
Several systems have the ability to automatically or manually
change between fixed sensitivity levels either at the detector or
at the control panel.
o For intelligent detector systems, a detector may have two or
more preset sensitivity levels. The control panel can be
3-93
programmed to shift between the various sensitivities at
specific time intervals. It is also possible to program different
sensitivity levels based on the location of the devices.
o For analog reporting detector systems, the sensitivity
adjustments are often made at the control panel. The
sensitivity levels can be adjusted by device, groups of devices
and by time of day.
o Sensitivity levels must remain in the range specified by the
regulatory agencies such as UL or VdS.
o These systems are useful in facilities where various
environmental conditions exist.
• Signals Indicative of Dirty Detectors
o In many of the intelligent detector systems, a signal is provided
which indicates the need to clean the detector.
o Waiting for a dirty detector signal should not be used as an
alternative to scheduled maintenance.
• Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
o Many control units contain built-in interference protection,
intended to minimize the effects of electromagnetic
interference, radio frequency interference (RFI), and electrical
transients (induced voltage and current spikes).
o Level of protection is dependent on the requirements of
various regulatory agencies.
o Additional protection may be required to reduce the
occurrence of nuisance alarms resulting from these
phenomenon.
o Refer to Appendix 3-9 for additional information on
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
o Interference Factors which influence EMC include:
1. Lightning
2. High frequency or radio interference
3. Interference pulses
4. Electrical or magnetic interference fields
5. Transmission of electrical interference currents via
resistive coupling
6. Electrostatic Charging/Discharging
o Interference Protection Measures
1. All fire detection and alarm equipment must meet the
current revision of applicable standards, which require
equipment to be designed with adequate EMI and RFI
protection features.
2. However, some equipment may be exposed to abnormally
high levels of interference.
3. Typically, the use of shielded cable or cable installed in
properly grounded metallic conduit will negate a majority of
the interference. In some cases, additional protection may
be required.
4. Protection is available in the form of filters or other
suppression devices, which can be installed on the
detection devices, on the installation wiring or at the control
3-94
panel. The manufacturer should be consulted when
additional protective devices are to be installed.
5. The use of fiber optic cable instead of cable using metallic
conductors provides for an alternate means of protection.
Fiber optic cable are immune to EMI and RFI as they use
light signals to transmit data instead of electronic signals.
o Additional Transient Protection Measures
1. All fire alarm equipment must meet the current revision of
applicable standards. By meeting these standards, the
equipment is designed with adequate transient voltage
protection for systems used within a single building.
2. For any circuits extended outside the building, extra
precautions must be taken to protect the equipment from
damage caused by high voltage transients being induced
on the circuits from nearby lightning strikes or other outside
sources. These circuits should be run in metallic conduit
that is properly bonded to a good earth ground, and
external transient protection must be installed on each of
those circuits.
3. The external transient protection required for each circuit
depends on the characteristics of the circuit and, where
lightning is a concern, the degree of lightning activity
expected at the geographical location of the installation.
4. If it is apparent that there will be a high degree of lightning
activity at the installation, it is recommended that additional
transient protection be installed on equipment to prevent
damage.
5. Additional transient protection is needed on multiplex
communication network lines (signaling line circuits) and
audio communications lines are routed underground from
building to building in PVC conduit. Twisted shielded pairs
with the shield earth grounded should be used within the
PVC conduit, or twisted pairs in metal conduit. Audio
circuits should be shielded independently from each other
and from signal circuits.
6. When shielded cable is used, it is important that the
equipment manufacturer be contacted for specific
requirements regarding termination of the shield.
7. In all cases, it is extremely important that all ground
connections be made to an 8 It (2.5m) driven ground rod or
equivalent water pipe connection.
8. The equipment manufacturer should be consulted when
additional transient and interference protection is required
to ensure compatibility with the installed equipment.
9. If high voltage transients are anticipated in advance, the
installation of fiber optic cable instead of cable using
metall ic conductors is an option.
3-95
Appendix 3-8 - Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
Many control units contain built-in interference protection, intended to minimize the
effects of electromagnetic interference, radio frequency interference (RFI), and electrical
transients (induced voltage and current spikes).
• Level of protection is dependent on the requirements of various regulatory

agencies.
• Additional protection may be required to reduce the occurrence of nuisance
alarms resulting from these phenomenon.
• Interference Factors which influence EMC include:
1. Lightning
2. High frequency or radio interference
3. Interference pulses
4. Electrical or magnetic interference fields
5. Transmission of electrical interference currents via resistive coupling
6. Electrostatic CharginglDischarging
• Interference Protection Measures
1. All fire detection and alarm equipment must meet the current revision of
applicable standards, which require equipment to be designed with
adequate EMI and RFI protection features.
2. However, some equipment may be exposed to abnormally high levels of
interference.
3. Typically, the use of shielded cable or cable installed in properly
grounded metallic conduit will negate a majority of the interference. In
some cases, additional protection may be required.
4. Protection is available in the form of filters or other suppression devices,
which can be installed on the detection devices, on the installation wiring
or at the control panel. The manufacturer should be consulted when
additional protective devices are to be installed.
5. The use of fiber optic cable instead of cable using metallic conductors
provides for an alternate means of protection. Fiber optic cable are
immune to EMI and RFI as they use light signals to transmit data instead
of electronic signals.
• Additional Transient Protection Measures
1. All fire alarm equipment must meet the current revision of applicable
standards. By meeting these standards, the equipment is designed with
adequate transient voltage protection for systems used within a single
building.
2. For any circuits extended outside the building, extra precautions must be
taken to protect the equipment from damage caused by high voltage
transients being induced on the circuits from nearby lightning strikes or
other outside sources. These circuits should be run in metallic conduit
that is properly bonded to a good earth ground, and external transient
protection must be installed on each of those circuits.
3. The external transient protection required for each circuit depends on the
characteristics of the circuit and, where lightning is a concern, the degree
of lightning activity expected at the geographical location of the
installation.
4. If it is apparent that there will be a high degree of lightning activity at the
installation, it is recommended that additional transient protection be
installed on equipment to prevent damage.
3-96
5. Additional transient protection is needed on multiplex communication
network lines (signaling line circuits) and audio communications lines are
routed underground from building to building in PVC conduit. Twisted
shielded pairs with the shield earth grounded should be used within the
PVC conduit, or twisted pairs in metal conduit. Audio circuits should be
shielded independently from each other and from signal circuits.
6. When shielded cable is used, it is important that the equipment
manufacturer be contacted for specific requirements regarding
termination of the shield.
7. In all cases, it is extremely important that all ground connections be made
to an 8 It (2.5m) driven ground rod or equivalent water pipe connection.
8. The equipment manufacturer should be consulted when additional
transient and interference protection is required to ensure compatibil ity
with the installed equipment.
9. If high voltage transients are anticipated in advance, the installation of
fiber optic cable instead of cable using metallic conductors is an option.
3-97
Appendix 3-C - Additional Information on Electromagnetic Compatibility
1. EMC is the ability of electrical or electronic equipment to function satisfactorily
without influencing or being influenced by electromagnetic phenomenon in the
surrounding atmosphere.
2. All electronic equipment (including fi re detection related devices) must be
designed for EMC. The level of interference resistance of the equipment
describes the maximum interference signal which may be tolerated before the
distortion of the desired signal reaches a specific level. For fire detection
equipment, this level is the alarm threshold.
3. To achieve EMC, it is necessary to acknowledge the presence of the following
types of influence:
• Galvanic Influence - Created by the coupling of electrical circuits via a
common impedance. The influencing factor is the current.
• Capacitive Influence - Created by the alternating electrical fields from a
source of interference to a part of the system. The influencing factor is
the voltage.
• Inductive Influence - Created by the magnetic alternating field of a source
of interference as induced interference voltages in the receiver. The
electrical cause is the charging current in the source of the interference.
• Wave Influence - Created by circuit or radiation waves which are coupled
into parts of the system (RFI, for example). For radiation waves, the
influencing factors are the electrical and magnetic field strengths. With
circuit waves, the influencing factors are the line current and the line
voltage.
4. Detection devices may suffer interference from waves, which spreads via
detector lines and free space directly into the detector electronics.
3-98

Table of Contents

.. General Introduction ........ ........ .... ........ ... ....... ....................................... ,,, .................................. .· VII Starwood Fire and Life Safety Ph ilosophy ................... " ........................................ ........... ... ...... .· VII
Fire and Life Safety Standards ....... , ..................................................................................... ..... .· VII Important Assumptions ......... ........... ... .................. .................. ... .... .. ........ .. ................................. VIII
••

1
1.1

Fire Prevention ............... ..................... ,... .... .................. ......... .......... ..... ..... .. .. .. . " ........ ....... 1-1
Introduction

.................................................................................................................... 1-1

Control of Ignition ·... ........ .... ....................................... ...... ............................................. . 1-1 1.2 External Ignition Control ......................................................................................... 1-1 1.2.1 Internal Ignition Control ..... ... ......... ........ ..... ............................................................ 1-3 1.2.2 Initial Fire Growth ·............................................. ..................... .. .......... ...... ..................... . 1-3 1.3 Fuel for Ign ition ........................ ....... ................................. ........... ... .... .......... .......... . 1-3 1.3.1 Interior Finish ••••••••• • •••••••••••••• •• •• •• •• •• •••• • • •••• •••••••••••••••••••••• •• • • ••••• •• •• ••••• ••••••• • • •• ••••••••••• 1-3 1.3.2 Decorations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1-4 1.3.3 Special Requ irements •••• •••• •••••••••• • ••• •• ••••••••••••••••••• • ••••••• • ••••••• •••••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1-5 1.3.4 Fire Duration • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1-5 1.4 1.4.1 Fuel Load ...............................................................................................................1-5 1.4.2 Standard Time Temperature Curve Requirements ................................................ 1-5 Appendix 1-A - Steiner Tunnel Test ..............................................................•........................... 1-6 Appendix 1-B - Fire Tests for Flame Resistant Textiles and Films •••• ••••• •• •••••• •••••• • .................... 1-7

2
2.1

Construction .............................................................................................................. ..... .... 2-1 Introduction ............ ......... .................................................................................... ... .... .... 2-1

2.2
23

Structural Resistance to Fire ....... ....... ........ .. .. ........... .... .... .... .... .. ........... ........................ 2-1 2.2.1 Rating of Structural Elements ... .. .... .. .. .. .. ........ .... .... ....... ......................................... 2-1 Building Height and Area ............................ .... ................................. ..... ................. .. .. .... 2-2 Barriers ••••• •• • • •••• ••••• •••••••• •••• ••••••••••••••••••••••• •• •• • •• •• • •• ••••• •••• ••••• • •• • • • •••••••••••••••••••••••• • •••• • 2-2 Floors ........... .. .................... .. .... ... ........ .. ....... ... .. ... ........ .......................................... 2-2 Walls ................. .... ............................................ .. ....... .......... ................................. .. 2-2 Partitions •• • •• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••• ••• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••• ••• • 2-2 Corrl·dor Walls •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • •••••••••••••••• •••• •••••••• ••• ••••• 2-2 Exit Stair Enclosures .............................................................................................. 2-3 Elevator Enclosures ............................................................................................... 2-3 Other Shafts ·.. ....................................................................... , ...................... .... ..... . 2-3 Escalators .... ,...................................................................................... ...... .. ... ...... .. . 2-3 Atria .... .. ......................................................................... ... ............ .... .... ................. . 2-3 Separation of Use Spaces .......................................................... .... ....................... . 2-4 Other Areas ....... .... ............. ... .. ..... ................. .. .... .......... ... ...................................... 2-4

2.4 Fire 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4 .5 2.4 .6 2.4 .7 2.4 .8 2.4 .9 2.4 .10 2.4.11

Smoke Barriers .. .. ........................................................ ................................................ .. 2-5 2.5 Physical Barriers ................................................... , ............. ................... .... ........ ... . 2-5 2.5.1 2 .5.2 Smoke Management Systems ........................................................... .... ................ 2-5 2.5.3 Other Features ............................................................................. .. ........................ 2-6 Appendix 2-A - Spray Nozzle Method ...................................................................................... . 2-7

"

••

3

Fire Detection and Alarm ...... .................................................. .. ...... ..... ..... ..... .... .. .......... .... 3-1 Detection Principles and General Information ... .. .............. ... ....... .... .... .. .......... ....... 3-1 General Requirements ................. ..... .......... ........................................................... 3-1 Human .... ................ .... ......... ... .......................................................................... ..... . 3-1 Heat ........................................................................................................................ 3-1 Smoke ....... ..... ...... ..... .......... .............................................................................. .. ... 3-1 Detection System Components .............................................................................. 3-2 Discussion/Classification of Hotel Types ................................................................ 3-8

3.1 Fire 3.1 .1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6

3.2 Alarm Processing and Communication ........................................................................ 3-12 3.2.1 Fire Command Center .............................................. .. ... ......... ... ...... .. .... .... ......... ..3-12 3.2.2 Supervisory and Trouble Signals .. ................ ....................................................... 3-12 3.2.3 Emergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) Systems ........ ......................... 3-14 3.2.4 Fire Fighter's Telephone System .............. ............ .............. ......... .... ..... ............... 3-15 3.2.5 Combination Systems ................................................ .......... .. ........... .. ................. 3-16 3.2.6 System Integration .... ,............................................................... ........................... 3-18 3.3 Basic Detection and Alarm Application Concepts .................. ... ......... .. .................... .... 3-23 3.3.1 Fire Detection Systems ........................................................... ................ ... ...... .... 3-23 3.3.2 Nuisance Alarm Problem ........................................ ............... .............................. .3-25 3.3.3 Control Units and Terminals ................................................................................. 3-29 3.3.4 Multiplex Systems ........ .... ......... ........................................................................... 3-30 3.3.5 Auxiliary Control Outputs ................................................................................. .... .3-31 3.3.6 Alarm and Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Systems ............................. 3-33 3.3 .7 Selection Criteria for Evacuation Systems ........................................................... 3-39 3.3.8 Emergency Handling Procedures Using EVAC Systems ..................................... 3-39 3.3.9 Considerations for Alarm Organizations ... ............................................ .. ........ .. .... 3-41 3.3.10 Protection of Guests with Disabilities .. .. .. ...................... ... .. ....... .. ......... .......... .. ... .3-42 3.4 Planning for Fire Detection and Alarm Systems .......................................................... 3-44 3.4.1 Procedure for Planning a Fire Detection System ................................................. 3-44 3.5 Guidelines for Installation .............................................................................................3-68 3.5.1 General. ................................................................................................................3-68 3.5.2 Scope of Work for Supplier and Installer .............................................................. 3-68 3.5.3 Environmental Conditions ........... ........ .. .. ................. ... .............. .. .. ..... ... ........ ....... 3-69 3.5.4 Wiring Guidelines .. ........... ... ........ ......... ..................... ............... .... .. ...... ........... ..... 3-71 3.5.5 Installation and Connection of Equipment.. .... ...................... ........... .. ............ ....... 3-77 3.5.6 Accessibility ................ .... ........... ............... .. .. ..... ................... .. .......... ... ...... ....... .... 3-78 Control Equipment. ....... .... ......... .... ................ .................................. .... ,., .... .......... 3-79 3.5.7 3.6 Commissioning and Acceptance Test .................................................. ........................ 3-79 3.6 .1 Commissioning ......................................................................... .................... ........ 3-79 3.6 .2 Acceptance Tests .................................................................................................3-80 3.6.3 Certificate of Compliance ..... .. ........... .. .. .. .. .... .................................................... ... 3-82
3.7 Operation and Maintenance ...................... ,... ,....... ,.................................... ,............ ,.... 3-82 3.7.1 Responsibility ...................................... ,.................. ,.................. ,., ..................... ,., 3-82 3.7 .2 General Tasks .................. ,.............. " ................................................................... 3-82 3.7.3 System Maintenance ............................................................................................ 3-84 3.7.4 Protection of Installed System Components ....................... ..... ............................ 3-87 3.7.5 Documentation ........................................................................... ............ .............. 3-88

3.8

Summary of Technical Requirements ............................................... ........... .. .......... ... . 3-89

'"

•••

3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 3.8.4 3.8.5 3.8.6 3.8.7

General .............. .......... ... ... .,........... ....... .... ..... ... ... ............. , .... " ............................ 3-89 Smoke Detectors .......... ............... ............. ,.................................. ..... ........... ... ..... . 3-89 Guest Rooms .................................................................................................. " ... 3-89 Manual Pull Stations .............. ..................... .... ............ ........ .............. " .................. 3-90 Wiring .............. ..................... .......... ..................................................................... .3-90 Emergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) Systems ................................. 3-90 Fire Alarm Control Panel .......................................................................... ... ......... 3-90

Appendix 3-A - Nuisance Alarm Problem .............................................................. ... .. ............. 3-92 Appendix 3-B - Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) ..... ..... ............................. .. .... ............... 3-96 Appendix 3-C - Additional Information on Electromagnetic Compatibility .. .......... ... .............. ... 3-98

4 4.1

Fire Suppression .......................... ...... .... ................................ ,........ ,.................................. 4-1 Introduction ... ... ....... .... ................................................................................................... 4-1

4.2 Classification of Hotel Types ...... ... .. ........... .... .............................................................. ..4-1 4.2.1 General Requirements ......... .... ....... ... ......... .................................................. .. ...... .4-1 4.3 Automatic Fire Suppression .......................................................................................... .4-7 4.3.1 Detection Matched to Hazard ................................................................................ .4-7 4.3.2 Agent Matched to Hazard ...................................................... .. .. ............................ .4-7 4.3.3 Zoning ..... .. .. ................................................................... ........................................ 4-9 4.3.4 Sprinkler Systems - General Requirements ...................... ................................... .4-9 4.3.5 Sprinkler Systems - Design Criteria .................................................................... .4-10 4.3.6 Sprinkler Systems - Components ....................................................................... .4-11

4.4 Methods of Design ............................................................................. ... .... .................. ,4-23 Hydraulic Calculations .................................................... .... .......... ....................... .4-23 4.4 .1 4.4.2 Pipe Schedule Method ........................................................................................ .4-27
4.5 Sprinkler Requirements Based on Hazard .................................................................. .4-27 4.5.1 Guestrooms ...... " ................................ " ............. ,",.,., ........ ................ ,.................. 4-27 4.5.2 Guestroom Corridors ........................................................................................... .4-32 4.5.3 Ceilings and Ceiling Voids ................... ... ...... ................................................... .....4-34 4.5.4 Computer Rooms .... ,......... ,", .. ,...... " ... ,..... ,', .... ......... ,................... ,', .... ,', .. ... ,' "", ,4-36 4.5.5 Laundry and Garbage Chutes ..................... ................... .. .... ............................... .4-37 4,5,6 Atria ,...... ,',...... ,"""", .. " ...... ," " ,.. ,... ," "" ,.. ,' ,. ,"", ...... ,. ............. ,.. ,.. ,"", .. " ...... "., ... 4-39 4,5.7 Escalators" ",""', ...... " .. ,"""", .. ,""""""" "" ', .. " .. ,..................... ,", .. " .. ,' ........ " ', .. ,4-41 4,5.8 Cold Rooms ... " ,.. " ... ,.. ," """ "', .... ," ,.. ,', ..... ,............. ,.,", .. ,"" " " """" ",.," ......... ,' .. 4-42 4.5.9 Recreation Areas (Indoor Pools, Spa Baths, etc.) .......... ........ .... ... .. .................... .4-42 4.5.10 Special Suppression Systems .......................................... .. .. ... .. ... ....................... .4-42 Manual Fire Suppression ......................................................... ................................... .4-44 4.6 Portable Extinguishers ......................................................... .. .......................... .. ..4-44 4.6.1 Standpipe and Hose Systems ............................................................................. .4-45 4.6.2 4.7 Water Supplies .... ,', ...... ,', ... ". ,"" ,.. ,",.,""", ..... ,', ... , ....... ,.. ,""',. '. '. '. '." ' ........ " ........ ,", ... 4-50 4,7.1 General ........... ,.... ,.. ,",."., .. ," ,........ ,.. ,", ..... ,.......... ,""""""'" '."." .... ' .... ,....... ,.. ,., .. 4-50 4.7.2 Municipal Water Supplies .... ,........................ ".,""""', ............................ ,""', .. ,.. ,,4-52 4.7.3 Private Water Supplies ............ ,',.,', ...... ,"", .. ,"""", .. ,......................... " .. ,",." .. , .. ,.4-52 4.7.4 Water Storage Requirements .............. .. .................................................. ............ .4-53 4.7.5 Pumps " ... ,""', .. ,.. ,... ,., .................. ,.,', .. ,""', .... ,"""',., ........................ ,', .. ,""', ..... , .4-55

IV

4 .8 Private Service Mains ., ......... " ........... , ......................... , ............................................. ..4-60 4.8.1 General ...... .. ... ........................................ ............................. .. ...... .. ... .....•..... ..... .. ..4-60 4.8.2 Water Supply Requirements •• •• ••• • • ••• •• • •• •••• • •••• • • • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • ••••••••••••••• .4-61 Valves .................................................... ............................................................. ..4-61 4.8.3 4.8.4 Hose Houses and Equipment. ...................................... ..... .................. ... .. ... ... .. ... .4-62 Hydrant Number and Locations ........................................................................... .4-62 4.8.5 4.8.6 Fire Department Vehicle Access .... , •••.•...•..•••••••..•...................•..•..• •••• .................. 4-63 Underground Piping .................................................... " ....... " .. " ........ ................. .4-64 4.8.7 4.8.8 Valve Pits ............................................................................................................ 4-64 4.8.9 Testing ....... .. .... ........ ... ..................................................... ................•.... ............... .4-65 Flushing ...................................................................................................... ,........ .4-65 4.8.10 Fire 4 .9 4 .9.1 4 .9.2 4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.5 4.10 Department ·....... .. ...... .... .. .. ... ... .. .. .. .. ........... ..... .. .................................................. .4-65 Hydrants ·................... ..... .......... .. .. .. ..... ....... ......................................................... .4-65 Siamese - Sprinkler and Standpipe ..................................................................... 4-65 FI're Command Center ......................................................... " .. , .............. , ........ , .. ..4-66 Dedicated Elevators ............................................................................................. 4-66 Access .................... .................................................... " .................... , .................. .4 -66

Commissioning and Acceptance Tests ..................................................... .................. .4-67

4.11 Operation and Maintenance ........................................................................................ .4-67 4.11 .1 Responsibility ••••••• •• •••••••• • • • •• • •••••••• •• • • •• • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• .4-67 4.11.2 General Tasks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .4-68 4.11 .3 System Maintenance ........................................................................ ................... .4-68 4 .11.4 Documentation • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .4-71 4 .12 Summary of Technical Requirements ......... .............. ............ ........... ........ ........... ........ 4-71 4 .12.1 Automatic Fire Suppression - Sprinkler Systems .......... ........ .... .... ....................... 4-71 4 12.2 Automatic Fire Suppression - Special Fire Suppression Systems ....................... 4-71 Manual Fire Suppression - Standpipe Systems ................................................... 4-71 4.12.3 Water Supplies ................................................................................................... ..4-71 4 .12.4 4.12.5 Fire Pumps ·..........................................................................................................4-72 4.12.6 Private Fire Service Mains • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • .4-72

5
5.1

Life Safety (Emergency Egress) .. ........ ... .... ........ ....... .... ................... ................................. 5-1

Introduction ................................................................. ,.................................................. 5-1
Access .... ...... .. ........................................................................ .. .. ............................ . 5-1 Separated Exits .................................................................... .... ............................. . 5-1 Capacity ·........................... ........ ... ...... .. ........... .............................................., .5-2 Travel Distance .............. ............ ..................... .................. .... ................, ... .......5-3 5-3 Enclosure • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

5.2 Exit 5.2.1 5.22 5.2.3 5.2.4 Exit 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5

....... ......

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

System .................................................................................................................... 5-4 Capacity ................................................................................................................ 5-4 Means of Egress Components ....... ................... .................... ................................. 5-7 Enclosure •••••••••••••••••••••••• • • •• •••••• • • •• •••••••••••••••••••• • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 5-8 DI'mensl' ons ·............................................................................................................ 5-9 Security ........................ ...... ........... .... ................................................................... 5-10

5.4 Exit Discharge ............................................... ., ...................................... ...................... .5-10 5.4.1 Capacity ·............................................................................................................. .5-10 Location ................................................................................ ............................... . 5-10 5.4.2 v

5.4.3 5.4.4

Enclosure ..... ........................................................................................................ 5-10 Security 5-11 • • • ••• •••
• •• •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • •••••••• ••• • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ••

5.5 Lighting, Marking & Emergency Power ........................... .. ............ ....•••....... ................. 5-11 5.5.1 Lighting ..................................................................................................... .... 5-11 Exit Signs/Marking ............................. ,....................................... ... ..... .................. .5-11 5.5.2 Emergency Power .................................................. ................... .......................... . 5-12 5.5.3

VI

Additional topics covered in this section include the control of ignition sources and limitations on interior finish materials. Starwood Fire and Life Safety Ph ilosophy Starwood has developed fire and life safety requirements for all of its hotel properties. managers. owners. engineers. architects. Many of these standards vary in content.This section addresses the building features (i. others specifying more generalized. provides the user with a broad overview of important fire and life safety issues and definitions applicable for hotel facilities . etc. The general user section of the website. height or its location in the world. which includes designers. in accordance with Starwood standards has been established. Fire and Life Safety Standards The Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards have been divided into five major components.. a reasonable level of fire safety. The technical user portion of the website goes beyond the general user section. The focus of these standards is to ensure a reasonable level of safety for all building occupants. Starwood has developed this website.e.This section addresses the fire safety precautions. This website has been created to provide Starwood's employees. As a result when national or local regulations differ from those contained on the Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards website. etc. which includes hotel owners. architects. These were supplemented by applicable NFPA requirements. engineers. The Fire and Life Safety Standards contained on this website were based on existing Starwood requirements . compartmentation). Overall. regardless of the hotel's size. non-specific requirements.(1) the general user. with a reference to consult when fire and life safety issues arise. national or local regulations) should be adopted . The various types VII •• • . Starwood's philosophy is that a guest should not have to wonder as to which code or quality standard a Starwood hotel has been built.General Introduction Fire and life safety standards have been developed by many countries. which contains its Fire and Life Safety requirements for all Starwood properties worldwide. the most restrictive requirements (including Starwood. and (2) the technical user. Starwood guests should be reasonably assured that. some establishing detailed requirements. designed to limit fire and smoke spread. Building Construction . which include the following: • Fire Prevention . including hotel guests and staff. states and provinces throughout the world. etc. the most restrictive requirements should be enforced. intended to prevent fires or keep fires from rapidly developing. employees. by providing detailed fire and life safety requirements important when designing a new hotel or upgrading an existing facility. The Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards website has been developed for utilization by two different use groups .

