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Power electronics + mohan + 2nd Edition Solution

Power electronics + mohan + 2nd Edition Solution

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Published by: Ari Amrinal Putra on Apr 19, 2011
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Chapter 19 Problem Solutions

19-1. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the n-side in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
i
-
1
300

Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
-23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
19-2. N-side resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohm-cm
P-side resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohm-cm
19-3. Material is n-type with N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
-3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
-3
19-4. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d

2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
-
1
300

Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
-k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2 - 300 = 5.2 °K.
19-5. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
19-6. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on n-side at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on p-side at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
19-1. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the n-side in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
i
-
1
300

Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
-23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
19-2. N-side resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohm-cm
P-side resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohm-cm
19-3. Material is n-type with N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
-3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
-3
19-4. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d

2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
-
1
300

Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
-k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2 - 300 = 5.2 °K.
19-5. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
19-6. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on n-side at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on p-side at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
19-1. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the n-side in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
i
-
1
300

Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
-23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
19-2. N-side resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohm-cm
P-side resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohm-cm
19-3. Material is n-type with N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
-3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
-3
19-4. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d

2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
-
1
300

Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
-k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2 - 300 = 5.2 °K.
19-5. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
19-6. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on n-side at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on p-side at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
19-1. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the n-side in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
i
-
1
300

Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
-23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
19-2. N-side resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohm-cm
P-side resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohm-cm
19-3. Material is n-type with N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
-3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
-3
19-4. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d

2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
-
1
300

Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
-k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2 - 300 = 5.2 °K.
19-5. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
19-6. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on n-side at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on p-side at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
19-1. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the n-side in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
i
-
1
300

Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
-23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
19-2. N-side resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohm-cm
P-side resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohm-cm
19-3. Material is n-type with N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
-3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
-3
19-4. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d

2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
-
1
300

Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
-k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2 - 300 = 5.2 °K.
19-5. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
19-6. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on n-side at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on p-side at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
19-1. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the n-side in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
i
-
1
300

Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
-23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
19-2. N-side resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohm-cm
P-side resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohm-cm
19-3. Material is n-type with N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
-3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
-3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
-3
19-4. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d

2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚
-
qE
g
2k

˛
1
T
-
1
300

Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
-k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2 - 300 = 5.2 °K.
19-5. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
19-6. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on n-side at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on p-side at zero bias.
x
n
(0) + x
p
(0) = W
o
=
2
c
(N
a
+N
d
)
qN
a
N
d
(1)

c
=
kT
q
ln
˚

N
a
N
d
n
2
i
= 0.026 ln
˚

10
14
10
15
10
20
= 0.54 eV
Conservation of charge: q N
a
x
p
= q N
d
x
n (2)
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously gives using the numerical values given in the problem
statement gives:
W
o
= 2.8 microns ; x
n
(0) = 2.55 microns ; x
p
(0) = 0.25 microns
(b) Electric field profile triangular-shaped as shown in Fig. 19-9b. Maximum electric at
zero bias given by
E
max
=
2
c
W
o
=
(2)(0.54)
(2.8x10
-4
)
= 3,900 V/cm
(c) From part a)
c
= 0.54 eV
(d)
C(V)
A
=

W
o
1+
V

c
; C(V) = space-charge capacitance at reverse voltage V.
C(0)
A
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
2.8x10
-4
= 3.7x10
-9
F/cm
2


C(50)
A


=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
2.8x10
-4
1+
50
0.54
= 3.8x10
-10
F/cm
2
(e) I = I
s
exp(
qV
kT
) ; exp(
qV
kT
) = exp (
0.7
0.026
) = 5x10
11
I
s
= q n
2
i

˚

D
n

N
a

+
D
p

N
d

A
= (1.6x10
-19
)(10
20
)
˚

(38)(10
-6
)
(10
15
)(10
-6
)
+
(13)(10
-6
)
(10
14
)(10
-6
)
(2)
2
I
s
= 6.7x10
-14
A ;
I = (6.7x10
-14
)(5x10
11
) = 34 mA
19-7. Resistance R =
L
A
;
L
A
=
0.02
0.01
= 2 cm
-1

At 25 °C, N
d
= 10
14
>> n
i
so =
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
14
)

= 41.7 -cm
R(25 °C) = (41.7)(2) = 83.4 ohms
At 250 °C (523 °K), n
i
[523] = 10
10
exp
˚
-
(1.6x10
-19
)(1.1)
(2)(1.4x10
-23
)

˛
1
523
-
1
300
=
(10
10
)(7.6x10
3
) = 7.6x10
13
which is an appreciable fraction of N
d
= 10
14
. Thus we
should solve Eqs. (19-2) and (19-3) exactly for n
o
and p
o
rather than using equations
similiar to Eq. (19-4). Solving Eqs. (19-2) and (19-3) for N
d
>> N
a
yields
n
o
=
N
d
2

˚
1+ 1+
4n
2
i
N
2
d
and p
o
=
n
2
i
n
o
. Putting in numerical values yields
n
o
=
10
14
2

˚
1+ 1+
(4)(7.6x10
13
)
2

(10
14
)
2
= 1.4x10
14
and
p
o
=
5.8x10
27
10
14
= 5.8x10
13
Assuming temperature-independent mobilities (not a valid assumption but no other
information is given in text or the problem statement), resistance is
R(250 °C) =
(250° C)L
A
; (250 °C) ≈
1
q
n
n
o
+q
p
p
o

=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(1.4x10
14
)+(1.6x10
-19
)(500)(5.8x10
13
)
= 26.2 -cm ;
R(250 °C) ≈ (26.2)(2) = 52.4 ohms
19-8. BV
BD
=
(N
a
+N
d
)E
2
BD
2qN
a
N
d
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(10
15
+10
14
)(3x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(10
15
)(10
14
)

= 3,340 volts
19-7. Resistance R =
L
A
;
L
A
=
0.02
0.01
= 2 cm
-1

At 25 °C, N
d
= 10
14
>> n
i
so =
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
14
)

= 41.7 -cm
R(25 °C) = (41.7)(2) = 83.4 ohms
At 250 °C (523 °K), n
i
[523] = 10
10
exp
˚
-
(1.6x10
-19
)(1.1)
(2)(1.4x10
-23
)

˛
1
523
-
1
300
=
(10
10
)(7.6x10
3
) = 7.6x10
13
which is an appreciable fraction of N
d
= 10
14
. Thus we
should solve Eqs. (19-2) and (19-3) exactly for n
o
and p
o
rather than using equations
similiar to Eq. (19-4). Solving Eqs. (19-2) and (19-3) for N
d
>> N
a
yields
n
o
=
N
d
2

˚
1+ 1+
4n
2
i
N
2
d
and p
o
=
n
2
i
n
o
. Putting in numerical values yields
n
o
=
10
14
2

˚
1+ 1+
(4)(7.6x10
13
)
2

(10
14
)
2
= 1.4x10
14
and
p
o
=
5.8x10
27
10
14
= 5.8x10
13
Assuming temperature-independent mobilities (not a valid assumption but no other
information is given in text or the problem statement), resistance is
R(250 °C) =
(250° C)L
A
; (250 °C) ≈
1
q
n
n
o
+q
p
p
o

=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(1.4x10
14
)+(1.6x10
-19
)(500)(5.8x10
13
)
= 26.2 -cm ;
R(250 °C) ≈ (26.2)(2) = 52.4 ohms
19-8. BV
BD
=
(N
a
+N
d
)E
2
BD
2qN
a
N
d
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(10
15
+10
14
)(3x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(10
15
)(10
14
)

= 3,340 volts
19-9. E
2
max
= E
2
BD

4f
2
c
BV
BD
W
2
o

f
c
; Eq. (19-13); or
W
2
o

f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD

W
2
(BV
BD
) =
W
2
o
BV
BD

f
c
; E q. (19- 11) ; Inserting
W
2
o

f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
and taking
the square root yields W

(BV
BD
) ≈
2BV
BD
E
2
BD
.

19-10. L
p
= D
p
t = (13)(10
-6
) = 36 microns ; L
n
= D
n
t = (39)(10
-6
) = 62 microns
19-11. Assume a one-sided step junction with N
a
>> N
d
I
1
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
1
N
d
t
1
exp(
qV
kT
) ; I
2
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
2
N
d
t
2
exp(
qV
kT
)
I
2
I
1
= 2 =
t
1
t
2
; Thus 4 t
2
= t
1
19-12. s = q m
p
p + q m
n
n ; np = n
2
i
; Combining yeilds s = q m
p

n
2
i
n
+ q m
n
n
ds
dn
= 0 = - q m
p

n
2
i
n
2
+ q m
n
; Solving for n yields n = n
i

m
p
m
n
and p = n
i

m
n
m
p

p = 10
10

1500
500
= 1.7x10
10
cm
-3
; n = 10
10

500
1500
= 6x10
9
cm
-3
;
Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly p-type.
Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields s
min
= 2 q n
i
m
p
m
n


.
Putting in numerical values s
min
= (2)(1.6x10
-19
)(10
10
)
(500)(1500)

= 2.8x10
-6
mhos-cm
19-9. E
2
max
= E
2
BD

4f
2
c
BV
BD
W
2
o

f
c
; Eq. (19-13); or
W
2
o

f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD

W
2
(BV
BD
) =
W
2
o
BV
BD

f
c
; E q. (19- 11) ; Inserting
W
2
o

f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
and taking
the square root yields W

(BV
BD
) ≈
2BV
BD
E
2
BD
.

19-10. L
p
= D
p
t = (13)(10
-6
) = 36 microns ; L
n
= D
n
t = (39)(10
-6
) = 62 microns
19-11. Assume a one-sided step junction with N
a
>> N
d
I
1
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
1
N
d
t
1
exp(
qV
kT
) ; I
2
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
2
N
d
t
2
exp(
qV
kT
)
I
2
I
1
= 2 =
t
1
t
2
; Thus 4 t
2
= t
1
19-12. s = q m
p
p + q m
n
n ; np = n
2
i
; Combining yeilds s = q m
p

n
2
i
n
+ q m
n
n
ds
dn
= 0 = - q m
p

n
2
i
n
2
+ q m
n
; Solving for n yields n = n
i

m
p
m
n
and p = n
i

m
n
m
p

p = 10
10

1500
500
= 1.7x10
10
cm
-3
; n = 10
10

500
1500
= 6x10
9
cm
-3
;
Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly p-type.
Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields s
min
= 2 q n
i
m
p
m
n


.
Putting in numerical values s
min
= (2)(1.6x10
-19
)(10
10
)
(500)(1500)

= 2.8x10
-6
mhos-cm
19-9. E
2
max
= E
2
BD

4f
2
c
BV
BD
W
2
o

f
c
; Eq. (19-13); or
W
2
o

f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD

W
2
(BV
BD
) =
W
2
o
BV
BD

f
c
; E q. (19- 11) ; Inserting
W
2
o

f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
and taking
the square root yields W

(BV
BD
) ≈
2BV
BD
E
2
BD
.

