kf7\of+z zLif{s M g]kfnL efiff / ;flxTo lzIf0f k"0ff{ª\s M !)) kf7\of+z ;+Vof M g]kf=lz= %(!

pQL0ff{ª\s M $) kf7\of+z k|s[lt M ;}4flGts k|ltxKtf kf73G6L M ^ tx M Pd=P8= k|ltkf73G6L M %% ld= jif{ M bf];|f] hDdf kf73G6L M !%) != kf7of+z kl/ro k|:t't kf7\of+z lzIffzf:qdf b'O{ a;]{ Pd=P8= sfo{qmd cGtu{t …g]kfnL lzIffÚ ljifodf ljlzi6Ls/0f ug{ rfxg] lzIffyL{x¿sf nflu tof/ ul/Psf] xf] . ;}4flGts k|s[ltsf] o; kf7\of+zsf] d'Vo p2]Zo ljBfyL{x¿df g]kfnL efiff / ;flxTo lzIf0f ubf{ cfjZos ug]{ ;Lk tyf ;demsf] ljsf; ug{' xf] . d"n ljifo g]kfnL jf g]kfnL lzIff lnO{ :gfts tx pQL0f{ u/]sf lzIffyL{x¿sf nflu tof/ ul/Psf] o; kf7\of+zsf] k|s[ltsf] ;}4flGts eP klg g]kfnL efiff tyf ;flxTo lzIf0fsf oyfy{x¿sf] ljZn]if0f ub}{ ljZjdf ljsl;t ePsf efiff lzIf0fsf gj k|jlt{t ljlw / k|ljlw;d]tsf] k|fof]lus ;Lk cfh{g ug{ lzIffyL{x¿ ;dIf x'Fb} hfpmg\ eGg] klg ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . @= ;fwf/0f p2]Zo o; kf7\of+zsf ;fwf/0f p2]Zox¿ lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf 5g\ M • klxnf] / bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGtx¿sf] rrf{ ug{ ;Ifd t'Nofpg], • g]kfnL lzIf0f k/Dk/fsf] ljZn]if0f u/L o;sf] jt{dfg l:yltsf] ;dLIff ug{ ;Sg]Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{], • zf:qLo, /fli6«o÷:yfgLo tyf ljb]zL efiffsf ;fk]Iftfdf g]kfnL lzIf0fsf] :j¿k / cf}lrTo lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{], • g]kfndf bf];|f] / ljb]zL efiffsf ¿kdf g]kfnL lzIf0fsf] l:ylt, k|of]hg / ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg] ;Lksf] ljsf; ug{], • g]kfndf låeflifs lzIffsf] ;DefJotf / lzIf0f k|lqmofx¿sf] /]vfª\sg ug{ ;Sg] t'Nofpg, • bf];|f] efiff l;sfOsf ;}4flGts cjwf/0ff;lxt To;sf k|efjs tŒjx¿sf] klxrfg ug{] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{], • efiff lzIf0fsf k|d'v k4lt tyf ljlwx¿sf] JofVof ug{ ;Ifd t'Nofpg], • ljljw eflifs ;Lk / ;Da4 kIfx¿sf] lzIf0fsf sfo{snfk tyf k|ljlwx¿sf] j0f{g ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug{],

247

g]kfnL lzIf0fsf ;Gbe{df sIff Joj:yfkgsf] cfjZostf tyf lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0fsf cfjZostf, k|of]hg / k|lqmofut k|fljlws pkfox¿ lgSof}{n ug{ ;Ifd agfpg], • g]kfnL lzIf0fsf ;Gbe{df ;flxTo lzIf0fsf] pkof]usf ;fy} ljwf lzIf0fsf sfo{snfkx¿sf] ;dLIff ug{] ;Lk clej[l4 ug{], • g]kfnL lzIf0fsf ;Gbe{df ljljw lzIf0f ;fdu|L, eflifs v]n, efiff k|of]uzfnf / sfo{qmda4 l;sfO ;fdu|Lx¿sf] pkof]u ;Gbe{ / k|ljlwx¿sf] aofg ug{ ;Ifd t'Nofpg], • eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf l;4fGtx¿sf ;fk]Iftfdf g]kfnL efiffsf d"Nofª\sg kl/kf6L, k|sf/ tyf cfjZos kl/isf/x¿sf] cfsng ug{ ;Sg] ;Lk ljsf; ug{], • efiff lzIf0fdf lzIf0f of]hgfsf] cfjZostf / k|of]hg;lxt g]kfnL lzIf0fsf ;Gbe{df cfjZos kg]{ ljljw of]hgfx¿sf] lgdf{0f / k|of]u cf}lrTo k'li6 ug{ ;Ifd t'Nofpg] . #= ljlzi6 p2]Zo tyf kf7\oljifo