Important Assumptions A list of critical assumptions for the protection of Starwood facilities has been developed. It should be noted that all new hotels are required to be provided with automatic suppression systems installed throughout the hotel.com). VIII •• • • • • • • . local or national codes has been requested . Early detection and notification are essential as many occupants are not familiar with the layout of the hotel. These assumptions are summarized below: • All new hotels should be provided with an automatic sprinkler protection system installed throughout the hotel.. A registered or licensed professional architect/engineer is primarily responsible for designing/documenting fire safety features for the Starwood property-in accordance with the Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards. This system shall be designed based on the requirements contained in the Fire Suppression Section of this website. It is also the architect/engineer's responsibility to ensure that any local regulations are also complied with. Fire Detection and Alarm .This section addresses the design of fire protection systems provided to extinguish fires. and exit marking. are also addressed in this section. Deviation from the Starwood Fire and Life Safety Standards and local or national codes should be limited.Berkol@starwoodhotels. The AHJ should also be consulted whenever a variance from Starwood. This section discusses such topics as exits.This section discusses exit systems provided for the purpose of allowing building occupants a safe means of egress from the hotel. Topics discussed in this section include automatic and manual fire suppression. emergency lighting and power. Careful interpretation of these standards is important and the AHJ should be contacted to ensure agreement with interpretations. The Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) should be consulted throughout the design process to ensure compliance with applicable local and national codes.This section covers the requirements for the detection systems installed to provide advanced warning of potentially hazardous conditions. Alarm system requirements designed to alert building occupants. including staff and guests. Careful review of the fire detection and alarm system should also be discussed with the local fire department. The property owner has the ultimate responsibility in following and enforcing all Starwood fire and life safety requirements .• • • of construction and limitations on building height and area (based on occupancy) are also addressed in this section. The local fire department should be consulted throughout the design process so they are aware of the potential hazards. Health Fire and Life Safety (apriI. Life Safety . Fire Suppression . but may be necessary and can be considered providing a full technical justification discussing the variance is presented and approved by the Starwood Director of Environmental. and fire department access. exit discharge.

1 m) of the fac ility. I. such as fires in adjacent structures or surrounding buildings. furnishings.. • Figure 1-1 details where exposure protection is required . the ways fire growth occurs due to the interior finish and decorative materials used in the hotel . the methods to controillimit fires and fire spread both inside and outside the hotel . • Non-bearing exterior walls with 1 hour fire resistance rating: Y. General Requirementsllnformation • Hazard of ignition from a fire posed by conditions outside the hotel. Technical Requirements/Information (a) A hotel can be threatened by a fire that starts at an adjacent property. hour fire protection rating where used elsewhere . or Y.2 Control of Ignition Control of ignition is an important aspect of fire prevention . (b) Exposure protection is required to prevent ignition from an adjacent building. 1. and the length of the duration of the fire. 2. 2. which is a result of the amount of combustible contents (e . hour opening protectives required .g.1 Fire Prevention 1. Hazards include those located both inside and outside the facil ity. (c) Where Required : • Exposure protection is required where the nearest building is within 30 It (9. (d) Degree of Protection • Non-bearing exterior walls with 1 hour fire resistance rating : 1-hour fire protection rating where used for vertical openings or exit enclosures. 1 Extemallgnition Control 1.1 Introduction Fire prevention begins with an understanding of: • • • • the types of fires that may occur in a hotel environment. May be accomplished by: • Physical separation between buildings • Increasing exposed building 's fire resistance. structural elements) provided within the hotel. 1. Adequate protection shall be provided for both potential hazard classifications.I • .

1.- < -- <3Jft..5 1'1' "'" - -.5 1'1'.< 3J (!On) I kAUI CIt 1m wcporl-g building EXPOSING BUllOING LOWER T (15m) • fl 4 -- tnt ms ' WW'ICO < 1.6+ III +-. (!On) -IO I . (!On) h PSIJ'anca rating :t 1.Conditions for Exposure Protection 1-2 .-.EXPOSING BUll. -~-j. "'" .+". __ < 3J ft.'U Figure 1-1 .'Ial CIt 1m -.DVIIG SAME HEIGHT OR HIGHER Fran &..- ' IQ r=.

2.3 Initial Fire Growth 1. ce ilings • Columns . laundry areas .1.3.2 Internal Ignition Control 1.) shall have electrical/mechanical systems designed for the specific use.2 Interior Finish 1. National Electric Code. (e) These spaces shall be separated from other parts of the build ing by fire resistive barriers . General Requirements/Information • Includes exposed materials applied to the surface of walls . Technical Requ irements/Information (a) Includes exposed surfaces of construction systems including: • Fixed/movable walls • Floors. and special use areas (kitchens .1 Fuel for Ignition 1. electrical systems shall be designed to accommodate the maximum anticipated power load ings without causing electrical faults or short circuits . General Requirementsllnformation • Hazard of ignition from a fire posed by conditions inside the building. such as human acts (smoking. ceilings and other structural members . (d) Design/installation of electrical systems shall meet NFPA 70 . 1. 1. etc.2. Technical Requirements/Information (a) Sources of internal ignition in a hotel may include: • Electrical and Mechan ical systems • Human acts . primaryl auxiliary function rooms .). woodworking fa cilities. arson . (c) Use of highly flammable materials (polyurethane foam . etc. (d) The design of such spaces shall anticipate the changing needs of the facility and shall also consider the large amounts of combustible materials that can accumulate.) for interior finish or furnishings is discouraged . These materials are tested and rated in accordance with industry standards . etc. arson) and malfunction of electrical/mechanical equipment. (b) Storage of combustible materials shall not be permitted to accumulate in corridors. (b) To prevent ignition . floors . 2. (c) Special use areas (kitchens. Technical Requ irements/Information (a) Studies have shown that fires orig inate in storage areas.3. 2. they shall be enclosed in fire resistant barrier materials or shall be listed for use without a barrier material. Such materials shall be kept in designated storage rooms . General Requirements/Information • Combustible materials including interior finish materials and furnishings . etc. beams (b) Materials used on these surfaces include: 1-3 .smoking . etc. (f) Where these materials are used. foamed plastics .

1 m ). Table 1-1 .1 m 2 ) or using floors above or below the street level floor.NFPA 101. Technical Requirements/Information (a) Items such as curtains. and 200 in all other spaces. For addi tional information on required fire tests of finishes and furnishings. Class A1 or B2 Existing Class C3 BUSINESS STORAGE Notes: 1. 4. also known as the "Steiner Tunnel T est" (see Appendix 1-A).000 ttl (2787 . These materials are tested and rated in accordance with industry standards. contact the Director EHF & LS. 2.e .(c) (d) (e) (I) (g) • Paneling • Ca rpeting • Ceiling tiles Materials are tested in accordance with ASTM E-84. contact the Director EHF & LS. but less than 30. Table 1-1 details the maximum ratings permitted fo r interior finish materials. or with more than 3 levels (excluding mezzanines).3 Decorations 1.Fire Tests for Flame Resistant Textiles and Films . NFPA 255 . 75 in lobbies and exit corridors.Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials or UL 273. Assumes complete sprinkler protection throughout facility.Mercantile occupancies with not more than 3000 ttl (278. Flame spread ratings shall not exceed 25 in exit stai rs. fabrics and films must pass an approved test for flame resistance (i.see Appendix 1-8). 1-4 .Standard Me thods of Fire Tests for F/ame Propagation of Textiles and Films.7 m )..7 m ) . UL 2 14 . fabrics and other materials used for decorative purposes in hotels.200 Walls . Genera l Requirementsilnformation • Include curtains. N FPA 70 1 . 2 Class B . 2.200 200 200 200 2 • • HOTEL 300 occupants or less Greater than 300 occupants New • Existing MERCANTILE • • • • New Existing.Maximum Ratings for Interior Finish Maximum Flame Spread Ratings (Source . 2 Class C . Smoke development ratings sha ll not exceed 450. 2000 edition) Maximum Rating Occupancy ASS EMBLY Exit 75 75 75 200 200 200 200 200 200 Access to Exits 75 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 Other Spaces 200 200 200 200 200 Ceilings . (b) For additional information on required fire tests of finishes and furnishings . tr 1.Mercantile occupancies with total gross area greater than 30.3.Mercantile occupancies with more than 3000 (278. 3. Class A .000 ff (2787.

which uses the Standard Time-Temperature Curve to evaluate fire resistance of structural elements.4 Fire Duration 1.-++-+--+-t- B70 650 • u.2 Standard Time Temperature Curve Requirements (a) ASTM E-119. etc. Use of synthetic padding is discouraged. '" -" ''" ~ BOO 400 - 425 U Q) :J ~ + 205 -" ' ~ ~ :J Q) Cl.4.. E a 0 4 5 Q) E f- '" f- 1 2 3 6 7 8 Time in Hours Figure 1-2 .-l. Foam padding is prohibited. Measured in Ibs/ft'.1. floors. Carpeting shall not be used on ceilings or walls.Test method.-+-f.-++.1600 1200 ++." (b) Figure 1-2 displays the Standard TimelTemperature Curve . Rubberized hair and felt padding shall be used for ca rpet padding.2000 1095 -+--+.3. Combustible materials include structural elements (walls.Standard Time Temperature Curve 1-5 .4.-t. furnish ings found in the building . Cl. doors.f . UL 263 and NFPA 251. Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials .4 Special Requirements 1. ceilings. Technical Requirementsllnformation • Fire Load is the maximum amount of combustible materials expected in a given area. 1.1 Fuel Load 1. 2. such as walls. 1. floors) and contents. 2400 1315 -+-+-+-+.

Sample . J.Steiner Tunnel Test • ASTM E84. An induced air now of 240 ftlmin (73.This test uses a 20 in. The removable lid is set in place and sealed. exposing a 17 in (43.6 cm) by 17Y> in. The rating is determined by the distance the name advances down the material. NFPA 255. Exposing Elements .Appendix 1-A . and the time combustion continues to take place. • • • • 1-6 .A double jet gas burner. and UL 273 also known as the Steiner Tunnel Test was developed by A. (7. located 1 ft (0. Flame spread ratings and smoke development ratings are developed based on cementasbestos board (arbitrarily assigned a rating of 0).6 m) specimen. provides approximately 5000 Btu/min during the 10 minute test period.9 m) for the name to propagate.5 cm) intake opening . placed on a ledge in the top of the furnace in a face down position. (50. (44 . These standards should be consulted for more detailed information.2 cm) by 25 ft (7.6 m) area . leaving 19Y> ft (5. and red oak nooring (arbitrarily assigned a rating of 100).8 cm) by 25 ft. This draws the gas name approximately 4Y> ft (1.4 m) down the tunnel.2 m/min) is drawn through a 3 in (7 .3 m) from the air intake end of the tunnel. Steiner at the end of World War I.

1 m) long. For the small scale tests .9 cm) by 10 in . until flaming and afterglow stop . the material is exposed to an open flame .Uses ten specimens measuring 3)1.Appendix 1-B . These tests are not applicable for materials used for clothing or applied to the surfaces of building/backing materials as interior finish . (b) Both tests . the flame is removed after 12 seconds . Conditions for acceptance of the material are as fol lows: (a) Both tests .Length of charring does not exceed 10 in. in. The material continues to burn and the test continues.9 cm).Surface spread of flame in a folded specimen does not exceed 35 in. (8. with the material in the vertical position. (c) Small scale test . (25.five in the direction of the warp and fire in the direction of the fill. Large scale and small scale tests are performed .4 cm) .Length of charring does not exceed values specified in the test. (afterglow may spread in the folds). (88. (e) Large scale test . while the flame is removed after 2 minutes for the large scale tests. (25.Uses ten specimens measuring 7 in (17.8 cm) wide by 7 ft (2. Large Scale Test Specimens .Material which breaks/drops from the specimen does not continue to flame after falling. In both tests. • • 1-7 .Flaming stops with in 2 seconds of removal of ignition source . (d) Large scale test .5 cm) wide by 7 ft (2. These standards should be consulted for more detailed information . Small Scale Test Specimens .1 m) long and four specimens measuring 25 in (63 .4 cm).Fire Tests for Flame Resistant Textiles and Films • • • • • • Fire tests for flame res istant textiles and films are based on NFPA 701 and UL 214 .

etc. beams and bearing elements is essential if the building is to withstand fire. steel. the building height and area can be determined.e. o Use of approved fastenings. 2-1 . (e) ASTM E-119 . floors . concrete). the model building code in effect for the site. 2. • Type 5: Wood Frame Construction . UL 263.2 Structural Resistance to Fire 2. (b) The integrity of columns. • Type 2: Non-Combustible Construction . (c) As buildings increase in size. the ability of the structural frame to perform when exposed to fire becomes more critical. (d) The ability of the structural frame to withstand fire is measured using ASTM E119. or other applicable locallnational regulations.2 2. ceilings. and NFPA 251. Have a high level of fire endurance.This test method evaluates the ability of the structural element to withstand the standard fire. Results of this test are expressed as fire resistance ratings. o Proper protection of concealed spaces under floors and roofs. buildings do not have as high a level of fire endurance as Type 1. The building height and area will impact the means of egress out of the building and the ease of fire fighting operations.Similar to Type 1.1 Construction Introduction In the event a fire occurs.Buildings with exterior and interior walls.2.Bu ildings constructed of noncombustible materials (i. (f) Fire resistance rating of the structural elements is related to the type of construction used. and interior fram ingldecking constructed of wood. construction details and adhesives for structural members. Based on the specific occupancy. Interior structural members are constructed of wood or metal.Exterior walls constructed entirely of non-combustible materials such as brick or concrete block. New hotel facilities are required to be designed to prevent the disbursement of fire and smoke throughout the building. • Type 3: Exterior Masonry Wall Construction . it is important to limit fire and smoke spread throughout the hotel.1 Rating of Structural Elements (a) The construction type shall be based on the requirements of NFPA 101. Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials. and o Providing the proper degree of fire resistance rating in exterior and interior walls. One way this can be accomplished is by dividing the hotel into fire resistive compartments using fire rated barriers such as walls.. • Types 3B and 5B Construction are not permitted. (g) Types of Construction • Type 1: Fire Resistive Construction .Fire resistance rating is achieved by: o Specifying minimum sizes of wood structural members and minimum thickness and composition of wood floors and roofs. The type of construction for a building is determined based on the types of occupancies in the building. • Type 4: Heavy Timber Construction .

dampers and fire stopping materials must be listed by UL or other nationally recognized testing laboratory. hour rated doors 2. 2. 1 Floors Typically first major barrier to be exposed to fire. hour rated doors (f) 1 hour partition : Y. Exception : NFPA 101. that is not a "fire wall".3 Partitions (a) Any wall with a fire rating of 2 hours or less. or Y. (c) All penetrations in fire rated walls must be properly protected .4. (b) Guestroom Corridors . If building code requirements or other codes are more restrictive. hr rated doors andlor dampers (f) Doors. Life Safety Code. Commonly used to separate different occupancies. (d) Duct openings : Must be provided with fire dampers. at a min imum .4 Fire Barriers Fire barriers are an important method to limit fire and smoke spread within a building . The longer this system withstands the fire.4. (b) Must be constructed of non-combustible materials. Standard on Types of Building Construction .3 Building Height and Area The maximum building height and area allowed shall be based on the requirements of NFPA 101 . 2. Life Safety Code . The following sections summarize the types of fire barriers and associated requirements : 2. meet the requirements of NFPA 101 . Used to separate different use spaces within the same occupancy. Shall have sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side w ithout collapse of the wall. where automatic sprinkler protection is installed 2-2 . then these requirements shall be enforced. to subd ivide floors of excessive area and as horizontal exit barriers.4. with self-closing 20 minute fire rated door assembl ies . (e) 2 hour partition : 1Y. (b) Shall be continuous from top of floor surface below to the underside of the floor/roof slab or deck above .1 hr fire resistance rating. All guestroom doors shall have automatic closers and shall be positively latching.4 Corridor Walls (a) Used to separate use spaces from path of travel to the use spaces. (d) 3 hr or 4 hr walls : 3 hr rated doors andlor dampers (e) 2 hr walls : 1Y. Life Safety Code which references NFPA 220.4. the longer people have to evacuate the building .(h) The minimum fire resistance rating of structural elements shall . 2. allows y. hour fire rated corridor walls. 2. (c) Any penetrations must be sealed with non-combustible material for full thickness and equal to the fire resistance rating of the barrier. if the wall being penetrated has a fire resistance rating of 2 hours or more.2 Walls (a) Highly reliable barrier installed to limit fire spread .

the floor opening must be protected to limit the possible spread of fire vertically. 2. 2-3 . trash chutes.6 Elevator Enclosures (a) Shall be of 2 hour fire resistive construction .5 Exit Stair Enclosures (a) Not permitted to be used for the storage of any materials. • Smoke detectors are required to be installed on the underside of the floor protruding into the atrium . 2. with 1Y. shall be provided with electromagnetic hold open devices . (b) Maximum of four elevators permitted per shaft. This exception can be applied if other codes do not require more restrictive ratings (c) Fire doors that are frequently held open. • The amount of combustible furnishings and decorations contained within the atrium shall be limited . 1B or 2A are the only types of construction in which atria are permitted. the construction of storage rooms in stairwells is not permitted . at the atrium roof. water flow device). electrical wiring .1 m) and a min imum area of 1000 ft2 (92. (b) Serving more than 4 stories : 2 hour fire-rated enclosure required . In addition . (c) Floor openings that do not meet the dimensional requirements for atria shall be limited to a total of three stories and shall be protected by the Spray Nozzle Method. (c) All penetrations in the enclosure must be grouted or sealed to the full thickness of the wall and dampered . with all penetrating openings protected .4. etc. dumbwaiters. and openings for stairwell pressurization .e. (b) Must have a minimum horizontal dimension of 20 ft (6.4. with 1 hour rated door assemblies.4. and adjacent to each return air intake from the atrium . (d) Atria are permitted in hotels provided the following requirements are met: • Type 1A. Spray Nozzle Method.8 Escalators (a) Must be enclosed with barriers if part of the exit system. linen chutes.4. (b) If not enclosed as required for exit stairwells. smoke detector. 2..7 Other Shafts (a) Used for ventilation equipment. (b) Shall be protected by enclosures with fire resistance rating of 2 hours.throughout the hotel.4.9 m 2). conduit for electrical equipment.9 Atria (a) Large vertical opening that spans two or more floors. (d) Penetrations in stairwells are only permitted for exit doorways. ductwork for ventilation. (c) Serving 4 stories or less: 1 hour fire-rated enclosure required. 2. refer to Append ix 2-A. 2. hr rated door assemblies. piping for fire suppression. that will release when activated (i . (c) For additional information on ways to enclose escalators refer to Appendix 2-A.

000 CFM (1. (b) At a minimum. o • • • 2.134 m 3/min) or six air changes per hour.4.000 ft3 (17 . which permits the glass framing system to deflect without loading the glass before the sprinklers operate. and Large Areas.003 m 3) shall be provided with a smoke exhaust system at the ceiling capable of exhausting 40 . Exits must be separately enclosed from the atrium .11 Other Areas (a) Based on the potential hazard of some spaces. For volumes greater than 600. o An acceptable alternative to the smoke exhaust system requirements detailed above can be found in NFPA 92B .3 m) of the glass wall. Exception: A glass wall with closely spaced sprinklers may be used in lieu of tire barriers.The atrium must be separated from adjacent spaces with 1 hour fire rated walls and automatic/self-closing opening protectives. the higher fire resistance rating for the barrier shall be used . provided this space is included in the total volume used for smoke management systems .003 m 3). laminated or tempered glass in a steel frame held in place by the gasket system.4. The glass shall be wired.• Separation .8 m) in height shall have supply air mechanically introduced near the bottom of the atrium and directed upward toward the top of the atrium at a rate equal to 50% of the exhaust. andlor manual controls provided for use by the fire department. the following areas shall be provided with fire res istant rated floors and walls as described below : • 1-HOUR o Kitchens o Computer Rooms 2-HOUR o Boiler Rooms o Transformer Rooms o Switchgear and Emergency Switchgear Rooms 2-4 • .10 Separation of Use Spaces (a) Major building use categories shall be separated from each other. 2. provided the sprinklers are spaced no more than 6 ft (1. Atria greater than 55 ft (16. Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls. The atrium smoke exhaust system shall be activated by the sprinkler system. o Gravity supply inlets shall be provided at the lowest level of the atrium and shall be sized for 50% of the exhaust for atria 55 ft (16 . Up to three levels of the hotel may be open to the atrium.000 ft3 (17. the system shall be capable of exhausting four air changes per hour.8 m) apart and are within 1 ft (0. Existing atriums shall be reviewed by a fire protection engineer to determine what systems need to be added or upgraded . (c) When two occupancies w ith different fire resistance ratings are to be separated. fire resistance rated barriers are required between different spaces . Atria. atrium smoke detectors.8 m) or less in height. whichever is greater. (b) Separation requirements shall be based on local building codes or other standard enforced by local AHJ . • Smoke Exhaust Systems o Atria with volumes less than 600.

2 Smoke Management Systems (a) Smoke management systems are not required by Starwood .5. (c) An engineered smoke control system uses building HVAC fans to help maintain tenable conditions in the means of egress during evacuation and to limit the spread of smoke throughout the building .1 Physical Barriers (a) During a fire. and by starting the exhaust fan in the fire zone and the supply fan(s) in all other areas. This equipment is not required on doors leading to rooms with low amounts of combustibles. the pressure and temperature of the air increase. (b) Doors are important barriers to help prevent the spread of smoke.o o o o o o o o o o • Laundry Rooms Combustible or Flammable Liquid Storage/Use Rooms Carpenter Shops Furniture Refinish ing Rooms Dry Cleaning Rooms Projection Booths Fire Pump Room Transformer Switch Room Generator Room Combined Computer/PBXlPABX Room For new construction and where practical in existing facilities. Doors opening into any portion of the exit system shall be provided with self-closing or automatic closing devices and positive latching hardware. the atmosphere in the room is mixture of smoke. (c) Spaces around penetrations. such as walls and doors. (d) The objective of smoke management system is to provide a relative negative pressure in the fire zone . 2.5 Smoke Barriers There are many ways to restrict the movement of smoke. or ducts. 2. such as pipes. a graphic display of the hotel 2-5 . As the fire grows. (b) Barriers. such as restrooms.5. (e) In order for the fire department to have a clear understanding of which areas are affected by the supply and exhaust fans. including physical barriers and smoke management systems. fire gases and hot air. This can be accomplished by stopping both the supply fan serving the zone containing the fire and the exhaust fan(s) serving all other areas of the building. should be sealed with a non-combustible material. The presence of automatic fire suppression systems will also minimize the amount of smoke generated. This increase in pressure is great enough to force smoke and fire through any openings in the room . will influence the spread of smoke in a building. the following shall be constructed as wholly separate spaces: o Fire Pump Room o Electrical Switchgear Room o Emergency Generator Room o Emergency Switchgear Room o Emergency Power Transfer Switch Room 2. conduits.

however. Other Features Stairwell pressurization is not required by Starwood. (f) For detailed requirements for smoke management systems refer to NFPA 92A. many jurisdictions require these systems if the building is classified as a high-rise. Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems.3 showing the areas serviced by each fan shall be mounted near the manual controls.5.2. 2-6 .