19-10. L
p
= D
p
t = (13)(10
-6
) = 36 microns ; L
n
= D
n
t = (39)(10
-6
) = 62 microns
19-11. Assume a one-sided step junction with N
a
>> N
d
I
1
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
1
N
d
t
1
exp(
qV
kT
) ; I
2
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
2
N
d
t
2
exp(
qV
kT
)
I
2
I
1
= 2 =
t
1
t
2
; Thus 4 t
2
= t
1
19-12. s = q m
p
p + q m
n
n ; np = n
2
i
; Combining yeilds s = q m
p

n
2
i
n
+ q m
n
n
ds
dn
= 0 = - q m
p

n
2
i
n
2
+ q m
n
; Solving for n yields n = n
i

m
p
m
n
and p = n
i

m
n
m
p

p = 10
10

1500
500
= 1.7x10
10
cm
-3
; n = 10
10

500
1500
= 6x10
9
cm
-3
;
Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly p-type.
Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields s
min
= 2 q n
i
m
p
m
n


.
Putting in numerical values s
min
= (2)(1.6x10
-19
)(10
10
)
(500)(1500)

= 2.8x10
-6
mhos-cm
19-9. E
2
max
= E
2
BD

4f
2
c
BV
BD
W
2
o

f
c
; Eq. (19-13); or
W
2
o

f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD

W
2
(BV
BD
) =
W
2
o
BV
BD

f
c
; E q. (19- 11) ; Inserting
W
2
o

f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
and taking
the square root yields W

(BV
BD
) ≈
2BV
BD
E
2
BD
.

19-10. L
p
= D
p
t = (13)(10
-6
) = 36 microns ; L
n
= D
n
t = (39)(10
-6
) = 62 microns
19-11. Assume a one-sided step junction with N
a
>> N
d
I
1
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
1
N
d
t
1
exp(
qV
kT
) ; I
2
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
2
N
d
t
2
exp(
qV
kT
)
I
2
I
1
= 2 =
t
1
t
2
; Thus 4 t
2
= t
1
19-12. s = q m
p
p + q m
n
n ; np = n
2
i
; Combining yeilds s = q m
p

n
2
i
n
+ q m
n
n
ds
dn
= 0 = - q m
p

n
2
i
n
2
+ q m
n
; Solving for n yields n = n
i

m
p
m
n
and p = n
i

m
n
m
p

p = 10
10

1500
500
= 1.7x10
10
cm
-3
; n = 10
10

500
1500
= 6x10
9
cm
-3
;
Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly p-type.
Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields s
min
= 2 q n
i
m
p
m
n


.
Putting in numerical values s
min
= (2)(1.6x10
-19
)(10
10
)
(500)(1500)

= 2.8x10
-6
mhos-cm
Chapter 20 Problem Solutions
20-1. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD

=
1.3x10
17
2500
= 5x10
13
cm
-3
; W(2500 V) = (10
-5
)(2500) = 250
microns
20-2. Drift region length of 50 microns is much less than the 250 microns found in the previous
problem (20-1) for the same drift region doping density. Hence this must be a punch-
through structure and Eq. (20-9) applies.
BV
BD
= (2x10
5
)(5x10
-3
) -
(1.6x10
-19
)(5x10
13
)(5x10
-3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
= 900 V
20-3. V
on
= V
j
+ V
drift
; V
j
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

I
I
s
; For one-sided step junction I
s
=
qAn
2
i
L
p
N
d
t
o
;
Evaluating I
s
yields
(1.6x10
-19
)(2)(10
10
)
2
(13)(2x10
-6
)
(5x10
13
)(2x10
-6
)
= 1.6x10
- 9
A
V
d
= K
1
I + K
2
(I)
2/3
Eq. (20-16) with I = forward bias current through the diode.
K
1
=
W
d
qm
o
An
b
=
5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(2)(10
17
)
= 1.7x10
-4
K
2
=
3
W
4
d
q
2
m
3
o
n
2
b
A
2
t
o
=
3
(5x10
-3
)
4
(1.6x10
-19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(2)
2
(2x10
-6
)

= 7.5x10
-4
Chapter 20 Problem Solutions
20-1. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD

=
1.3x10
17
2500
= 5x10
13
cm
-3
; W(2500 V) = (10
-5
)(2500) = 250
microns
20-2. Drift region length of 50 microns is much less than the 250 microns found in the previous
problem (20-1) for the same drift region doping density. Hence this must be a punch-
through structure and Eq. (20-9) applies.
BV
BD
= (2x10
5
)(5x10
-3
) -
(1.6x10
-19
)(5x10
13
)(5x10
-3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
= 900 V
20-3. V
on
= V
j
+ V
drift
; V
j
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

I
I
s
; For one-sided step junction I
s
=
qAn
2
i
L
p
N
d
t
o
;
Evaluating I
s
yields
(1.6x10
-19
)(2)(10
10
)
2
(13)(2x10
-6
)
(5x10
13
)(2x10
-6
)
= 1.6x10
- 9
A
V
d
= K
1
I + K
2
(I)
2/3
Eq. (20-16) with I = forward bias current through the diode.
K
1
=
W
d
qm
o
An
b
=
5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(2)(10
17
)
= 1.7x10
-4
K
2
=
3
W
4
d
q
2
m
3
o
n
2
b
A
2
t
o
=
3
(5x10
-3
)
4
(1.6x10
-19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(2)
2
(2x10
-6
)

= 7.5x10
-4
Chapter 20 Problem Solutions
20-1. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD

=
1.3x10
17
2500
= 5x10
13
cm
-3
; W(2500 V) = (10
-5
)(2500) = 250
microns
20-2. Drift region length of 50 microns is much less than the 250 microns found in the previous
problem (20-1) for the same drift region doping density. Hence this must be a punch-
through structure and Eq. (20-9) applies.
BV
BD
= (2x10
5
)(5x10
-3
) -
(1.6x10
-19
)(5x10
13
)(5x10
-3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
= 900 V
20-3. V
on
= V
j
+ V
drift
; V
j
=
kT
q
ln
˚

I
I
s
; For one-sided step junction I
s
=
qAn
2
i
L
p
N
d

o
;
Evaluating I
s
yields
(1.6x10
-19
)(2)(10
10
)
2
(13)(2x10
-6
)
(5x10
13
)(2x10
-6
)
= 1.6x10
9

V
d
= K
1
I + K
2
(I)
2/3
Eq. (20-16) with I = forward bias current through the diode.
K
1
=
W
d
q
o
An
b
·
5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(2)(10
17
)
= 1.7x10
-4
K
2
=
3
W
4
d
q
2

3
o
n
2
b
A
2

o
=
3
(5x10
-3
)
4
(1.6x10
-19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(2)
2
(2x10
-6
)

= 7.5x10
-4
I V
j
V
drift
V
on
0 A 0 V 0 V 0 V
1 0.53 0.001 0.53
10 0.59 0.005 0.59
100 0.65 0.033 0.68
1000 0.71 0.25 0.96
3000 0.74 0.67 1.41





0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1 10 100 1000 10000
V
on
in volts
Forward current in amperes
20-4. a) V
on
(t) = R
drift
I(t) >> V
j
≈ 1 V ; R
drift
=
L
A
; =
1
q
n
N
d

=
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(5x10
13
)
= 85 ohm-cm ;
L
A
=
5x10
-3
2
= 2.5x10
-3
R
drift
= (85)(2.5x10
-3
) = 0.21 ohms ; I(t) = 2.5x10
8
t ; 0 < t < 4 microseconds
V
on
(t) = (0.21)(2.5x10
8
t ) = 5.3x10
7
t Volts ; 0 < t < 4 microseconds
V
on
(4 s) = (5.3x10
7
)(4x10
-6
) = 212 volts
b) V
on
(t) = R
drift
(t) I(t) ; R
drift
(t) = 0.21[1 - 2.5x10
7
t]
V
on
(t) = {0.21[1 - 2.5x10
7
t]} { 2.5x10
8
t } = 53[t - 0.25 t
2
] ; t in microseconds
I V
j
V
drift
V
on
0 A 0 V 0 V 0 V
1 0.53 0.001 0.53
10 0.59 0.005 0.59
100 0.65 0.033 0.68
1000 0.71 0.25 0.96
3000 0.74 0.67 1.41





0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1 10 100 1000 10000
V
on
in volts
Forward current in amperes
20-4. a) V
on
(t) = R
drift
I(t) >> V
j
≈ 1 V ; R
drift
= r
L
A
; r =
1
qm
n
N
d

r =
1
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(5x10
13
)
= 85 ohm-cm ;
L
A
=
5x10
-3
2
= 2.5x10
-3
R
drift
= (85)(2.5x10
-3
) = 0.21 ohms ; I(t) = 2.5x10
8
t ; 0 < t < 4 microseconds
V
on
(t) = (0.21)(2.5x10
8
t ) = 5.3x10
7
t Volts ; 0 < t < 4 microseconds
V
on
(4 m s) = (5.3x10
7
)(4x10
-6
) = 212 volts
b) V
on
(t) = R
drift
(t) I(t) ; R
drift
(t) = 0.21[1 - 2.5x10
7
t]
V
on
(t) = {0.21[1 - 2.5x10
7
t]} { 2.5x10
8
t } = 53[t - 0.25 t
2
] ; t in microseconds
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Von
in
volts
With carrier injection
No carrier injection
20-5. t
off
= t
rr
+ t
3
= t
rr
+
I
F
di
R
/dt
= t
rr
+
2000
2.5x10
8
= t
rr
+ 8 m s
t
rr
=
2t I
F
di
R
/dt
; t = 4x10
-12
(BV
BD
)
2 =
4x10
-12
(2000)
2
= 16 m s
t
rr
=
(2)(1.6x10
-5
)(2x10
3
)
2.5x10
8
= 16 m s ; t
off
= 8 m s + 16 m s = 24 m s
20-6. Assume a non-punch-through structure for the Schottky diode.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
-3
W
d
= 10
-5
BV
BD
= (10
-5
) (150) = 15 microns
20-7. V
drift
= (100 A) (R
drift
) = 2 V ; R
drift
= 0.02 ohms ; 0.02 =
1
qm
n
N
d

L
A

A =
2x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
15
)(2x10
-2
)
= 0.42 cm
2
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Von
in
volts
With carrier injection
No carrier injection
20-5. t
off
= t
rr
+ t
3
= t
rr
+
I
F
di
R
/dt
= t
rr
+
2000
2.5x10
8
= t
rr
+ 8 m s
t
rr
=
2t I
F
di
R
/dt
; t = 4x10
-12
(BV
BD
)
2 =
4x10
-12
(2000)
2
= 16 m s
t
rr
=
(2)(1.6x10
-5
)(2x10
3
)
2.5x10
8
= 16 m s ; t
off
= 8 m s + 16 m s = 24 m s
20-6. Assume a non-punch-through structure for the Schottky diode.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
-3
W
d
= 10
-5
BV
BD
= (10
-5
) (150) = 15 microns
20-7. V
drift
= (100 A) (R
drift
) = 2 V ; R
drift
= 0.02 ohms ; 0.02 =
1
qm
n
N
d

L
A

A =
2x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
15
)(2x10
-2
)
= 0.42 cm
2
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Von
in
volts
With carrier injection
No carrier injection
20-5. t
off
= t
rr
+ t
3
= t
rr
+
I
F
di
R
/dt
= t
rr
+
2000
2.5x10
8
= t
rr
+ 8 m s
t
rr
=
2t I
F
di
R
/dt
; t = 4x10
-12
(BV
BD
)
2 =
4x10
-12
(2000)
2
= 16 m s
t
rr
=
(2)(1.6x10
-5
)(2x10
3
)
2.5x10
8
= 16 m s ; t
off
= 8 m s + 16 m s = 24 m s
20-6. Assume a non-punch-through structure for the Schottky diode.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
-3
W
d
= 10
-5
BV
BD
= (10
-5
) (150) = 15 microns
20-7. V
drift
= (100 A) (R
drift
) = 2 V ; R
drift
= 0.02 ohms ; 0.02 =
1
qm
n
N
d