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ljlzi6 p2]Zo kf7\oljifo efiff lzIf0fsf] ;}4flGts PsfO Ps M efiff lzIf0fsf] ;}4flGts cjwf/0ff k|:t't ug{, kl/ro -!)_ klxnf] efiff l;sfO :j¿ksf] !=! efiff lzIf0fsf] kl/ro ¿k/]vf atfpg, !=@ klxnf] efiff l;sfO / o;sf] :j¿k bf];|f] efiff l;sfO !=# bf];|f] efiff l;sfO / o;sf] :j¿k :j¿ksf] /]vfª\sg ug{, !=$klxnf] / bf];|f] efiff l;sfO aLrsf] cGt/ klxnf] / bf];|f] efiff l;sfOsf !=% efifflzIf0fsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGtx¿ aLrdf b]lvg] cGt/ 5'6\ofpg, efiff lzIf0fsf cfw f/e"t l;4fG tx¿sf] aofg ug{ . lj=;+= @)@* ;fn cl3sf] PsfO b'O{ M g]kfnL efiff lzIf0f g]kfnL efiff lzIf0f k/Dk/fsf] k/Dk/f / jt{dfg l:ylt ;j{]If0f k|:t't ug{, -! lj=;+= @)@* ;fn kl5sf @_ g]kfnL efiff lzIf0f ;'wf/sf k| @=! g]kfnL efiff lzIf0f k/Dk/fsf] ;j]{]If0f of;x¿sf] ¿k/]vf agfpg, M ;'?jft, lj=;+= @)@* cl3 / kl5sf g]kfnL efiff lzIf0fsf] jt{dfg ljljw ultljlwx¿ l:yltsf] ljZn]if0f ug{, @=@ g]kfnL efiff lzIf0fsf] jt{dfg zf:qLo efiff, /fli6«o÷:yfgLo l:ylt efiff tyf ljb]zL efiffsf @=# zf:qLo, /fli6«o÷:yfgLo tyf ;fk]Iftfdf g]kfnL efiff ljb]zL efiffsf ;fk]Iftfdf g]kfnL efiffsf] lzIf0fsf] :j¿k / cf}lrTo lzIf0f lgwf{/0f ug{, @=$ bf];|f] / ljb]zL efiffsf ¿kdf bf];|f] / ljb]zL efiffsf ¿kdf g]kfnL efiff lzIf0fsf] cfjZostf / :j¿k

248

ljlzi6 p2]Zo g]kfnL efiff lzIf0fsf] cf}lrTo / cfjZostf cf} +Nofpg, bf];|f] efiffsf ¿kdf g]kfnLsf txut ;Ldf ¿k/]vf lgwf{/0f ug{, g]kfnsf ;Gbe{df låeflifs lzIffsf] kl/rofTds cf}lrTo / k| lqmofx¿ pNn]v ug{ . bf];|f] efiff l;sfOsf k|efjs tŒjx¿sf] kl/rofTds j0f{g ug{ .

kf7\oljifo @=% bf];|f] efiffsf ¿kdf g]kfnL efiffsf] lzIf0f s'g tx;Dd lsg / s;/L < @=^ låeflifs lzIffsf] kl/ro @=& g]kfndf låeflifs lzIffsf] cfjZostf / cf}lrTo @=* låeflifs lzIffsf k|lqmof

PsfO tLg M bf];|f] efiff l;sfOsf k| efjs tŒjx¿ -%_
#=! eflifs leGgtf #=@ ;fdflhs bafa #=# jftfj/0fLo leGgtf #=$ hg;ª\Vof #=% dgf]j}1flgs kIf #=%=! pd]/ #=%=@ pTk|]/0ff #=%=# a'l4 #=%=$ JolStŒj #=%=% :d/0f zlSt #=%=^ tTk/tf #=%=& clej[lQ

bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf PsfO rf/ M bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf k| lgudgfTds, cfudgfTds, d'v k4lt / ljlwx¿ >'lteflifs, df}lvs ;+/rgf -@%_ ;Gbe{, ;+1fgfTds, k|fs[t, k| $=! k|d'v lzIf0f k4ltx¿ sfof{Tds / ;Dk|]if0ffTds $=!=! lgudgfTds k4lt lzIf0f k4ltx¿sf] kl/ro lbg, $=!=@ cfudgfTds k4lt bf];|f] efiff lzIf0fsf k|d'v $=!=# >'lteflifs k4lt ljlwx¿dWo] Jofs/0ffg'jfb ljlw, $=!=$ df}lvs ;+/rgf ;Gbe{ k4lt k|ToIf ljlw, WjGofTds ljlw, $=!=% ;+1fgfTds k4lt k7gljlw / df}g ljlwsf] kl/ro $=!=^ k|fs[t k4lt lbg, $=!=& k|sfof{Tds k4lt pko{'Qm ljlwx¿sf lzIf0f k4lt, $=!=* ;Dk|]if0ffTds k4lt lzIf0f k|lqmof tyf P]ltxfl;s $=@ k|d'v lzIf0f ljlwx¿ ljz]iftf Pjd\ d"Nofª\sg / ltgsf $=@=! Jofs/0ffg'jfb ljlw k|d'v dfGotf cf}Nofpg . $=@=@ k|ToIf ljlw
249

ljlzi6 p2]Zo

kf7\oljifo $=@=# WjGofTds ljlw $=@=$ k7g ljlw $=@=% df}g ljlw

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efiff lzIf0fnfO{ ;Lk tyf snf lzIf0fsf ¿kdf kl/eflift ug{, >'ltaf]w lzIf0f cyjf >j0fsnf lzIf0fsf] k|of]hg agfpg, >'ltaf]w lzIf0fsf k|lqmof tyf sfo{snfk–x¿sf] pNn]v ug{, df}lvs cleJolSt cyjf jSt[Tjsnf lzIf0fsf] k|of]hg agfpg, jSt[tf lzIf0fsf k|lqmof Pjd\ sfo{snfk–x¿sf] j0f{g ug{, k7gsnf lzIf0fsf] kl/ro lbg, ;:j/k7g / jfrgsnfsf] ;DaGw b]vfpg, jfrgsnfsf cfjZos tŒj, ;Ldf / ;'wf/fTds pkfox¿ cf}FNofpg, df}gk7g / k7gaf]wsf] ;DaGw b]vfpg, k7gaf]w lzIf0fsf] k|of]hg, ;fdu|L, 5gf]6, sfo{snfk tyf af]w k|Zgsf ljz]iftfx¿ lgwf{/0f ug{, k7gaf]w / k7gLotf -k7gzLntf_ k/LIf0fsf] cGt; {DaGw tyf k|lqmof atfpg, b'|tk7g / o;sf sfo{snfkx¿sf] kl/ro lbg, pRrf/0f lzIf0f / o;sf sfo{snfkx¿sf] cfFsng ug{, n]vgsnf lzIf0fsf] kl/ro lbO{ To;sf] k|of]hg v'6\ofpg, n]vgsnf lzIf0fsf sfo{snfkx¿sf] kl/rofTds j0f{g ug{, j0f{ljGof; lzIf0f / o;sf sfo{snfkx¿sf] kl/ro lbg,

PsfO kfFr M ljljw eflifs ;Lk lzIf0f k|ljlw -#)_
%=! efifflzIf0f M ;Lk tyf snfsf ¿kdf %=@ >'ltaf]w cyjf >j0fsnf lzIf0fsf] k|of]hg %=# >'ltaf]w lzIf0fsf k|lqmof tyf sfo{snfkx¿ %=$ df}lvs cleJolSt cyjf jSt[Tjsnf lzIf0fsf] k|of]hg %=% jSt[tf lzIf0fsf k|lqmof tyf sfo{snfkx¿ %=^ k7gsnf lzIf0f %=^=! ;:j/ k7g / jfrgsnf %=^=@ jfrgsnfsf cfjZos tŒj, ;Ldf / ;'wf/fTds pkfox¿ %=^=# df}g k7g / k7gaf]w %=^=$ k7gaf]w lzIf0fsf] k| of]hg %=^=% k7gaf]w lzIf0fdf ;fdu|L 5gf]6 %=^=^ k7gaf]w lzIf0fsf sfo{snfkx¿ %=^=& af]w k|Zgsf ljz]iftfx¿ %=^=* k7gaf]w / k7gLotf -k7gzLntf_ k/LIf0f %=^=( k7gLotf k/LIf0fsf k| lqmof %=^=!) b'|tk7g / o;sf sfo{snfkx¿ %=& pRrf/0f lzIf0f / o;sf sfo{snfkx¿ %=* n]vgsnf lzIf0f / o;sf] k|of]hg %=*=! ;fdfGo %=*=@ Jofj;flos %=*=# l;h{gfTds %=( n]vgsnf lzIf0fsf sfo{snfkx¿ %=(=! oflGqs