6 Umin).5 cm) from the opening. • • • 2-7 . The number of sprinklers calculated shall be the number in length. The demand of the system shall be added to the demand of the hydraulically calculated system for the area of operation. Sprinklers shall be hydraulically designed to discharge 3 gpm per lineal foot (38 Umin per lineal meter).Spray Nozzle Method • • Closely spaced sprinklers (creating a water curtain) are recommended for the protection of large floor openings. with no sprinklers discharging less than 15 gpm (58.8 m) apart and 6-12 in. such as those created by escalators or atria. Cross baffles shall be installed for sprinklers spaced closer than 6 ft apart.Appendix 2-A .230. corresponding to the length parallel to the branch lines in the design area. Sprinklers shall be spaced no more than 6 ft (1. (15.

for new construction and major renovations .4 Smoke (a) Smoke detectors are required in all areas of the building . assembly areas (restaurants. (f) Activation of the device shall be received at the Fire Command Center and the local fire department. 3-1 . heat detectors.1 Fire Detection Principles and General Information 3. such as transformer rooms. (b) Generally sprinklers are required throughout the building . nuisance alarm reduction methods can be applied . dining rooms. Appendix 3-A contains add itional information on nuisance alarm reduction methods . (e) Manual alarm devices shall be connected to the bui lding alarm system . In these areas combination heat/smoke detectors are required .3 Fire Detection and Alarm 3. (c) Manual alarm stations shall be located near exits. 1. 1.1.3 Heat (a) The automatic sprinkler system serves as the automatic heat detection system . elevator machine rooms. such that a trouble ind ication is activated if the detector is removed or not reporting .2 Human (a) If a fire is detected by a person. (d) Interconnected smoke detectors shall be installed in every guestroom . however there are a few locations where sprinklers may be omitted. In addition. (d) The travel distance to a manual alarm station shall not exceed 150 ft . 3. 3. (b) Means to activate/send alarms include manual alarm stations .1 . (46 m).1 General Requirements (a) Fires may be detected by automatic devices (smoke detectors. (b) Installation of fire alarm/detection systems shall be supervised by qualified/experienced personnel. Sprinkler systems are heat activated and are requ ired to be installed in all Starwood hotels. etc.) and at the hotel desk or other continuously supervised locations. the detectors shall be fully supervised . activation of sprinkler system) or by human senses . information regarding the fire should be transmitted as quickly as possible . These detectors shall sound a local alarm in the room and shall be annunciated at the Fire Command Center. (c) Where nuisance alarm problems are anticipated. 3. (b) Type of smoke detector shall be selected based on the specific application . etc. (g) For areas where nu isance alarm problems are anticipated . a doubleaction alarm station (requires two actions to be performed in sequence in order to activate an alarm) may be used .

radiation or heat. a detector shall be installed in the access to each sleeping area . The entire zone wiring and all detectors are supervised by the control un it. • Figure 3-1 . etc. o Evaluate the environment for smoke .(e) Single station smoke detectors. Mechanical guards shall be listed for such use. • Spot Type Smoke Detectors . o Devices within a distinctive geograph ical area are connected together to form an annunciation zone. however there are minor restrictions with regard to the environmental conditions of the area they monitor (high air velocity. flames. a signal is transmitted to the control un it which provides operating power to the detectors. humidity. sprinkler waterfiow detectors . These detectors are widely used . the smoke detectors shall be equipped with a visua l strobe light. 3.Are able to detect fire in early stages. (f) If the guestroom/suite contains more than one bedroom.Typical Ionization Smoke Detectors 3-2 . before flames occur. o Upon detection of an alarm cond ition.) Figure 3-1 shows typica l ionization type smoke detectors.1. (g) In rooms designed for accessibility for the hearing impaired . receiving primary power from nonswitchable bu ilding AC circuit may remain in use in existing hotels. o Devices shall be protected against mechanical damage.5 Detection System Components A fire detection system typically found in hotels may consist of the following components: (a) Automatic fire detection devices • General o Initiating devices include automatic fire detection devices . Smoke detectors shall be marked with the nominal production sensitivity (percent per foot obscuration). Types of smoke detectors include : o Ionization-type Smoke Detectors respond to visible and invisible products of combustion . and manually activated fire alarm stations .

o Optical Smoke Detectors respond to visible products of combustion . corridors.Typical Air Duct Monitoring Unit • Linear Beam-Type Smoke Detectors o Most common linear beam type smoke detectors operate on theory of obscuration.ballrooms. 3-3 . etc. o A typical linear beam-type smoke detector set is shown in Figure 3-4. atriums.Typical Optical Smoke Detectors o Smoke Detectors for Air Duct Monitoring consist of a smoke chamber. Figure 3-2 . an alarm is generated. Figure 3-3 shows a typical air duct monitoring unit. Suitable for the protection of general areas in hotels and for electrical installations. Figure 3-3 . o Use an invisible light beam . Figure 3-2 shows typical optical smoke detectors. when the beam becomes obscured by smoke (at a pre-determined level). o Suitable for the protection of large spaces . which is connected to the air duct by means of an air bypass syslem . especially light-reflecting smoke.

o Utilize a network of sampl ing tubes located with in a protected area .combine the features of rate of rise and fixed temperature heat detectors. typically associated with open flames fires . o Suitable for clean environments and areas where detection is required at the earliest possible stage . o Dual Element Heat Detectors . o Line-type Heat Detectors . Should be used when rate of rise type detectors are not suitable . o Respond faster than standard spot-type detectors.Figure 3-4 .typically consist of two actuators encased in heat sensitive material.above cooking stoves and deep fryers . tunnels. contact • 3-4 . such as kitchens . Suitable for extremely dirty/dusty environments such as underground garages w ith insufficient ventilation .Typical Linear Beam Type Smoke Detector Set • Incipient Type Fire Detection Systems o Operate on one of two basic methods . etc.Suitable for environments where rapid fire development is expected and where smoke detectors can 't be used because of environmenta l cond itions and where sprinklers can't be installed due to water sensitivity of equipment. Heat detectors shall be marked with color coding per the requirements of NFPA 72. Typically used in dirty or greasy environments . Spot-Type Heat Detectors . mechanical workshops. they are detected by one of the methods described above.can detect rapid temperature changes .light scattering or cloud chamber detection.go into alarm when preset temperature is exceeded . elevator machine rooms. etc . Also suitable for large spaces which are inaccessible to spot-type detectors such as atriums and large ballrooms subject to multiple configurations. the insulation material melts. o Fixed Temperature Heat Detectors . o If smoke particles exist in the air sample. Types of Heat Detectors include: o Rate of Rise Heat Detectors . When the critical temperature is reached .

o Actually respond to the optical radiation effect of flames . open spaces such as terraces . where smoke/heat wil l not accumulate to make the other types of detectors respond . All line-type detectors respond to heat applied which does not have to be the result of an open flame . patios. • Shou ld be located near exits.o o o is made between the two conductors and an alarm is initiated.Respond to the effects of open flames . etc. Figure 3-6 . etc.Combination Rate-of-Rise/ Fixed Temperature Heat Detector • Flame Detectors . o A typical flame detector is shown in Figure 3-6. Rate Compensated Heat Detector . o Typically used in hig h. independent of the rate of temperature rise . Heat detectors are not required in most areas of fully sprinklered buildings . at the entrance to stairwells.Typical Flame Type Detector (b) Manual Alarm Stations • Allow manual activation of fire detection system . such as color (wavelength) and flickering . A combination rate-of-rise/fixed temperature heat detector is shown in Figure 3-5 . Typically not used in hotels. Figure 3-5 . wide.responds when the tempera ture of air reaches a pre-determined level. 3-5 . in highrisk areas . o Typically not used in hotels..

This will help determine the location of the fire . Examples of types of manual alarm stations are shown in Figure 3-7. o All control valves shou ld be supervised to ensure the system is available when needed. Any abnormal conditions would result in a trouble or supervisory condition . yet accessible to persons with disabilities. o All sprinkler systems are required to be monitored by the fire alarm system . Should be on separate annunciation zones from automatic detection devices. o Initiation of the alarm signal shall occur within 90 seconds of water flow at the alarm initiating device. o Water flow and pressure switches can be installed at the main supply and on various branch lines of the system . etc. 3-6 . electrical pump readiness. The location and spacing of these devices shall meet the requirements of NFPA 72. may be monitored by the fire alarm system .Examples of Manual Alarm Stations (c) Sprinkler System Water Flow Monitoring o The activation a sprinkler can be monitored by flow or pressure switches installed on the sprinkler system. Figure 3-7 . o Other conditions such as water tank level.o o o o Should be mounted so they are highly visible.

2. • The operator's terminal consists of the operation and indication panel. Monitoring points could include a switch which signals opening of a hose cabinet or removal of hose.Useful where unwarranted removal of fire hoses may occur.Removal of fire extinguisher can be signaled.(d) Optional Monitoring Devices • In general. • Evaluates incoming signals from detection devices. valves.) 2. several control units may report to a single operator's terminal. Provision of electrical supply to the detectors 3. • In larger installations. Electronic monitoring of all connected activation devices (detectors. • It may be advisable to monitor devices related to the building's life safety equipment. water supplies . local or remote 4. trouble and active lights per zone and displays the overall conditions of the system . and wiring terminals for input/output connections. etc. water flow/tamper switches. zone and system reset. • Typical control units are subdivided into the following sections : 1. Control of operator's terminal. Activation of control outputs • The control unit consists of an enclosure with printed circuit boards. (e) Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP) Un it • Information center of the fire alarm system . etc. such as standpipes/hose systems. Automatic alarm transmission to the fire brigade 6. • May be combined with operator's terminal to form operational center of the fire alarm system. etc. 3-7 . Annunciation Section . Activation of internal alarms 5. fan control) • Must be equipped with backup power supply. but should indicate trouble or supervisory condition. which allows full operation of the system in all situations. • Hose Reel Monitoring . Other commands may be given to the control unit depending on the complexity of the installation . • Initiates alarms and fire control measures (door closure .consists of a set of push buttons and switches which allow alarm/trouble acknowledgement. and a flow switch which indicates that water is being discharged. • Manual Fire Extinguisher Monitoring . Operation/Control Section . manual alarm stations. manual alarm stations. devices not related to fires should not initiate an alarm. • Main functions of the FACP include: 1. indicating use or theft.provides alarm. uninterruptible power supply.

Roadside Hotels/Motels II II Figure 3-8 .6 Discussion/ Classification of Hotel Types (a) Type A . Buildings are usually of very light construction and do not provide much resistance to fire .1 . Escape routes are usually simple and fire fighter access is normally uncomplicated .3. 3-8 .Roadside HotelslMotel • • • Single or double-story buildings. Due to the light construction. the possibility of spreading fire qu ickly is high . usually spread out over a large area .

typically five floors or less. May have central AC systems and air handling units. This creates an underpressure in the area of smoke and an overpressure in smokefree areas. Escape routes are slightly more complex than for Type A bu ildings. 3-9 . As a general guideline. The fire detection system should control the air condition ing system via its output controls . the exhaust fans should be running and the supply fans should be stopped for zones in alarm . Escape routes such as stairwells are usually switched to 100% fresh air supply and kept pressurized as long as the emergency situation exists .(b) Type B . which would increase the potential for smoke distribution .Regional Hotels Figure 3-9 . since guestrooms may on ly be accessible via a main lobby arrangement. Easily accessible via the parking lots surrounding the building .Regional Hotel o o o o o o o 'Low-rise' bu ildings.

Metropolitan Hotel • • • • • • Typically consist of a single building block. Typically. The Fire Command Center should preferably contain a control panel from which the fire chief can override any automatic controls. access to guestrooms is through a central lobby. Escape routes may be complex and include separate.(e) Type C . with more than six stories. Fire fighter access is far more difficult than Type A and B buildings.Metropolitan Hotels Figure 3-10 . distributed exit stairwells leading directly to the outside . surrounded by elevators. 3-10 . Smoke control systems should be considered due to the AC and air handling systems installed in Type C buildings .

(d) Type 0 . Escape routes are extremely important. 2. alert only endangered areas • • • 3-11 . Smoke is one of the greatest hazards in high-rise hotels . Early smoke detection by sensitive and reliable detectors is extremely important. Make guests feel familiar with the premises (permanently displayed safety and emergency instructions in room).High-Rise Hotel Buildings Figure 3-11 . High degree of fire resistance for construction and early fire suppression by mandatory sprinkler systems provide the occupants a long period of time in which to vacate the building. therefore emergency stairwells are the only means of evacuating the building in a conventional manner. Initially.High Rise Hotel • • Buildings have a large number of stories and rooms. Clearly mark all escape routes 3. The potential for panic should be recognized for high-rise hotels and shou ld be compensated for by the following measures: 1. Elevators shall not be used in case of fire.

• • • •

4. Give clear directions to escaping persons via live voice communication . Elevators for use by fire-fighters shall be automatically recalled to designated floor. The status of all elevators shall be provided on an elevator status panel located in the Fire Command Center. A display panel for the HVAC systems should also be provided in the Fire Command Center. The fire officer in charge should remain in the Fire Command Center during an emergency. This person can inform and direct escaping persons and communicate with the fire fighters via the emergency telephone system. The emergency telephone system is an important means of communication in high-rise hotels. This system is required for Starwood high-rise hotels.

3.2 Alarm Processing and Communication 3.2.1 Fire Command Center
1. General Requirementsilnformation After the fire has been detected, the alarm signal is sent to the hotel's Fire Command Center. At this point, the signal is analyzed and the appropriate actions are determined . 2. Technical Requirements/Information (a) Shall be located in a portion of the facility near the main entrance. This should be coordinated with local AHJs. (b) The command center is the base of fire department operations, and is used to house the communication and fire system control panels . (c) Information displayed at the Fire Command Center shall also be displayed at satellite panels located in the telephone operators' area, near the front desk and in the facility engineering offices of a large complex .

3.2.2

Supervisory and Troub/e Signals
(a) Personnel monitoring the hotel's Fire Command Center must be able to differentiate between a fire alarm signal, a trouble signal (result of system/device failure) and a supervisory signal (initiated by a piece of supervised equipment). (b) The Fire Command Center shall be designed for the strict needs of the operator. Specifications shall require • Permanently mounted clear operating instructions and labeling , • Understandable hotel nomenclature, and • Clear zone layouts (c) Fire alarm systems will be divided into zones. The size of the zone is dependent on the size of the facil ity and the ind ividual use spaces . (d) Zoning shall be by bu ilding , floor and device type , with no zone exceeding 20 ,000 ft' (1 ,858 .1 m' ). (e) Table 3-1 summarizes the actions to be taken when signals are received at the Fire Command Center.

3-12

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3-13

3.2.3

Emergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) Systems
(a) Every Starwood property shall be provided with a complete detection and emergency voice alarm communication system . (b) Shall consist of an aud io control panel and speaker circuits located throughout the building . (c) From the Fire Command Center, the speakers can be fed from a variety of signals including • Alert tone • Evacuation message • Taped , digitized , or live voice • Evacuation tone (d) Shall be able to communicate with the entire hotel as well as selected areas such as lobbies, elevator cars, hotel guestroomlsuites , etc. (e) The EVAC system shall be independent of the day to day publ ic address system . (f) Inputs from Fire Detection System • In automatic mode , the EVAC uses control signals from the fire detection system's control outputs for automatic selection of the appropriate speaker zones . • EVAC systems should be located in the Fire Command Center. • Manual operation of the alarm and voice communication system will override the automatic control signals . • The highest priority is given to the master microphone's talk switch, allowing live messages to override all other signals. • The EVAC shall be wired to override the publ ic address system . • Control inputs from the fire detection system shall be fed to the following modules : 1. Speaker zone selection matrix to allow automatic selection of zones to be alerted ; minimum one zone per floor. 2. Alarm tone generator. In cases where coded messages are desired , the control signals select the codes to be broadcast. 3. Aud io amplifier increases sound level to minimum requirements in each zone. 4. Selection switch , in cases where an automatic selection between prerecorded messages and alarm tones is desired . • Figure 3-12 displays a block diagram of an automatically activated EVAC system. (g) Speaker Zone Circuits • Fire alarm and EVAC speakers are supervised by the fire alarm system . • The circu its must be Class A wired . • If a malfunction is detected, TROUBLE ind ications must be given . • The system's internal modules, such as amplifiers , must be supervised . Redundant modules are required in special cases . When the primary module exhibits a fault condition , the system automatically switches over to the secondary module .

3-14

.. 3.2...""". SYS'fV TAPE P~"'y[R FOR PRE .RECOROIO ..veSSAG(S Figure 3-12 . .TwOl SIGN .Block Diagram of An Automatically Activated Voice Communication/Evacuation System (h) Battery Standby Power • Typically the entire system is provided with standby battery power to allow full operation in case the main power fails. ~- ALARM TO!ol£c. (f) Remote stations are typically installed in the following locations: • Elevators • Elevator lobbies • Near the fire fighter's entrance • Near entrances to stairwells and the exit levels • At each level of an enclosed exit stair • Emergency generator room • Fire pump room 3-15 . • Batteries should be rechargeable and automatically be kept charged . • Batteries should be supervised.."" ./E SnEClION '--+ SPEAMR Zo.'E SELECTION _ _ .ENEAA TOR Au rOVA1K CO. (c) Provide two-way communication between the Fire Command Center and various locations throughout the building ."TRIX 5PEAJ<ER SUPEA\I5tON . and separately zoned telephones or telephone jacks .!1tO. . rCl<AIOI' swncu S(LECTtON "'. (e) The operator can communicate with any single or combination of remote stations (maximum of 5 stations) simultaneously.4 Fire Fighter's Te/ephone System (a) Required in buildings greater than 3 stories in height... lS fROM FIRE OETECTIOf'.. (b) Are part of dedicated system to be used by firefighters in an emergency..• hlM'\JAl • • • •• • • • ••• • •• •• ZOf. (d) The system consists of a master station and control unit.

r----------------.tl Tl-IE BUll OJ-lG HANDSETS FOR FIRa. fire fighter's telephone and security alarm systems) into a single unit has many advantages .• Designated area of refuge (g) When an emergency telephone is lifted off the hook or a portable handset is plugged in. 2.Block Diagram of An Emergency Telephone System 3. etc.5 Combination Systems 1. wiring. (h) Figure 3-13 displays a block diagram of a Fire Fighter's Telephone System. 3-16 . data-gathering panels. no"! rOR FRf MARSHAl. RLCPs (often called transponders. Figure 3-13 ..2. A multiplexed system shall be capable of: 1. an audible signal is given at the master station and a display identifies the location.including reduction in costs. emergency voice alarm communication. General Requirements/Information • Combining the various systems (fire detection. etc. Technical Requirements/Information (a) Transponder Systems • Rather than wiring all zones directly to the main control cabinet. hold-up. Relaying local fire. space.. or burglar alarm information with satellite and zone location from the transponders to the central controller.) are typically connected to the central controller over a 4-wire multiplex communication network. D-EotCAT£O SUSSTATIONS OA JACtcS l I-IROUGHOl. the zones within a given area are connected to Remotely Located Control Panels (RLCPs).EN MASfER ST It.

• In addition .• 2. should be programmed with the following priorities : 1. 2nd priority: Security 3. 5th priority: Trouble Conditions • In case of a fire alarm. The central operating terminal then. In an emergency it may be advantageous to perform manual zone selection along with transmission of live voice messages. and control power are used. This correlation makes audible evacuation signals possible on the floor where a fire was detected. Transmitting switching commands for loudspeaker or telephone zones from the central controller to the transponder units. 3-17 . If a building's layout is changed or expanded. 3. as well as on the adjacent floors . common lines for audio signals. This is often called 'control-by-vent' • programming. this is performed by arranging manual selection panels in the control room . 1st priority: Fire alarm 2. 3rd priority : Building Services 4. emergency telephone. (c) Manual Zone Selection With Priority • Although combination systems may perform several functions. thus allowing exact ta iloring of a system to a particular building. • An example of such correlation is found in the 'standard' highrise concept. the zone wiring and the transponder units themselves. this method allows as few as 10 to 12 wires to carry all information for a large building . In addition to the multiplexed communication network cable . • In transponder systems . modern multiplex systems allow on-site programming of a switching matrix. the system can then easily be adapted to the new circumstances. Providing continuous supervision of the multiplexed communication network. automatic zone selection based on the programmed correlation is desired. 4th priority: Supervisory Alarms 5. (b) Correlation Between Initiating Device and Voice Communication Zone Switching • The main advantage in using a single microprocessor-based integrated system package utilizing multiplex communication techniques lies in the ability to program output functions based on alarm inputs. fire alarms must always have the highest priority. With transponder systems. with alert signals be ing sounded on other floors. built in lights indicate the zones already switched on and also the areas from which the fire alarm signals originated . Instead of using hundreds of wires in heavy multi-core cable. In addition to rows of push buttons for the actual selection . it is possible to program any combination and correlation.

• If multiple systems are installed .3.. 2.<4.. t ....on := •• -- _ _____ U"'.g.6 System Integration 1.(\1"'0-. from smoke. DE l( C t..lI(.) and derive from them the appropriate output or control signals. .--- . 2. 4~ 10 '-fll OOOA-~ ·PIO~ \oIO"tnOhfG -----... one of the following combinations may be used : 1. "c.S. heat and fiame detectors. Signal inputs on ly (from other systems to fire detection/alarm systems) for alerting and evacuation purposes.. Technical Requirementslln formation (a) Multiple Systems • Most of today's fire detection control panels are microprocessor controlled . a"'O"b'~ 01 """" '-'S. manual alarm stations.. • These systems are in a position to evaluate various types of input signals (e .2. Signal inputs to fire detection/alarm systems for alerting. ----. evacuation and alarm processing.L Figure 3-14 · Typical System Interconnections 3-18 . ll!Oo4 -------+ "'.. and signal outputs to the other systems (in case of alarm) for control purposes • Figure 3-14 details typical system interconnections for multiple systems .-- """. etc.. General Requirements/Information • This section covers basic principles/concepts of combining the fire detection and alarm systems and fire suppression and smoke venting systems .

. • Pre-Action Sprinkler Systems 1.ll "'A -VII ~ 'f Figure 3-15 . The sprinkler system is now comparable to a wet system. 2. preaction sprinkler system).(b) Signal Inputs to Fire Detection/Alarm Systems • In addition to the input signals from the automatic detectors and manual stations..:. when the automatic fire detector responds.-. Sprinkler flow switches (A) 2..... Smoke damper actuation (S) • It is important that the alarm signals (A) and the supervisory signals (S) are treated differently.g. the following signals should be fed into the fire detection control panel: 1. . as well as in water sensitive installations such as computer rooms. Fire extinguishing and hose reel monitoring (S) (if indicated) 4 . Ot u c:r""". the detection system shall be listed by a nationally recognized agency for the specific application.. ~"H'''' CQN ' ~ --- CO'. ~ .o. deluge system.. . (c) Signal Outputs to Fire Suppression Systems • In special cases the fire detection system is used to control the actuation of a fire suppression system (e. Sprinkler tamper switches (S) 3. Used for areas exposed to either below freezing or very high temperatures.e. StGN ' ~ "-' ~ liO\. with each head responding immediately when the actuation temperature is reached . As shown in Figure 3-15. i. indicated and transmitted accordingly.Principle of A Pre-Action Sprinkler System 3-19 . Note: If the detection system is used to actuate the fire suppression system. the dry valve automatically opens and water is released into the pipe.

as open nozzles are installed.. a water curtain system may be effective. 4 .. I ~.. water from an existing supply is fed via an alarm valve to the open nozzles. Water Curta in System o In cases where fire compartmentation is incomplete (e.eoe. <oo. Uholl .• Deluge Systems 1...g. Deluge systems spray water over an entire area. underground garages or escalators between floors)... by the fire detection system's control unit.... 2. (CoHI"'~\ .-=.... o A water curtain installation may be considered a fireproof division between protected and unprotected areas."b' . In this case..Principle of Water Curtain Protection 3-20 .Principle of Detector Activated Deluge System (Common Activation) 3. Water release is controlled automatically.-I!O. ftAl C·4Jt(11Of< Sn-[>." A. these nozzles merely represent a means of distributing water. "'fOU 10000 fllllf Of !'CTOMS • ----. o Figure 3-17 displays the principle of water curta in protection .4 ~. or manually. TRAP PRt S~A( ~ • ..... As shown in Figure 3-16. Figure 3-16 .. whereas fire detection is performed by the fire detection system . I Figure 3-17 ...) nOM . in large open halls.

(d) Detector Activated Extinguishing Systems • Hotels may contain specific hazards that are unusual when compared with the overall fire potential in the facility. Such "special areas" would include, but are not limited to: 1. Kitchen cooking equipment, exhaust hoods and ducts 2. Major computer rooms 3. Transformer switchgear and elevator equipment rooms • When considering these special areas from a design standpoint, the unique nature of the hazards will often indicate that a "multilevel protection" approach is required to achieve the highest possible probability that a fire in one of these areas would be detected and suppressed . • The first level of protection should be aimed at assuring that the special hazard area is designed to have as much inherent safety as possible, regardless of the presence of an automatic suppression system . • The basic automatic fire sprinkler system installed throughout the building will generally serve as an effective fire extinguishing medium for most of these special hazard areas. Beyond that, certain special hazard extinguishing systems which are better suited to the hazard can be considered as an extra level of protection . Such special hazard systems would often be expected to respond faster than automatic sprinklers and be more effective in extinguishing the fire more quickly. • Water spray mist and other special hazard extinguishing systems are now available for application in areas previously protected by dry chemical or gas systems. It is anticipated that other effective , less harmless gaseous systems will soon become available. Halon 1301 is no longer permitted for use in new or renovated Starwood hotels. • Where Special Hazard Systems Are Installed: 1. The system should have a readily accessible means of manual activation, and be clearly identified so it cannot be confused with other systems . 2. The system should be coordinated with other systems that are expected to function in case of fires or emergencies . 3. The system should be designed to automatically disconnect energy sources . 4 . The electronic supervision of the protected areas and the special extinguishing systems should be an integral part of the central Detection/Alarm/Emergency Communication System. • Planning 1. The planning and designing of dry extinguishing systems is a very specialized task and should only be attempted by companies competent in th is field . The system must be in compliance with national , reg ional , and local codes and regulations .