L
A

A =
2x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
15
)(2x10
-2
)
= 0.42 cm
2
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Von
in
volts
With carrier injection
No carrier injection
20-5. t
off
= t
rr
+ t
3
= t
rr
+
I
F
di
R
/dt
= t
rr
+
2000
2.5x10
8
= t
rr
+ 8 m s
t
rr
=
2t I
F
di
R
/dt
; t = 4x10
-12
(BV
BD
)
2 =
4x10
-12
(2000)
2
= 16 m s
t
rr
=
(2)(1.6x10
-5
)(2x10
3
)
2.5x10
8
= 16 m s ; t
off
= 8 m s + 16 m s = 24 m s
20-6. Assume a non-punch-through structure for the Schottky diode.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
-3
W
d
= 10
-5
BV
BD
= (10
-5
) (150) = 15 microns
20-7. V
drift
= (100 A) (R
drift
) = 2 V ; R
drift
= 0.02 ohms ; 0.02 =
1
qm
n
N
d

L
A

A =
2x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(10
15
)(2x10
-2
)
= 0.42 cm
2
20-8. Use Eq. (20-9) to solve for N
d
; N
d
= [E
BD
W
d
- BV
BD
]
Î ˚
2e
qW
2
d

= [(2x10
5
)(2x10
-3
) - 300]
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
-3
)
2
= N
d
= 3.4x10
14
cm
-3
20-9.
R
A

npt
=
W
d
(npt)
qm
n
N
npt
; N
npt
= N
d
of non-punch-throuth (npt) diode
R
A

pt
=
W
d
(pt)
qm
n
N
pt
; N
pt
= N
d
of punch-through (pt) diode
W
d
(npt) =
e E
BD
qN
npt
; Derived from Eqs. (19-11), (19-12), and (19-13)
W
d
(pt) =
e E
BD
qN
pt

Î ˚
1+ _ 1-
2qN
pt
BV
BD
e E
2
BD

2qN
pt
BV
BD
e E
2
BD
=
qN
pt
e E
BD

N
npt
N
npt

2BV
BD
E
BD
=
qN
npt
e E
BD

2BV
BD
E
BD

N
pt
N
npt

=
1
W
d
(npt)
W
d
(npt)
N
pt
N
npt
= x =
N
pt
N
npt
; W
d
(pt) = W
d
(npt)
1
x

[ ]
1+ _ 1-x
If N
pt
<< N
npt
(x << 1) W
d
(pt) ≈ 0.5 W
d
(npt) ; Eq. (20-10)
Limit of
1
x

[ ]
1+ _ 1-x as x approaches is infinite for the plus root and 0.5 for the
minus root. Hence the minus root is the correct choice to use.
R
A

pt
=
W
d
(npt)
1
x

[ ]
1- 1-x
qm
n
N
pt
=
W
d
(npt)
1
x

[ ]
1- 1-x
qm
n
N
pt

N
npt
N
npt

=
W
d
(npt)
qm
n
N
npt

1
x
2
[1 - 1-x ] =
R
A

npt

1
x
2
[1 - 1-x ]
d
dx

Î ˚

1
x
2
1-x = 0 =
-2
x
3
[1 - 1-x ] +
1
2x
2
1-x

Solving for x yields x =
8
9
i.e. N
pt
=
8
9
N
npt
; W
d
(pt) = 0.75 W
d
(npt)
20-8. Use Eq. (20-9) to solve for N
d
; N
d
= [E
BD
W
d
- BV
BD
]
˚
2
qW
2
d

= [(2x10
5
)(2x10
-3
) - 300]
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
-3
)
2
= N
d
= 3.4x10
14
cm
-3
20-9.
R
A

npt
=
W
d
(npt)
q
n
N
npt
; N
npt
= N
d
of non-punch-throuth (npt) diode
R
A

pt
=
W
d
(pt)
q
n
N
pt
; N
pt
= N
d
of punch-through (pt) diode
W
d
(npt) =
E
BD
qN
npt
; Derived from Eqs. (19-11), (19-12), and (19-13)
W
d
(pt) =
E
BD
qN
pt

˚
1+ _ 1-
2qN
pt
BV
BD
E
2
BD

2qN
pt
BV
BD
E
2
BD
=
qN
pt
E
BD

N
npt
N
npt

2BV
BD
E
BD
=
qN
npt
E
BD

2BV
BD
E
BD

N
pt
N
npt

=
1
W
d
(npt)
W
d
(npt)
N
pt
N
npt
= x =
N
pt
N
npt
; W
d
(pt) = W
d
(npt)
1
x

[ ]
1+ _ 1-x
If N
pt
<< N
npt
(x << 1) W
d
(pt) ≈ 0.5 W
d
(npt) ; Eq. (20-10)
Limit of
1
x

[ ]
1+ _ 1-x as x approaches is infinite for the plus root and 0.5 for the
minus root. Hence the minus root is the correct choice to use.
R
A

pt
=
W
d
(npt)
1
x

[ ]
1- 1-x
q
n
N
pt
=
W
d
(npt)
1
x

[ ]
1- 1-x
q
n
N
pt

N
npt
N
npt

=
W
d
(npt)
q
n
N
npt

1
x
2
[1 - 1-x ] =
R
A

npt

1
x
2
[1 - 1-x ]
d
dx

˚

1
x
2
1-x = 0 =
-2
x
3
[1 - 1-x ] +
1
2x
2
1-x

Solving for x yields x =
8
9
i.e. N
pt
=
8
9
N
npt
; W
d
(pt) = 0.75 W
d
(npt)
R
A

npt
= 0.84
R
A

npt
20-10. C
jo
=
A
W
d
(0)
; Area A determined by on-state voltage and current. Depletion-layer
width W
d
(0) set by breakdown voltage. W
d
(0) same for both diodes.
W
d
(150) = W
d
(0) 1+
150
0.7
= (10
-5
)(150) = 15 m ;
W
d
(0) =
15
(150)/(0.7)
≈ 1 m
Schottky diode area ; V
drift
= 2 volts =
W
d
(150)
q
n
N
d
A
Schottky
I
F
Drift region doping density N
d
same for both diodes. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
150

= 8.7x10
14
cm
-3
A
Schottky
=
(1.5x10
-3
)(300)
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(8.7x10
14
)
= 1.07 cm
2
PN junction diode area: V
drift
= 2 volts = K
1
I
F
+ K
2
(I
F
)
2/3 ;
Eq. (20-16)
K
1
=
W
d
(150)
q
o
A
pn
n
b
·
1.5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(A
pn
)(10
17
)
=
10
-4
A
pn

K
2
=
3
W
4
d
(150)
q
2

3
o
n
2
b
A
2
pn

o
=
3
(1.5x10
-3
)
4
(1.6x10
-19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(A
2
pn
)(2x10
-6
)

K
2
= 2.4x10
-4
(A
pn
)
-0.67
; 2 volts =
10
-4
A
pn
(300) + 2.4x10
-4
(A
pn
)
-0.67
(300)
0.67
A
pn
= 0.015 + 0.00154 (A
pn
)
0.333
; Solve by successive approximation ;
A
pn
≈ 0.017 cm
2
Schottky diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(1.07)
10
-4
≈ 11 nF = 0.011 F
R
A

npt
= 0.84
R
A

npt
20-10. C
jo
=
e A
W
d
(0)
; Area A determined by on-state voltage and current. Depletion-layer
width W
d
(0) set by breakdown voltage. W
d
(0) same for both diodes.
W
d
(150) = W
d
(0) 1+
150
0.7
= (10
-5
)(150) = 15 m m ;
W
d
(0) =
15
(150)/(0.7)
≈ 1 m m
Schottky diode area ; V
drift
= 2 volts =
W
d
(150)
qm
n
N
d
A
Schottky
I
F
Drift region doping density N
d
same for both diodes. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
150

= 8.7x10
14
cm
-3
A
Schottky
=
(1.5x10
-3
)(300)
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(8.7x10
14
)
= 1.07 cm
2
PN junction diode area: V
drift
= 2 volts = K
1
I
F
+ K
2
(I
F
)
2/3 ;
Eq. (20-16)
K
1
=
W
d
(150)
qm
o
A
pn
n
b
=
1.5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(A
pn
)(10
17
)
=
10
-4
A
pn

K
2
=
3
W
4
d
(150)
q
2
m
3
o
n
2
b
A
2
pn
t
o
=
3
(1.5x10
-3
)
4
(1.6x10
-19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(A
2
pn
)(2x10
-6
)

K
2
= 2.4x10
-4
(A
pn
)
-0.67
; 2 volts =
10
-4
A
pn
(300) + 2.4x10
-4
(A
pn
)
-0.67
(300)
0.67
A
pn
= 0.015 + 0.00154 (A
pn
)
0.333
; Solve by successive approximation ;
A
pn
≈ 0.017 cm
2
Schottky diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(1.07)
10
-4
≈ 11 nF = 0.011 m F
PN junction diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.017)
10
-4
≈ 180 pF
20-11.
BV
cyl
BV
p
= 2 r
2
(1 +
1
r
) ln (1 +
1
r
) - 2r









0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.1 1 10
BV
cyl
/ BV
p
r = R/(2W
n
)
20-12.
BV
cyl
BV
p
=
950
1000
= 0.95 ; From graph in problem 20-11, r ≈ 6 =
R
2W
n

R ≈ 12 W
n
PN junction diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.017)
10
-4
≈ 180 pF
20-11.
BV
cyl
BV
p
= 2 r
2
(1 +
1
r
) ln (1 +
1
r
) - 2r









0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.1 1 10
BV
cyl
/ BV
p
r = R/(2W
n
)
20-12.
BV
cyl
BV
p
=
950
1000
= 0.95 ; From graph in problem 20-11, r ≈ 6 =
R
2W
n

R ≈ 12 W
n
PN junction diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.017)
10
-4
≈ 180 pF
20-11.
BV
cyl
BV
p
= 2 r
2
(1 +
1
r
) ln (1 +
1
r
) - 2r









0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.1 1 10
BV
cyl
/ BV
p
r = R/(2W
n
)
20-12.
BV
cyl
BV
p
=
950
1000
= 0.95 ; From graph in problem 20-11, r ≈ 6 =
R
2W
n

R ≈ 12 W
n
Chapter 21 Problem Solutions
21-1. NPN BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/4
; PNP BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/6

B
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
J

















0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1 10 100
BV
CEO
BV
CBO
PNP
NPN
21-2. The flow of large reverse base currents when emitter current is still flowing in the
forward direction will lead to emitter current crowding towards the center of the emitter.
This accenuates the possibility of second breakdown. See Fig. 21-8b.
When emitter-open switching is used, there is no emitter current and thus no emitter
current crowding and second breakdown is much less likely to occur.
21-3. a) Idealized BJT current and voltage waveforms in step-down converter
Chapter 21 Problem Solutions
21-1. NPN BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/4
; PNP BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/6