250

kf7\oljifo g]kfnL lzIf0fsf %=(=@ lgb]{lzt ;xsfo{snfkx¿sf] kl/ro %=(=# :jtGq Pjd\ l;h{gfTds lbO{ ltgsf k|lqmofut hfgsf/L %=!) j0f{ljGof; lzIf0f / o;sf u/fpg . sfo{snfkx¿ %=!! g]kfnL lzIf0fsf ;xsfo{snfkx¿ %=!!=! lxHh] k|ltof]lutf %=!!=@ jfbljjfb k|ltof]lutf %=!!=# clegod"ns sfo{snfk %=!!=$ ;flxlTos k|ltof]lutf %=!!=% ljBfno klqsf %=!!=^ ;flxlTos uf]i7L tyf ;df/f]x

ljlzi6 p2]Zo

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zAbe08f/ lzIf0fsf] cfjZostf / k|of]hg atfpg, cfwf/e"t zAbfjnL / ltgsf ljz]iftf cf}FNofpg, zAbsf sf]zLo cy{ / ;Gbe{k/s cy{ v'6\ofO{ ltgsf] lzIf0fLo cfjZostf / ;Ldf lgwf{/0f ug{, zAbfy{ lzIf0fsf ljlwx¿sf] k| lqmofut kl/ro lbg, zAbe08f/ ljsf;sf pkfox¿ ;'emfpg, pvfg6'Ssf lzIf0fsf] dxŒj / k| of]hg atfpg, pvfg 6'Ssf lzIf0fsf sfo{snfkx¿sf] j0f{g ug{, jfSo /rgf lzIf0fsf] k|of]hg atfpg, g]kfnL efiffsf cfwf/e"t jfSo 9fFrf 5'6\ofO{ ltgsf] lzIf0fLo dxŒj atfpg, jfSo /rgf lzIf0fsf k|d'v sfo{snfkx¿sf] qmda4 j0f{g ug{ .

PsfO 5 M zAbe08f/ tyf jfSo/rgf lzIf0f -!@_
^=! zAbe08f/ lzIf0fsf] cfjZostf / k| of]hg ^=@cfwf/e"t zAbfjnL / ltgsf ljz]iftf ^=# zAbsf sf]zLo / ;Gbe{k/s cy{ Pjd\ ltgsf lzIf0fLo cfjZostf / ;Ldf ^=$ zAbfy{ lzIf0fsf ljlwx¿ ^=% zAbe08f/ ljsf;sf pkfox¿ ^=^ pvfg6'Ssf lzIf0fsf] dxŒj / k|of]hg ^=& pvfg6'Ssf lzIf0fsf sfo{snfkx¿ ^=* jfSo/rgf lzIf0fsf] k|of]hg ^=( g]kfnL cfwf/e"t jfSo 9fFrfx¿ / ltgsf] lzIf0fLo dxŒj ^=!) jfSo/rgf lzIf0fsf k|d'v sfo{snfkx¿ ^=!)=! lzIf0fLo jfSo 9fFrfsf] klxrfg ^=!)=@ k|of]u ;Gbe{x¿sf] 5gf]6 ^=!)=# k|of]u ;Gbe{ cg's"n jfSo 9fFrf /rgfsf] cEof; ^=!)=$ lgwf{l/t jfSo 9fFrf cg'¿k cg'R5]b n]vg cEof;

efiff lzIf0fdf Jofs/0f lzIf0fsf] PsfO ;ft M Jofs/0f lzIf0f cf}lrTo v'nfpg, -*_

251

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ljlzi6 p2]Zo g]kfnL Jofs/0f lzIf0fsf ;d:ofx¿sf] ;dLIff ug{, Jofs/0f lzIf0fdf efiff, k|of]u / k|o'lStut k|;Ëx¿sf] ;f]bfx/0f kl/ro lbg, Jofs/0f lzIf0fsf] k|d'v p2]Zo :ki6 kfg{, g]kfnL Jofs/0f lzIf0fdf k|rlnt ljlw / ltgsf pkof]lutfx¿sf] ;dLIff ug{, Jofs/0f lzIf0fsf gjLg k| lqmof / k4ltsf] kl/ro lbg . efifflzIf0fdf sIff Joj:yfkgsf] dxŒj atfpg, n3' / ;d¿k tyf a[xt\ / ljifd¿k sIffdf g]kfnL lzIf0fsf ;d:of / ;'ljwfx¿sf] cfFsng ug{, pko'Stm sIff Joj:yfsf nflu ljBfyL{ juL{s/0fsf] cfwf/ / cfjZostf b]vfpg eflifs b[li6n] k5f}6] ;d"xsf ljBfyL{x¿sf] l;sfO ;'wf/sf pkfox¿sf] j0f{g ug{, lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0fsf] kl/ro ;lxt efifflzIf0fdf lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0fsf] cfjZostf / k|of]hg cf}FNofpg lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0fsf nflu eflifs q'l6x¿sf] klxrfg k| lqmof pNn]v ug{, lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0fsf pkfo / r/0fx¿sf] aofg ug{ . efifflzIf0f / ;flxTo lzIf0fsf] leGgtf b]vfpg, dft[efiff jf /fi6«efiffsf ¿kdf g]kfnL efifflzIf0fdf ;flxlTos ljwf pkof]usf] cfjZostf / dxŒj b]vfpg, efifflzIf0fsf ;Gbe{df ;flxTo