3-21

2. Dry extinguishing systems which operate on the principle of oxygen exclusion such as CO 2 , are not permitted in Starwood properties. • Two Zone Detector Arrangements (Cross Zoning) In order to prevent accidental discharge, the activating detectors are typically arranged to form two separate zone circuits within the area to be protected . This means that, unless both detector zones are in alarm, the gas is not released. If only one detector zone responds, a warning is given locally and at the fire detection system terminal. • Extinguishing Event Sequence In case of a two-zone response, or if a manual alarm station in the area is activated, the following sequence of events is automatically initiated by the control unit: o The in-house intervention force is alerted. o Warning panels light up in the endangered area and audible signals are given to evacuate the area. 1. The public fire department is automatically alerted . 2. Pre-selected electrical installations and air conditioning systems are shut down. 3. Fire doors, dampers, and windows are closed . o After a brief delay period, during which the extinguishing process may be manually aborted: 1. The extinguishing valve opens automatically. 2. The room is flooded with extinguishing agent. (e) Connection to Smoke Venting or Smoke Control Systems • Dedicated systems to extract smoke and hot combustion gases from a building are used , and may be required by national or local codes. These systems basically serve two purposes: 1. To remove smoke and toxic fumes in order to reduce the hazard for both occupants and fire fighting personnel. 2. To let hot combustion gases escape in order to reduce the pressure resulting from open flame fires, and to delay or inhibit flashover. Flashover occurs when certain materials such as decorations or furniture, emit combustible gases due to the heat of fire. Should this gas concentration reach a certain level and mix with oxygen, it can ignite an explosionlike flashover. • Smoke venting systems typically consist of dampers located near the roof of a building. These dampers are often driven by pneumatic or hydraulic mechanisms which the fire department will manually activate . Other models are spring loaded and need maintenance action after they have been actuated . Activation or opening of any damper should always be annunciated at the central fire detection system display. • Smoke control systems use electrically driven fans activated manually or by signals from the fire detection system. Upon receipt of an alarm at the control panel, all fans are shut off or air is supplied to or exhausted from parts of the building . Where fans may be exposed to high temperatures in case of fire, the fans must be constructed to withstand the extreme heat.

3-22

The application of smoke control concepts is extremely dependent on the building construction, the air condition ing systems, and other factors . It is strongly recommended to consult the fire department and local codes and regulations before concepts are applied .

3.3 Basic Detection and Alarm Application Concepts
3.3.1 Fire Detection Systems

(a) Zoned Systems • A common zoned system is the traditional method for connecting detection devices to a control un it. • Starwood requires Class A wiring for all zoned systems. • A single zone typically consists of several detectors connected to the control unit, using a single pair of wires . • The zone shall reflect the physical layout of a building section and shall meet local codes - often a maximum of 15,000-20,000 ft' (1393 .5-1858 .1 m' ). This is important because only the zone address will be displayed if one or several detectors in the zone go into alarm . The actual detector that caused the alarm must still be located by personal investigation. • The maximum number of detectors per zone depends on the national and local regulations . For common zoned systems, this seldom exceeds 20-25 detectors. This is a function of both electrical limitations of the systems and the need for quick response. • Manual fire alarm devices should be zoned separately so it is evident that the fire was detected by a person . • Sprinkler system water flow alarm devices and valve supervisory switches should also be zoned separately. (b) Addressable Detector Systems • Contain multiple devices on a common signaling line circu it, each with its own unique address, which identifies the exact location of the detector that alarmed . • Up to 128 detectors may be connected to a single zone line circu it, provided this meets local and national codes. • Manual alarm stations may be zoned with the automatic devices, since the location and type of in itiating device can be identified by the fire alarm system . • Some addressable detector systems allow the connection of control modules to the same signaling line circuits . This provides for an econom ical means of driving local annunciation devices, closing of fire doors or control of other local devices. (c) Intelligent Detector Systems • Similar to addressable systems with un ique address on common circuit. • Are able to send information to and receive information from the control panel in addition to simply reporting their location. • The benefit of this two-way communication system allows for nuisance alarm features includ ing sensitivity adjustment from the control panel and the transmission of "detector dirty' or

3-23

o Some devices look at fire signatures. have the ability to transmit changes in the conditions sensed in the detectors sensing chamber. due to low fire resistance (compartmentation) and materials used . 3. This allows the sensitivity to be varied based on location . 3. including dirt accumulation. Single station smoke detectors for guestrooms must be approved by recognized listing agencies 2. o Although the alarm thresholds are adjustable. Battery operated single station smoke detectors are not permitted . o Radio (Wireless) Transmission Fire Detection Systems 1. etc. 3-24 . Use of single station smoke detectors without a centralized fire alarm system are not permitted . 2. (d) Analog Reporting Detector Systems o In addition to having the features of intelligent detector systems. (I) Special Considerations for Existing Hotels o Existing hotels sometimes carry a higher fire risk than modern structures. must have approval of Starwood and local authorities . Installation of new fire detection systems in existing hotels requires a lot of work . (e) Single Station Smoke Detector Systems o Completely self-contained . If these systems are used . Detector/transmitter stations are battery powered only. The power supply to single station smoke detectors must be from centralized electrical panel with non-switchable building AC circuits connected to the emergency generator. Reliability of these systems has not yet been proven.. It may be necessary to shutdown portions of the hotel. 4. Costs can be minimized if careful coordination of work is planned for renovations . This is another method used to reduce nuisance alarms . and provides a means to monitor dirt accumulation over time . indicator and reset mechanism . time of day."maintenance required " signals from the detector to the control panel. with their own buzzer. which contains the decision making ability. they must still meet the limits specified by the regulatory agencies. such as temperature changes. o System connected smoke detectors are required in guestrooms . 2. provided they meet the following : 1. o Some analog detector systems have the ability to automatically compensate for environmental conditions. o Installation of "Regular" Fire Detection Systems 1. 3. in addition to sensing the presence of smoke. o Existing single station smoke detectors may remain in use. o Transmit the actual signal they sense to the control panel .

ballrooms.2 Nuisance A/arm Problem 1. improperly placed/installed. dirty. painting . etc.) • Maintenance work in monitored area (welding. o If a second detector responds.3.) • Deceptive phenomena (insects. etc. sunlight. o Can be performed with either traditional zoning/devices or intelligent devices. (b) Methods to Reduce Nuisance Alarms • False alarms due to maintenance work can be avoided by proper organization. General Requirementsllnformation Nuisance alarms are a major issue for fire alarm systems. etc) . o First response from a detector is "silently" announced to key personnel.) • Detectors which are of the wrong type. training and supervision.) • Corrosion of contacts (due to environment) • Electromagnetic influence and radio frequency influence (walkietalkies. Unwanted alarms should be reduced as soon as possible. o Recommended for areas in the hotel where there may be heavy smoking. etc. etc. o For intelligent detection systems. who have been assigned the task of investigating the alarm. (a) Nuisance alarms are often caused by: • Mischievous use of the system (blowing smoke at a detector. • Cross Zoning o Based on the concept that two separate zones must respond before a general fire alarm signal is activated . pulling alarm stations. cellular phones. etc. o Always used when detectors are used to activate extinguishing systems. dust. 3-25 . • Alarm Verification Concept o Applicable in areas where puffs of smoke or gas are common in the environment. o When the detector first responds. o Response of a single zone leads to pre-alarm condition. o A general alarm is also initiated if either a manual pull station or the sprinkler system water flow switch are activated . some fire detection equipment manufacturers have been able to incorporate nuisance reduction features into their equipment. o For traditional zoning methods. steam. an automatic reset command is issued and the alarm is suppressed . which is announced to in-house staff. • Due to microprocessor technologies. detectors must be wired to guarantee proper two-zone response in case of fire. cross zoning may be accomplished by careful formation of grou ps in the software . a general fire alarm is given .3. • Pre-Signal (Alarm Sequencing) Concept o Method of alarm verification used to help reduce the chance of panic in crowded areas (retail areas.

if the investigation determines that only a minor fire exists that can be extinguished easily. water flow device) 2. o Useful in areas of high dirt bu ild-up or where detectors are difficult to access. An alarm from any of these devices cause a general alarm signal without delay. In this case. 1.• • • When the detector responds a second time (within a particular time period). an alarm is immediately issued. Variable Sensitivity Settings o Similar in concept to sensitivity compensating detector. o Th is concept is not applicable for heat detectors. or that it is not an actual alarm. timer T2 is started. Several systems have the ability to automatically or manually o 3-26 .Delayable alarm (smoke detector) • When there is a response by a priority '2' detector. o Helpful in reducing long-term maintenance costs by identifying which detectors need to be cleaned or replaced . o The operating sequence requ ires two levels of device priority and two system timers (T1 and T2) . o This method can only be used when a system operator is present at all times. When T1 time runs out without a response by an operator. Sensitivity Compensation o Detector feature that maintains a constant sensitivity over time. o Similar in concept to cross-zoning . Priority 2 . o This detector feature does not eliminate the need for regular detector maintenance. NFPA 72 limits the time delay to 60 seconds. the fire alarm control panel can be reset while T2 is still running without sounding a general alarm . NFPA 72 limits T1 to 15 seconds and T2 to 180 seconds. allowing time for investigation. Positive Alarm Sequencing o Utilizes a dual timing principle for delaying a general alarm . o The time limit varies based on the manufacturer. Priority 1 . compensating for componen t aging and dirt accumulation. however usually limited by local or national codes. • If the investigation verifies the existence of a fire or if time T2 runs out. • However. the fire department is called and a general alarm signal is activated. the system interprets this as a sign that an operator is present. • Time periods T1 and T2 are often regulated by local or national codes. the fire department can be summoned by initiating any manual alarm station.Immediate general alarm/fire department notification (manual alarm station. delay T1 is started . however requires only a single device in alarm. If the alarm is acknowledged while T1 is running . manual alarm stations or water flow switches.

the use of shielded cable or cable installed in properly grounded metallic conduit will negate a majority of the interference. o Sensitivity levels must remain in the range specified by the regulatory agencies such as UL or VdS. High frequency or radio interference 3. rad io frequency interference (RFI). Electrical or magnetic interference fields 5. All fire detection and alarm equipment must meet the current revision of applicable standards . o For intelligent detector systems. It is also possible to program different sensitivity levels based on the location of the devices. o These systems are useful in facilities where various environmental cond itions exist. 2.• • change between fixed sensitivity levels either at the detector or at the control panel. o Level of protection is dependent on the requirements of various regulatory agencies. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) o Many control units contain built-in interference protection . o Waiting for a dirty detector signal should not be used as an alternative to scheduled maintenance. In some cases . 3. The control panel can be programmed to shift between the various sensitivities at specific time intervals. some equipment may be exposed to abnormally high levels of interference. o Additional protection may be required to reduce the occurrence of nuisance alarms resulting from these phenomenon . a signal is provided which indicates the need to clean the detector. intended to minimize the effects of electromagnetic interference. o For analog reporting detector systems. Signals Indicative of Dirty Detectors o In many of the intelligent detector systems. Interference pulses 4. The sensitivity levels can be adjusted by device. and electrical transients (induced voltage and current spikes). Transmission of electrical interference currents via resistive coupling 6. the sensitivity adjustments are often made at the control panel. additional protection may be required . Typically. o Refer to Appendix 3-8 for additional information on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) o Interference Factors which influence EMC include: 1. However. Lightning 2. Electrostatic Charging/Discharging o Interference Protection Measures 1. 3-27 . a detector may have two or more preset sensitivity levels. groups of devices and by time of day. which require equipment to be designed with adequate EMI and RFI protection features .

it is extremely important that all ground connections be made to an 8 It (2. The equipment manufacturer should be consulted when additional transient and interference protection is required to ensure compatibility with the installed equipment. All fire alarm equipment must meet the current revision of applicable standards. 7. 2. ex1ra precautions must be taken to protect the equipment from damage caused by high voltage transients being induced on the circuits from nearby lightning strikes or other outside sources. If it is apparent that there will be a high degree of lightning activity at the installation. Additional Transient Protection Measures 1. The manufacturer should be consulted when additional protective devices are to be installed . it is recommended that additional transient protection be installed on equipment to prevent damage . 3-28 . 4. When shielded cable is used. the degree of lightning activity expected at the geographical location of the installation. 6. Additional transient protection is needed on multiplex communication network lines (signaling line circuits) and audio communications lines are routed underground from building to building in PVC conduit. By meeting these standards. Protection is available in the form of filters or other suppression devices. Audio circuits should be shielded independently from each other and from signal circuits . the equipment is designed with adequate transient voltage protection for systems used within a single building.o 4. For any circuits extended outside the building. 3. on the installation wiring or at the control panel. 5. These circuits should be run in metallic conduit that is properly bonded to a good earth ground. where lightning is a concern. The ex1ernal transient protection required for each circuit depends on the characteristics of the circuit and. The use of fiber optic cable instead of cable using metallic conductors provides for an alternate means of protection. it is important that the equipment manufacturer be contacted for specific requirements regarding termination of the shield. or twisted pairs in metal conduit. 8. and external trans ient protection must be installed on each of those circuits. which can be installed on the detection devices. In all cases. Fiber optic cable are immune to EMI and RFI as they use light signals to transmit data instead of electronic signals. 5.5m) driven ground rod or equivalent water pipe connection . Twisted shielded pairs with the shield earth grounded should be used within the PVC conduit.

the installation of fiber optic cable instead of cable using metall ic conductors is an option .--. " .9. J I• '1C¢t COlao. ' . • The code requirements and local fire marshal should be consulted before selecting the final location. • Larger hotels may also require a local ind ication panel on each floor to provide selected and detailed information .Typ ical Terminal Installations for Larger Buildings 3-29 . • Hotels should have a terminal at a permanently staffed location such as the ma in lobby. If high voltage trans ients are anticipated in advance .•• • Figure 3-18 . . This is su itable for hotels consisting of multiple build ings and larger hotels. : ."'" .. 3...3. as illustrated in Figure 3-18. tOOo'I VII _ (t (tAli . • It may be beneficial to have full access terminal at a central location and remote terminals. (b) Location of Terminals • It is extremely important to properly locate the operating and display term inals...3 Control Units and Terminals (a) The control unit is the heart and brain of the fire detection system .-. which allow limited operation of the system ... ='"" = '= .. It is important to provide an uncomplicated interface between the operator and the system ...

o In many cases the flashing of the lamps indicates the status of the panel or action to be performed . concise and accurate as to the type of device and location of the device sending the signal. floor plan and room of alarm on the video monitor. • ColorlGraphic Display o Sim ilar to the video display.3. type of device in alarm and steps to be taken in the event of an alarm. o Can be used to display the bu ilding. • Graphic Annunciator o Common display used in many buildings . o Graphics must be updated as the building is modified .4 Multiplex Systems (a) Are used to connect remotely located control panels (RLCPs) throughout a hotel complex by means of digital commun ication network. reset. o Are often provided with a selector switch for scrolling through messages. etc. the grapbic annunciator should be updated to reflect these changes . • Alphanumeric Light Emitting Diode (LED) or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) o Displays provide text information concerning the type of device and location of the device and alarm . troubles. o The build ing graphic should be identical to the bu ilding layout. o Text should be clear. o It is important that the operator understand the mean ing of the indicators so they system can be correctly operated . As modifications are made to the building is modified. supervisory. 3. • Lamp Type Indicators and Annunciators o Indicators include alarm. o This type of display typically provides more information than the lamp-type annunciators . o Graph ic ind ication of the building is provided showing a floor plan or build ing elevation with lamps provided indicating the area of the fire.(c) Displays • Each indicator should be clearly labeled and easily understood by hotel management and fire department personnel. etc. Text used on the displays should be discussed with representatives of hotel management and the local fire department and agreed upon prior to system installation. this type of system uses mon itors to display graphics of the building. trouble. (b) These systems are economical if: 3-30 . • Video (CRT) Displays o Typically use computer monitors to display 40+ lines of text. • Printers o Can be used to display alarms in emergency situations and are also good for logging system alarms . o Able to provide much more detailed information as to the location of the alarm. acknowledge.

• Allow for verification and reconstruction of events after an emergency or drill.multiplex is usually economical) • Fire detection on the floors is achieved by detectors and manual alarm stations. Devices • • • • • 3-31 . All alarms 2. gas detection. All acknowledging actions 3. intelligent detector systems are preferable because they allow high zone capabilities and provide precise indication of the alarm source. Corrected faults • Installation of at least one printer is recommended for multiplex systems. • Typically economical for hotels more than 15 stories (control unit installed on every third floor. 3. (d) Arrangement in High-Rise Buildings • Multiplex systems are suitable for high-rise hotel buildings. • The outputs consist of changeover style contacts and allow for most universal application and exact tailoring to a particular requirement in a hotel. • The activation of every single control output can be made dependent on many system conditions including: 1. • In many cases. (c) Protocols and Event Logs • Allow for supervision of operators and can lead to more responsible action and maintenance. • Typically contain the times and dates when the following events occurred: 1. security. building services) are to be integrated into the central control unit. All resetting actions 4..e. 5 or more control units .3. All fault and trouble alarms 5.5 Auxiliary Control Outputs (a) Auxiliary control outputs of the fire detection system are used to: • Close fire doors held open by electromagnetic devices • Close fire dampers • Control fire pumps and emergency generators • Control escalators and return elevators to designated level • Control HVAC systems • Control pressurization fans • Control the evacuation and alarm system • Control remote signaling devices (b) Configuration of Control Outputs' • Control outputs can be available on local basis or on a central basis via a multiplex system.The hotel is retrofitted The hotel contains more than approximately five control units User friendly interfacing is desired Large distances exist between the control units Other functions (i.

Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators . Alarm Status (Acknowledged/Unacknowledged) 5. o Two basic types of smoke management systems . wh ile the positive pressure in the surround ing area minimizes the migration of smoke from the fire area into other zones. In th is type of system . o All local and national codes and regulations should be followed . etc. o Indicators should be provided at the Fire Command Center to show the status of the fans . Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems. o Manual devices consist of a key activated control that recalls the elevators to the level of fire fighter access . Operating Mode (Day or Night) 6. o These devices may also be used for smoke control or engineered smoke management systems. these devices are simply used to turn off all fans when an alarm signal is initiated. the elevators can only be controlled manually with a ded icated key.Stair tower is pressurized to prevent or minimize smoke into the stairwell during egress and fire fighting operations . Gas . The selection of which system to se is based on the building. Security.• • 2. the pressurization fan is activated by a control output from the fire alarm system . life safety requirements. o Automatic elevator recall is also recommended upon activation of any manual alarm station . Elevator Recall o Each elevator having a travel of 25 ft (7 . Zone Status (AlarmlTrouble/Normal) 4 .the intent is to have negative pressure within the area of alarm and positive pressure in surrounding areas . 3-32 . the recommended method for elevator recall and firefighter's service can be found in American National Standards Institute's Standard A 17. If no such code is available . o Shaft protection . Extinguishing) Interconnection to HVAC System o One of the major uses for control outputs is to activate the HVAC system supply and exhaust fans for smoke management. o Smoke management systems are used to inhibit the flow of smoke into any means of egress. occupancy. exit passageways. Alarm type (Fire. Zone number(s) 3.6 m) or more above or below the designated level of fire fighter access and occupant egress should be provided with both manual and automatic elevator recall devices.1 .shaft protection and floor protection . The negative pressure in the area of the fire serves to aid in the exhaust of smoke . and other national and local codes. o In most cases. o Floor protection (zoned smoke control system) . sprinkler system water now switch or elevator lobby smoke detectors. as discussed in NFPA 92A. Building Services . At this point.

Investigate and report back to central point.The following factors should be considered : • Construction of bu ilding. capacity and safety of egress routes • Efficiency of active measures • Effectiveness of in-house fire brigade • Efficiency and response of local fire department (c) Staff Notification • Alarms from detection systems . Assist in evacuation. water flow sensors or manual pull station devices. and concise operator instructions shall be readily available in the Fire Command Center.3. 2. Goals should include: 1. they are in chargel (d) Fire Department Notification • Typically the local fire department is located remote from the hotel.e. waterflow sensors and manual fire alarm systems shall be arranged to notify the hotel staff without any delay. hose reels. so each person is aware of his/her duties in case of an alarm . 6. (b) Planning Considerations . control room. • All hotels shall have automatic alarm transmission capability to avoid delays in notifying the fire department. Sounding of buzzers/horns in staff areas on ly (i . Use of paging systems 3. its fire resistance and protection • Height of the building . etc. Initiate general alarm and alarm to fire department. • Automatic transmission of alarms shall occur upon activation of smoke/heat detectors (excluding guestroom detectors). Pre-signal (discrete) messages over the hotel's PA system . directed to selected personnel.. Start emergency equipment where needed . 4.) 2. 5. When th e fire department arriv es. plant room . number of floors and area of floors • Maximum number of occupants • Complexity. front desk.must be clearly identified . • Any required investigation should start immediately upon in-house staff notification . • Complete as-built drawings. etc. Attempt to extinguish small fires using extingu ishers . 7. technical service instructions. • Responsibilities of Personnel . Th is can be done by activating the nearest fire alarm station . The Fire Command Center shall be located in 3-33 . • Buildings with active and passive fire protection measures may be able to provide a reasonable time period between the detection of a fire and the initiation of the evacuation process.3. Direct fire fighters to control room and location of fire .6 Alarm and Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Systems (a) General • Additional emergency planning is important for high-rise bu ildings where exiting is difficult and conventional fire fighting methods cannot be applied . 3. • May be alerted by: 1.

Use electrically supervised circuits to send alarm signals from the hotel to alarm signal receiving equipment in a remote station such as a municipal fire alarm headquarters or a fire station . Central Station Signaling System . (NFPA 72) • For areas using a central station at an alarm company. This manual method of notification can be accomplished using the public telephone system . supervised .the same room as the telephone switchboard and should be constantly attended by hotel staff. • Smoke detectors used for elevator recall and heat detectors used for elevator power shutdown . 3. Overlay transmission over existing telephone lines for regular use.Use municipal fire alarm circuits to send alarms from the hotel to the municipal communications center. (e) Occupant Notification • Hotel occupants shall be notified via audible/visual fire alarm signals or the emergency voice alarm communication system . DC-coupled telephone line. • Staff members should have the ability to communicate directly with the fire department to verify alarms have been received and to provide additional information. Normal telephone line connection to the fire department. water flow sensors or manual pull stations. Ded icated. • Alarm transmission methods vary. 3. it may be preferable to transmit the alarm to the alarm company. • For buildings over 3 stories in height . Using automatic dialing equipment to dial the fire department's dedicated telephone number in case of an alarm. • Design of occupant alarm must take into account the type of bu ilding and number of escape routes . shall not be required to activate the hotel evacuation alarm. fully supervised. wh ich contract with the hotel to receive fire alarm and supervisory signals and take appropriate action. Remote Station Signaling System .e .Operated by private alarm companies . Auxiliary Signaling System . provided these detectors are monitored by the fire alarm system and activation of these detectors results in an audible/visible alarm in a constantly attended location. upon actuation of heat/smoke detectors (excluding guestroom detectors).the floor of alarm (or fire area) and the floors (or fire areas) immediately above and below the floor of alarm shall be notified by the emergency voice communication 3-34 . Dedicated cable between the hotel and fire department. supervised 5. • Detectors used for releasing devices (i.. 4. who will notify the fire department. door or damper closing and fan shutdown) shall not be requ ired to activate the hotel evacuation alarm . The following methods are often applied (listed in order of suggested preference): 1. supervised . or the central station of the alarm company. 2. • Alarm signals can be automatically transmitted to the fire department by one of the following three methods 1. 2.

o In international hotels. except those less than 3 stories in height above grade. which provide audible signals in parts of the hotel. o Not permitted in new or renovated hotels. o Not permitted in new or renovated hotels. Evacuation Message Examples o General Alarm Condition Requiring Total Building Evacuation "May I have your attention please.activation of any device shall sound the hotel evacuation system. with direct exits from each guestroom to the outside. provided that the speaker is properly trained. but proceed to the nearest 3-35 . but the location and severity of the incident is not evident. except hotels less than 3 stories in height above grade. with direct exits from each guestroom to the outside. o Using zoned loudspeaker networks. Audible alarm devices shall be a minimum of 15 dBA above the ambient noise level. occupants can be directed to safety. A fire alarm has been reported in the building . 4. 1. The AHJ and local fire department shall determine if additional areas need to be notified. 5. 2. o Loudspeakers must be installed throughout the building and should be zoned with other systems . it may be necessary to repeat the message in different languages.Visual and audible alarm devices are required in all Starwood hotels. there are a number of bells. For buildings 3 stories in height or less . Choice of Alarm Signal . electronic sounders or other signaling devices. Live Voice Communication o Provides an optimal means of minimizing panic. Aud ible devices in guestrooms near the bed shall be 72 dBA. chimes or horns to create alarm signals by coding the signal to either indicate the location of the alarm source or alert particular staff members. A hotel guest hearing the sound is only aware that something is happening. Please do not use the elevators. Coded Signals o This method uses bells. o This method can only provide very limited information. you are asked to proceed to the nearest stairway and walk to the ground floor. May I have your attention please.to provide different messages based on the different zones. A slow whoop siren or other electronic tone sounded over the fire alarm rated speakers capable of supporting voice communication is required. using up-to-date information provided by the fire detection system and fire fighters in the area . Uncoded (Tone) Signals o For an uncoded alarm system. While this report is being verified.• • • • system. Prerecorded or Synthesized Voice Messages o Able to direct occupants to safe areas. 3.