B
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
J

















0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1 10 100
BV
CEO
BV
CBO
PNP
NPN
21-2. The flow of large reverse base currents when emitter current is still flowing in the
forward direction will lead to emitter current crowding towards the center of the emitter.
This accenuates the possibility of second breakdown. See Fig. 21-8b.
When emitter-open switching is used, there is no emitter current and thus no emitter
current crowding and second breakdown is much less likely to occur.
21-3. a) Idealized BJT current and voltage waveforms in step-down converter
Chapter 21 Problem Solutions
21-1. NPN BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/4
; PNP BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/6

B
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
J

















0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1 10 100
BV
CEO
BV
CBO
PNP
NPN
21-2. The flow of large reverse base currents when emitter current is still flowing in the
forward direction will lead to emitter current crowding towards the center of the emitter.
This accenuates the possibility of second breakdown. See Fig. 21-8b.
When emitter-open switching is used, there is no emitter current and thus no emitter
current crowding and second breakdown is much less likely to occur.
21-3. a) Idealized BJT current and voltage waveforms in step-down converter
T/2
I
o
V
d
V (t)
CE
i (t)
C
t
d,off
t
rv
t
fi
t
d,on
t
ri
t
fv
BJT power dissipation P
c
=
1
T

ı
0
T
v
CE
(t)i
C
(t)dt = {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
; f
s
=
1
T

E
on
= V
CE,on
I
o
{
T
2
+ t
d,off
- t
d,on
} ≈ (2)(40)
1
2f
s
=
40
f
s
Joules
E
sw
= E
ri
+ E
fv
+ E
rv
+ E
fi
E
ri
=
V
d
I
o
t
ri
2
=
(100)(40)(2x10
-7
)
2
= 4x10
-4
Joules
E
fv
=
V
d
I
o
t
fv
2
=
(100)(40)(1x10
-7
)
2
= 2x10
-4
Joules
E
rv
=
V
d
I
o
t
rv
2
=
(100)(40)(1x10
-7
)
2
= 2x10
-4
Joules
E
fi
=
V
d
I
o
t
fi
2
=
(100)(40)(2x10
-7
)
2
= 4x10
-4
Joules
E
sw
= 1.2x10
-3
Joules ; P
c
= [
40
f
s
+ 1.2x10
-3
] f
s
= 40 + 1.2x10
-3
f
s
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
150-25
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
-3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(125-40)
1.2x10
-3
= 71 kHz
21-4. From problem 21-3, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
- 25]} with a =
0.4
(125-25)
= 4x10
-3
110 - 50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
-3
[1+0.004(110-25)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
21-5. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
-4
)
= 200 A
21-6. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
21-7. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reach-through x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base-
side protusion of the base-emitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reach-through
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of base-emitter base-side protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
150-25
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
-3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(125-40)
1.2x10
-3
= 71 kHz
21-4. From problem 21-3, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
- 25]} with a =
0.4
(125-25)
= 4x10
-3
110 - 50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
-3
[1+0.004(110-25)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
21-5. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
-4
)
= 200 A
21-6. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
21-7. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reach-through x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base-
side protusion of the base-emitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reach-through
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of base-emitter base-side protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
150-25
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
-3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(125-40)
1.2x10
-3
= 71 kHz
21-4. From problem 21-3, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
- 25]} with a =
0.4
(125-25)
= 4x10
-3
110 - 50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
-3
[1+0.004(110-25)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
21-5. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
-4
)
= 200 A
21-6. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
21-7. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reach-through x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base-
side protusion of the base-emitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reach-through
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of base-emitter base-side protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
150-25
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
-3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(125-40)
1.2x10
-3
= 71 kHz
21-4. From problem 21-3, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
- 25]} with a =
0.4
(125-25)
= 4x10
-3
110 - 50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
-3
[1+0.004(110-25)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
21-5. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
-4
)
= 200 A
21-6. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
21-7. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reach-through x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base-
side protusion of the base-emitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reach-through
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of base-emitter base-side protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
150-25
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
-3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(125-40)
1.2x10
-3
= 71 kHz
21-4. From problem 21-3, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
- 25]} with a =
0.4
(125-25)
= 4x10
-3
110 - 50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
-3
[1+0.004(110-25)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
21-5. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
-4
)
= 200 A
21-6. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
21-7. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reach-through x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base-
side protusion of the base-emitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reach-through
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of base-emitter base-side protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
W
o,EB
=
2e f
c
(N
aB
+N
dE
)
qN
aB
N
dE
; f
cE
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
aB
N
dE
n
2
i

f
cE
= 0.26 ln
Î ˚

10
34
10
20
= 0.84 V
W
o,EB
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.84)(10
19
+10
15
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
19
)(10
15
)
= 0.33 microns
Estimate of collector-base base-side protusion of W
CB,depl
.
CB depletion layer thickness W(V) = W
o,CB
1+
V
f
c


= x
p
+ x
n
;
x
p
= protrusion of CB depletion layer into p-type base region. x
p
=
W(V)
11
using x
p
N
a
= x
n
N
d
(charge neutrality).
W
o,CB
=
2e f
cC
(N
aB
+N
dC
)
qN
aB
N
dC
; f
cC
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
aB
N
dC
n
2
i

f
cC
= 0.26 ln
Î ˚

10
29
10
20
= 0.54 V
W
o,CB
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.54)(10
14
+10
15
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
14
)(10
15
)
= 2.8 microns
{(3 - 0.33)x10
-4
}(11) = 2.8x10
-4
1+
V
0.54
: Solving for V yields V = 59 volts.
Reach-through voltage of 59 V is much less than the expected value of BV
BD
= 1000 V.
21-8. BV
EBO
= 10 V =
1.3x10
17
N
aB
; N
aB
= acceptor doping density in base = 1.3x10
16
cm
-3
BV
CBO
= b
1/4
BV
CEO
= (5)
1/4
(1000) = ≈ 1500 Volts ≈
1.3x10
17
N
dC

N
dC
= collector drift region donor density = 8.7x10
13
cn
-3
W
o,EB
=
2e f
c
(N
aB
+N
dE
)
qN
aB
N
dE
; f
cE
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
aB
N
dE
n
2
i

f
cE
= 0.26 ln
Î ˚

10
34
10
20
= 0.84 V
W
o,EB
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.84)(10
19
+10
15
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
19
)(10
15
)
= 0.33 microns
Estimate of collector-base base-side protusion of W
CB,depl
.
CB depletion layer thickness W(V) = W
o,CB
1+
V
f
c


= x
p
+ x
n
;
x
p
= protrusion of CB depletion layer into p-type base region. x
p
=
W(V)
11
using x
p
N
a
= x
n
N
d
(charge neutrality).
W
o,CB
=
2e f
cC
(N
aB
+N
dC
)
qN
aB
N
dC
; f
cC
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
aB
N
dC
n
2
i

f
cC
= 0.26 ln
Î ˚

10
29
10
20
= 0.54 V
W
o,CB
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.54)(10
14
+10
15
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
14
)(10
15
)
= 2.8 microns
{(3 - 0.33)x10
-4
}(11) = 2.8x10
-4
1+
V
0.54
: Solving for V yields V = 59 volts.
Reach-through voltage of 59 V is much less than the expected value of BV
BD
= 1000 V.
21-8. BV
EBO
= 10 V =
1.3x10
17
N
aB
; N
aB
= acceptor doping density in base = 1.3x10
16
cm
-3
BV
CBO
= b
1/4
BV
CEO
= (5)
1/4
(1000) = ≈ 1500 Volts ≈
1.3x10
17
N
dC

N
dC
= collector drift region donor density = 8.7x10
13
cn
-3
Set base width W
base
by calculating the protrusion, x
p
, of the CB depletion layer into the
base at V
CB
= 1500 volts = BV
CBO
; W
base
= x
p
(BV
CBO
)
Approximate width of CB depletion layer at breakdown W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ (10
-5
)(1500)
= 150 m m
x
p
(BV
CBO
) =
x
n
(BV
CBO
)N
dC
N
aB
= x
n
(BV
CBO
)
8.7x10
13
1.3x10
16
= x
n
(BV
CBO
) 6.7x10
-3
x
p
(BV
CBO
) << x
n
(BV
CBO
) so x
n
(BV
CBO
) ≈ W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ 150 m m
Hence x
p
(BV
CBO
) = (1.5x10
-2
cm)(6.7x10
-3
) = 1 micron = W
base
21-9. Beta = 150 = b
D
b
M
+ b
D
+ b
M
= 20 b
M
+ 20 + b
M
b
M
=
150-20
21
= 6.2
21-10. Must first ascertain the operating states of the two transistors.Two likely choices
including (1) driver BJT saturated and main BJT active and (2) driver BJT and main BJT
both saturated. Initially assume driver BJT saturated and main BJT active.
10 I
B,M
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V
-
+
-
+
-
+
C
B
E

10 I
B,M
+ I
B,M
= 100 A
I
B,M
= I
C,D
= 9.1A
I
C,M
= 91 A
V
CE,D
= 0.2 +(.02)(9.1) = 0.382 V
V
CE,M
= V
CE,D
+ 0.8 V = 1.18 v
But a saturated main BJT with I
C,M
= 91 A
going through 0.02 ohms generates
a voltage drop of 1.8 V which is > 1.18 V.
Hence main BJT must be saturated.
Set base width W
base
by calculating the protrusion, x
p
, of the CB depletion layer into the
base at V
CB
= 1500 volts = BV
CBO
; W
base
= x
p
(BV
CBO
)
Approximate width of CB depletion layer at breakdown W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ (10
-5
)(1500)
= 150 m m
x
p
(BV
CBO
) =
x
n
(BV
CBO
)N
dC
N
aB
= x
n
(BV
CBO
)
8.7x10
13
1.3x10
16
= x
n
(BV
CBO
) 6.7x10
-3
x
p
(BV
CBO
) << x
n
(BV
CBO
) so x
n
(BV
CBO
) ≈ W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ 150 m m
Hence x
p
(BV
CBO
) = (1.5x10
-2
cm)(6.7x10
-3
) = 1 micron = W
base
21-9. Beta = 150 = b
D
b
M
+ b
D
+ b
M
= 20 b
M
+ 20 + b
M
b
M
=
150-20
21
= 6.2
21-10. Must first ascertain the operating states of the two transistors.Two likely choices
including (1) driver BJT saturated and main BJT active and (2) driver BJT and main BJT
both saturated. Initially assume driver BJT saturated and main BJT active.
10 I
B,M
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V
-
+
-
+
-
+
C
B
E

