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Project Title: Pesticide Management of

Brontispa longissima in Coconut

Project Leader: Study Leader:

Leonila M. Varca Lorenzo E. Fabro National Crop Protection Center, Crop Protection Cluster, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños Philippine Coconut Authority

Implementing Agency:

Cooperating Agency: Funding Agency: Project Duration: Budget:

PCARRD, DOST January 21, 2008 – October 20, 2008 PhP 559,537.00

Brontispa longissima • One of the most damaging pests of coconut and other palms • Adults and larvae feed on soft tissue of the youngest leaf in the throat of the palm.



• Affected leaves turn brown, resulting to stunting of palm, reduced nut production and eventually death of the trees

Chemical control is practiced as part of CLB control program of the government. Trunk injection and spraying of insecticides are implemented by PCA to fastrack the mitigation of infestation and spread of the pest and allow recovery of damaged trees.



Concerns with chemical control - Spray application to tall trees pose risk to applicator. - Health concerns to workers, animals and to the environment. - Trunk injection may affect quality of the coconut products. - Insecticides recommended by PCA for trunk injection are not registered for use in coconut with the FPA. - No local residue data available.

Objectives of the project
- To evaluate selected systemic insecticides against Brontispa longissima. - To determine effective rates of application of selected systemic insecticides to Brontispa. - To assess the effects of stem injection of the insecticides to beneficial insects. - To determine the residues of these insecticides to coconut fruits. - To come up with good agricultural practices (GAP) recommendations as control measures against Brontispa.



Insecticides evaluated for trunk injection
Common Name Brand Name Recommend ed Rate Twice the Recommend ed Rate 2 gram/tree

Thiametoxan Actara 25 WG Thiametoxn + Lcyhalothrin Alika 247 Zc

1 gram product/tree 1.5 mL product/tree

3 mL/tree


Danto p 16 WSC
Solom on

1 gram product/tree
1.65 mL product/tree

2 gram/tree

Imidachlopri d + Bcyfluthrin

3 mL/tree

Study 1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of selected systemic insecticides for the control of Brontispa longissima. • Insecticides evaluated were effective against Brontispa longissima adult and larvae at the dosage applied. A second application is suggested after 30 days to sustain control of the pest. • These insecticides did not affect the population of the common earwig, Chelisoches morio, a natural enemy of the coconut leaf beetle. • Chemical control can be complemented with other pest management strategies for effective management of the pest.



Study 2. Assessment of pesticide residues in coconut from trunk injection of systemic insecticides • Coconut water was analyzed for residues of the trunk injected insecticides at 1,3,7,15 and 60 days after trunk injection. • Thiametoxam was not detected below 0.06 ug/ml;Imidachloprid below 0.065 ug/ml; Clothianidin below 0.06 ug/ml; Lambdacyhalotrin below 0.009 ug/ml ; B-cyfluthrin below 0.07 ug/ml at 1day to 60 days after treatment

• Coconut milk was analyzed for residues of the trunk injected insecticides at 1,3,7,15 and 60 days after trunk injection. • Thiametoxam was not detected below 0.02 ug/g;Imidachloprid below 0.55 ug/g; Clothianidin below 0.35 ug/g; Lambda-cyhalotrin below 0.39 ug/g ; B-cyfluthrin below 0.11 ug/g at 1day to 60 days after treatment



Processing of treated nuts to virgin coconut oil and coconut oil reduced the concentration of thiametoxam by 98% and 100%, Concentration of imidachloprid by 96.5% and 91% respectively.

Dietary Risk Assessment of Residues of Trunk- injected Insecticides



Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake
• First estimate of pesticide residue intake applying CODEX MRLs or proposed MRL • Calculated by multiplying the established or proposed MRL by the estimated daily regional consumption of the food commodity • Compared to the ADI of the pesticide calculated for a 60 kg person and expressed as % of the ADI

Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) Daily intake of the chemical which during the entire lifetime appears to be without appreciable risk to the health of the consumer on the basis of all known facts at time of evaluation.



Average daily consumption of Filipinos for coconut and derived products = 10 g/day
Reference: Phil Nutrition Facts and Figures (2001) FNRI, DOST


Concentratio n mg/kg

TMDI mg/kg

ADi mg/kg bw


Imidachloprid Chlothianidin L- cyhalothrin B- cyfluthrin

0.55 0.35 0.39 0.11

0.000092 0.000058 0.000065 0.000018

0.06 0.097 0.002 0.02

0.05% of ADI
0.18 % of ADI 0.06 % of ADI 3.25 % of ADI 0.09 % of ADI



• Trunk injection of systemic insecticides will not affect the quality of the coconut with respect to pesticide residues. • Treated nuts can be harvested within the week after treatment of the trees. TMDI did not exceed the ADI • Processing of the nuts to virgin coconut oil and coconut oil will reduce concentration of thiametoxam and imidachloprid.