The signal tone (alarm signal) which you just heard indicates a report of a fire in the building. However. but proceed to the nearest stairways. o In high-rise bu ildings. Please walk to the ground floor and leave the build ing . occupants on other floors should await further instructions. While this report is being verified . May I have your attention please. " OR "May I have your attention please ." • Zoning Considerations 1. If your floor evacuation signal sounds after this message . o Message to the Occupants of Elevators "May I have your attention please. Please walk to the ground floor and leave the building . (I) Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Systems • Can transmit audible tones of varying types and intensity and spoken messages and directions. 2. o The total build ing alarm is not recommended for large hotels. Selective Alarm Methods o Th is method allows selective alerting and evacuation of occupants both by zone or throughout the bu ilding as requ ired . usually the floor where the alarm originated and adjacent floors are alerted and evacuated . A fire alarm has been reported in the building and has directed all elevators to the lobby or an alternate safe floor. General Alarm Methods o Alarm signal sounded throughout the entire building by means of defined aud ible signal. While th is report is being verified ." o Evacuation of Fire Floor. May I have your attention please . 3. May I have your attention please . on a selective basis. o The choice of zones to be alarmed may be pre-selected and automatically performed once the control outputs of the fire alarm system have been programmed . Floor Above and Floor Below Fire Floor "May I have your attention please . The formation of meaningful zones impacts the effectiveness of the alarm and emergency voice communication system . A fire alarm has been reported in your area. 3-36 . you are asked to proceed to the nearest stairways and walk to the ground floor. general alarm signaling may be required by local codes or regulations . leave the elevator and walk to the nearest exit and leave the bu ilding. Please do not use the elevators. as recommended . • Voice communication can be on a general (entire build ing) or. proceed to the nearest sta irway exits and leave the floor. o Automatically activated by the fire detection system or manually in the control room .stairways . Once the elevator stops.

plus an 'all zones' switch). Loudspeakers may be activated automatically by the fire detection system. Audio modules in an EVAC system will: 1. 3. 3-37 . 4. evacuation signals are sounded in the zone in which the fire is detected . The existence of faults will result in a trouble condition. 6. 4. Play pre-recorded messages or transmit live voice messages. Transmit coded and uncoded alert signals 2. The system can be programmed to perform the following tasks automatically after the fire detection system is activated: 1. alert signals are transmitted to occupants to prepare them for possible evacuation. The entire loudspeaker network shall be supervised . Synthetically generate alarm tones upon automatic initiation by the fire direction system or manual actuation 3. A controlled system refers to the discrimination between warning and evacuation messages automatically transmitted to relevant areas. 2. For the adjacent areas. Transmit pre-arranged evacuation signals upon manual activation 3. Transmit pre-recorded messages on a selective basis 4. 5. spoken messages have priority and should override any alarm signals. Transmit live voice messages which will override other signals Controlled EVAC System 1. Drive all loudspeakers . so messages can be directed to the affected areas only.immediate danger for occupants in this zone is assumed. as a function of the initiating zone or manually by means of selection switches (one switch per zone. Automatic zone switching can be programmed via the fire detection system as illustrated in Figure 3-19.used for both alarm signals and voice communication 2. The ability to manually select any combination of zones for voice messages is important. Typically.• • • • In case of simultaneous transmission of alarms and voice communications.

. 3-38 . all publ ic spaces (i.e .. boiler rooms). it is recommended that dedicated fire alarm speakers also be provided.. " . • Where existing public address loudspeakers are used . (h) Visual Alarm Devices • In addition to aud ible notification devices. • Existing public address! emergency communication systems may remain in use until a dedicated system can be installed. Systems must be approved by Starwood . visual devices are recommended as a supplement to audible devices. • When the telephone system is used .. (i) Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Loudspeaker Supervision • Loudspeakers used as alarm or warn ing devices should be fireresistant and fully supervised ... ballrooms.. NFPA Style Z (Class A) supervision is required . • Combinations of fire alarm and background music/pag ing systems should be avoided.."1 fll Figure 3-19 ..e. it must be capable of ring ing pre-definable groups of sets as well as all phones in the building simultaneously. • In areas subject to high noise levels (i. Such combinations are only permitted if the music/paging function is part of a fully supervised emergency communication system and may be overridden at any time by a higher priority message. machine rooms.WAAiUO WAAl4IIIO' n .Example Matrix for Warning and Evacuation Signals (g) Alarms Via In-House Telephone Systems • Existing in-house telephone systems may sometimes be used as interim measure to alert hotel occupants in the event of an emergency. public restrooms. • This type of system should be considered a back-up or as an interim measure until a dedicated system is installed.. meeting rooms) and guestrooms for the hearing impa ired must be provided with visual alarm notification devices (strobe lights)...

(e) It is acceptable for systems to reduce supervision capability when operating under emergency power. Public-address messages' 7. including all wiring . An automatic smoke detector responds to smoke phenomena . (c) Fire resistant loudspeakers in metal enclosures should be given preference.8 Emergency Handling Procedures Using EVAC Systems The following examples demonstrate the use of modern EVAC systems to assist with emergency situations. The control un it stops the ventilation on the relevant fioor. 6 and 7 are not recommended . 5. The control unit initiates a pre-alarm to alert the staff. An aud io power handling capacity between 0. The cond ition must be indicated at the fire alarm panel. 2. Chime sound for pag ing purposes' 6. the system should automatically select the correct transmission priority. (b) Many modern units are constructed on a modular basis so they can be tailored for a particular hotel building. Another detector responds.7 Selection Criteria for Evacuation Systems (a) The central control unit of an alarm and communication system should have its own dedicated power supply. The control unit automatically alerts the fire department. accord ing to the following scheme: 1. Figure 3-20 provides an illustration of the following steps : 1. (Acceptable when done to reduce battery drain).3. Background music' 'Note: 5.3.25 and 20 W per speaker is applicable. 4. the stand-by unit shall take over automatically. (I) The EVAC system front panel should conta in at least two ind icators per loudspeaker zone: • Red . (d) Each loudspeaker zone must be mon itored for fault conditions. In case of a malfunction of a regular amplifier. staff personnel hurry to the scene to investigate. Alarm (EVAC) signals 4. 3. The fire develops into a serious incident. Loudspeaker zones and ampl ifier output circuits should be designed so a fault in a single circuit does not affect other circuits or result in damage to the EVAC system . Taped or synthesized voice messages 3. (h) In case of conflicting commands . 3-39 .Zone active (selected for transmission) • Yellow -Trouble cond ition (g) Aud io amplifiers should be of modular construction and AC/DC supervised . Multitap speakers allow easy adaptation to the sound power requirements of a particular location .3. Warning (alert) signals 5. There should be at least one standby amplifier per four regular modules. 3. Live voice messages via built-in microphone 2. Class A (Style Z) wiring is required .

Nobody was injured. 9. valves opened. detection and alarm system restored to normal (sprinkler heads replaced. and then also the second floor above the fire.). 7. protective clothing or other devices) rush to the scene to help with evacuation and to combat the fire if it is still in its incipient stage. etc. Hotel staff (who are not normally equipped with self contained breathing apparatus [SCBAj. 12. etc. type of responses. The commanding officer halts the evacuation process by using the 'all call' feature of the EVAC system. along with the other alarms. The fire fighters report via the emergency telephone that the fire is under control. the commanding fire officer analyzes the display on the control unit (location. The control unit commands the EVAC system to send alarm signals to the fl oor where the fire initiated and warning signals to the floors above and below.Emergency Handling with EVAC System 3-40 . 16. 8. then the floors above and below. 11 . there was no panic and thanks to the early warning . 1'-2 '0 10 12 13 14 i1J 5 Figure 3-20 . 17. The commanding officer decides to use live voice communication to first evacuate the most endangered floor. 13. Someone activates an alarm station in the staircase. Fire suppression. The control unit automatically starts the pressurization fans for the stairwells.6. 14. They report back to the commanding officer in the control room using the emergency telephone system. Fire fighters rush to the scene to combat the fire. 15. hoses dried and equipment maintained. Persons are leaving the endangered areas. Automatic sprinkler system activates . damage to property is minimal. Th is is annunciated at the control panel. The municipal fire department arrives. 10.).

all alarms will be issued simultaneously upon a signal received from either an automatic detector (excluding guestroom smoke detectors). or a sprinkler flow switch .. ..1 '/ " .. more than in other areas ..e.. It is always requi red to provide a local alarm in guestrooms to alert the occupants if there is smoke in the room . however....3.. etc... are often a source of nuisance alarms (due to deceptive phenomenon such as heavy smoking in a confined area .. (c) Alarm organizations must meet local codes/regulations. • As shown in Figure 3-2 1.. where system connected smoke detectors are installed in guestrooms. (d) 'All Alarms Direct' Concept • Recommended for small hotels [i. Roadside Inns (Type A)].. .. 3.. playing with a detector. a manual fire station.o'!l ' " ~~'O .. Because they are prone to nuisance alarms.... Timer T1 in the control unit is started 2.). ·Ao~ ~ .Flow Chart of 'All Alarms Direct' Concept (e) Alarm Concepts for Supervising Staff • In this concept.. " '0\0 _ 1. The hotel staff is alerted by a silent alarm 3-41 . • Credibility of Detection Source 1. l'.-. ~ '0'. tu ' '''' tou" .. Figure 3-21 . (b) These actions may be executed automatically or manually.. this individual room identification signa l can also serve to initiate a faster response for those who may need it most. where exits and escape routes are freely accessible and the potential for panic is minimal. ...'oo' ..41. .3. . In the case of guestrooms designated for persons with disabilities. when an alarm from a corridor detector is activated and the hotel staff is not present the following events occur: 1.. "". In new hotels.( «II r 'If...00- . Smoke detectors in guestrooms...9 Considerations for A/arm Organizations (a) Alarm organization defines a 'master plan' to be executed in certain emergency situations. activation should sound a supervisory signal at the control panel...'" .. 2. [!] 1r7n r~ .. 4. guestroom smoke detectors should not sound a build ing-wide alarm .. .

The protective measures provided should give persons with disabilities the same opportunities as everyone else. the system will generate a general alarm . • Technical Measures in Public Areas 1. • Starwood requires that the provisions of the ADA relating to fire detection. (f) Typical European Alarm Concept • This concept is another version of the basic idea of supervising the in-house intervention force (investigation team). 2. Start timer T2 • Within the time limit T2 . • If the fire was only minor and can be handled by the staff within the time limit of T2. • If the alarm was caused by a fire. During the occupied mode of operation . 2. Installation of both audible and visual emergency warning signals.3. With the acknowledgement of the alarm within the time limit allowed by T1. including guestrooms . the system will automatically: 1. These concepts are based on the following principles : 1.10 Protection of Guests with Disabilities (a) General • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) establishes guidelines for accessibility in the United States. and escape or be brought to safety. all alarms from automatic detectors. Activation of any manual alarm station will always alarm the fire department directly and without delay. (b) Measures to Protect Occupants with Disabilities in the Event of a Fire • Objectives of Protective Measures 1. the location and type of the alarm (as indicated by the terminal) is known . Occupants should be able to trigger an alarm. • The concept involves the in-house staff (when present) in investigating and confirming a fire alarm. It was designed by CERBERUSAG and is used in many European hotels. 3. 3. the procedures for 'staff present' and 'investigation period timing' will be followed . During the unoccupied mode of operation. • 3-42 . the activation of any manual alarm will generate a GENERAL ALARM. when staff is likely to be present.Provided that a staff member acknowledges the alarm on the fire detection system terminal before the timer T1 has elapsed. Silence the horn in the control room 2. Installation of fire detection and suppression systems 2. when availability of staff is unlikely. the system can be reset before the time lapse of timer T2 and no general alarm is generated . the staff can now proceed with the investigation of the reason for the alarm . alarm and emergency communication be met for all US properties and newly constructed/renovated hotels worldwide. if no staff is present to acknowledge the system prior to the time-out of T1 . should alert the fire department directly. Similarly. become aware of a fire condition.

• In addition. In rooms exceeding 100 ft (30 . • No place in common corridors or hallways in which visual devices are requ ired . (111 . • The device shall be 80 in . Visual devices shall meet the following requirements • Shall be a xenon-strobe type or equivalent. however a maximum height of 44 in.5 m) apart. shall be greater than 50 ft (15. • Technical Measures in Guestrooms 1.2 seconds. (A pulse duration is defined as the time interval between initial and final points of 10% of maximum signaL) • The intensity shall be a minimum of 75 cd. Power should be un interrupted upon loss of normal AC voltage.8 cm) is recommended] .2 cm) below the ceiling. connected to emergency power. max . without obstructions 6 ft (1 .8 m) above the floor.3.5 m) across.8 cm) above the floor.4 cm) above the floor. the maximum pulse duration shall be 0. devices may be placed around the perimeter of the room.2 m) from the signal.2 cm) above the highest floor level or 6 in . other countries may permit up to 60 in. whichever is louder. whichever is lower. (203. Audible devices shall be at least 15 dBA above the ambient background sound level or produce a signal which is at least 5 dBA above the maximum expected sound level for at least 60 seconds.S. alarm and emergency communication systems. Designated guestrooms should be specially constructed and equipped for persons with mobility and hearing impairments in accordance with ADA requirements. (152. • In general . • The color of the light shall be clear or nominal white. with a maximum duty cycle of 40%. height = 44 in. These rooms should be identified on the hotel 's "Room Management System" 2. or wh ich produce a signal of 5 dBA above the maximum 3-43 . • The flash rate shall be a minimum of 1 Hz and a maximum of 3 Hz. • Manual fire alarm boxes must be within easy reach of persons in wheelcha irs [U .A. no place in any room required to have a visual notification device shall be more than 50 ft (15 . provided they are spaced a maximum of 100 ft (30 . • Audible alarm notification appliances of at least 15 dBA above the normal background level . the following should be provided in guestrooms for persons with disabilities : • A dedicated 115/220 VAC outlet. In addition to the required fire detection.2 m) from the signal (in the horizontal plane). 4. • A fire evacuation horn with strobe light or speaker with strobe light connected to the building fire alarm system and mounted in direct view of the headboard of the bed . (111 . The outlet should be wall-mounted at bedside. (15 .

2 seconds. above the highest noor level or 6 in . g. In general . The requirements contained in these standards must be followed in addition to Starwood requirements . Laundries (including laundries on guestroom noors) 3. Local and Starwood Requirements • The national and local regulations with which the hotel must comply need to be identified at the beginning of the design process. back of house spaces and guestrooms. Electrical . no place in any room required to have a visual notification device shall be more than 50 ft from the signal (in the horizontal plane). • Complete Central Monitoring o Required in all Starwood properties o The entire bu ilding is monitored by the central fire alarm system for fire conditions. Service rooms. o The following areas must always be monitored (whether a completely monitored or partially monitored systems is used): 1. The nash rate shall be a minimum of 1 Hz and a maximum of 3 Hz. (A pulse duration is defined as the time interval between initial and final points of 10% of maximum signaL) d. the most restrictive requirements govern. whichever is louder. f. storage areas.system connected smoke detectors in public areas. The intensity shall be a minimum of 75 cd . whichever is lower. 3. Visual alarm notification devices shall meet the following requirements : a. continuous for 60 seconds. c. Where conflicts exist. and monitoring of sprinkler system water now and tamper switches installed throughout the hotel. below the ceiling.• expected sound level. Shall be a xenon-strobe type or equivalent. mechanical and telephone equipment rooms 3-44 .4 Planning for Fire Detection and Alarm Systems 3. b. Typically includes . Escape routes 5. (b) Ex1ent of Monitoring • The extent of monitoring refers to which fire detection devices are connected to the central fire alarm system . Elevator lobbies and machine rooms 4. In addition. etc. e. the maximum pulse duration shall be 0.4. The color of the light shall be clear or nominal white. (a) National. workshops.1 Procedure for Planning a Fire Detection System The fire detection system must be planned as part of the total fire protection system outlined in Starwood Fire Safety Standards. with a maximum duty cycle of 40%. corridors. The device shall be 80 in. 2.

the central fire alarm system must indicate the precise location of the alarm. • The following shall be considered when establishing fire alarm zones: 1. Manual alarm stations should be zoned separately from automatic detectors 5. However when planning for future upgrades. should take into account the feasibility of expansion to complete monitoring system. o Object monitoring helps to detect fire/smoke from a high risk object in the early stages. electrical cabinets or motors. o If a specific detector orientation must be used. A detection zone should be limited to one floor (with the exception of stairwells.6. by installing a detector in their immediate vicinity. In systems using standard detection devices. etc. and detectors in rooms with low risk should not be combined in the same zone . allowing time to implement countermeasures and thus possibly avoiding damage. no zone should consist of more than 25 detectors. and air cond itioning systems must be zoned separately. Guestrooms and escape routes (corridors. Lobbies and concierge areas 7. guestroom smoke detectors may be excluded from monitoring by the central alarm system. 3-45 . No zone should cover more than a single fire compartment. Sprinkler water flow switches should be zoned separately. 8. (c) Zoning Considerations • When a smoke detector or manual alarm station. such as transformers. zoning must done in such a way that it allows easy recognition of building locations. o Partial monitoring may be used as an interim measure in existing hotels. Raised floors. 2. o For hotels. initiates an alarm. elevator shafts. 9. 6. the detector must be listed for the purpose. etc. • Object Monitoring o In addition to the monitoring of specific areas. which should always have their own zone). 4. 7. 3. Since several devices may be connected to form groups. object monitoring should only be used as a complement to complete area monitoring .) must not be combined in the same zone . spaces above suspended ceilings. No zone is permitted to exceed code requirements (local or national) for area covered. o With partial monitoring. Detectors in rooms that present a particular fire hazard. Guestrooms (may not be centrally monitored in existing hotels) • Partial Central Monitoring o Not permitted in new hotel construction. stairwells. it can be beneficial to monitor equipment.

This should be reviewed with the fire protection engineer. Humidity in excess of 85% RH (no condensation) 2.1 m) of kitchen areas] 2. o Fire detection systems are recommended for use in the following areas: 1. Kitchen areas in hotel suites 3. ballrooms) o Sampling ports can be located throughout an area. • Incipient Fire Detection Systems o Provide very early warning of fire situation. optical (photoelectric type) smoke detectors with a 2 .7 m)]. Commercial kitchens and food prep areas where cooking takes place [do not mount within 30 ft (9. Atria 2 . (d) Selection of Fire Detection Devices • The first priority in detection device selection for hotels is the protection of life. Air currents in excess of 15 ftls (4 . In systems using intelligent detection devices. Garages o Smoke detectors are required in the following areas. however nuisance alarm features must be employed : 1. o To minimize nuisance alarms..some have a greater tolerance for environmental disturbances than others. which provide flexibility in the application of the systems for large or geometrically alterable areas (i. smoke detectors should not be located in locations subject to the conditions described below: 1. but are less responsive to actual combustion products. a line should have no more than 90% of the allowable devices connected to it. • Regionalnocal codes should be consulted for detector zone configuration. etc. • The goal is to detect a fire in the earliest possible stage. while limiting the number of nuisance alarms.10 .8 m/s) (except for certain types of optical detectors) 3. with a maximum of 120 devices in total. o Use air sampling networks. Vapors and gases from welding or brazing processes are present o Smoke detectors are not recommended for the following areas: 1. o In general. greasy or wet 4.) 2.Use of detectors with built-in signal integration or detector which 3-46 . Rooms with low ceilings [below 9 ft (2 . Ballrooms 3. The fire department should also be contacted for input.e.5% to 4% obscuration per foot sensitivity are recommended for the hotel environment. Areas with decorative open fires (fireplaces. Convention Halls o Manufacturer of the equipment and fire protection engineer should be consulted during system design • Spot-Type Smoke Detection Systems o Smoke detectors vary in sensitivity . Environment is excessively dirty.

o These devices are suitable for most areas where smoke detectors are restricted . For the se situations. nightclubs . o Detectors with adjustable sensitivity may be suitable to reduce nuisance alarms in problem areas . These features prevent the transmission of an alarm condition . physically separated from constantly attended areas . Parking Garages o Heat detectors are required in: 1. Kitchens (unless used to actuate extinguishing systems) 2. unless the smoke detected is present for a set period of time. Exception . o It should be noted that heat detectors respond at a much later time during fire development than smoke detectors (about the same time as fast response sprinkler head). Elevator machine rooms 5. Elevator machine rooms 2. Emergency generator rooms and other rooms/areas not provided with automatic sprinkler protection where smoke detectors are not permitted . nightclubs. o Factors that influence the location and spacing of smoke detectors include the following : 1.complete smoke detection coverage (employing nuisance alarm reduction strategies) is required . etc. Therefore .. For hotels more than 4500 ft (1371. o For fully sprinklered facilities. located in open areas.• employ alarm verification features are recommended. Ceiling shape and surface 2. smoke detection may be omitted if the hotel is fully sprinklered. o The location and spacing of smoke detectors shall meet the requ irements of NFPA 72 . heat detectors are not requ ired in: 1. Transformer rooms 3. etc. Ceiling height 3. primary exits do not end in the lobby. unseparated by walls from main lobbies. they are not suitable for areas where early warn ing is important. as these detectors may be fine-tuned to the environment. usually between 10-30 seconds..In lounges. restaurants. 3.6 m) above sea level. Mechanical workshops and technical plant rooms 4. and the adjacent lobby has staff in attendance 24 hours a day. Burning characteristics of combustibles Heat Detection Systems o Most common detectors include rate of rise and fixed temperature devices. the detector manufacturer should be consulted . Lounges. it is expected that the staff will detect fires and that egress from these areas will not be obstructed by smoke should the fire grow. 3-47 . Ventilation 4. restaurants. o The sensitivity of an ionization smoke detector may be affected by high altitudes.

5 ft (6. / \ .o o e Heat detectors are not recommend in rooms with a ceiling height greater than 22 . with increasing room height. As illustrated in Figure 3-23 . etc. the smaller the monitored area per detector. fryers. the monitored area per detector may also increase . The higher a room is. Example 1 . o In general. the sensitivity of the system will be reduced as the smoke concentration in the air will be less. The location and spacing of heat detectors shall meet the requirements of NFPA 72 . (e) Arrangement of Fire Detection Devices o The location and spacing of all detection devices shall meet the requirements of NFPA 72 . 2 . 2 or 3) and ceiling 3-48 . heat and radiation) spread . the shorter the distance from the fire to the detector. Using this method. steam pipes. o Monitored Area (Am) o The area to be monitored by a particular detector is impacted by the manner of fire phenomena (smoke. an appropriate risk factor (1.9 m) or where smoldering rather than open-flame type fires can be expected . due to the greater volume. 3. Rate of rise heat detectors may produce false alarms where installed above heaters. the greater the distance between the fire and the detector in which larger clouds of uniform smoke concentration can be found . However. e Influence of Room Height 1. the more sensitive the fire detection system will be . • Figure 3-23 • Monitored Area (Am) as a Function of Room Height (h) o Selection of Monitored Area (Am) 1.Selection of Monitored Area (Am) by device This section describes one method of selecting Am. ovens. o The area to be monitored by each detection device and its location are important for early fire detection .

. anticipated size of fire. type of fuel. This statement is based on the theory in 3-49 . n .2: • 19. The risk factor is based on the fuel loading.height must be selected .'7 16.. and use of rooms.. ( II) I ....4 • .1 m) on center.. the fire growth rate anticipated and the size of fire at the time of detection.4 . 9'.of--+. 2.. National Fire Alarm Code is an Engineering Gu ide for Automatic Fire Detector Spacing (Appendix) .. In all cases. the guide does not recommend that the installed spacing be less than 30 ft (9 .!.-H. This guide provides a means for determining the area of coverage by providing installed spacing guidelines for the detector based on the ceiling height.5 to 79 ......- Assumptions: Flat ceiling Room he ight = 12 ft (3 .6 m) Risk Factor = 2 Acceptable Monitored Area = 490 to 860 ft2 (45..4 m2). ...-.... 26.9 m2) If a ri sk factor of 3 was used.• ... . unless eng ineering judgement shows that such reduced spacing would be a benefit. with 1 being the highest risk and 3 being the lowest risk. Example 2 . > .-+-1- .Selection of Monitored Area (am ) Included in NFPA 72.. the monitored area could be increased to 1080 ft2 (100.

the increase in the amount of detectors in a given space may increase the probability of nuisance alarms.most cases.•.. . ~ ..> 50 /. . ·.• • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ·. . . :l 0 • /... . . Figure E-2 . .. • · . will not significantly increase the time of detection. .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • "" . OOr---------------------------------------. '.1 m) spacing is allowable. .. . ftO . • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • •. • • • • . • •7~ •• ' ' • . . . '. .. • . . . .00'.. . • • • .. • . . . .. . . . . .._-"""" ..••' __ . and Figure E-3. • • • • • • •• • •• • • • • • • • '. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .' • . • •• • • • • .. . . • • • • • • •••• • • • • • • •. This is illustrated in Figure E-1 . ~ 00 < ~ ." . ""? • • • • • • • • ••• • • • • • • • • • · •• • • • • • •• • · • • • • • • • • • •·• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GO 70 Figure E-1 3-50 . For rooms or spaces with higher ceiling heights. . cons iderable increases over the 30 ft (9 . ". .• • • • . < . • •• • • • • • ... Also.:. ..10 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .. ..

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Less than 50 More than 50 o REDUCTION FACTOR FOR A m 0. (This can be increased somewhat for special configurations such as corridors as allowed in NFPA 72. 4.2 m) on center. The maximum distance between detectors and walls can be calculated either as a function of the monitored area (Am) or by guidelines provided in such standards as NFPA 72. Therefore the maximum distance between detectors can be estimated by the diameter.600 ft' (148.) Any deviation from this spacing should only be made as a result of a complete risk analysis and engineering evaluation of the unique situation at hand by a qualified fire protection engineer. Less than 20 More than 20. This can be compensated for by reducing the monitored area per detector or by increasing detector sensitivity (within allowable limits). the 'natural' spread of smoke is disrupted . which can be used to determine the reduced area per detector.8 0. o Influence of Ventilation 1. and we wanted to detect a 500 BTUls (530 kW) medium growth rate fire. using Figure E-2 we see that the allowable spacing can be increased to approximately 40 ft (12. 2. The partial dispersion of smoke leads to reduced response sensitivity. 3-53 . As illustrated in Figure 3-24.9 0. Less than 30 More than 30.1 m) ceiling. in principle. when using NFPA 72. Due to Influence of Ventilation AIR CHANGES PER HOUR More than 10. Less than 40 More than 40 .Reduction Factors for A m. providing an area coverage of 900 ft' (83. 1 m) on center spacing.For example. if we were to select a ballroom with a 20 ft (6. provid ing a monitored area of 1. Table 3-2 . The rule of thumb. In ventilated rooms. 2. Table 3-2 specifies reduction factors for Am. each detector monitors a circular area Am.6 m').7 0.6 0. The more frequently the air is exchanged.6 m') per device. the lower the concentration of products of combustion. is to install smoke detectors at 30 ft (9.5 Maximum Distances Between Detectors 1. 3. The following describes an alternative method to NFPA 72 for use in locations where NFPA standards are not used or referenced.