10 I
B,M
+ I
B,M
= 100 A
I
B,M
= I
C,D
= 9.1A
I
C,M
= 91 A
V
CE,D
= 0.2 +(.02)(9.1) = 0.382 V
V
CE,M
= V
CE,D
+ 0.8 V = 1.18 v
But a saturated main BJT with I
C,M
= 91 A
going through 0.02 ohms generates
a voltage drop of 1.8 V which is > 1.18 V.
Hence main BJT must be saturated.
Set base width W
base
by calculating the protrusion, x
p
, of the CB depletion layer into the
base at V
CB
= 1500 volts = BV
CBO
; W
base
= x
p
(BV
CBO
)
Approximate width of CB depletion layer at breakdown W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ (10
-5
)(1500)
= 150 m m
x
p
(BV
CBO
) =
x
n
(BV
CBO
)N
dC
N
aB
= x
n
(BV
CBO
)
8.7x10
13
1.3x10
16
= x
n
(BV
CBO
) 6.7x10
-3
x
p
(BV
CBO
) << x
n
(BV
CBO
) so x
n
(BV
CBO
) ≈ W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ 150 m m
Hence x
p
(BV
CBO
) = (1.5x10
-2
cm)(6.7x10
-3
) = 1 micron = W
base
21-9. Beta = 150 = b
D
b
M
+ b
D
+ b
M
= 20 b
M
+ 20 + b
M
b
M
=
150-20
21
= 6.2
21-10. Must first ascertain the operating states of the two transistors.Two likely choices
including (1) driver BJT saturated and main BJT active and (2) driver BJT and main BJT
both saturated. Initially assume driver BJT saturated and main BJT active.
10 I
B,M
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V
-
+
-
+
-
+
C
B
E

10 I
B,M
+ I
B,M
= 100 A
I
B,M
= I
C,D
= 9.1A
I
C,M
= 91 A
V
CE,D
= 0.2 +(.02)(9.1) = 0.382 V
V
CE,M
= V
CE,D
+ 0.8 V = 1.18 v
But a saturated main BJT with I
C,M
= 91 A
going through 0.02 ohms generates
a voltage drop of 1.8 V which is > 1.18 V.
Hence main BJT must be saturated.
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V
-
+
-
+
-
+
C
B
E
0.02 W
0.6 V
-
+
I
C,M

Neglecting I
B,D
I
C,M
+ I
C,D
= 100 A
(.02)I
C,M
-0.6 = (.02) I
C,D
+0.2
I
C,D
= 30 A ; I
C,M
= 70 A
V
CE,M
= 0.2 + (70)(.02) = 1.6 V
P
Darl
= V
CE,M
[I
C,M
+ I
C,D
]
P
Darl
= (1.6 V)(100 A) = 160 W
21-11. C
EBO
=
e A
E
W
EBO


;
C
CBO
=
e A
C
W
CBO

W
EBO
= zero-bias emitter-base depletion layer thickness
W
CBO
= zero-bias collector-base depletion layer thickness
W
EBO
=
2e f
cE
(N
aB
+N
dE
)
qN
aB
N
dE
; f
cE
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
aB
N
dE
n
2
i

f
cE
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(10
19
)(10
16
)
10
20
= 0.89 V ;
W
EBO
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.89)(10
19
+10
16
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
19
)(10
16
)
= 0.34 microns
C
EBO
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.3)
3.4x10
-5
= 9.2 nF
W
CBO
=
2e f
cC
(N
aB
+N
dC
)
qN
aB
N
dC
; f
cC
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
aB
N
dC
n
2
i

f
cC
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(1.3x10
16
)(8.7x10
13
)
10
20
= 0.6 V ;
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V
-
+
-
+
-
+
C
B
E
0.02 W
0.6 V
-
+
I
C,M

Neglecting I
B,D
I
C,M
+ I
C,D
= 100 A
(.02)I
C,M
-0.6 = (.02) I
C,D
+0.2
I
C,D
= 30 A ; I
C,M
= 70 A
V
CE,M
= 0.2 + (70)(.02) = 1.6 V
P
Darl
= V
CE,M
[I
C,M
+ I
C,D
]
P
Darl
= (1.6 V)(100 A) = 160 W
21-11. C
EBO
=
e A
E
W
EBO


;
C
CBO
=
e A
C
W
CBO

W
EBO
= zero-bias emitter-base depletion layer thickness
W
CBO
= zero-bias collector-base depletion layer thickness
W
EBO
=
2e f
cE
(N
aB
+N
dE
)
qN
aB
N
dE
; f
cE
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
aB
N
dE
n
2
i

f
cE
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(10
19
)(10
16
)
10
20
= 0.89 V ;
W
EBO
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.89)(10
19
+10
16
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
19
)(10
16
)
= 0.34 microns
C
EBO
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.3)
3.4x10
-5
= 9.2 nF
W
CBO
=
2e f
cC
(N
aB
+N
dC
)
qN
aB
N
dC
; f
cC
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
aB
N
dC
n
2
i

f
cC
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(1.3x10
16
)(8.7x10
13
)
10
20
= 0.6 V ;
W
CBO
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.6)(1.3x10
16
+8.7x10
13
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(1.3x10
16
)(8.7x10
13
)
= 2.1 microns
C
CBO
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(3)
2.1x10
-4
= 14.8 nF
21-12. Equivalent circuit for turn-on delay time, t
d,on
, calculation.
+
-
10 W
C
CB
C
BE
V
BE
V
in
+
-
-8 V
8 V
V
in
t
V
BE
(t) = 8 - 16 exp
Î ˚
-t
t
; t = (10 W )(C
BE
+ C
CB
)
At t = t
d,on
V
BE
(t
d,on
) = 0.7 V ; t
d,on
= t ln
Î ˚
16
7.3

The space-charge capacitances are nonlinear functions of the voltages across them. Need
to find an average value for each of the two capacitors. During the t
d,on
interval, the
voltage V
CB
changes from 108 V to 100 volts and thus will be considered a constant.
Hence C
CB
will be given by
C
CB
=
C
CBO
1+
V
CB
f
cC
=
1.5x10
-8
1+
100
0.6
= 1.2 nF
The voltage V
BE
changes from -8 V to 0.7 volts during the same interval. We must find
the average value of C
BE
.
W
CBO
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.6)(1.3x10
16
+8.7x10
13
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(1.3x10
16
)(8.7x10
13
)
= 2.1 microns
C
CBO
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(3)
2.1x10
-4
= 14.8 nF
21-12. Equivalent circuit for turn-on delay time, t
d,on
, calculation.
+
-
10 W
C
CB
C
BE
V
BE
V
in
+
-
-8 V
8 V
V
in
t
V
BE
(t) = 8 - 16 exp
˚
-t

; = (10 )(C
BE
+ C
CB
)
At t = t
d,on
V
BE
(t
d,on
) = 0.7 V ; t
d,on
= ln
˚
16
7.3

The space-charge capacitances are nonlinear functions of the voltages across them. Need
to find an average value for each of the two capacitors. During the t
d,on
interval, the
voltage V
CB
changes from 108 V to 100 volts and thus will be considered a constant.
Hence C
CB
will be given by
C
CB
=
C
CBO
1+
V
CB

cC
=
1.5x10
-8
1+
100
0.6
= 1.2 nF
The voltage V
BE
changes from -8 V to 0.7 volts during the same interval. We must find
the average value of C
BE
.
C
BE
=
ı
8
0

C
EBO
1+
V
EB

cE
dV
EB
ı
8
0
dV
EB
=
C
EBO

cE
( 8)

˚
1+
0

cE
- 1+
8

cE

C
BE
=
(9.2x10
-9
)(0.89)
8
[ 1+
8
0.89
- 1] = 2.2 nF
t
d,on
= (10) [2.2x10
-9
+ 1.2x10
-9
] ln
˚
16
7.3
= (3.4x10
-8
)(0.78) ≈ 27 nanoseconds
Chapter 22 Problem Solutions
22-1. The capacitance of the gate-source terminals can be modeled as two capacitors connected
electrically in series. C
ox
is the capacitance of the oxide layer and is a constant
independent of v
GS
. C
depl
(v
GS
) is the capacitance of the depletion layer which
increases in thickness as V
GS
increases as is shown in Fig. 22-6. Any increase in the
depletion layer thickness reduces the value of C
depl
(v
GS
) and hence the atotal gate-
source capacitance C
gs
. However once v
GS
becomes equal to or greater than V
GS(th)
,
the depletion layer thickness becomes constant because the formation of the inversion
layer jillustrated in Fig. 22-6c shields the depletion layer from further increases in v
GS
(any additional increase in v
GS
is dropped across the oxide layer). Thus both
components of C
gs
are constant for v
GS
> V
GS(th)
.
22-2. a) Idealized MOSFET waveforms shown below. To dimensions the waveforms, we
need the numerical values of the various waveform parameters. The voltage and current
amplitude parameters are given in the problem statement as: V
d
= 300 V, V
GS(th)

= 4 V, V
GS,Io
= 7 V, I
o
= 10 A. To complete the dimensioning, we must calculate the
various switching times.
Chapter 22 Problem Solutions
22-1. The capacitance of the gate-source terminals can be modeled as two capacitors connected
electrically in series. C
ox
is the capacitance of the oxide layer and is a constant
independent of v
GS
. C
depl
(v
GS
) is the capacitance of the depletion layer which
increases in thickness as V
GS
increases as is shown in Fig. 22-6. Any increase in the
depletion layer thickness reduces the value of C
depl
(v
GS
) and hence the atotal gate-
source capacitance C
gs
. However once v
GS
becomes equal to or greater than V
GS(th)
,
the depletion layer thickness becomes constant because the formation of the inversion
layer jillustrated in Fig. 22-6c shields the depletion layer from further increases in v
GS
(any additional increase in v
GS
is dropped across the oxide layer). Thus both
components of C
gs
are constant for v
GS
> V
GS(th)
.
22-2. a) Idealized MOSFET waveforms shown below. To dimensions the waveforms, we
need the numerical values of the various waveform parameters. The voltage and current
amplitude parameters are given in the problem statement as: V
d
= 300 V, V
GS(th)

= 4 V, V
GS,Io
= 7 V, I
o
= 10 A. To complete the dimensioning, we must calculate the
various switching times.
T/2
I
o
V
d
V (t)
CE
i (t)
C
t
d,off
t
rv
t
fi
t
d,on
t
ri
t
fv
-V
GG
0
V
GS(th)
V
GS,Io
V
GG
V (t)
GS
t
d,on
estimate - Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12a.
Governing equation is
dv
GS
dt
+
v
GS
R
G
(C
gs
+C
gd
)
=
V
GG
R
G
(C
gs
+C
gd
)
;
Boundary condition v
GS
(0) = - V
GG
Solution is v
GS
(t) = V
GG
- 2 V
GG
e
-t/t
; t = R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ;
At t = t
d,on
, v
GS
= V
GS(th)
. Solving for t
d,on
yields
t
d,on
= R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ln
Î ˚

2V
GG
V
GG
-V
GS(th)

t
d,on
= (50) (1.15x10
-9
) ln
Î ˚

(2)(15)
(15-4)
= 58 ns
t
ri
estimate - Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12b.
v
GS
(t) still given by governing equation given above in t
d,on
estimate. Changing time
origin to when v
GS
= V
GS(th)
yields;
v
GS
(t) = V
GG
+ [V
GG
- V
GS(th)
] e
-t/t
. T he drain current is given by
i
D
(t) = C
gd

d(V
d
-v
GS
)
dt
+ g
m
[v
GS
(t) - V
Gs(th)
] ; g
m
=
10
7-4
= 3.3 mhos
At t = t
ri
, i
D
= I
o
. Substituting v
GS
(t) into i
D
(t) and solving for t
ri
yields
t
ri
= R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ln
Î ˚

(V
GG
-V
GS(th)
){g
m
+
C
gd
R
G
(C
gs
+C
gd
)
}
g
m
(V
GG
-V
GS(th)
)-I
o

t
ri
= (50)(1.15x10
-9
) ln Î ˚

(15-4)(3.3+
1.5x10
-10
(50)(1.15x10
-9
)
)
(3.3)(15-4)-10
= 21 ns
t
fv
estimate - Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12c.
v
GS
approximately constant at V
GS,Io
=
I
o
g
m
+ V
GS(th)
during this interval.
Governing equation is C
gd
dv
DS
dt