kf7\oljifo &=! Jofs/0f lzIf0fsf] cf}lrTo -k|fylds, dfWolds, pRr lzIffsf ;Gbe{df_ &=@ g]kfnL Jofs/0f lzIf0fsf ;d:ofx¿ &=# efiff, Jofs/0f / k|of]u–k|o'lSt &=$ Jofs/0ffTds ;r]ttfsf] ljsf; &=% g]kfnL Jofs/0f lzIf0fdf k|rlnt ljlw / ltgsf pkof]lutfx¿ &=^ Jofs/0f lzIf0fsf gjLg k|lqmof / k4lt

PsfO cf7 M sIff Joj:yf lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0f -*_

/

*=! sIff Joj:yfkgsf] kl/ro *=@ efiff lzIf0fdf sIff Joj:yfkgsf] dxŒj *=# n3' / ;d¿k tyf a[xt\ / ljifd¿k sIffdf g]kfnL lzIf0fM ;d:of / ;'ljwf *=$ sIff Joj:yfkg M ljBfyL{ juL{s/0fsf] cfwf/ / cfjZostf *=% eflifs k5f}6] ;d"xsf] klxrfg / efiff lzIf0f sfo{snfk *=^ lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0fsf] kl/ro *=& lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0fsf] cfjZostf / k| of]hg *=* eflifs q'l6x¿sf] klxrfg k|lqmof *=( lg/fs/0ffTds lzIf0fsf pkfo / r/0fx¿

PsfO gf} M efiff / ;flxTo lzIf0f -!)_
(=! efiff lzIf0f / ;flxTo lzIf0fdf leGgtf (=@ dft[efiff / /fi6«efiffsf ¿kdf g]kfnL efiff lzIf0fdf ;flxlTos ljwfx¿sf] pkof]u, cfjZostf / dxŒj (=# efifflzIf0fsf ;Gbe{df ;flxTo lzIf0fsf]
252

ljlzi6 p2]Zo lzIf0fsf] k|of]hg v'n:t ug{, ;flxlTos ljwfx¿sf] :j¿k / lzIf0fLo k|of]hgx¿sf] /]vfÍg ug{, ljljw ;flxlTos ljwfx¿sf lzIf0fljlwx¿sf] ljZn]if0ffTds ;dLIff ug{ . efiff lzIf0fdf pkof]uL x'g ;Sg] ljljw ;fdu|Lx¿sf] kl/ro lbg, g]kfnL lzIf0fdf ljljw lzIf0f ;fdu|Lx¿sf] pkof]u k|ljlwsf] aofg ug{, g]kfnL lzIf0fdf pkof]u ug{ ;lsg] ljljw eflifs v]nx¿sf] ;f]bfx/0f kl/ro lbg, efiff k|of]uzfnf, sfo{qmda4 l;sfO / sDKo'6/ k|ljlwx¿sf] kl/ro lbO{ g]kfnL lzIf0fdf ltgsf] pkof]u ;Ldfsf] ;dLIff ug{ .

kf7\oljifo k|of]hg (=$ ;flxlTos ljwfx¿sf] :j¿k / lzIf0fLo k| of]hg (=% ljljw ;flxlTos ljwfx¿sf lzIf0f ljlw

PsfO bz M lzIf0f ;fdu|L / ljlw k| ljlwx¿ -!)_
!)=! lzIf0f ;fdu|L / ltgsf k|sf/ !)=@ g]kfnL lzIf0fdf ljljw lzIf0f ;fdu|Lx¿sf] pkof]u !)=# g]kfnL lzIf0fdf pkof]u ug{ ;lsg] gjLg k|ljlwsf] kl/ro !)=#=! ljljw eflifs v]n • l8«n • zAbhfn • sf]7]kb k|ltof]lutf • cGtfIf/L k|ltof]lutf • lrÝf v]n • k|f/lDes cIf/ lrgf/L v]n -s'gfdf hfpm, dfemdf cfpm, clego u/ cflb ._ !)=#=@ efiff k|of]uzfnf !)=#=# sfo{qmda4 l;sfO !)=#=$ sDKo'6/ -;';fª\Vo_ k| ljlw

