kf7\of+z zLif{s M bf];|f] efiffsf] ¿kdf g]kfnL lzIf0f -cGtlj{ifos kf7\of+z_ k"0ff{ª\s M %) kf7\of+z ;+Vof M g]kf=lz= %@& pQL0ff{ª\s M @) kf7\of+z k|s[lt M ;}4flGts

k|ltxKtf kf73G6L M # tx M Pd=P8= k|ltkf73G6L M %% ld= jif{ M bf];|f] hDdf kf73G6L M &% != kf7of+z kl/ro of] kf7\of+z lzIffzf:q :gftsf]Q/ -Pd=P8=_ txdf cGtlj{ifos P]lR5s -On]lS6e_ kf7\of+zsf ¿kdf g]kfnL lzIff ljifo lng rfxg] ljBfyL{x¿sf nflu tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] . o;af6 g]kfnL efiffnfO{ bf];|f] efiffsf ¿kdf lzIf0f ug{] ;Lksf] ljsf; x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . @= ;fwf/0f p2]Zo o; kf7\of+zsf ;fwf/0f p2]Zox¿ lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf 5g\ M • g]kfndf bf];|f] efiffsf] ¿kdf g]kfnL lzIf0fsf] l:ylt / k|of]hg atfpg ;Ifd t'Nofpg], • bf];|f] efiffsf] ;}4flGts cjwf/0ff :ki6 kfg{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{], • bf];|f] efiffsf k|efjs tŒjx¿sf] j0f{g ug{ ;Sg] ;'emsf] lgsf; ug{], • efiff lzIf0fsf k4lt tyf ljlwx¿sf] j0f{g ug{;Sg] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{], • eflifs ;Lkx¿ lzIf0f ;DaGwL k|ljlw tyf sfo{snfkx¿af/] hfgsf/L k|bfg ug{ ;Ifd agfpg], • sfo{qmda4 l;sfOsf] kl/ro lbg ;Sg] 1fg / ;Lksf] ljsf; ug{], • efiff k|of]uzfnf / bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf pkof]uL z}lIfs ;fdu|Lx¿sf] lgdf{0f / k|of]uljlwaf/] aofg ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{], • bf];|f] efiffsf ¿kdf g]kfnL lzIf0fsf] cf}lrTo lgwf{/0f ug{] ts{zlStsf] ljsf; ug{], #= ljlzi6 p2]Zo tyf kf7\oljifo
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ljlzi6 p2]Zo g]kfndf ax'eflifs l:yltsf] kl/ro lbg, g]kfnsf] eflifs tYofª\s s]nfP/ efiffsf] ef}uf]lns / ;fdflhs l:yltsf] jofg ug{, låeflifs / ax'eflifs l:ylt s]nfpg,

kf7\oljifo

PsfO Ps M g]kfndf ax'eflifs l:ylt -*_
!=! g]kfnsf] eflifs tYofª\s !=@ g]kfnsf efiffsf] ef}uf]lns tyf ;fdflhs l:ylt !=# låeflifs tyf ax'eflifs l:ylt !=$ efiff;DaGwL ;+j}wflgs k|fjwfg /

254

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ljlzi6 p2]Zo g]kfnsf] efiff ;DaGwL ; +j}wflgs k|fjwfg tyf /fli6«o efiffgLlt ;'emfj cfof]u / ljleGg ;dosf lzIff cfof]usf l;kmfl/;x¿sf] ljj/0f k|:t't ug{ . klxnf] efiff / bf];|f] efiff l;sfOsf k|lqmof 7Dofpg, klxnf] / bf];|f] efiff l;sfOdf kfOg] leGgtf 5'6\6\ofpg, g]kfnL efiff bf];|f] / ljb]zL efiffsf] ¿kdf lzIf0f ug{'kg{] k|of]hg atfpg / lzIf0f k| ljlwnfO{ k|of]udf Nofpg .

kf7\oljifo /fli6«o efiff gLlt ;'emfj cfof]u @)%) tyf To;kl5sf ljleGg lzIff cfof]usf l;kmfl/;x¿sf] cWoog

PsfO b'O{ M efiffsf] ;}4flGts -*_

bf];|f] cjwf/0ff

@=! klxnf] efiff l;sfO k|lqmof @=@ bf];|f] efiff l;sfO k|lqmof @=# klxnf] / bf];|f] efiff l;sfOdf kfOg] leGgtf @=$ bf];|f] / ljb]zL efiffsf] ¿kdf g]kfnL efiffsf] lzIf0f @=% låeflifs lzIff M k|lqmof / k4lt

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bf];|f] efiff l;sfOsf sf/s tŒjx¿ s]nfpg, bf];|f] efiff l;sfOdf dgf]j}1flgs k|efjsf] e"ldsf :ki6 kfg{, dgf]j}1flgs k|efjsf] pkof]lutf atfpg .