.. A rectangle can be drawn around the circle.Approximation of Am 3. due to ceiling geometry or obstructions. A. s... Figure 3-25 and Figure 3-26 illustrate the maximum distance between detectors and walls. The other dimension needs to be reduced so the rectangle falls within the area of the circle.. . o •• • . 0' . n by ht ~ ..hg .. • dol n • . the maximum area Am must always be maintained. wCh the r«hlngJ . D Figu re 3-24 .tpt equiYe'p -. However... ...2 . building areas are rarely circular.. o If the maximum distance between detectors is required... .' • 0. 0.D MaJOmum utilization 01 "stance between deteclorl Dma . where the diameter of the circle is either the length or the width the rectangle . I\"IuIoI ~ k...JAm Figure 3-25 ..Am The maxirrun fI'Of'Jh. ". d • -1. ' .Maximum Distances Between Detecto rs 3-54 . 1 2 • ......

Ins 0...."Ii> • .... 10 12" [30 ......D • • 1fI_.....:.rio' . ._ • .~ . .• .. .!. •U. • .._"" nl". "'_ 1.. • I' . -'PI:£" 0 ' 1)0' ". •• • I I -..wi 0 . • .""''' • .. . • .o • 'I' .. 0 0 . .... ...... :+ tal 22 . 10"0II"-1 . •. . ' 0 0.f'[30 .....~ •• •• "M • . •' I ! I ' . to" fly 50'" _ 1) • • ..1....(n ..."" . ..100.I . Figure 3·28 • Example for Determination of Detector Spacing (Metric) 3·55 .!It i~ •• - . • ~" ..""I Figure 3·26 • Determining Distances to Walls o Examples for the determination of detector spacing are included in Figure 3·27 and Figure 3·28.. I 0 \!l "". • • ~IZ.m • •• ..... 0 . J .... . . • KIO Itt' M4rr • 0 ~c.. '.. 0 1311 " (et. • Tn • 0 .. o••• Il::~ . 7n 0 .. .. 12.. . ._ ....•• . .. '00 0 1 2· .-0 ~ -I . I ":1 D q~.~ . 0 0 " . I ~ ••'A:..... 0 • D .. •• ... O ........ . 0 .. 0 I' ...... hO_ . . - . -"~ . . ...:". 'ZU - 2'&' 4d>oo_ 1 11· .)-• 0 D 'II' (V I l l n l 12 • . ... 'g" 0 .. •• .. d ..QlO III' IKIOIt • 0 " ft I o • . • .' D d. ' Figure 3·27 • Example for Determination of Detector Spacing (English) ... • •: ft.. " ... . Aetl h ' • • PI" .~ ......! '" .._..

3. MIN .5 cm) from any wall or partition .. 2. (30. Response is dependent on such factors as the relationship between the detector and the fire. Minimum Distances to Bu ilding Structures • Walls /Partitions . and the detector manufacturer.As shown in Figure 3-30 . Figure 3-29 deta ils recommendations for detector placement on wall s. spot type detectors should be mounted at least 12 in. the fire department should first be consulted to determ ine whether this is permitted by local codes and regulations.\lAX NOTE: MEASUREMENTS SHOWN ARE TO THE CLOSEST EDGE OF TilE DETECTOR.Minimum Distance to Wall 3-56 .o Detectors Mounted on Walls 1..10 0 1- ACC EPTA BLE HERE 10 eM MIN " IN NEVER 12 IN TOP OF DETECTOR ACCEPTABLE HERE 30 CM . II is leconwnenc:h d thai • minimum di~ance of 12 inches (3Oem) be kept 10 o any w~J\$ or watl-like shudufU Figure 3-30 . . the ventilation . Fire tests have shown that the response of a smoke detector mounted on a wall varies only slightly compared to one mounted on the ceiling. ceiling mounted . IN 1-.Guidelines for Wall Mounted Smoke Detectors o If detectors are to be wall mounted. In some instances (such as hotel guestrooms) it is desirable to mount smoke detectors on walls instead of the ceiling . Figure 3-29 . the type of detector.

.Minimum Clearance to Stored Items o o Influence of Roof Structures .. Suspended Ceilings with Grid Patterns ... h Racks or stored goods that extend towards the ceiling can obstrUC1 distri>vtion and must be considered as woOs ~ h.7cm) Figure 3-32 .. If the fire protection 3-57 . (15.7 cm) of the ceiling.o Structural Elements . s "" ' .Minimum Distance to Structural Elements o Storage Racks. racks or stored goods must be classified as walls if they are within 18 in.As shown in Figure 3-32 .As illustrated in Figure 3-31 .If a roof structure is connected to a monitored room and exceeds 10% of the total ceiling area .Commonly used to hotels for decorative purposes. Figure 3-31 .An accessible dropped ceiling shall be considered "open" if at least Yo of the surface is uncovered by lattice work . is less than '8 inches (45. at least 16 in . . it must be regarded as a separate room . the ceiling is considered 'closed' and the spaces above and below must be monitored separately. such as girders or ventilation ducts. Open Ceilings .6 cm) should be maintained between deteclors and structural elements. (45 . -c . . If the openings are relatively small and cover more than Yo of the area . wh ich protrude more than 6 in. 1. These arrangements allow various amounts of smoke penetration and also influence smoke spread . Stored Goods . (40.2 cm) below the ceiling. h.

o. detector mounting must meet the manufacturer's recommendations and applicable codes and standards . l 1M' UOoMIII) a". where ceilings or light fittings restrict smoke penetration. 2..Al CONI'S AS $toO ""' • • IS wo-t T 't J "II ' """ClttCtOliS _ ' 0111 h Figure 3-33 . Smoldering Fires .Monitoring the Area Below Galleries • Suspended Ceilings with Restricted Smoke Partitions As illustrated in Figure 3-34. The maximum area (Am) depends on the distance between the floor and the lattice work. Optical detectors are found to be the most suitable for this type of application.. In all cases. (Figure 3-33) " . For these types of fires.Siting Detectors in Cases of Restricted Smoke Penetration o Ventilated and Air Conditioned Spaces 3-58 . smoke may not reach the detector even if the ceiling openings are generously proportioned .• engineer is convinced that smoke can penetrate the open ceiling sufficiently. . Figure 3-34 .If a gallery-like structure penetrates inside a mon itored space. . detectors must be installed slightly lower than the ceiling and project into the space below the ceiling. the area below must be monitored by separate smoke detectors. it may be adequate to install smoke detectors above the dropped ceiling only.aA uUtI I. Galleries and Inside Balconies . The use of a second level of smoke detectors below the lattice work is recommended .Typically produce little heat and therefore provide no significant thermal air current to distribute smoke.

~ " C( I T ~ A.... O .. G.. 0( 1'111([" nc UII ~l TS ..l n.Siting of Detectors in Ventilated Areas 3-59 . • '''ESt4 AI"" ~ ~ OIf... "" ~ l Nf oUiCA Oil foI .-" "7 WUl:) r-OVG rOi.(lilt.. "" $l.'$ro ~ 6 .lI '. . : U AST S H(' I00<I .. .""'.nli Cn.. r".CIl. Return air monitoring can be accomplished with duct sensors as illustrated in Figure 3-36 . 1It4O_ • • _ '. --f -f• . (tIl..o o o Smoke detectors installed in ventilated and air conditioned spaces must be installed with sufficient sensitivity to detect smoke even if all fans are switched off..OV to fll I I It . ~ Figure 3-35 . N(... Figure 3-35 provides recommendations for locating smoke detectors in ventilated areas.'.H~ .q 01 CCUC1O'JS ..~) '''I ~ 11801/l tACH Ol Tl (lOA . "''''u...-\ISlIl') ACJtO~1 THI ((~ "UC' Of tiC Sl"'-"'C UI1C4U.

": 0 ¥OIIIf II"IAIO )0 l...t...~ OI. 1>4 "f n. .. • Shall be completely protected by automatic sprinklers . o:..".i H_ ~._ ...nil t1flcov. . . rt OW...: 1 1oI¢-''' ' 0'1"'.... _OullP.. I"...... : .......\."'. AU Ci " ._ .... 04\ ..t_ACfID .... 2.. ....'''AC'(O ."G C.. v.Siting of Detectors in Ventilated Areas (Return Air) o Special Areas 1..l . with no connections to guestroom areas .. 1t"'L Figu re 3-36 ......... 1$ I j[ 1""'~ Itl"l • . '"""lU . rtf 6 ..-"'... ...AJI ~hCI~ ~ ' ''' rl\c'C •• I~ .......A""&fil' . of "Pt<.. 0" .. ~ . Laundry and Dry Cleaning Facilities • All laundry areas must be fully sprinklered ........ ~PPl Y 11'(0...C·.oe ... IIlTVl'''''P OUC' 1\ 1I[. .. . . .. Trash Refuse Areas • These areas should be self-contained fire compartments.' "-" • t>il AlA Ih hll .. .. • Ventilation and air conditioning ducts serving refuse collection areas must have automatically operating fire 3-60 . ot ItC IOI'I'S '1'"01..III'" LNAI'I . 1~ ~ 6 (>. 4V8'-Jlt .. \4.....L".... C"¢~~ I>~ t . :H: '(ClOP looI'M ~U " .. e. "" ... V'U Of . • It is recommended that these areas have their own selfcontained ventilation /air conditioning systems with automatically closing fire dampers to prevent smoke migration .. OCA IICIf." UUPt. pt l u... Ii DC ...~w("OtO • -~ .. "":...

especially if they are located underground. Garages • Enclosed garages are considered high risk areas. detectors with higher sensitivities could be used . These alternatives may result in significantly slower response times due to the ambient room conditions . Computer Rooms. 6. 4.3. Battery Rooms • Are common in hotels where emergency power is provided. • Adequate ventilation must also be provided to prevent the bu ild up of carbon monoxide. Telephone Exchange. Clear escape route identification is a vital necessity. • Automatic sprinkler protection is required . • Air sampling type detection systems provide the best coverage in terms of fastest response and immun ity to ambient conditions. however the value of the installed equipment is extremely high. • Automatic sprinkler protection and smoke detection is required . To increase this time somewhat. 5. dampers and should not connect to other areas in the hotel. If detection is requ ired in lieu of automatic sprinklers. • These areas also present a hazard to human life because of the potential for smoke development and the danger of panic resulting from difficu lt escape routes. • As an alternative. Refuse and Linen Chutes • Great amounts of dirt and dust accumulation can be expected in these areas . spot type smoke detectors employing a pre-alert signal feature (based on percent of smoke obscuration sensed) should be considered . heat detectors must be used. 3-61 . • Smoke detectors are not permitted . Telex Rooms • Risks and fire loads can be relatively low in these areas. • Automatic sprinkler protection is required for linen chutes. linear beam type smoke detectors or spot type smoke detectors installed with reduced spacing can be considered . • The danger of corrosion and explosion must be considered when selecting detectors and planning detector arrangements . • The cable area under raised ftoors must be considered in add ition to the room area . To min imize potential nuisance alarms. especially for the phone and computer equipment.

Technical Plant Rooms • May be treated as normal rooms .I. ~. DliiXi O!'l (fiX.} oa .7. Heating Plants and Boiler Rooms • Automatic sprinkler protection is required . . • Special consideration should be given to any electrical and electronic cabinets in the area. · et - TlfD .. provided these areas are clean and have no excessive air movement. (Of lAW... • At least one detector is requ ired on the top floor ceiling of any sta irwell. • Smoke detection is strongly recommended .. • If the upper floors are separated from the lower ones by smoke barriers or fire doors within the stairwell .Mounting Detectors in Stairwells Exit stairwells are often the primary escape routes in hotel bu ildings..0\1. then detectors must be installed in each stairwell smoke compartment. 9. 8. Stairwells ". • 3-62 .*1"101 Figure 3-37 .

3 to 0. Fuel Storage Areas • Oil storage tank rooms are required to be protected by automatic sprinklers. 11 .10. • Installation of smoke detectors in elevator shafts is not recommended .1 m' ) 430 650 1 ft to 3 ft (0. Risers and Supply Shafts • Risers. etc.Monitored Area for Suspended Ceilings/Raised Floors Depth of Suspended Ceiling/Raised Floor < 1 ft (0. or beneath each fireproof partition . where smoke is likely to accumulate.7 m) if the angle of slope is less than 75" . The detectors should be installed as follows: o At least one detector shall be installed at the highest point in the shaft.) • The application of linear beam type detectors should be considered . maximum monitored areas can be obtained from Tab/e 3-3.6 m) per detector may be increased to 45 ft (13.). Suspended Ceilings and Raised Floors • Where areas above false suspended ceilings and below raised floors are required to be monitored. • Where sprinklers are not provided in vertical shafts and sloping ducts with an incline of less than 75".6 m).. fixtures.4 m' ) m' ) 3-63 . monitoring is only necessary for pump areas and support rooms. Table 3-3 . therefore smoke detection is recommended . smoke spread is usually obstructed by service platforms. as monitoring of the elevator shaft and ma intenance of the detectors are difficult. (The distance of 25 ft (7. o One detector at least every 25 ft (7.9 ft' (60. • Unless a danger potential exists due to ignition sources (such as electrical installations . light fixtures. Elevator Shafts • At least one smoke detector instal led in the elevator equipment room is required to initiate elevator recall. • Unit monitoring of individual equipment can be considered if a potential problem is identified . 12. etc. supply and elevator shafts need not be mon itored by smoke detectors if the build ing is fully protected with automatic sprinklers and provided with area smoke detectors (unless specifically required by local codes or standards) . 13.3 m) Maximum Monitored Area 270 ft' (25.9 m) > 3 ft (0.9 m) ft' (39.

o Air sampling ports can be run along the height of the atria providing sampling at various levels.14. the maximum distance between detectors may be extended to 41 It (12. However. o The equipment manufacturer should be consulted and the hotel's energy conservation modes should be reviewed conceming proper application and installation of such devices in this particular application . Because of the high ceilings generally associated with atrias. • If additional detection is desired. Atria • Atria present unique fire detection/suppression problems due to their physical arrangement.6 m) from any wall. depending upon the height of the atria. In any case. In this manner.1 m) apart. Smoke detectors are not recommended for monitoring these areas .5 m) . frying pans. o They can be set-up at angles looking vertically along the height of the atria. and deep fryers represent a very serious fire hazard in hotel kitchens. detectors should not be spaced more than 30 It (9. Appropriate detection devices include linear beam type smoke detectors or incipient (air sampling) type fire detection systems. • Incipient (air sampling) type fire detection systems can be also used for the protection of atrias. 3-64 . • The installation of an automatic fire extinguishing system is mandatory. therefore additional detection is not required . sampling ports can also be provided within the HVAC ductwork servicing the atria . Cooking Kettles and Deep Fryers • Large cooking kettles . o They can be installed horizontally across the atria at various levels accounting for smoke stratification which may occur due to HVAC system features and possible thermal gradients. a set (or sets) of linear beam detectors can provide complete coverage of the atria from top to bottom . • Where obstructions are anticipated in an atria the use of an incipient fire detection system is recommended . Corridors • In general. in corridors not wider than 10 It (3 m). 16. o Where air return or exhaust fans are in continuous operation . fixed temperature heat detectors are best suited for the application . spot-type detection is usually not feasible. and not more than 15 It (4 . 15. • Linear beam type smoke detectors can be used in a number of ways. Kitchens. the manufacturer should be consulted for proper application and installation of these devices.

For typical one-bed guestrooms . Any request for deviation from these requirements must be forwarded. Not only is there a high fuel load and great potential for smoke production. o Critical Zone 1. Smoke detectors are not required in the egress corridor open to the atria provided that adequate area smoke detection is provided in the atria. o Detector Arrangements 1. This configuration could result in a delay in identifying the room. For su ites or larger rooms .• • • Some hotels may be configured such that guestroom egress corridors are open to an atria . Smoke detectors (ionization or optical type) are recommended for protecting the critical zone in guestrooms. Consists of the bed and its immediate surroundings. The engineering rationale must include factors such as the volume of the atria . separated by a closable door. it is recommended that each guest room detector be fitted with a 3-65 . The detector should be installed as far away as possible from potential sources of deceptive phenomena . 6. but also a major source of fire outbreaks. with appropriate engineering rationale from the project's fire protection engineer in writing . 2. (f) Practical Planning Examples • Protection of Typical Guestrooms o Early warning capability and the avoidance of false alarms must be considered. If a guest su ite consists of two rooms. For new construction . 3. 4. bathroom door. system connected guestroom smoke detectors with individually reporting addresses are required in all hotels which have egress corridors open to an atria. covering the entire bed zone(s). for review. 3. or even floor of origin due to the wide open space of the atria . A person lying in bed (and most likely asleep) is more vulnerable than in other zones in the guestroom. a single detector of high quality and stability may be sufficient. Because of this. and sitting areas . Unless individually identifiable detectors are used . and the fuel load ing and air movement in the atria . 2. 5. the detector is required to be system connected and recommended to be individually addressable. installation of a smoke detector in each room is recommended . Existing hotels with this configuration (egress corridors open to an atria) where single station smoke detectors are provided in the guestrooms must be upgraded to system connected smoke detectors in the guestrooms at the earliest feasible time . it may be advisable to use a multi-detector arrangement. or an alternate egress route (protected by automatic sprinklers and smoke detectors) is provided from each guestroom. includ ing air cond itioning units.

This will help identify an individual room quickly. 2.General alarm and voice communication system 2.Due to potential deceptive phenomena (i. the detector may also be mounted on the wall. However. 3.Typically the risk associated with this area is relatively low and the bedroom detector is expected to protect this area. hair spray). (30 cm) away from walls or obstructions. Pre-taped messages may be usefu l. All Other Buildings . 2.Although there is potential for high fuel load.Selective alarm and voice communication system 3. Technical Information/Requirements • Choice of Messages o Alarm Messages . Entrances and Closets .e . 3-66 .. enclosed egress corridor). General lnformation/Requirements • The basic concept of the alarm and communication system must be discussed with the local fire department to develop an appropriate philosophy that complies with local codes and approved procedures. especially when the Fire Command Center is initially unmanned. 2. Required in all Starwood properties. o Recommended Systems (see Figure 3-38) 1.o remote response indicator. at least 12 in. these areas are rarely monitored as the bedroom detector is expected to protect these spaces .All alarm signals should be selected and specified in cooperation with the local fire department and in accordance with national codes. This system allows the giving of clear directions to occupants in emergency situations. 7. mounted outside the room and visible from the corridor. It is preferred that detectors be installed on the ceiling. these areas are rarely monitored. Other Zones 1. Living Area of the Guestroom . 3. steam. Class A (Roadside Hotel) and Class B with less than 3 stories (Regional Hotel) . o Voice Communication 1. (g) Zoning of Emergency Voice Alarm Communication Systems 1. A emergency voice alarm communication system may not be required in buildings less than 3 stories in height above grade with direct exits from each guestroom to the outside (no interior. Bathrooms .

.. .rw:... .M of their beet. (Wi ! ..:I trrfl'OYII.P! IV · ''-IN o... rather than to use fewer units with high sound power.. Emergency Telephone Systems 3·67 . Ie :1) . S-(Wi' . 'I flip . ott"" haw ben... o The siting of loudspeakers shall be performed by trained personnel. hoU ' b ' jng .u s A kCGKT: 2 • • . '9 oft.n OONtNded of matOti! IS witt1 r.....lJl ' $TC FiU . boo? n... o Should have a power handling capacity between 0 . .Tht ~ ..ASS' HOO'lT. low-fi.. t+A:J. t 8:el. "d ." . The loudspeakers should still be audible after all fire doors have been closed. ~ wd I a .. bOgtde.. I .. . trtjn. measured 5 ft above the floor of the occupied room .dwJy looN flrt . Therefore it is preferable to distribute several alarm devices ..... of.25 and 15 watts (nominal). AOAOS*OE HOUl AEOIOtW.. NFPA recommends that the signal sound level be at least 15 dBA above the ambient noise level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds ... o Separate speakers in guestrooms are required by Starwood in all new construction and recommended in existing hotels. ! p(... HOm a... t4.'Qt. tire resie'.Recommended Systems for Rescue and Evacuation o o Alarm Notification Devices for Voice Communication Systems o Loudspeakers are used as alarm notification devices for emergency and voice alarm communication systems .re (hIgMt ""g'f vtf O'Utt If. t Mod'I " -d...TO l'i U • .. 7 STORES rod _ """"'" . O:Wf" to p'"fh bB~ trap.• 6gh-iiM irlrastruch. t\:)loI&.. 0 . I" ¥I .." • C 2 t ' VX 2 SI<:R U u .. r-.. nout ' 'II r~ not.. cvss e HlGH·RlSE HOTEl CUSID SiC> 11 It C I' a"""l 11 It '" h) . dlCi6ng 18':b" 'fIIt. 'Od ..p.u Wence... "'5'CI~ IoIiTROPOUTNI HOTE\. end lhM olin (~) . Figure 3·38 . o Alarm devices should be installed such that un iform alarm sound levels are maintained throughout an area .a. . o To ensure that audible evacuation signals are heard.

etc.1 General 1. (e) Provide specified warranty on material and labor. General Information/Requirements • The installation of fire detection systems is subject to various (and sometimes conflicting) regulations. Starwood requirements and the engineering specifications.o o An emergency telephone system dedicated for use by firefighters is recommended for all Class C (Metropolitan Hotel). Class D (High Rise Hotel).National Fire Alarm Code (USA) • VdS . system manufacturer's recommendations. The system. firestop fire barriers.) (d) Protect detectors during construction phase. 2. As such. Article 760 (USA) • NFPA 101 .Germany • FOC . 3. substations. especially in hotel buildings. (c) In all cases the following guidelines shall be followed : • In the front of house area. The exact location of the command center.Life Safety Code (USA) • NFPA 72 . and Class B with more than 2 stories (Regional Hotel) buildings. preferably concealed in comers or incorporated into the decor. • Conduits or cables should be run in a straight manner. parallel to walls or ceilings.5 Guidelines for Installation 3. DIN . Installer Requ irements (a) Install all equipment in accordance with local and national codes. cables are to be hidden above suspended ceilings or in partitions. should match the hotel's interior.2 Scope of Work for Supplier and Installer 1.5. 3. and phone jacks should be selected in cooperation with the local fire department. it is recommended that installation be performed by recognized/approved local contractor in compliance with system manufacturer's recommendations and engineering specifications. especially the detectors and alarm devices. (b) Provide all necessary installation materials as specified . Technicallnformation/Requirements (a) Acceptable codes for the installation of fire detection systems in areas where no local codes exist include the following : • NEC.Great Britain (b) The installation must meet the general standards of workmanship and should also be aesthetically acceptable.5. 3-68 . (c) Perform all work necessary to install the system and repair any damage (patch holes.

32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C) • Storage Temperature . (g) Conduct acceptance testing of all devices and circuits in the presence of Starwood fire protection engineer. dirt.<85% RH .(I) Check installation wiring for ground faults.<95% RH (95% RF) • Avoid . dirt. (h) Warranty all system components according to contract for the specified length of time. dust. (I) Perform tra ining sessions for the operating staff.<85% RH .e . Fire detection . (e) Commission the system and hand it over to the hotel representatives . system manufacturer and hotel safety representative. high altitude) (b) Photoelectric smoke detectors • Operating Temperature . opens.Deceptive phenomena (i.15 to 140· F (-10 to 60· C) • Storage Temperature . hotel chief engineer. continuity. (c) Provide drawings to specify the exact location for each component.-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C) • Operating Hum idity .32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C) • Storage Temperature . grease. (b) Provide detailed installation instructions for each component.3 Environmental Conditions 1. Detectors (a) Ionization smoke detectors • Operating Temperature .5 mi se c) • Avoid . Manufacturers ' data sheets should als o be consulted to determine maximum acceptable conditions. project engineer and local authorities.. dust. The following data are recommended maximum values for environmental cond itions for the installation of detection and alarm systems . and extraneous voltages prior to connecting it to the control equipment. no condensation • Storage Hum idity . 3. if required .<90% RH (90% RF) contin o 3-69 . System Manufacturer Requirements (a) Provide the installed with required equ ipment on time. (d) Supervise the installation. grease) (c) Differential heat detectors • Operating Temperature . 2.-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C) • Operating Hum idity . no condensation • Storage Humidity . .-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C) • Operating Humidity .Deceptive phenomena (i. (g) Assist in establishing contact between the hotel and local fire department.<15 ftlsec (4. 2.<95% RH (95% RF) • Air Velocity . (h) Shall not relocate devices unless approved by fi re protection engineer. shorts.e. alarm and emergency voice communication systems should be protected against ex1reme environmental conditions.5.

dirt.<95% RH (95% RF) no condensation o Avoid . condensation (e) Graphic display terminals o Operating Temperature .-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50·C) o Operating Humidity .-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50·C) o Operating Humidity .-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C) o Operating Humidity .Areas where early warning is desired .<95% RH (95% RF) no condensation o Avoid .Storage Humidity .Excessive heat.Excessive heat.-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C) o Operating Humidity .-4 to 160· F (-20 to 70· C) o Storage Temperature . deceptive phenomena o 3.<95% RH (95% RF) o Avoid .Excessive heat. condensation (b) Terminals o Operating Temperature .Excessive heat.. dust.32 to 100· F (0 to 35·C) o Storage Temperature .-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50 · C) o Operating Humidity .<95% RH (95% RF) no condensation o Avoid .32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C) o Storage Temperature .32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C) 3-70 . sunlight.32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C) o Storage Temperature . sunlight (d) Printers o Operating Temperature .<85% RH (90% RF) no condensation o Storage Humidity . condensation (c) Video display terminals o Operating Temperature .-20 to 120· F (-30 to 50· C) o Operating Humidity .32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C) o Storage Temperature . condensation (f) Floppy disk storage units o Operating Temperature .<95% RH (95% RF) o Avoid .<85% RH (90% RF) no condensation o Storage Humidity .<95% RH (95% RF) no condensation o Avoid . condensation. Control Units and Terminals (a) Control Units o Operating Temperature .<95% RH (95% RF) contino o Storage Humidity .<95% RH (95% RF) o Avoid .<85% RH (90% RF) no condensation o Storage Humidity .<85% RH (90% RF) no condensation o Storage Humidity . steam pipes. dirt. heaters) (d) Fixed temperature heat detectors o Operating Temperature . no condensation o Storage Humidity .Deceptive phenomena (i.15 to 140· F (-10 to 60· C) o Storage Temperature .32 to 100· F (0 to 35· C) o Storage Temperature .Excessive heat. dirt. (e) Infrared name detectors o Operating Temperature .<95% RH (95% RF) no condensation o Avoid .e.<85% RH .Excessive heat.-20 to 120·F (-30 to 50·C) o Operating Humidity .<85% RH (90% RF) no condensation o Storage Humidity .