= -
Î ˚

V
GG
-V
GS(th)
-
I
o
g
m
R
G
with v
DS
(0) = V
d
.
Solution is given by
v
DS
(t) = V
d
-
Î ˚
V
GG
-V
GS(th)
-
I
o
g
m

t
R
G
C
gd
; At t = t
fv
, v
DS
= 0.
Solving for t
fv
yields
t
fv
=
R
G
C
gd
V
d
V
GG
-V
GS(th)
-
I
o
g
m
= (50)(1.5x10
-10
)
300
(15-4-3)
= 300 ns
t
d,off
estimate - use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12d with the input voltagge V
GG
reversed.
v
GS
(t) = - V
GG
+ 2 V
GG
e
-t/t
; At t = t
d,off
,

v
GS
= V
GS,Io
. Solving for t
d,off
t
d,off
= R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ln
Î ˚

2V
GG
V
GG
+V
GS(th)
+
I
o
g
m

= (50)(1.15x10
-9
) ln
Î ˚

(2)(15)
10
3.3
+4+15
= 18 ns
t
rv
estimate - Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12c with the input voltage V
GG
reversed. v
GS
approximately constant at V
GS,Io
as in previous of t
fv
. Governing
equation is
C
gd
d{v
DS
-V
GS,Io
}
dt


=
V
GG
+V
GS,Io
R
G
with v
DS
(0) = 0. Solution given by
v
DS
(t) =
V
GG
+V
GS,Io
R
G
C
gd
t . At t = t
rv
, v
DS
= V
d
. Solving for t
rv
yields
t
rv
=
V
d
R
G
C
gd
V
GG
+V
GS,Io
=
(300)(50)(1.5x10
-10
)
(15+7)
= 100 ns
t
fi
estimate - use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12b with the input voltage V
GG
reversed. Governing equation the same as in previous calculation of t
ri
. At t = 0, v
GS
(0)
= V
GS,Io
. Solution in this caae is given by
v
GS
(t) = - V
GG
+ [V
GS,Io
+ V
GG
] e
-t/t
; At t = t
fi
, v
GS
= V
GS(th)
. Solving for t
fi
t
fi
= R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ln
Î ˚

V
GG
+V
GS,Io
V
GG
+V
GS(th)
= (50)(1.15x10
-9
)ln
Î ˚

15+7
15+4
= 9 ns
b) Estimate the power dissipated in the MOSFET in the same manner as was done for the
BJT in problem 21-3.Waveforms for the MOSFET are the same as for the BJT except for
appropriate re-labeling of the currents and voltages.
E
ri
= (0.5)(300)(10)(2.1x10
-8
) = 3x10
-5
Joules
E
fv
= (0.5)(300)(10)(3x10
-7
) = 4.5x10
-4
Joules
E
on
= I
o
V
DS,on
[0.5 T - t
d,on
+ t
d,off
] ; V
DS,on
= I
o
r
DS,on
= (10)(0.5) = 5 V
T >> t
d,on
and t
d,off
E
on
= (10)(300)(0.5)(5x10
-5
) = 1.25x10
-3
Joules
E
rv
= (0.5)(300)(10)(10
-7
) = 1.5x10
-4
Joules
E
fi
= (0.5)(300)(10)(9x10
-9
) = 1.5x10
-5
Joules
P
c
= (1.95x10
-3
)(2x10
4
) = 39 watts
22-3. Use test conditons to estimate C
gd
. Then estimate the switching times in the circuit with
the 150 ohm load. Test circuit waveforms are shown below.
E
ri
= (0.5)(300)(10)(2.1x10
-8
) = 3x10
-5
Joules
E
fv
= (0.5)(300)(10)(3x10
-7
) = 4.5x10
-4
Joules
E
on
= I
o
V
DS,on
[0.5 T - t
d,on
+ t
d,off
] ; V
DS,on
= I
o
r
DS,on
= (10)(0.5) = 5 V
T >> t
d,on
and t
d,off
E
on
= (10)(300)(0.5)(5x10
-5
) = 1.25x10
-3
Joules
E
rv
= (0.5)(300)(10)(10
-7
) = 1.5x10
-4
Joules
E
fi
= (0.5)(300)(10)(9x10
-9
) = 1.5x10
-5
Joules
P
c
= (1.95x10
-3
)(2x10
4
) = 39 watts
22-3. Use test conditons to estimate C
gd
. Then estimate the switching times in the circuit with
the 150 ohm load. Test circuit waveforms are shown below.
V (t)
G
V
GG
V (t)
GS
V
GS(th)
V
GS,Io
t
t
d,on
t = t
r i f v
t = t
f i r v
t
d,off
t
V
GG
V
d
V (t)
DS
I
o
i (t)
D
t
Equivalent circuit during voltage and current rise and fall intervals:
+
- C
gs
C
gd
V (t)
G
R
D
V
d
g (V - V )
m
GS GS(th)
R
G
Governing equation using Miller capacitance approximation:
dv
GS
dt
+
v
GS

=
V
G
(t)

; = R
G
[C
gs
+ C
gd
{1 + g
m
R
D
}] ;
During t
ri
= t
fv
interval, V
G
(t) = V
GG
. Solution is
v
GS
(t) = V
GG
+ {V
GS(th)
- V
GG
} e
-t/
; At t = t
ri
, V
GS
= V
GS(th)
+
V
d
g
m
R
D
;
Solving for t
ri
= t
fv
yields
t
ri
= t
fv
= ln
˚

V
GG
-V
GS(th)
V
GG
-V
GS(th)
-
V
d
g
m
R
D

During t
rv
= t
fi
, v
G
(t) = 0 and solution is v
GS
(t) = V
GS,Io
e
-t/
.
At t = t
rv
, v
GS
(t) = V
GS(th)
. Solving for t
rv
yields
t
rv
= ln
˚

V
GS(th)
+
V
d
g
m
R
D
V
GS(th)
. Invert equation for t
ri
to find C
gd
. Result is
C
gd
=
˛
t
ri
ln
˚

V
GG
-V
GS(th)
V
GG
-V
GS(th)
-

V
d
g
m
R
D
-R
G
C
gs

˛
1
R
G
(1+g
m
R
D
)

C
gd
=

˛
˝
3x10
-8
ln
˚

15-4
15-4-1
-5x10
-9

˛
1
5(1+25)
= 2.3x10
-9
F = 2.3 nF
Solving for switching times in circuit with R
D
= 150 ohms.
= [10
-9
+ 2.3x10
-9
{1 + 150}][100] = 35 s
t
ri
= 3.5x10
-5
ln
˚

15-4
15-4-2
= 7 s ; t
rv
= 3.5x10
-5
ln
˚

4+2
4
= 14 s
22-4. Waveforms for v
DS
(t) and i
D
(t) shown in previous problem. Power dissipation in
MOSFET given by
<P
MOSFET
> = [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
; f
s
=
1
T
; E
on
= [I
D
]
2
r
DS,on
(T
j
)
T
2
;
dv
GS
dt
+
v
GS

=
V
G
(t)

; = R
G
[C
gs
+ C
gd
{1 + g
m
R
D
}] ;
During t
ri
= t
fv
interval, V
G
(t) = V
GG
. Solution is
v
GS
(t) = V
GG
+ {V
GS(th)
- V
GG
} e
-t/
; At t = t
ri
, V
GS
= V
GS(th)
+
V
d
g
m
R
D
;
Solving for t
ri
= t
fv
yields
t
ri
= t
fv
= ln
˚

V
GG
-V
GS(th)
V
GG
-V
GS(th)
-
V
d
g
m
R
D

During t
rv
= t
fi
, v
G
(t) = 0 and solution is v
GS
(t) = V
GS,Io
e
-t/
.
At t = t
rv
, v
GS
(t) = V
GS(th)
. Solving for t
rv
yields
t
rv
= ln
˚

V
GS(th)
+
V
d
g
m
R
D
V
GS(th)
. Invert equation for t
ri
to find C
gd
. Result is
C
gd
=
˛
t
ri
ln
˚

V
GG
-V
GS(th)
V
GG
-V
GS(th)
-

V
d
g
m
R
D
-R
G
C
gs

˛
1
R
G
(1+g
m
R
D
)

C
gd
=

˛
˝
3x10
-8
ln
˚

15-4
15-4-1
-5x10
-9

˛
1
5(1+25)
= 2.3x10
-9
F = 2.3 nF
Solving for switching times in circuit with R
D
= 150 ohms.
= [10
-9
+ 2.3x10
-9
{1 + 150}][100] = 35 s
t
ri
= 3.5x10
-5
ln
˚

15-4
15-4-2
= 7 s ; t
rv
= 3.5x10
-5
ln
˚

4+2
4
= 14 s
22-4. Waveforms for v
DS
(t) and i
D
(t) shown in previous problem. Power dissipation in
MOSFET given by
<P
MOSFET
> = [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
; f
s
=
1
T
; E
on
= [I
D
]
2
r
DS,on
(T
j
)
T
2
;
I
D
=
V
d
R
D
=
300
150
= 2 A ; r
DS,on
(T
j
) = 2
˚
1+
T
j
-25
150
= 2
˚
0.833+
T
j
150

E
on
= (4)(2)
˚
0.833+
T
j
150

1
2f
s
= {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
}
1
f
s

E
sw
=
1
T

ı
0
t
ri
V
d
I
D
(1-
t
t
ri
)(
t
t
ri
)dt +
1
T

ı
0
t
fi
V
d
I
D
(1-
t
t
fi
)(
t
t
fi
)dt =
V
d
I
D
6
[t
ri
+ t
fi
]
E
sw
=
(300)(2)
6
[7x10
-6
+ 14x10
-6
] = 2.1x10
-3
joules
<P
MOSFET
> = {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
}
1
f
s
f
s
+ 2.1x10
-3
f
s
<P
MOSFET
> = {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
} +[ 2.1x10
-3
][10
4
] = 24.3 + 0.027 T
j
B
B
B
B
B
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P
MOSFET
Watts
Temperature [ °K]
22-5. V
on
= on-state voltage of three MOSFETs in parallel = I
o
r
eff
I
D
=
V
d
R
D
=
300
150
= 2 A ; r
DS,on
(T
j
) = 2
Î ˚
1+
T
j
-25
150
= 2
Î ˚
0.833+
T
j
150