PsfO tLg M bf];|f] efiffl;sfOsf k| efjs tŒjx¿ -*_
#=! eflifs leGgtf #=@ ;fdflhs bjfj #=# jftfj/0fLo leGgtf #=$ hg;ª\Vof #=% dgf]j}1flgs kIf #=%=! pd]/ #=%=@ pTk|]/0ff #=%=# a'l4 #=%=$ JolQmTj #=%=% :d/0fzlQm #=%=^ tTk/tf #=%=& clej[lQ

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efiff lzIf0fsf k|d'v k4ltx¿sf] PsfO rf/ M bf];|f] efifflzIf0fsf k| pNn]v ug{, d'v k4lt / ljlwx¿ efiff lzIf0fsf ljleGg k4ltsf] -! ljz]iftf atfpg / d"Nof+sg %_ ug{, $=! k|d'v lzIf0f k4ltx¿ bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf k|d'v $=!=! lgudgfTds k4lt ljlwx¿sf] pNn]v ug{, $=!=@ cfudgfTds k4lt k|d'v ljlwx¿sf] lzIf0fdf $=!=# >'lteflifs k4lt b]vfkg{] dxŒj :ki6 kfg{, $=!=$ ;+1fTds k4lt
255

ljlzi6 p2]Zo pQm ljlwx¿sf] d"Nof+sg ug{ .

kf7\oljifo $=!=%k|fst k4lt $=!=^ k|sfof{Tds k4lt $=@ bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf k|d'v ljlw / ltgLx¿sf] dxŒj Pj+ d"Nofª\sg $=@=! lzIf0f $=@=@ cg'jfb ljlw $=@=# Jofs/0ffg'jfb ljlw $=@=$ k|ToIf ljlw $=@=% WjGofTds ljlw $=@=^ ;+/rgf ;Gbe{ ljlw $=@=& efiff lgoGq0f ljlw $=@=* k7g ljlw $=@=( df}g ljlw

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bf];|f] efiffsf ¿kdf k|of]udf PsfO kfFr M bf];|f] efiffsf ¿kdf NofOg] ljleGg eflifs ;Lk eflifs ;Lkx¿sf] lzIf0f lzIf0f ljlw, k|ljlw tyf ltgsf -*_ lqmofsnfkx¿ :ki6 kfg{ . %=! >j0f tyf >'ltaf]w lzIf0f %=@ df}lvs cleJolQm / pRrf/0f lzIf0f %=# k7g tyf jfrg lzIf0f %=$ n]vg lzIf0f sfo{qmda4 l;sfOsf] ;}4flGts PsfO 5 M sfo{qmda4 l;sfO cjwf/0ff k|:6 kfg{, -*_ sfo{qmda4 lgdf{0fsf tl/sf ^=! ;}4flGts cjwf/0ff / cEof; atfpg, ^=@ sfo{qmd lgdf{0fsf tl/sf / sfo{qmd lgdf{0fsf pkof]lutf / cEof; cEof; atfpg, ^=# sfo{qmd lgdf{0fsf sfo{qmdj4 l;sfOsf pkof]lutf / cEof; pkof]lutf / ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ug{ .^=$ sfo{qmda4 lzIf0fsf pkof]lutf / ;Ldfx¿ bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fdf z}lIfs PsfO ;ft M z}lIfs ;fdu|L / efiff k| ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]u jtfpg, of]uzfnf -*_ bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf qmddf k| &=! bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fdf z}lIfs ;fdu|Lsf] of]udf cfpg] z}lIfs ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]u lgdf{0f / k|of]uljlw 7Dofpg, &=@ bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fdf k|of]uf cfpg] bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fdf z}lIfs z}lIfs ;fdu|Lsf] lgdf{0f ug{] tl/sf / k| ;fdu|Lsf] dxŒj atfpg, of]u ljlw efiff k|of]uzfnfsf] cy{ / &=# bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fdf pQm ;fdu| pkof]lutf lgwf{/0f ug{, Lx¿sf] dxŒj
256

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ljlzi6 p2]Zo kf7\oljifo bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fdf efiff k| &=$ efiff k|of]uzfnfsf] cy{ / pkof]lutf of]uzfnfsf] e"ldsf k|:6 kfg{, &=% bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fdf efiff k| efiff k|of]uzfnfsf] k|of]uljlw of]uzfnfsf] e"ldsf lgwf{/0f ug{ . &=^ efiff k|of]uzfnfsf] k|of]uljlw