<95% RH (95% RF) no condensation Avoid . 4. 2. (b) Starwood requires that wiring must be Class A for all initiating. 2. 3.Excessive heat. fire protection engineer. • The manufacturer shall provide all necessary technical installation documents including floor plans and wiring diagrams. indicating (notification) applicable circuit and signaling line circuits. • The project manager and fire protection engineer must determine the location of all equipment in accordance with relevant codes and system manufacturer's guidelines.4 Wiring Guidelines • The following guidelines are applicable for low-voltage networks (max 48 VDC). In itiating line circuits and signaling line circuits should be run in separate conduits from lines such as unfiltered signal circuits and audio evacuation andlor paging circuits.5.<85% RH (90% RF) no condensation Storage Humidity . line resistance for the particular circuit (see Table 3-4). Generallnformation/Requirements (a) Installation of systems are subject to extensive local regulations and should be made by certified installers. If this is not possible. 3-71 . Ensure that the wire used on all circuits is sized properly so as not to exceed the max . using material readily available and commonly used. each circuit must be individually shielded and properly grounded. 1. dirt. AC power lines should never be run in the same conduit as initiating line circuits and signaling line circuits. 5. Avoid running initiating line circuits and signal line circuits through rooms containing electromagnetic fields.• • • • Storage Temperature . condensation 3. All field wiring shall meet the requirements of local and national codes. Circuits installed to protect such rooms shall be run in properly grounded metallic conduit. and representative of the manufacturer of the fire detection system are responsible for ensuring correct installation and inspection of each system component. • The primary rules of wiring installation are: o Consult the manufacturer's instructions o Meet applicable codes and standards (b) Installation Materials • Wire and Cable o General Wiring Guidelines 1.-20 to 120'F (-30 to 50'C) Operating Humidity . Technical Information/Requirements (a) Responsib ility • The owner (through the project manager).

67 6. device loading and distances accordingly.OOO ft (Ohm/305 m) 1.Wiring Guidelines for Horn and Light Circuits Wire Sizes for 24 VDC Signal Circuits Approximate Pair Distance in Feet to Last Device (Class B) or Including Return to Panel (Class A) LOAD 0.0 1. Read ings should be taken at frequencies of 27 MHz. o Microprocessor Based Control Panel Circuits 1.14 25. 400 MHz and 800 MHz. unless specifically accepted by manufacturer's requirements. If the signal strength exceeds 50 VIM for any of 3-72 .511 Ohms/1 . Table 3-5 .813 0.5A 1. 8.59 2. For signaling line circuits with intelligent reporting devices.53 4.0 .6 2. cables with individually twisted pairs having a minimum of three twists per foot are recommended.63 1.02 0. 51 Conversion : 1n = O. cables with individually twisted wires having a minimum of three twists per foot are recommended . 2.Wire Resistance American Wire Gauge (AWG) 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 mm) 2.643 0. 150 MHz.15 16. the areas should be tested using a field strength meter. It is important that the wire size for all indicating circuits be determined on the basis of load and distance of the run (see Table 3-5).Table 3-4 .00 1. If RFI (or other electromagnetic influences) are suspected.3048m Maximum line loss 10% 7. Care should be taken to size wire.02 6.5 2.39 10.05 1. A system ground must be provided for earth detection and lightning protection for the devices as per NFPA 780. When twisted pairs are specified. 1BAWG 400' 100' 130' 100' 16AWG 620' 300' 210' 160' 14AWG 1000' 500' 330' 250' 12AWG 1600' 800' 520' 400' 10AWG* 2500' 1250' 840' 620' BAWG* 4000' 1900' 1300' 1000' Note 2: Note 3: • • • • Some equipment terminals can not accept wire size greater than 12AWG. Note 1.29 1.

5 (OHMS) MAX SAFE POWER (W) 1250 875 625 500 375 150 75 25 12. 35 25 20 15 6 3 1 . unless approved by the equipment manufacturer in writing .4 50W 910 570 362 227 140 90 57 35 22 12. Unless specifical ly accepted by the equipment manufacturer. 4 .2 8.Transient Protection Measures Section (Refer to Appendix 3-C) must be fol lowed . the precautionary measures detailed in the Electromagnetic Compatibi lity .2 5.6 NIA 0.these frequencies.0 20.2 100W 455 285 181 113 70 45 28 17 11 6. 3. individually shielded twisted pairs should be used (with the shields terminated per the equipment manufacturer's recommendations) .0 13.0 32. o Audio Circuits 1.0 3.1 200W 227 142 90 56 35 22 14 8. individually shielded twisted pairs are required. Guidelines for audio circuit installation are listed in Table 3-6.8 1.7 5. all audio circuits must be individually twisted pairs . If this cannot be avoided. 3. Audio circuits should not be run in the same conduit as initiating circuits.28 2. Signaling line circuits for intelligent detectors should not be run outside of buildings.5 LENGTH OF WIRE' (12% MAXIMUM POWER LOSS) 10W 4550 2850 1810 1137 700 450 287 175 112 61 . If multiple speaker zones are run in a common riser or cable tray.5 25W 1820 1140 725 455 280 180 115 70 45 24.6 IMPEDANCE 3-73 . 2.Wiring Guidelines for Speaker Circu its 25 VOLT LINES RESISTANCE PER 1000FT WIRE PAIR AWG #62 #82 #10 2 #12 #14 #16 #18 #20 #22 LOAD (ohms) MAX SAFE CURRENT (A) 50 . Table 3-6 .

If not run in conduit. Cables shall be installed in such a way that maximum protection against physical injury is guaranteed by building construction or alternatively run in condu its .7 VOLT LINES MAX SAFE POWER 10W 36480 2450 22800 1750 14500 9100 1400 LENGTH OF WIRF 2% MAXIMUM POWER LOSS) 25W 14560 9120 5800 3640 50W 7280 4560 2900 1820 1120 720 460 280 180 100W 3640 2280 1450 910 200W ~ -m% 725 455 280 180 115 70 45 24. all wire and cable used in detection.28 2. alarm and emergency voice communication systems shall be Teflon coated or mineral insulated cable and comply with the flame resistance requirements for plenum cable as specified by recognized standards . Care should be taken to keep speaker circuit wire runs as short as possible .6 ~ 35 25 20 15 6 3 1 . 6. PVC or other approved conduits or ducts may be used if allowed by local codes and with the prior written authorization by Starwood . wire and cable listed for use by a nationally recognized agency (UL . amplifier output and wire distances accordingly.. 7.0 3.2 8. o Physical Protection 1.) for fire detection and alarm system application may be used. 3-74 .AWG RESISTANCE PER 1000FT WIRE PAIR MAX SAFE CURRENT #10' #12 #14 #16 #18 #20 ¥a 1.. shall be protected by 2-hour fire rated construction (i. If Teflon coated or mineral insulated cable meeting the requ ired flame resistance rating is not ava ilable. The primary and secondary (return) legs of NFPA Style 6 (Class A) signaling line circuits shall not be run in the same cable. provided it is installed in metallic conduit.0 20 . Cables shall be adequately supported and terminated in approved fittings . 5.5 ~ 210 70 35 ~ ~ 2300 1400 900 920 560 360 1 I ~ 230 140 90 &to NoteT Nole 2: Note 3: ~ . All vertically run wire and cable .2 5. not in conduit.0 32.!2. All wire and cable shall be adequately protected against fire and physical damage. 4. 3. Care should be taken to size wire.5 70. in a 2hour fire rated shaft/pipe chase). 2.0 13. etc.e. The primary and secondary legs should be separated by a minimum construction having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. conduit or raceway. FOC VdS . FM . device loading .

• Exception NO. • Exception No. follow the steps below (SI units in parenthesis ): • Square the outside diameter (from the manufacturer's catalog) of each cable and total the results .. Crossover boxes permit the crossover of power lines. 6.g. Conduit Sizing . • Exception NO. call for metal conduit only. 3: Where the installation wiring is enclosed in a 2-hour fire rated enclosure . both open and closed ducts are perm issible if acceptable to local authorities. 3. PVC ducts may be used for feed ing cables through floors in nonextreme conditions (some codes. 2: Where there is a separate means acceptable to the AHJ for voice communication to each floor or paging zone. • Exception NO.To find the conduit size required for cables of common type and combinations of different size cables. In addition. 2. Installation Hints 1. 4.o 8. • No leads carrying external voltages are included (main power to the fire detection system is considered external) . check with local authorities). USA. telephone or other circuits by leads of the fire detection system. e. The emergency voice commun ication system shall be designed and installed such that attack by fire in a pag ing zone causing loss of communication to this paging zone shall not impact any other pag ing zone. • Exception NO. Wiring may be fed through under floor and parapet ducts. ridges. 4: Where the installation wiring is enclosed within a 2-hour fire rated stairwell that is fully sprinklered in accordance with the latest edition of NFPA 13. Although fully enclosed. 1: The fire command station and the central control equipment. Cable feeder boxes are used for feeding cable and wire through long lengths of conduit. metallic conduit is recommended.5: When a paging zone is directly attacked by fire within the zone . other than a stairwell. Terminal boxes or other connections must be approved by the project planner. dividing walls or conduits if: • It is kept apart from telephone lines. 5. 3-75 . etc. the system shall be designed and installed such that attack by fire causing failure of equipment or a fault on one or more installation wiring conductors of one communication path shall not result in total loss of communication to any paging zone.

(10.5927 (3 .0 cm') 3.81 cm) 2 in. (1 . (5.4 cm') 2.89 cm) 4 in .5 m) on center. care should be taken to maintain the required Class A wiring (Style 6 or 7) for each circuit.1034 (7.35 cm') 0. (although a single cable is permitted to occupy 53% and two cables are limited to 31 % conduit fill.62 cm) 3Yo in .87 cm') 0.7854 (5.34 in' (2.92 in' (12.5 cm') 5. For a single cable. and for three or more cables. large installations sometimes require intermediate terminal cabinets to connect wiring from detector zones.34 in' (8. the maximum permissible area to be occupied by the cables is 40% (NFPA 70).8 cm' ) 6 .43 cm) o Intermediate Distributors (Terminal Cabinets) 1. Table 3-7 - Conduit Size Yo in.7 m) from the floor. Using Table 3-7. The recommended mounting height is 4 .60 in' (3 . in . use 0 .21 in' (1 .82) in step (b).7854 (5.18 cm) 1Yo in.82 in' (5. in. (1 .27 cm) y.08 cm) 2Y. for two cables.29 cm') 1. (3. (11. (5. In addition. 2. For three or more cables within a single conduit.77 cm') 0. Intermediate distributors must be labeled as "Fire Alarm Circuit". (8. (3.3 m) and the upper edge no more than 9 ft (2 . manufacturer's recommendations. or small control units to multicore cables (such as the main cable).96 in' (25.12 in' (0 . (2.19 cm') 0.54 cm) Permissible Area 0.2 cm') 1Y. local and national codes and standards must be followed.91 cm) 1 in. alarm devices. They should be installed in dry rooms with easy access for servicing (such as electrical equipment rooms). Doors or cover plates must be fitted with locks or screws.07). Intermediate distributors should be sited based on economic considerations and located where they can form a center for various signal wires such as floors or wings.12).72 cm) 3 in . with the lower edge no less than 1 ft (0.38 in' (41.95 in' (19.09 in' (32 . in. Although not recommended. 40% conduit fi ll is often used as a guide).16 cm 4Yo in. 3-76 . This is the total area of the cables in square inches (square cm). (7 . use 0.5 ft (1 . If used.07 cm) .65 cm') 1. select conduit size with area equal to or greater than the total area .• • • Multiply the total by 0. use 1.

the ends of cables must be marked by colored insulation tubing.4 cm). Therefore.5. No more than two pairs of wires may be connected in parallel and properly anchored . o • (b) Connections • Identification of Wires o All cable sheathing must be continued through the entry sockets into the equipment. Installation of Manual Alarm Stations o As required in the United States.Mounting Detectors on Sus pended Ceilings It is important that the steel condu it rod between the detector and the junction box is strong enough to stabilize the detector for future maintenance work. 3-77 . manual alarm stations should be installed approximately 44 in. 3.5 Installation and Connection of Equipment (a) Installation of Special Devices • Detectors Mounted on Suspended Ceilings o Detectors should be mounted as shown in Figure 3-39 . (111 . Terminations must be in accordance with the project planner's instructions. so they are accessible by persons with disabilities. o When it is not possible to maintain the color code . (152.3. The same color wire must be used throughout a zone circuit. CONCRETE • • I I STEEL SUSPENDED CEILING Figure 3-39 . it should allow removal of a detector without damaging the ceiling elements .8 cm) above the floor. o Should be visible and accessible to persons entering the room (do not locate beh ind door). (111 .8 cm) is recommended . Other countries may perm it up to 60 in. however 44 in.

o (c) Precautions with High-Voltage Equipment • The sharing of cables between fire detection systems and other installations is not permitted. check the wiring for extraneous voltages. such as detectors or tools. Only non-conductive conduits such as PVC may be used in such instances. • Installations in high-voltage areas require special permission. o All detectors must be installed to keep the response indicators visible to the investigation squad . • All wiring of the fire detection system must be installed to prevent flashovers from high-voltage cables or systems. 3.5 in.8 cm) on all sides is required to allow for maintenance work. open. with a minimum distance of 2. Ladders may only be used if all high-voltage gear has been switched off and is grounded in accordance with the relevant operation codes. Separate cables must always be used and separation must be maintained in shared raceways (not permitted in shared conduit). (50 . o Leads and cables of the fire detection system should not be run in parallel to any high-voltage or high-current lines. • A clearance of at least 20 in. all detectors must be safely accessible. and ground circuits .• All wire and cable must be identified with metallic or phenolic labels indicating their circuit. (a) Detectors • Must be easily accessible at all times . Only detector exchangers with insulated rods are allowed in these areas. (b) Response Indicators • Built-in Response Indicators o Detectors with built-in response indicators are recommended for hotels. • It must be possible to test and remove the detector from immediately below its installation position . testing. • Wiring and equipment may not be mounted above any live installations (in case metal parts.4 cm). • External Response Indicators 3-78 . which should be obtained by the customer and should only be entered after special permission has been obtained .6 Accessibility The accessibility of all system components is vital for inspection. (6. In high-voltage rooms. Check of Installation Wiring .Before connecting the installation wiring to the terminals provided on the control panel. and maintenance. fall). • Protective Distances o One centimeter per 1000 volts must be used.5. short. wherever possible in the open gangways. o All equipment must be installed outside the safety barriers in high-voltage areas.

printers and displays) shall be installed in accessible locations.9 m) clearance around the face of the fire command station and central control equipment. alarm and voice communication system. the wiring between the two shall be installed in conduit between the two control panels. must be considered. The locations for such devices shall be indicated on all contract drawings .e.7 Control Equipment (a) All control units shall be installed in accordance with engineering specifications. and ground circuits.o o o Recommended for areas that are temporarily inaccessible (guestroom) and for detectors that are not of the individually identifiable. such as temperature. check the wiring for extraneous voltages. together with the manufacturer and the hotel safety engineer. The maximum amount of conduit should not exceed 100 ft (30. terminals. to determine a suitable location for each control panel. (h) Should the fire command station. including control functions as required by the acceptance testing procedures . (c) Environmental conditions. All cables into and out of the control panel shall be suitably marked and indicated as part of the fire alarm system . 3. (e) The cables and wire entries into the control panels shall be equipped with strain relief to prevent disconnection of the terminations due to work performed in another part of the system . o Program the control unit with user data. used for control and selection of the emergency voice communication circuits. short.. Installation of the external indicator right above the door leading to the detector is recommended.6. 3-79 . (b) Control units and associated operating devices (i. be remote from the central control equipment monitoring the detection devices.6 Commissioning and Acceptance Test 3. 3. manufacturer's recommendations and local/national codes and regulations. humidity and dirt accumulation. (d) It is the responsibility of the fire protection engineer. (b) Technical Aspects of Commissioning o Ensure that system complies with guidelines and maximum ratings.1 Commissioning (a) Before connecting the installation wiring to the terminals provided on the control panel. (g) The central control equipment shall be located in fire-resistive areas and shall have a minimum of a 3 ft (0.5. system connected type. External indicators are not required for intell igent reporting detection systems. o Carry out a comprehensive performance check of the fire detection. (I) Each control panel shall have a separate circuit breaker in the electrical distribution cabinet specifically marked 'FIRE ALARM SYSTEM' .5 m) or must be enclosed in a 2-hour fire rated enclosure. open.

3. • Reference to the NFPA or other standards. manufacturer's manuals. (a) Every initiating device must be tested to ensure operation. including its date of issue to wh ich the system conforms. (e) System Identification . which should include the following information : 1.A permanently mounted placard should be located near the protective signaling system. 4.6. Explanation of the extent of monitoring. the types of detectors used . Record all events in a log book. alarm and voice communication system. (c) Training Aspects of Commissioning • The person responsible for the system must be instructed and understand the following: 1. conducted on the entire installation for the purpose of verification of compliance with the applicable standards and with the tender of the solicited system.2 Acceptance Tests • Are complete operational tests. Physical location and identification of allover current devices and switches which control the primary and secondary power supplies 2. the installer must provide two complete sets of up-to-date technical documentation (as-built drawings. include the type and quantity of the stored fuel and transfer time 5.Give system a trial run for one month making modifications to operating features to ensure "nu isance alarm free" operation. Location of the as-built drawings and the system operating and maintenance instructions 3. Procedure to follow in case of trouble. • Description of the primary (main) and the secondary (standby) power supplies. and telephone numbers of the installation and servicing contractors. log book). Standby battery specification. voltage per cell. Names of the authorities having jurisdiction.After commissioning work has been completed. the form of alarm and fire control installations. It should contain the following information: • Names. 2. carried out periodically by the system operator. including ampere hour capacity. and the battery type 4. operating instructions. Servicing checks. 6. (d) System Documentation . Type of secondary supply 3. proper annunciation and control of output functions. Note addresses and telephone numbers of the maintenance service which can be called any time. 5. Operation of the fire detection. including their inspection references and dates 6. addresses. All indicating circuits and devices must be tested for audibility (and visibility where applicable) and proper transmission of signals. number of cells. If a standby generator is used. 3-80 .

The following procedures describe additional acceptance test methods to verify multiplex-type protective signaling system performance . Tests should be conducted to verify that communication exists between the central processing unit and the connected peripheral devices. To test for the AC power. • Additional Tests on Multiplex Systems . initialize the system per the manufacturer's manual. o Each initiating device circuit and signaling line circu it (intelligent reporting systems) should be tested for its alarm reporting capability by operating at least one of the connected in itiating devices. o Starting from the unpowered cond ition.Check whether measurements on each circuit have been made after installation or during commissioning for: o Stray voltage o Ground faults o Short circuits o Loop resistance • System Testing o Visually inspect system for mechan ical integrity. Add itional tests should be conducted to verify all possible status modes that the initiating device circuit should provide. o Test all primary (main) and secondary (standby) power supplies . Upon completion of th is test. o Test the system for all intended functions in accordance with the manufacturer's manual. o Verify that each test signal is properly received and processed by the Fire Command Center equipment (main fire alarm control panel). indicating appliance circuit and signaling line circu it to confirm that the integrity of installation conductors is being properly monitored . Consult the manufacturer's manual for other common mode failures and conduct the described testing procedures . o Conduct tests from the multiplex interface to verify trouble indications for common mode failures.(b) The following are general guidelines for testing procedures. o Test all supplementary functions for proper response. 3-81 . The manufacturer's manual and the as-built drawings should be used to verify proper operation after the initial testing phase has been performed . One connection on each circuit should be opened and the proper response at the control unit verified . o Verify that the system is in normal supervisory cond ition . Verify proper receipt and processing at the Fire Command Center. o Test each initiating device and indicating appliance for alarm operation and proper response at the control panel. Further details can be found in NFPA 72. remove the AC power supply to the satell ite control unit and activate at least one initiating device. (c) Scope of Testing • Installation Wiring . an open circuit trouble cond ition should be made to verify open circuit fault detection . such as AC power failure . o Test each initiating device circuit.

the responsibility is regulated by regional or local codes. An example is provided in the latest edition of NFPA 72. 3.6. o 3. (c) In many areas. This person should be employed by the hotel and should report directly to the general manager. o It is strongly recommended that the fire protection engineer work closely with the hotel's owner (and manager) and the local authority to develop a clear testing procedure.7 Operation and Maintenance 3. (b) In smaller facilities. (b) A copy of the certificate shall be given to the system owner and AHJ after the completion of the operational acceptance tests.7. 3. probably delegating technical tasks to the hotel's engineer.7. This is intended to address such items as verifying controls performed by individually addressed or grouped devices. o NFPA 92A. o Each of the fault conditions that the system is required to detect should be introduced on the signaling line circuit. the manufacturer's manual should be consulted to determine the proper testing procedures for verifying the proper operation of the optional features. pre-alarm or verification functionality and similar. sensitivity monitoring. Testing of Smoke Management Systems o The lack of agreement on a single method for testing smoke management systems has often caused delays at the time of acceptance testing. systems and emergency planning.3 Certificate of Compliance (a) A certificate of compliance shall be prepared for each system . Verify the proper receipt and the proper processing of the signal at the Fire Command Center.2 General Tasks (a) Table 3-8 provides a generalized list of operation and maintenance tasks for various fire protection systems. contacting the local fire department for advice is recommended . provides recommended test methods and equipment that can be utilized. 1 Responsibility (a) A safety/security person and/or hotel chief engineer should be responsible for all active fire protection measures. o When multiplex protective signaling systems are equipped with various optional features unique to these systems. the hotel manager must carry the responsibility himself. 3-82 .• Test each communication circuit between RLCP and the Fire Command Center main fire alarm control panel to confirm that the integrity of installation conductors is properly monitored. Recommended Practices for Smoke Control Systems. which meets the objectives of all parties concerned .

Table 3-8 .. are to be inspected to verify they are not being used for storage of any material.. New employees must be made familiar with the building and the emergency measures. (Hotel guests do not have to participate. Fire and Emergency Procedure training to be conducted for all new employees. tested for their effectiveness.g . Where required .. procedures. Recommended T ime Period Annually Annually Start of employment and every 6 months thereafter Every 4 months Quarterly Quarterly or as required Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly 2 to 6 weeks Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly As required andlor after dry cleaning . trash cans and ashtrays is to be checked . hose reels and fire extinguishers) must be inspected for their availability and accessibility. (Missing/defective items must be replaced immediately. The availability of emergency instructions in guestrooms (room cards) must be checked.. Fire and Emergency Procedure Training is to be conducted for Telephone Operators and Night Managers. approved containers) is to be verified .e.) All areas of the building must be inspected to detect any changes in fire load. updated and coordinated with the Fire Department (i. combustible or otherwise. transformer vaults/closets.). The punctual emptying of waste baskets. Employees must be advised about any changes in plann ing. with room make-up 3-83 . bomb threats. switchgear rooms. and missing signs must be replaced .e. All emergency procedures are to be reviewed. etc. etc. escape routes. any obstructions must be removed . earthquake. Ensure all trash has been removed from noors at end of day shift. Manual fire fighting equipment (i.. grease rags. Escape routes must be checked for obstructions and access ibility (especially locked or blocked doors). Daily. as well as their personal responsibility in case of fire and evacuation. The continuance of the building's fire compartmentation must be checked (e. All dedicated electric service closets. accumulation of trash or dirt (particular attention to the kitchen area for accumulation of combustible materials such as oil and grease and laundry areas for lint build-up). building construction..Overview of General Operation and Maintenance Tasks Task A fire evacuation drill is to be conducted for all employees and hotel guests urged to participate. etc. is to be verified .e. Emergency instructions and exit egress signage in guestrooms must be verified . evacuation drills. The fire emergency signage in the elevator foyers are to be verified . nameproofing certificates for fabric materials are to be obtained and updated. equipment. doors held open or missing). Fire drills are to be conducted. The proper storage of grease and oil rags (i.) Escape route identification must be checked. fire loads. The safe laundering of rubber-backed bath mats. the time of drill should be varied so that all shifts participate during the year. etc.