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eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf] kl/ro lbO{ o;sf k| of]hgx¿ lgSof{}n ug{, eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf l;4fGtx¿sf] j0f{g ug{, g]kfnL lzIf0fsf ;Gbe{df eflifs d"Nofª\sg kl/kf6Lsf] ;dLIff ug{, eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf ljljw k| sf/x¿sf] ljz]iftfut kl/ro lbg, eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf] ;fk]Iftfdf k/LIff / d"Nofª\sgsf] ;DaGw

PsfO P3f/ M eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf] kl/ro / k|ljlw -!@_
!!=! eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf] kl/ro / k|of]hg !!=@ eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf l;4fGtx¿ !!=# g]kfnL lzIf0fsf ;Gbe{df eflifs d"Nofª\sg kl/kf6L !!=$ eflifs d"Nofª\sgsf k|sf/ !!=$=! ;fdlos / cf}krfl/s !!=$=@ lgdf{0ffTds / lg0f{ofTds !!=$=# ljifout / j:t'ut !!=$=$ ;fdfGo / k|of]ufTds !!=$=% lg/Gt/ / cgf}krfl/s

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ljlzi6 p2]Zo b]vfpg, eflifs d"Nofª\sgdf kZr dfh{g k|efjsf] ljZn]if0f ug{, eflifs ;Lk k/LIf0fsf k|rlnt o'lStx¿sf] ;fGble{s ljj]rgf ug{, eflifs ;Lk k/LIf0fsf b[li6n] s'g} vf; tx / sIffsf] of]hgf -ljlzi6Ls/0f tflnsf_ lgdf{0f u/L k/LIf0fsf cfwf/x¿ lgwf{/0f ug{, eflifs ;Lk k/LIf0fsf k|Zg lgdf{0fsf r/0fx¿sf] qmlds cjnDag u/]/ ljljw k|Zg lgdf{0fsf cEof; ug{ .

kf7\oljifo !!=$=^ k[ysLs[t / PsLs[t÷Psn a4 / ;du|tf a4 !!=$=& k|j]z d"Nofª\sg / :yfg lgwf{/0f d"Nofª\sg !!=$=* pknlAwk/s / bIftfk/s !!=$=( cleIfdtfd"ns / lgbfgfTds !!=% k/LIff / d"Nofª\sgsf] ;DaGw !!=^ d"Nofª\sgsf ;Gbe{df kZr dfh{gsf] k|efj !!=& eflifs ;Lk k/LIf0fsf k|rlnt o'lStx¿ !!=&=! lnlvt, df}lvs / k|of]ufTds !!=* k/LIf0f of]hgfsf] lgdf{0f / k/LIf0f cfwf/x¿sf] lgwf{/0f !!=( k|Zg lgdf{0fsf r/0fx¿ !!=(=! of]hgf -ljlzi6Ls/0f tflnsf_ lgdf{0f !!=(=@ k|Zg n]vg !!=(=# k"j{k/LIf0f !!=(=$ kl/is/0f÷dfgsLs/0f !!=!) ljljw k|Zg lgdf{0f cEof;

efifflzIf0fdf cWofkg of]hgfsf] cfjZostf / k|of]hg atfpg, efiff lzIf0fsf b[li6n] sfo{of]hgf, PsfO of]hgf, kf7of]hgf / JofVofg l6kf]6sf] cf}lrTo ljZn]if0f ug{, p2]Zo cg'¿k ljljw cWofkg of]hgfx¿sf] lgdf{0f / k|of]u cEof; ug{ .