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bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf] tx PsfO cf7 M bf];|f] efiffsf] ¿kdf lgwf{/0f ug{, g]kfnL lzIf0fsf] sfo{qmd k|fylds txdf bf];|f] efiff lzIf0f -! sfo{qmd tof/ kfg{, @_ klxnf] efiff / bf];|f] efiff *=! bf];|f] efiff lzIf0f s'g tx;Dd cfjZos lzIf0fsf] kf7\oqmd tyf 5< kf7\o;fdu|Lsf] of]hgf lgdf{0f *=@ k|fylds txdf bf];|f] efiff lzIf0f ug{ . sfo{qmd *=# klxnf] efiff / bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf] kf7\oqmd tyf kf7\o;fdu|Lsf] of]hgf

$= lzIf0f k|ljlw M k|To]s PsfOdf cfjZostfcg';f/ ;fwf/0f / ljlzi6 k| ljlwsf] pkof]u ul/g]5 . $=! ;fwf/0f lzIf0fk|ljlw M PsfOsf] k|s[ltcg'¿k kf7\ok':ts, ;xfos k':ts, ;Gbe{ k':ts, kf7kq, tflnsf / cf/]vx¿sf] cfwf/df JofVofg, k|Zgf]Q/, 5nkmn tyf lzIfs k|:t'tLs/0fsf] k|of]u ul/g]5 . $=@ ljlzi6 lzIf0f k|ljlw M PsfO @ df lzIf0f k4lt / ljlwnfO{ sIffdf k|of]u ug{ / PsfO & df /x]sf lzIf0f ;fdu|Lsf] lgdf{0f / k|of]u ug{ nufOg]5 . %= d"Nofª\sg k|lqmof M lzIf0f l;sfOsf] cjlwdf kf7\oj:t'sf] k| s[ltcg';f/ lnlvt k/LIff, ;d"xsfo{, df}lvs tyf lnlvt k|:t'ltaf6 d"Nofª\sg ug{ ;lsg]5 . o; k|sf/sf] d"Nofª\sg ljBfyl{x¿nfO{ k[i7kf]if0f lbg dfq k| of]u ul/g] 5 . o; kf7\of+zsf] clGtd d"Nofª\sg lq=lj= jflif{s k/LIff k| 0ffnLcg';f/ lnlvt k/LIffåf/f ul/g]5 . jflif{s k/LIffdf ;f]lwg] k|Zgsf] k|s[lt, k|Zg9fFrf / To;sf] cª\sef/ lgDgfg';f/ x'g]5 – k|Zgsf] k|s[lt hDdf k|Zg pQ/ lbg'kg{] k| cª\sef ;ª\Vof Zg ;ª\Vof / ;d"x …sÚ M * k|Zg * * cª\s ax'j}slNks k|Zg ;d"x …vÚ M 5f]6f @ ljsNk;lxt % k| #) cª\s %×^
257

pt/fTds k|Zg ;d"x …uÚ M nfdf] pt/fTds k|Zg

Zg ! k|Zg

!@×!

!@ cª\s

^= l;kmfl/; ul/Psf k':ts tyf ;Gbe{;fdu|Lx¿ l;kmfl/; ul/Psf k':tsx¿ clwsf/L, x]dfª\u/fh -@)^^_, g]kfnL efiff lzIf0f, sf7df8f}+ M ljBfyL{ k':ts e08f/ -PsfO !, #, $ / % sf nflu_ . Pn]g Pr=aL= -;+=_ -;g\ !(^%_, l6lrª Oª\lUn; ofh c ;]s]G8 Nofª\Uj]h, Go'of]s{ M Dofsu|lxn -PsfO @–& sf nflu_ . Pn]g, h]=aL= / P;= lk6 s8{/ -;g\ !(&*_, Pl8ga/f sf];{ Og cKnfO8 lnlª\Ujl:6s\;, ef]n'd #–$, nG8g M cS;kmf]8{ o'lgel;{6L k|]; -PsfO & sf nflu_ . nD;fn, /fdrGb| / cGo -@)^%_, g]kfnL efiff lzIf0f, sf7df8f}+ M e'F8Lk'/f0f k|sfzg -PsfO ^ / * sf nflu_