E
on
= (4)(2)
Î ˚
0.833+
T
j
150

1
2f
s
= {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
}
1
f
s

E
sw
=
1
T

ı
0
t
ri
V
d
I
D
(1-
t
t
ri
)(
t
t
ri
)dt +
1
T

ı
0
t
fi
V
d
I
D
(1-
t
t
fi
)(
t
t
fi
)dt =
V
d
I
D
6
[t
ri
+ t
fi
]
E
sw
=
(300)(2)
6
[7x10
-6
+ 14x10
-6
] = 2.1x10
-3
joules
<P
MOSFET
> = {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
}
1
f
s
f
s
+ 2.1x10
-3
f
s
<P
MOSFET
> = {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
} +[ 2.1x10
-3
][10
4
] = 24.3 + 0.027 T
j
B
B
B
B
B
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P
MOSFET
Watts
Temperature [ °K]
22-5. V
on
= on-state voltage of three MOSFETs in parallel = I
o
r
eff
r
eff
=
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
1
r
2
+r
2
r
3
+r
3
r
1
; r
1
etc. = on-state resistance of MOSFET #1 etc.
r
1
(T
j
) = r
1
(25 °C)
Î ˚
1+0.8
T
j
-25
100
; r
1
(105 °C) = (1.64) r
1
(25 °C) etc.
r
1
(105 °C) = 2.95 W ; r
2
(105 °C) = 3.28 W ; r
3
(105 °C) = 3.61 W
r
eff
(105 °C) =
(2.95)(3.28)(3.61)
[(2.95)(3.28)+(3.28)(3.61)+(3.61)(2.95)]
= 1.09 ohms
For the ith MOSFET, P
i
=
V
on
2
2r
i
=
I
o
2
r
eff
2
2r
i
; Assume a 50% duty cycle and ignore
switching losses.
P
1
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(2.95)
= 5 W ; P
2
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(3.28)
= 4.5 W ; P
3
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(3.61)
= 4.1 W
22-6. Hybrid switch would combine the low on-state losses of the BJT and the faster switching
of the MOSFET. In order to obtain these advantages, The MOSFET would be turned on
before the BJT and turned off after the BJT. The waveforms shown below indicate the
relative timing. The switch blocks V
d
volts in the off-state and conducts I
o
amps in the
on-state.
r
eff
=
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
1
r
2
+r
2
r
3
+r
3
r
1
; r
1
etc. = on-state resistance of MOSFET #1 etc.
r
1
(T
j
) = r
1
(25 °C)
Î ˚
1+0.8
T
j
-25
100
; r
1
(105 °C) = (1.64) r
1
(25 °C) etc.
r
1
(105 °C) = 2.95 W ; r
2
(105 °C) = 3.28 W ; r
3
(105 °C) = 3.61 W
r
eff
(105 °C) =
(2.95)(3.28)(3.61)
[(2.95)(3.28)+(3.28)(3.61)+(3.61)(2.95)]
= 1.09 ohms
For the ith MOSFET, P
i
=
V
on
2
2r
i
=
I
o
2
r
eff
2
2r
i
; Assume a 50% duty cycle and ignore
switching losses.
P
1
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(2.95)
= 5 W ; P
2
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(3.28)
= 4.5 W ; P
3
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(3.61)
= 4.1 W
22-6. Hybrid switch would combine the low on-state losses of the BJT and the faster switching
of the MOSFET. In order to obtain these advantages, The MOSFET would be turned on
before the BJT and turned off after the BJT. The waveforms shown below indicate the
relative timing. The switch blocks V
d
volts in the off-state and conducts I
o
amps in the
on-state.
v = v
DS
CE
i
D
i
C
v
GS
v
BE
V
DS,on
V
CE,on
I
o
I ; r < 1
o
(1 - r )I
o
22-7. BV
DSS

1.3x10
17
N
drift
= 750 volts ; N
drift
= 1.7x10
14
cm
-3
W
drift
≈ (10
-5
)(750) = 75 microns ;
W
d,body
= protrusion of drain depletion layer into body region

W
drift
N
drift
N
body
=
(75)(1.7x10
14
)
5x10
16
≈ 0.3 microns
Even though body-source junction is shorted, there is a depletion layer associated with it
which is contained entirely on the body side of the junction. This must be included in the
estimate of the required length of the body region.
W
s,body

2e f
c
qN
a,body
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
a
N
d
n
i
2
;
v = v
DS
CE
i
D
i
C
v
GS
v
BE
V
DS,on
V
CE,on
I
o
I ; r < 1
o
(1 - r )I
o
22-7. BV
DSS

1.3x10
17
N
drift
= 750 volts ; N
drift
= 1.7x10
14
cm
-3
W
drift
≈ (10
-5
)(750) = 75 microns ;
W
d,body
= protrusion of drain depletion layer into body region

W
drift
N
drift
N
body
=
(75)(1.7x10
14
)
5x10
16
≈ 0.3 microns
Even though body-source junction is shorted, there is a depletion layer associated with it
which is contained entirely on the body side of the junction. This must be included in the
estimate of the required length of the body region.
W
s,body

2e f
c
qN
a,body
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚

N
a
N
d
n
i
2
;
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body

(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
-19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reach-through , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body

= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
22-8. Displacement current = C
gd

dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd

dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd

dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V

dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
22-9. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
-6
) = 16.7 volts
22-10. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)
2L

C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
10
-5
= 1.04x10
-7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)

N =
(2)(100)(10
-4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
-7
)(2x10
-3
)(15-4)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
22-11. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
-5
BV
DSS
= (10
-5
)(800) = 80 microns
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body

(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
-19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reach-through , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body

= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
22-8. Displacement current = C
gd

dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd

dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd

dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V

dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
22-9. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
-6
) = 16.7 volts
22-10. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)
2L

C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
10
-5
= 1.04x10
-7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)

N =
(2)(100)(10
-4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
-7
)(2x10
-3
)(15-4)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
22-11. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
-5
BV
DSS
= (10
-5
)(800) = 80 microns
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body

(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
-19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reach-through , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body

= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
22-8. Displacement current = C
gd

dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd

dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd

dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V

dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
22-9. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
-6
) = 16.7 volts
22-10. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)
2L

C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
10
-5
= 1.04x10
-7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)

N =
(2)(100)(10
-4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
-7
)(2x10
-3
)(15-4)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
22-11. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
-5
BV
DSS
= (10
-5
)(800) = 80 microns
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body

(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
-19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reach-through , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body

= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
22-8. Displacement current = C
gd

dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd

dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd

dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V

dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
22-9. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
-6
) = 16.7 volts
22-10. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)
2L

C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
10
-5
= 1.04x10
-7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)

N =
(2)(100)(10
-4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
-7
)(2x10
-3
)(15-4)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
22-11. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
-5
BV
DSS
= (10
-5
)(800) = 80 microns
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚

(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body

(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
-19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reach-through , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body

= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
22-8. Displacement current = C
gd

dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd

dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd

dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V

dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
22-9. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
-6
) = 16.7 volts
22-10. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)
2L

C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
10
-5
= 1.04x10
-7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
-V
GS(th)
)

N =
(2)(100)(10
-4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
-7
)(2x10
-3
)(15-4)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
22-11. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
-5
BV
DSS
= (10
-5
)(800) = 80 microns
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
DSS
=
1.3x10
17
800
≈ 1.6x10
14
cm
-3
A =
8x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(1.6x10
14
)(0.4)
≈ 0.5 cm
2
10A
0.5cm
2
= 20
A
cm
2
<< the allowable maximum of 200
A
cm
2
, so estimate is alright.
22-12. C
gs
≈ C
ox
N W
cell
L = (1.04x10
-7
)(5.8x10
3
)(2x10
-3
)(10
-4
) = 121 pF
22-13. Two overstress possibilities, overvoltage across drain-source terminals because of stray
inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first.
V
DS
(turn-off) = V
d
+ L
di
dt
= 100 + (10
-7
)
Î ˚

100
5x10
-8
= 300 V > BV
DSS
= 150 V
Check for excessive power dissipation.
P
allowed
=
T
j,max
-T
a
R
q ,j-a
=
150-50
1
= 100 watts ; P
dissipated
= [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
E
on
f
s
=
I
o
2
r
DS(on)
2
=
(100)
2
(0.01)
2
= 50 watts
E
sw
=
V
d
I
o
2

[t
ri
+ t
fi
+ t
rv
+t
fv
] =
(100)(100)
2
[(2)(5x10
-8
) + (2)(2x10
-7
)]
E
sw
= 2.5x10
-3
joules ; E
sw
f
s
= (2.5x10
-3
)(3x10
4
) = 75 watts
P
dissipated
= 50 + 75 = 125 watts > P
allowed
= 100 watts
MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.
22-14. Gate current which charges/discharges C
gs
and C
gd
during turn-on and turn-off is
approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the current rise
and fall times the voltages V
GS
and V
GD
change by only a few tens of volts. However
during the voltage rise and fall times V
GD
changes by approximately V
d
which is much
larger than a few tens of volts. Thus we have:
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
DSS
=
1.3x10
17
800
≈ 1.6x10
14
cm
-3
A =
8x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(1.6x10
14
)(0.4)
≈ 0.5 cm
2
10A
0.5cm
2
= 20
A
cm
2
<< the allowable maximum of 200
A
cm
2
, so estimate is alright.
22-12. C
gs
≈ C
ox
N W
cell
L = (1.04x10
-7
)(5.8x10
3
)(2x10
-3
)(10
-4
) = 121 pF
22-13. Two overstress possibilities, overvoltage across drain-source terminals because of stray
inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first.
V
DS
(turn-off) = V
d
+ L
di
dt
= 100 + (10
-7
)
Î ˚

100
5x10
-8
= 300 V > BV
DSS
= 150 V
Check for excessive power dissipation.
P
allowed
=
T
j,max
-T
a
R
q ,j-a
=
150-50
1
= 100 watts ; P
dissipated
= [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
E
on
f
s
=
I
o
2
r
DS(on)
2
=
(100)
2
(0.01)
2
= 50 watts
E
sw
=
V
d
I
o
2

[t
ri
+ t
fi
+ t
rv
+t
fv
] =
(100)(100)
2
[(2)(5x10
-8
) + (2)(2x10
-7
)]
E
sw
= 2.5x10
-3
joules ; E
sw
f
s
= (2.5x10
-3
)(3x10
4
) = 75 watts
P
dissipated
= 50 + 75 = 125 watts > P
allowed
= 100 watts
MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.
22-14. Gate current which charges/discharges C
gs
and C
gd
during turn-on and turn-off is
approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the current rise
and fall times the voltages V
GS
and V
GD
change by only a few tens of volts. However
during the voltage rise and fall times V
GD
changes by approximately V
d
which is much
larger than a few tens of volts. Thus we have:
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
DSS
=
1.3x10
17
800
≈ 1.6x10
14
cm
-3
A =
8x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(1.6x10
14
)(0.4)
≈ 0.5 cm
2
10A
0.5cm
2
= 20
A
cm
2
<< the allowable maximum of 200
A
cm
2
, so estimate is alright.
22-12. C
gs
≈ C
ox
N W
cell
L = (1.04x10
-7
)(5.8x10
3
)(2x10
-3
)(10
-4
) = 121 pF
22-13. Two overstress possibilities, overvoltage across drain-source terminals because of stray
inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first.
V
DS
(turn-off) = V
d
+ L
di
dt
= 100 + (10
-7
)
Î ˚

100
5x10
-8
= 300 V > BV
DSS
= 150 V
Check for excessive power dissipation.
P
allowed
=
T
j,max
-T
a
R
q ,j-a
=
150-50
1
= 100 watts ; P
dissipated
= [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
E
on
f
s
=
I
o
2
r
DS(on)
2
=
(100)
2
(0.01)
2
= 50 watts
E
sw
=
V
d
I
o
2