Monthlv . (d) Tab/e 3-9 provides a recommended maintenance schedule for various fire protection systems. for five (5) minutes on standby) emergency power. horns.).Visually inspect hydrants.Check voltage and output of battery charger. valves with tamper switches and post indicator valves. supplier. (b) The service contract should establish that an engineer is on call at all times and that telephone requests for emergency service are promptly met. Recommend ed Time Period Continuously (b) The tasks discussed in this table may be expanded based on the particular hotel. Test monthly Test weekly (minimum 30 minutes run time).Visually inspect sealed valves. 7 -days-a-week basis. 3. All equipment must be tested and maintained per the manufacturer's recommendations and in compliance with local/national codes. supplier or licensed contractor is responsible for periodic inspection and testing.Table 3-8 . Table 3-9 . roof manifolds and 3-84 . Note: Generator and fire pump must be started and/or observed running by operating personnel. (c) Local and national regulations should be consulted to determine if there are more stringent requirements than those listed in the table . • Annually . (c) If a service contract does not exist.Recommended Maintenance Schedule and Requ irements Equipment Emergency Standby Battery Test Electric Fire Pump Maintenance Schedule Operate entire fire alarm system including all initiating and alarm indicating devices (bells. a service contract exists whereby the manufacturer. etc. Common contracts require that service will be made available within 4-6 hours on a 24-hour.Perform maintenance procedure. operate on standby battery power for five (5) minutes. • Monthly . • Semi-annually . detectors. a minimum of 2 hotel employees should be trained by the equipment manufacturer.Open and close hydrants.Test post indicator valves. installer or contractor. etc. Perform standard maintenance procedure on all valves. Monthly . Open test valve to simulate water flow conditions when start testing fire pump.Visually inspect locked valves.Overview of General Operation and Maintenance Tasks Task The proper designation of 'no smoking' regulations must be checked.. Therefore the hotel must carry a supply of spare parts . to allow emergency servicing (replacement of fuses. Perform battery cell hydrometer float test • Weekly .Visuallv inspect pump test header. Where emergency voice communication system is used.7. • Diesel Fire Pump Emergency Generator/Fire Pump Battery Fire Standpipe System • • Fire Hydrants (Private) Fire Department Annually .3 System Maintenance (a) Ideally.Conduct flow test Weekly . • Annually .

Annually (in Fall) . Annually (in Spring) . inspect heating mechanism (if applicable).Flow test low point drains (blowdown).Test tanks.) 5. Every 5 years . Every 2 Years . Verify the proper operation of LED's and lamps. ensure each zone can be reset and the entire system is free of all trouble conditions.Recommended Maintenance Schedule and Requ irem ents Equipment Connections Maintenance Schedule Siamese connections.Inspect water level and pressure . is provided).Re-rack fire hoses/nozzles.Trip-test dry pipe test dry pipe valves.In cold weather. (If nonrestorable .In cold weather. Monthly . Every 3 Years (in Spring) . etc.Inspect air and water pressure.Test quick opening devices (AKA accelerator or quick opening device).g. Daily -In cold weather.Visually inspect water level. Test high and low air pressure switches. 3. System connected smoke detectors tested in place by smoke or other manufacturer accepted aerosol. inspect heating mechanism (if applicable).Full flow trip test dry pipe valves. Monthly . Single station smoke detectors tested by operating test button or magnet (or test set). Every 2 years . Every 5 years . Weekly .Test general alarm voice/tone devices (operate as during full property evacuation).Visually inspect condition of tank. Water flow switch tested by operating inspector test valves. FOC. Daily . Send alarm signal to central monitoring company or fire department. Pull stations tested by pulling handle. 0 Fire Sprinkler System 0 0 0 Fire Sprinkler System Gravity Tanks 0 0 0 0 Fire Sprinkler System Pressure Tanks 0 0 0 0 0 0 Dry/Pre-actioniDeluge Systems 0 0 0 0 0 Fire Alarm Detection System 0 0 0 0 0 Fire Alarm Detection System Devices 3-85 . sprinkler piping (readily accessible) and hangers for corrosion and damage. test a sample and then replace .Inspect priming water supply. fixed temperature heat detector device. Monthly test 1/12 of the total devices Annually test all devices as follows : 1 . Quarterly .Verify proper zone annunciation. Daily . Annually . VdS.Professionally test hoses per applicable standards (e.Test pre-alarm voice/tone devices (voice tested if P.Test tank level indicator.Test water now alarm devices (audible or visual signals) by opening main drain.Visually inspect sprinkler heads. Test antifreeze specific gravity (if applicable).) and manufacture~s recommendations.A .Visually inspect condition of tank. inspect heating mechanism (if applicable). Semi-annually . Every 2 Months .Verify calibration of pressure gauges . Semi-Annually . 4.Test deluge detection device. Monthly . Annually . 2. Semi-Annually .Test battery backup (operate entire voiceltone system for 5 minutes on standby emergency power).. 0 0 0 Fire Hoses/Nozzles Monthly .Table 3-9 . Heat detectors tested by heat source equipment.Perform visual inspection. Flow test main drain(s) (blowdown). Quarterly . NFPA. Semi-Annually .

Perform discharge and hydrostatic tests.Table 3-9 .Clean/degrease.Recommended Maintenance Schedule and Requ irem e nts Equ ipment Ma intenance Schedule 6.Test automatic transfer switches by simulated power failure.Verify door closes when the fire alarm system is in the alarm state. Every 2 months (or more frequently if required) . Annually (or more frequently if required) . such as fire pumps.Visually check operation. Perform full load test. remove primary path.Inspect and clean.Have system professionally inspected/tested/maintained. Class A) Emergency Generator • Annually . verify receipt of trouble condition at control panel and verify operation of system on secondary communication path. Annually (or more frequently if required by code) . but no less then once per year.Chemically clean/fireproof. Class A). Weekly . Annually .If possible. Monthly . Monthly .Chemically cleanlfireproof. Every 6 months (or more frequently if required) .Visually inspect entire building. . Annually . 7. Monthly . All connections made to other equipment.Test each device. turn. • • • • Verify door closes when associated detector is tested . Fire fighter's telephones tested by communicating through the system.Operate for 90 seconds.Have extinguishers professionally serviced. Note: Ensure there are adequate access panels to facilitate c/ean-out of the entire kitchen exhaust hood duct system. emergency generators. Every 6 months (areas where emergency power is not available or required by code) . Monthly .Where primary and secondary (return) communications paths are provided (NFPA Style 6. Flame detectors test in accordance with manufacture~s instructions. 3-86 . Every 12 years (or more frequently if required by code) . Valve supervisory (tamper) switches tested by turning valve Y.test with detector schedule. etc.Test for a minimum 30 minutes run time. Annually . Verify door closure when detector is activated. Every 6 months (or more frequently if requ ired by code) . • • • Fire Extinguishers • • Kitchen Exhaust Hood Fire Extinguisher System Kitchen Exhaust Hood Filters Continuous Service Kitchen Exhaust Hood Duct System Infrequently Used Kitchen Exhaust Hood Duct System Emergency Lighting (Battery Operated) Escape Routes/Exit Signs Door Release: • Single-Dedicated Smoke Detector Actuated • Any Alarm Activation • Combination door closer/smoke detector activated • Fusible Link (Fire Door) Fire Exit Doors Laundry Dryer Exhaust Ducts • • Weekly (or more frequently if required) . 8. remove link and verify door closure. Monthly .Visually inspect. Other Equipment Monitored by the Fire Detection & Alarm System Multiplex Communication Wiring Between Control Units (Style 6. which provide a supervisory signal indicating operation of said device should be tested for signal transmission at the time of the individual equipment test.Take inventory and perform visual inspection (sign and date each extinguisher tag).

Check for proper operation by gas utility company.Inspect and clean. Note: Ensure there are adequate access panels to facilitate clean-out of the entire dryer exhaust system and room exhaust system.Cleaned by elevator service company (not to be done by inhouse employees). Monthly .Perform professional safety inspection • Annually .Table 3-9 . 3-87 . Annually . Monthly . Daily . (b) Recommendations for the protection of system components are provided in Table 3-10.Check for proper operation.7. Annually (or more frequently if required by code) . Monthly .Perform professional safety inspection • 3.Test elevator recall function Annually (or more frequently if required by code) .Clean equipment.4 Protection of Instal/ed System Components (a) Care should be taken to ensure all installed systems are protected against abuse.Recommended Maintenance Schedule and Requ irements Equipment Laundry Room Exhaust System Ducts Laundry Dryer lint Screens/lint Collection Devices Trash & linen Chute Doors Fire Cart/Fire Suitcasel Back Pack Main Gas Valve(s) Elevator Pits Elevators Boiler and Pressure Vessels Maintenance Schedule Every 6 months (or more frequently if required) .Inventory.

supplier or contractor • Generally. remove or cover up detector Use manufacturer-approved compounds (aerosols) only Protect them with guard rails from being hit by food carts. detectors. such certificates should be kept on fire for at least 10 years. and emergency telephone systems • The logbooks should also contain record of all fire and system related events (with time and date).) (d) InspectioniTesting/Maintenance Certificates • The hotel management must request certificates for all inspection .Table 3-10 . local/national codes should be consulted for additional requirements . testing . nuisance and supervisory alarms o Trouble conditions o Malfunctions o Tests and drills o Replacement actions (batteries.5 Documentation (a) Operation and maintenance instructions should be provided by the manufacturer. • The logbook should include information such as: o Changes in emergency plan/procedures o Fire or evacuation drills o Training sessions o Inspection of escape routes and emergency instruction measures o Inspection/testing/maintenance of manual fire extinguishers o Testing of sprinkler. repair or replacement of fire safety equipment performed by a manufacturer. etc. vehicles.Recommendations for the Protection of Installed System Components Activity • Paint spraying of walls and ceilings • Sanding of plastered walls and wood • Carpet cleaning (dry cleaning) Washing and cleaning of walls and ceilings Painting of walls and ceilings Testing of detectors with test gas Manual stations in exposed locations Proper Measure Cover detector and base with plastic bag or remove detector and cover up detector base Do not apply any cleaning solvents to detectors. maintenance. EVAC.7. 3. consult detector manufacturer. supplier. installer or contractor. 3-88 . hose reel . etc. including: o Fire. fire detection . These instructions should outline routine procedures and specify test intervals. (b) Detailed ma intenance and test procedures should be prepared using provided documentation . (c) If detector housing needs to be painted for aesthetic reasons . servicing . (c) Logbook • The safety/security engineer or other designated employee must be responsible for keeping record of all fire protection measures. remove or cover up detector Do not paint over detector.

Where emergency communications systems are installed. • • • • 3. Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR) . 3-89 .USA 2. components. Guest rooms for persons with disabilities.Canada 9.5% and 4.. Factory Mutual (FM) -USA 3. operating sequence. For other countries. 3. except areas not recommended for smoke detector installation (i. All equipment shall be UL listed for use in the United States.Canada 8.8.e.3. loudspeakers shall be installed.8.2 Smoke Detectors • System connected smoke detectors should be installed in all guestrooms. D All smoke detectors installed in public meeting rooms shall be provided with a nuisance alarm reduction feature. Fire Offices Committee .8 Summary of Technical Requirements 3. Australian Standards (SAA) . Verband der Sachversicherer (VdS) . unless required by other local code. Canadian Standards Association .0% obscuration .Great Britain 7. D Sensitivity shall range between 2. British Standards (BS) . A complete. kitchens. A 16-hour training program shall be conducted for selected members of the hotel staff by the alarm installer. shall be provided with system activated strobe lights in addition to audible devices. circuits. For countries where no special codes exist. and maintenance requirements shall be established and shall be made available to the entire hotel staff.3 Guest Rooms • • • Shall be provided with an audible alarm device.France 5.1 General • Upon activation of elevator lobby or machine room smoke detector. Underwriter's Laboratories Canada (ULC) . it is recommended to select systems that have been approved by at least two of the agencies listed below: 1. Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) . HVAC exhaust duct smoke detection is not required .Great Britain 6. D If complete area smoke detection is provided throughout the hotel. written description of the hotel fire alarm system .Australia A fire fighter's telephone system shall be provided in at least one stairwell at each level (preferable the stairwell with roof access) . systems shall have proper approval from the public agency responsible for that particular area. public spaces and back-of-the-house areas. all elevators shall return to the main level of guest exiting or other area approved by the local AHJ.Germany 4. Training documents shall be available to the hotel staff. areas exposed to dirty environments).8.

All fire alarm system control panels in the FCC shall be provided with a minimum of either 24-hour battery backup (full system operation) or 4- • • • 3-90 . if intelligent type system).8. (111 . The feed and return wiring risers must be in separate conduit remote from each other. The maximum distance between pull stations shall not exceed 150 It (46 m). next to all exits and at other strategic locations. Wiring is to be of copper conductors or optical fibers . This area must be provided with emergency lighting.6 Emergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) Systems • • • A complete EVAC system shall be provided for all new and retrofit renovations.5 Wiring • • • All fire detection. Double action type pull stations are recommended. secure. 3. The main fire detection and emergency voice alarm communication control panels shall be located in the Fire Command Center (FCC). alarm and emergency communication systems shall be wired Class A and must be supervised . Individual guestroom audible devices and visual devices (if provided) shall also activate upon initiation of smoke detector. These devices shall be mounted 44 in.• System connected smoke detectors shall not activate the hotel evacuation alarm. 3. however an internal (supervisory) alarm shall be initiated to alert hotel staff. 3. the standby requirement can be reduced to 4-hour standby with 15-minute full system operation . Water flow switches and valve supervisory devices shall be connected to the main fire alarm panel. 3.8 cm) above the floor to the centerline of the device. If the EVAC system is supplied by an emergency generator. The emergency voice alarm communication system shall be provided with a minimum 24-hour standby with 15-minute full system operation battery back-up. The main fire alarm control panel shall be mounted in a 24-hour supervised.8. The fire alarm control panel must have Alarm and Trouble indication by zone (by device. The activation of water flow switches shall have the same alarm priority as manual pull stations.4 Manual Pull Stations • • • • Shall be installed throughout the hotel. If an intelligent or multiplex system is installed wiring must be twisted pair (and shielded if recommended by the manufacturer or if electrical interference is anticipated).8.8.7 Fire Alarm Control Panel • • The main fire alarm control panel shall annunciate by floor and type of device. fire-safe location.

• hour battery backup (full system operation) when connected to the hotel's emergency generator. All fire alarm control panels. 3-91 . remote annunciators. and the emergency communication control panels shall be designed with a minimum of 20% spare capacity for expansion.

(b) Methods to Reduce Nuisance Alarms • False alarms due to maintenance work can be avoided by proper organization. which is announced to in-house staff. a For traditional zoning methods. etc. • Due to microprocessor technologies. a general fire alarm is given . etc. etc) . an automatic reset command is issued and the alarm is suppressed .) • Corrosion of contacts (due to environment) • Electromagnetic influence and radio frequency influence (walkietalkies. sunlight.) • Deceptive phenomena (insects. • Alarm Verification Concept a Applicable in areas where puffs of smoke or gas are common in the environment. a When the detector first responds. pulling alarm stations. a First response from a detector is -silently' announced to key personnel. training and supervision. 3-92 . ballrooms. a Always used when detectors are used to activate extinguishing systems . detectors must be wired to guarantee proper two-zone response in case of fire. dust. cross zoning may be accomplished by careful formation of groups in the software .Nuisance Alarm Problem (a) Nuisance alarms are often caused by: • Mischievous use of the system (blowing smoke at a detector. a When the detector responds a second time (within a particular time period).) • Detectors which are of the wrong type. cellular phones. an alarm is immediately issued . a Recommended for areas in the hotel where there may be heavy smoking . a For intelligent detection systems. painting .Appendix 3-A . o If a second detector responds. • Pre-Signal (Alarm Sequencing) Concept a Method of alarm verification used to help reduce the chance of panic in crowded areas (retail areas. etc. o Can be performed with either traditional zoning/devices or intelligent devices. • Cross Zoning a Based on the concept that two separate zones must respond before a general fire alarm signal is activated . etc. steam. who have been assigned the task of investigating the alarm. etc. some fire detection equipment manufacturers have been able to incorporate nuisance reduction features into their equipment. improperly placed/installed. o A general alarm is also initiated if either a manual pull station or the sprinkler system water flow switch are activated.) • Maintenance work in monitored area (welding. dirty. a Response of a sing le zone leads to pre-alarm condition.

Priority 2 . Priority 1 .• • • The time limit varies based on the manufacturer. 1. When T1 time runs out without a response by an operator. o This method can only be used when a system operator is present at all times. timer T2 is started. The control panel can be o 3-93 . An alarm from any of these devices cause a general alarm signal without delay.Delayable alarm (smoke detector) o When there is a response by a priority '2' detector. a detector may have two or more preset sensitivity levels. water now device) 2. Positive Alarm Sequencing o Utilizes a dual timing principle for delaying a general alarm.) o If the investigation verifies the existence of a fire or if time T2 runs out. o For intelligent detector systems. the fire department can be summoned by initiating any manual alarm station. delay T1 is started. o This detector feature does not eliminate the need for regular detector maintenance. If the alarm is acknowledged while T1 is running. In this case. o Useful in areas of high dirt build-up or where detectors are difficult to access. o The operating sequence requires two levels of device priority and two system timers (T1 and T2) . Variable Sensitivity Settings o Similar in concept to sensitivity compensating detector. NFPA 72 limits the time delay to 60 seconds. or that it is not an actual alarm. the system interprets this as a sign that an operator is present. however requires only a single device in alarm . the fire alarm control panel can be reset while T2 is still running without sounding a general alarm. Several systems have the ability to automatically or manually change between fixed sensitivity levels either at the detector or at the control panel. if the investigation determines that only a minor fire exists that can be extinguished easily. compensating for component aging and dirt accumulation. o However. manual alarm stations or water flow switches. however usually limited by local or national codes. (NFPA 72 limits T1 to 15 seconds and T2 to 180 seconds. Sensitivity Compensation o Detector feature which maintains a constant sensitivity over time. o Similar in concept to cross-zoning.Immediate general alarmlfire department notification (manual alarm station. the fire department is called and a general alarm signal is activated. o This concept is not applicable for heat detectors. o Helpful in reducing long-term maintenance costs by identifying which detectors need to be cleaned or replaced. allowing time for investigation. o Time periods T1 and T2 are often regulated by local or national codes.

intended to minimize the effects of electromagnetic interference. the use of shielded cable or cable installed in properly grounded metallic conduit will negate a majority of the interference. and electrical transients (induced voltage and current spikes).• • programmed to shift between the various sensitivities at specific time intervals. Signals Indicative of Dirty Detectors o In many of the intelligent detector systems. It is also possible to program different sensitivity levels based on the location of the devices. some equipment may be exposed to abnormally high levels of interference. the sensitivity adjustments are often made at the control panel. Transmission of electrical interference currents via resistive coupling 6. Lightning 2. 4. Electrical or magnetic interference fields 5. High frequency or radio interference 3. on the installation wiring or at the control 3-94 . which require equipment to be designed with adequate EMI and RFI protection features. which can be installed on the detection devices. a signal is provided which indicates the need to clean the detector. o Refer to Append ix 3-9 for additional information on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) o Interference Factors which influence EMC include: 1. o Additional protection may be required to reduce the occurrence of nuisance alarms resulting from these phenomenon . Interference pulses 4. In some cases. radio frequency interference (RFI). Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) o Many control units contain built-in interference protection. groups of devices and by time of day. o Level of protection is dependent on the requirements of various regulatory agencies. All fire detection and alarm equipment must meet the current revision of applicable standards. The sensitivity levels can be adjusted by device. o These systems are useful in facilities where various environmental conditions exist. 2. additional protection may be required. However. Electrostatic Charging/Discharging o Interference Protection Measures 1. 3. o Waiting for a dirty detector signal should not be used as an alternative to scheduled maintenance. o Sensitivity levels must remain in the range specified by the regulatory agencies such as UL or VdS. o For analog reporting detector systems. Protection is available in the form of filters or other suppression devices. Typically.

and external transient protection must be installed on each of those circuits . extra precautions must be taken to protect the equipment from damage caused by high voltage transients being induced on the circuits from nearby lightning strikes or other outside sources . 9. 5. 4. 7. the degree of lightning activity expected at the geographical location of the installation . If high voltage transients are anticipated in advance. 8. Additional transient protection is needed on multiplex communication network lines (signaling line circuits) and audio communications lines are routed underground from bu ilding to building in PVC conduit. where lightning is a concern. These circu its should be run in metallic conduit that is properly bonded to a good earth ground .5m) driven ground rod or equivalent water pipe connection. The equ ipment manufacturer should be consulted when add itional transient and interference protection is requ ired to ensure compatibility with the installed equipment. or twisted pairs in metal conduit. All fire alarm equipment must meet the current revision of applicable standards. Aud io circu its should be shielded independently from each other and from signal circuits . 5. 6.o panel. it is important that the equipment manufacturer be contacted for specific requirements regarding termination of the sh ield . By meeting these standards. the installation of fiber optic cable instead of cable using metall ic conductors is an option . 3. 2. The use of fiber optic cable instead of cable using metallic conductors provides for an alternate means of protection . Additional Transient Protection Measures 1. it is recommended that additional transient protection be installed on equ ipment to prevent damage. In all cases . The external transient protection required for each circuit depends on the characteristics of the circuit and. Twisted shielded pairs with the shield earth grounded should be used with in the PVC conduit. For any circuits extended outside the bu ild ing . Fiber optic cable are immune to EMI and RFI as they use light signals to transmit data instead of electronic signals . The manufacturer should be consulted when additional protective devices are to be installed . 3-95 . the equipment is designed with adequate transient voltage protection for systems used within a single building . When shielded cable is used. it is extremely important that all ground connections be made to an 8 It (2 . If it is apparent that there will be a high degree of lightning activity at the installation.

which require equipment to be designed with adequate EMI and RFI protection features. • Interference Factors which influence EMC include: 1. In some cases. where lightning is a concern. it is recommended that additional transient protection be installed on equipment to prevent damage. 3. The use of fiber optic cable instead of cable using metallic conductors provides for an alternate means of protection. Electrical or magnetic interference fields 5. which can be installed on the detection devices. and electrical transients (induced voltage and current spikes). • Additional protection may be required to reduce the occurrence of nuisance alarms resulting from these phenomenon. For any circuits extended outside the building. Typically.Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Many control units contain built-in interference protection. Interference pulses 4. Lightning 2. Transmission of electrical interference currents via resistive coupling 6. 3-96 . on the installation wiring or at the control panel. the use of shielded cable or cable installed in properly grounded metallic conduit will negate a majority of the interference. extra precautions must be taken to protect the equipment from damage caused by high voltage transients being induced on the circuits from nearby lightning strikes or other outside sources . radio frequency interference (RFI). and external transient protection must be installed on each of those circuits. 4. However. 2. the degree of lightning activity expected at the geographical location of the installation. All fire alarm equipment must meet the current revision of applicable standards. All fire detection and alarm equipment must meet the current revision of applicable standards. If it is apparent that there will be a high degree of lightning activity at the installation. The external transient protection required for each circuit depends on the characteristics of the circuit and. • Level of protection is dependent on the requirements of various regulatory • agencies. additional protection may be required . • Add itional Transient Protection Measures 1. some equipment may be exposed to abnormally high levels of interference. Fiber optic cable are immune to EMI and RFI as they use light signals to transmit data instead of electronic signals. Protection is available in the form of filters or other suppression devices. Electrostatic CharginglDischarging • Interference Protection Measures 1. intended to minimize the effects of electromagnetic interference. High frequency or radio interference 3. 5. 2. The manufacturer should be consulted when additional protective devices are to be installed. 4. By meeting these standards. These circuits should be run in metallic conduit that is properly bonded to a good earth ground.Appendix 3-8 . 3. the equipment is designed with adequate transient voltage protection for systems used within a single building.

Twisted shielded pairs with the shield earth grounded should be used within the PVC conduit. In all cases. it is extremely important that all ground connections be made to an 8 It (2. the installation of fiber optic cable instead of cable using metallic conductors is an option. or twisted pairs in metal conduit.5. 6. The equipment manufacturer should be consulted when additional transient and interference protection is required to ensure compatibil ity with the installed equipment. 8. it is important that the equipment manufacturer be contacted for specific requ irements regard ing termination of the shield . If high voltage transients are anticipated in advance. 7. Additional transient protection is needed on multiplex communication network lines (signaling line circuits) and audio communications lines are routed underground from building to building in PVC conduit. 3-97 . Audio circu its should be shielded independently from each other and from signal circuits.5m) driven ground rod or equivalent water pipe connection . When shielded cable is used. 9.

Detection devices may suffer interference from waves. 2. for example). • Capacitive Influence . The influencing factor is the current. With circuit waves.Created by the alternating electrical fields from a source of interference to a part of the system. • Inductive Influence . the influencing factors are the electrical and magnetic field strengths .Created by the magnetic alternating field of a source of interference as induced interference voltages in the receiver.Additional Information on Electromagnetic Compatibility 1. The level of interference resistance of the equipment describes the maximum interference signal which may be tolerated before the distortion of the desired signal reaches a specific level. 3. All electronic equipment (including fire detection related devices) must be designed for EMC . The influencing factor is the voltage . • Wave Influence .Appendix 3-C . it is necessary to acknowledge the presence of the following types of influence: • Galvanic Influence . 4. 3-98 . EMC is the ability of electrical or electronic equipment to function satisfactorily without influencing or being influenced by electromagnetic phenomenon in the surrounding atmosphere. this level is the alarm threshold. For fire detection equipment. To achieve EMC.Created by the coupling of electrical circuits via a common impedance. The electrical cause is the charging current in the source of the interference.Created by circuit or radiation waves which are coupled into parts of the system (RFI. which spreads via detector lines and free space directly into the detector electronics . For radiation waves. the influencing factors are the line current and the line voltage.

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