;Gbe{;fdu|Lx¿ PN;, lyof] efg / cGo -;g\ !(*$_, PKnfO8 lnlª\Ujl:6S; ofG8 nlg{ª ofG8 l6lrª km/]g Nofª\Uj]h, nG8g M P8jf8{ cfgf{]N8 . sf]O/fnf, ljBfgfy -@)%$_, dft[efiff lzIf0f M g]kfnsf] eflifs ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{] tl/sf -ljsf;sf lglDt lzIff k[i7 !!)–!@)_, sf7df8f}+ M lq=lj= lzIff ljsf; tyf cg';Gwfg s]Gb| . Uof;, ;';g Pd= / nf/L ;]lnª\s/ -;g\ @))(_, ;]s]G8 Nofª\Uj]h PlSjlh;g, nG8g M ?6n]h . h}g, dxfjL/ ;/g -;g\ !(^^_, cGo efiff lzIf0f, cfu|f M ljgf]b k':ts dlGb/ . 8'n], a6{ q]m;g -;g\ !(*@_, Nofª\Uj]h, Go'of]s{ M cS;kmf]8{ o'lgel; {6L k|]; . g'gg, 8]le8 -;g\ !((*_, Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª d]yf]8f]nhL, Go'of]s{ M k|]lG6; xn . g]kfn /fli6«o lzIff cfof]u -;g\ !(%%_, g]kfndf lzIff, sf7df8f}+ M sn]h ckm Ph's];g . kf08], /fdzsn -;g\ !(&^_, lxGbL lzIf0f, cfu/f M ljgf]b k':ts e08f/ . a]gL, c/ -;g\ !(^^_, c sf];{ Og Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª, SoflDa|h M SoflDa|h o'lgel;{6L k|]; .

258

dfNof{G8, dfOsn -;+=_ -;g\ !(&&_, Nofª\Uj]h Pqm; / sl/s'nd, nG8g M Pr=O=aL= . ldr]n, /f]hfdG8 / ˆnf]/]G; dfON; -;g\ @))$_, ;]s]G8 Nofª\Uj]h nlg{ª Yof]l/h, nG8g M xf]8/ cfgf{]8 . l/r8{;, h] ofG8 6L /f]h;{ -;g\ !(*%_, cfk|f]r]h PG8 d]y8\; Og Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª, SoflDa|h M SoflDa|h o'lgel;{6L k|]; . ________ -;g\ !(()_, lb NofªUj]h l6lrª Dofl6«S;, SoflDa|h M SoflDa|h o'lgel;{6L k|]; . l/e;{, 8ANo'=Pd -;g\ !(*!_, l6lrª km/]g Nofª\Uj]h l:sN;, -bf]=;+=_, l;sfuf] M l;sfuf] o'lgel;{6L k|]; . nx/L, /hgLsfGt -;g\ !(^_, lxGbL lzIf0f, cfu/f M /fdk|;fb PG8 ;G; . nfh/, lulnog -;g\ !((#_, ln6/]r/ ofG8 Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª, cS;kmf]8{ M cS;kmf]8{ o'lgel;{6L k]]|; . Nof8f], /a6{ -;g\ !(^$_, Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª c ;fOlG6lkms Pk|f]r, Go'of]s{ M Dofju|lxn . NofG6f]km h]=kL= -;g\ @)))_, ;f]l;of] sNr/n Yof}/L PG8 ;]s]G8 Nofª\Uj]h nlg{ª, cS;kmf]8{ M cf]o'kL . ljlNsG;, 8L=P= -;g\ !(&@_, lnlª\lUjl:6S; Og Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª, nG8g M P8jf8{ cfgf]{N8 . zdf{, s]bf/k|;fb -;g\ !((%_, P lqml6sn OefNo'P;g ckm lb k|fOd/L n]en ueg{d]G6 6]S:6 a'S; ckm lb g]kfnL Nofª\Uj]h, lkPr=8L, zf]wkq, lq=lj= . zdf{, s]bf/k|;fb / dfwjk|;fb kf}8]n -@)^)_, g]kfnL efiff / ;flxTo lzIf0f, sf7df8f}+ M Go' lx/f a'S; OG6/k|fOh]h, sLlt{k'/ . zdf{, uf]kLgfy -;g\ !(*)_, :s"n sl/s'nd Og g]kfn, sf7df8f}+ M x]ds'df/L zdf{ . _______ -@)$#_, g]kfndf lzIffsf] Oltxf;, sf7df8f}+ M x]ds'df/L zdf{ . kf7\oqmd ljsf; s]Gb| -;Dkf=_, lzIff -@)^)_, eQmk'/ M ;fgf]l7dL . >Ljf:tj, /jLGb|gfy -;g\ !(&(_, efiff lzIf0f, gO{lbNnL M lb d}sldng sDkgL ckm OlG8of lnld6]8 . ;A;, dfOs]n -;g\ !(*^_, Ph's]zgn lnlª\Ujl:6S;, cS;kmf]8{ M al;n ANofsa]n . ;]l/8 -!((@_, dlN6ln·'jn Nofª\Uj]h Og g]kfn, sf7df8f}+ M lzIff ljsf; tyf cg';Gwfg s]Gb . Xofln8] Pd=P=s]= / cGo -;g\ !(^$_, lb lnlª\Ujl:6S; ;fOG;]h ofG8 NofªUj]h l6lrª, nG8gM nª\Dofg .

259

Xo'h]8, cy{/ -;g\ !(*(_, 6]l:6ª km/ Nofª\Ujh l6r/, Go'of]s{ M SoflDa|h o'lgel;{6L k|]; .

260

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