PsfO afx| M efiff lzIf0f / cWofkg of]hgf -*_
!@=! efiff lzIf0fdf cWofkg of]hgfsf] cfjZostf / k|of]hg !@=@ ljljw cWofkg of]hgfsf] cf}lrTo !@=@=! sfo{of]hgf !@=@=@ PsfO of]hgf !@=@=# kf7of]hgf / JofVofg l6kf]6 !@=# ljljw cWofkg of]hgfsf] lgdf{0f / k|of]u cEof;

$= lzIf0f k|ljlw M k|To]s PsfOdf cfjZostfcg';f/ ;fwf/0f / ljlzi6 lzIf0f k| ljlwsf] pkof]u ul/g] 5 . $=! ;fwf/0f lzIf0fk|ljlw M PsfOsf] k|s[ltcg'¿k kf7\ok':ts, ;xfos k':ts, ;Gbe{ k':ts, kf7kq, tflnsf / cf/]vx¿sf] cfwf/df JofVofg, k|Zgf]Q/, 5nkmn tyf k|:t'tLs/0f ljlwsf] k|of]u ul/g] 5 . $=@ ljlzi6 lzIf0f k|ljlw M

254

kf7\o ljifosf] k|s[ltcg';f/ PsfO gf}, b; / af/df k|of]ufTds sIff sfo{snfk u/fO{ z}lIfs ;fdu|L lgdf{0f / ljleGg of]hgf agfpg nufO{ cEof;d"ns sIff ;~rfng ul/g] 5 . %= d"Nofª\sg k|lqmof M lzIf0f l;sfOsf] cjlwdf kf7\oj:t'sf] k| s[ltcg';f/ lnlvt k/LIff, ;d"xsfo{, df}lvs tyf lnlvt k|:t'ltaf6 d"Nofª\sg ug{ ;lsg] 5 . o; k|sf/sf] d"Nofª\sg ljBfyL{x¿nfO{ k[i7kf]if0f lbg dfq k|of]u ul/g] 5 . o; kf7\of+zsf] clGtd d"Nofª\sg lq=lj= jflif{s k/LIff k| 0ffnLcg';f/ lnlvt k/LIffåf/f ul/g] 5 . jflif{s k/LIffdf ;f]lwg] k|Zgsf] k|s[lt, k|Zg9fFrf / To;sf] cª\sef/ lgDgfg';f/ x'g] 5 – k|Zgsf] k|s[lt hDdf k| pQ/ lbg'kg{] cª\se Zg ;ª\Vof k|Zg ;ª\Vof f/ ;d"x …sÚ M !^ k|Zg !^ !^ ax'j}slNks k|Zg cª\s ;d"x …vÚ M 5f]6f # ljsNk;lxt * $* *×^ pt/fTds k|Zg k|Zg cª\s ;d"x …uÚ M nfdf] ! ljsNk;lxt # #^ #×!@ pt/fTds k|Zg k|Zg cª\s ^= l;kmfl/; ul/Psf k':ts tyf ;Gbe{;fdu|Lx¿ l;kmfl/; ul/Psf kf7\ok':tsx¿ clwsf/L, x]dfª\u/fh -@)%#_, efiff lzIf0f M s]xL kl/k]|Io tyf k4lt, sf7df8f}+ M ljBfyL{ k':ts e08f/ -PsfO @ / # sf nflu_ . _______ -@)^^_, g]kfnL efiff lzIf0f, sf7df8f}+ M ljBfyL{ k':ts e08f/ -PsfO !, $ / % sf nflu_ . e08f/L, kf/;dl0f -@)^$_ cWofkg cEof; kl/ro, sf7df08f} : Pstf a'S;. -PsfO !@ sf nflu_ zdf{, s]bf/k|;fb / dfwa kf}8]n, -@)^&_ g]kfnL efiff / ;flxTo lzIf0f, sf7df08f} : ljBfyL{ k':ts e08f/. -PsfO ^ b]lv !@ ;Ddsf nflu_ ;Gbe{;fdu|Lx¿ Pn]g Pr=aL= -;+=_ -;g\ !(^%_, l6lrª Oª\lUn; ofh c ;]s]G8 Nofª\Uj]h, Go'of]s{ M Dofsu|lxn . Pn]g, h]=aL= / P;= lk6 s8{/ -;g\ !(&*_, Pl8ga/f sf];{ Og cKnfO8 lnlª\Ujl:6s\;, ef]n'd #–$, nG8g M cS;kmf]8{ o'lgel;{6L k|]; . PN;, lyof] efg / cGo -;g\ !(*$_, PKnfO8 lnlª\Ujl:6S; ofG8 nlg{ª ofG8 l6lrª km/]g Nofª\Uj]h, nG8g M P8jf8{ cfgf{]N8 .

255

sf]O/fnf, ljBfgfy -@)%$_, dft[efiff lzIf0f M g]kfnsf] eflifs ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{] tl/sf -ljsf;sf lglDt lzIff k[i7 !!)–!@)_, sf7df8f}+ M lq=lj= lzIff ljsf; tyf cg';Gwfg s]Gb| . h}g, dxfjL/ ;/g -;g\ !(^^_, cGo efiff lzIf0f, cfu|f M ljgf]b k':ts dlGb/ . 8'n], a6{ q]m;g -;g\ !(*@_, Nofª\Uj]h, Go'of]s{ M cS;kmf]8{ o'lgel; {6L k|]; . g'gg, 8]le8 -;g\ !((*_, Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª d]yf]8f]nhL, Go'of]s{ M k|]lG6; xn . g]kfn /fli6«o lzIff cfof]u -;g\ !(%%_, g]kfndf lzIff, sf7df8f}+ M sn]h ckm Ph's];g . kf08], /fdzsn -;g\ !(&^_, lxGbL lzIf0f, cfu/f M ljgf]b k':ts e08f/ . agf{8{, :kf]n:sL -;g\ !(*^_, cf]e/sldª Nofª\Uj]h a]l/o;{ 6' Ph's];g Og c dlN6lnª\u'cn jN8{ . a]gL, c/ -;g\ !(^^_, c sf];{ Og Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª, SoflDa|h M SoflDa|h o'lgel;{6L k|]; . e08f/L, kf/;dl0f -@)%#_, efiff / ;flxTo lzIf0fsf s]xL kIf, sf7df8f}+ M jf0fL k|sfzg . dfNof{G8, dfOsn -;+=_ -;g\ !(&&_, Nofª\Uj]h Pqm; / sl/s'nd, nG8g M Pr=O=aL= . l/r8{;, h] ofG8 6L /f]h;{ -;g\ !(*%_, cfk|f]r]h PG8 d]y8\; Og Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª, SoflDa|h M SoflDa|h o'lgel;{6L k|]; . ________ -;g\ !(()_, lb NofªUj]h l6lrª Dofl6«S;, SoflDa|h M SoflDa|h o'lgel;{6L k|]; . l/e;{, 8ANo'=Pd -;g\ !(*!_, l6lrª km/]g Nofª\Uj]h l:sN;, -bf]=;+=_, l;sfuf] M l;sfuf] o'lgel;{6L k|]; . nx/L, /hgLsfGt -;g\ !(^_, lxGbL lzIf0f, cfu/f M /fdk|;fb PG8 ;G; . nfh/, lulnog -;g\ !((#_, ln6/]r/ ofG8 Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª, cS;kmf]8{ M cS;kmf]8{ o'lgel;{6L k]]|; . Nof8f], /a6{ -;g\ !(^$_, Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª c ;fOlG6lkms Pk|f]r, Go'of]s{ M Dofju|lxn . ljlNsG;, 8L=P= -;g\ !(&@_, lnlª\lUjl:6S; Og Nofª\Uj]h l6lrª, nG8g, P8jf8{ cfgf]{N8. zdf{, s]bf/k|;fb -;g\ !((%_, P lqml6sn OefNo'P;g ckm lb k|fOd/L n]en ueg{d]G6 6]S:6 a'S; ckm lb g]kfnL Nofª\Uj]h, lkPr=8L, zf]wkq, lq=lj= . zdf{, s]bf/k|;fb / dfwjk|;fb kf}8]n -@)^)_, g]kfnL efiff / ;flxTo lzIf0f, sf7df8f}+ M Go' lx/f a'S; OG6/k|fOh]h, sLlt{k'/ . zdf{, uf]kLgfy -;g\ !(*)_, :s"n sl/s'nd Og g]kfn, sf7df8f}+ M x]ds'df/L zdf{ . _______ -@)$#_, g]kfndf lzIffsf] Oltxf;, sf7df8f}+ M x]ds'df/L zdf{ . lzIff -@)^)_, eQmk'/ M kf7\oqmd ljsf; s]Gb|, ;fgf]l7dL .
256

>Ljf:tj, /jLGb|gfy -;g\ !(&(_, efiff lzIf0f, gO{lbNnL M lb d}sldng sDkgL ckm OlG8of lnld6]8 . ;A;, dfOs]n -;g\ !(*^_, Ph's]zgn lnlª\Ujl:6S;, cS;kmf]8{ M al;n ANofsa]n . :s'6Gofa–s+uf;, 6f]a -;g\ !(%%_, dlN6lnª\u'clnHd ofG8 Ph's];g ckm dfOgf]l/6L lrN8«]g . Xofln8] Pd=P=s]= / cGo -;g\ !(^$_, lb lnlª\Ujl:6S; ;fOG;]h ofG8 NofªUj]h l6lrª, nG8gM nª\Dofg . Xo'h]h, cy{/ -;g\ !(*(_, 6]l:6ª km/ Nofª\Ujh l6r/, Go'of]s{ M SoflDa|h o'lgel;{6L k|]; .

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