[t
ri
+ t
fi
+ t
rv
+t
fv
] =
(100)(100)
2
[(2)(5x10
-8
) + (2)(2x10
-7
)]
E
sw
= 2.5x10
-3
joules ; E
sw
f
s
= (2.5x10
-3
)(3x10
4
) = 75 watts
P
dissipated
= 50 + 75 = 125 watts > P
allowed
= 100 watts
MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.
22-14. Gate current which charges/discharges C
gs
and C
gd
during turn-on and turn-off is
approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the current rise
and fall times the voltages V
GS
and V
GD
change by only a few tens of volts. However
during the voltage rise and fall times V
GD
changes by approximately V
d
which is much
larger than a few tens of volts. Thus we have:
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
DSS
=
1.3x10
17
800
≈ 1.6x10
14
cm
-3
A =
8x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(1.6x10
14
)(0.4)
≈ 0.5 cm
2
10A
0.5cm
2
= 20
A
cm
2
<< the allowable maximum of 200
A
cm
2
, so estimate is alright.
22-12. C
gs
≈ C
ox
N W
cell
L = (1.04x10
-7
)(5.8x10
3
)(2x10
-3
)(10
-4
) = 121 pF
22-13. Two overstress possibilities, overvoltage across drain-source terminals because of stray
inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first.
V
DS
(turn-off) = V
d
+ L
di
dt
= 100 + (10
-7
)
Î ˚

100
5x10
-8
= 300 V > BV
DSS
= 150 V
Check for excessive power dissipation.
P
allowed
=
T
j,max
-T
a
R
q ,j-a
=
150-50
1
= 100 watts ; P
dissipated
= [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
E
on
f
s
=
I
o
2
r
DS(on)
2
=
(100)
2
(0.01)
2
= 50 watts
E
sw
=
V
d
I
o
2

[t
ri
+ t
fi
+ t
rv
+t
fv
] =
(100)(100)
2
[(2)(5x10
-8
) + (2)(2x10
-7
)]
E
sw
= 2.5x10
-3
joules ; E
sw
f
s
= (2.5x10
-3
)(3x10
4
) = 75 watts
P
dissipated
= 50 + 75 = 125 watts > P
allowed
= 100 watts
MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.
22-14. Gate current which charges/discharges C
gs
and C
gd
during turn-on and turn-off is
approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the current rise
and fall times the voltages V
GS
and V
GD
change by only a few tens of volts. However
during the voltage rise and fall times V
GD
changes by approximately V
d
which is much
larger than a few tens of volts. Thus we have:
Current rise/fall times proportional to [C
gs
+ C
gd
]
V
GG
I
G

Voltage rise/fall times proportional to C
gd

V
d
I
G

C
gs
roughly the same size as C
gd
and V
d
>> V
GG
Hence voltage switching times much greater than current switching times.
Chapter 23 Problem Solutions
23-1. v
s
(t) = 2 V
s
sin( t) ; i
L
(t) =
v
s
(t)
R
L
; < t <
<P
SCR
> =
1
2

ı

[(1)i
L
( t)+{i
L
( t)}
2
R
on
]d( t)
<P
SCR
> =
V
s
2 R
L
{1 + cos( )} +
1
π

˚

V
s
R
L

2
R
on
[π - +
sin(2 )
2
]
23-2. 120 °F = 49 °C ; T
j,max
= 125 °C ; <P
SCR
>|
max
=
T
j,max
-T
a,max
R
ja

<P
SCR
>|
max
=
125-49
0.1
= 760 Watts
Check <P
SCR
> at = 0
<P
SCR
> =
220
2π (1)
[1 + cos(0)] +
1
π

˚

220
1

2
(2x10
-3
)[π - 0 +
sin(0)
2
] = 107 watts
<P
SCR
> = 107 watts less than the allowable 760 watts. Hence trigger angle of zero
where maximum load power is delivered is permissible.
Average load power <P
L
> =
1


ı

π
{i
L
( t)}
2
R
L
d( t) ; i
L
( t) = 2 (220) sin( t)
<P
L
> =
1


ı

π
{ 2(220)}
2
sin
2
( t)d( t) =
(220)
2
6.28
[3.14 - +
sin(2 )
2
]
For = 0 <P
L
> = 24.2 kW
23-3. P
SCR
(t) = instantaneous power dissipated in the SCR during turn-on.
P
SCR
(t) = v
AK
(t) i
A
(t) = V
AK
{1 -
t
t
f
}
dI
dt
t during t
f
P(t) = power density =
P
SCR
(t)
A(t)
= watts per cm
2
; A(t) = conducting area of SCR
Chapter 23 Problem Solutions
23-1. v
s
(t) = 2 V
s
sin( t) ; i
L
(t) =
v
s
(t)
R
L
; < t <
<P
SCR
> =
1
2

ı

[(1)i
L
( t)+{i
L
( t)}
2
R
on
]d( t)
<P
SCR
> =
V
s
2 R
L
{1 + cos( )} +
1
π

˚

V
s
R
L

2
R
on
[π - +
sin(2 )
2
]
23-2. 120 °F = 49 °C ; T
j,max
= 125 °C ; <P
SCR
>|
max
=
T
j,max
-T
a,max
R
ja

<P
SCR
>|
max
=
125-49
0.1
= 760 Watts
Check <P
SCR
> at = 0
<P
SCR
> =
220
2π (1)
[1 + cos(0)] +
1
π

˚

220
1

2
(2x10
-3
)[π - 0 +
sin(0)
2
] = 107 watts
<P
SCR
> = 107 watts less than the allowable 760 watts. Hence trigger angle of zero
where maximum load power is delivered is permissible.
Average load power <P
L
> =
1


ı

π
{i
L
( t)}
2
R
L
d( t) ; i
L
( t) = 2 (220) sin( t)
<P
L
> =
1


ı

π
{ 2(220)}
2
sin
2
( t)d( t) =
(220)
2
6.28
[3.14 - +
sin(2 )
2
]
For = 0 <P
L
> = 24.2 kW
23-3. P
SCR
(t) = instantaneous power dissipated in the SCR during turn-on.
P
SCR
(t) = v
AK
(t) i
A
(t) = V
AK
{1 -
t
t
f
}
dI
dt
t during t
f
P(t) = power density =
P
SCR
(t)
A(t)
= watts per cm
2
; A(t) = conducting area of SCR
Chapter 23 Problem Solutions
23-1. v
s
(t) = 2 V
s
sin( t) ; i
L
(t) =
v
s
(t)
R
L
; < t <
<P
SCR
> =
1
2

ı

[(1)i
L
( t)+{i
L
( t)}
2
R
on
]d( t)
<P
SCR
> =
V
s
2 R
L
{1 + cos( )} +
1
π

˚

V
s
R
L

2
R
on
[π - +
sin(2 )
2
]
23-2. 120 °F = 49 °C ; T
j,max
= 125 °C ; <P
SCR
>|
max
=
T
j,max
-T
a,max
R
ja

<P
SCR
>|
max
=
125-49
0.1
= 760 Watts
Check <P
SCR
> at = 0
<P
SCR
> =
220
2π (1)
[1 + cos(0)] +
1
π

˚

220
1

2
(2x10
-3
)[π - 0 +
sin(0)
2
] = 107 watts
<P
SCR
> = 107 watts less than the allowable 760 watts. Hence trigger angle of zero
where maximum load power is delivered is permissible.
Average load power <P
L
> =
1


ı

π
{i
L
( t)}
2
R
L
d( t) ; i
L
( t) = 2 (220) sin( t)
<P
L
> =
1


ı

π
{ 2(220)}
2
sin
2
( t)d( t) =
(220)
2
6.28
[3.14 - +
sin(2 )
2
]
For = 0 <P
L
> = 24.2 kW
23-3. P
SCR
(t) = instantaneous power dissipated in the SCR during turn-on.
P
SCR
(t) = v
AK
(t) i
A
(t) = V
AK
{1 -
t
t
f
}
dI
dt
t during t
f
P(t) = power density =
P
SCR
(t)
A(t)
= watts per cm
2
; A(t) = conducting area of SCR
A(t) = π [r
o
+ u
s
t]
2
- π r
o
2
= π [2 r
o
u
s
t + (u
s
t)
2
]
T
j
=
1
C
v
ı
0
t
f
P(t)dt =
1
C
v

ı
0
t
f
V
AK
{1-
t
t
f
}
dI
dt
t
π [2r
o
u
s
t+(u
s
t)
2
]
dt
T
j
=
1
C
v

V
AK
2π r
o
u
s

dI
dt

ı
0
t
f

˚

1-
t
t
f
1+
u
s
t
2r
o
dt ; Let a = a' = 1, b =
-1
t
f
, and b' =
u
s
2r
o

Integral becomes ı
0
t
f

˚

a+bt
a'+b't
dt ; Using integral tables
ı
0
t
f

˚

a+bt
a'+b't
dt =
bt
f
b'
+
[ab'-ab]
[b']
2
ln[a' + b' t
f
] ;
b = -
1
2x10
-5
= - 5x10
4
sec
-1
; b' =
10
4
(2)(0.5)
= 10
4
sec
-1
Evaluating the integral yields
ı
0
t
f

˚

a+bt
a'+b't
dt =
-1
10
4
+
˚
10
-4
+
5x10
4
10
8
ln[1 + (10
4
)(2x10
-5
)] = 9.4x10
-6
sec
With C
v
= 1.75 Joule/(°C-cm
3
), the expression for T
j
becomes
T
j
=
(10
3
)(9.4x10
-6)
(2π )(1.75)(10
4
)(0.5)

dI
dt
= 125 - 25 = 100 °C ; Solving for
dI
dt
yields
dI
dt
=
100
1.7x10
-7
= 590 A/ s
23-4. Advantages - Shorter N
-
region length W
d
means shorter carrier lifetimes can be
accomodated and thus faster switching times.
Disadvantages - Junction J
1
is now a P
+
- N
+
junction with a low breakdown voltage.
Since J
3
already has a low breakdown voltage, the modified thyristor has no significant
reverse blocking capability.
23-5. t
on
=
(4-0.5)cm
u
s
=
3.5
10
4
= 350 microseconds
23-6. Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. At
large currents, these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of
second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct.
In the thyristor, no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is
consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. The current density is
uniform across the entire cross-sectional area of the thyristor and there is much less
likelyhood of second breakdown.
23-7. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. However in a well-designed
thyristor, the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual
avalanche breakdown voltage. Thus an estimate of the n
1
thickness and doping level
based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
2x10
3
= 6.5x10
13
cm
-3
; W
d
≈ (10
-5
)(2x10
3
) = 200 microns
b) t =
qW
d
2
kT(m
n
+m
p
)
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
-2
)
2
(1.4x10
-23
)(300)(900)
= 17 microseconds
Used (m
n
+ m
p
) = 900 cm
2
/V-sec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier
densities (approaching 10
17
cm
-3
)
c) V
on
= I

R
drift
; Ignore I
2/3
contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear
term.
R
drift

W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
;
2
2000
= 10
-3
=
0.02
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
17
)A
;
Solving for A gives A =
0.02
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
17
)(10
-3
)
= 1.4 cm
2
23-4. Advantages - Shorter N
-
region length W
d
means shorter carrier lifetimes can be
accomodated and thus faster switching times.
Disadvantages - Junction J
1
is now a P
+
- N
+
junction with a low breakdown voltage.
Since J
3
already has a low breakdown voltage, the modified thyristor has no significant
reverse blocking capability.
23-5. t
on
=
(4-0.5)cm
u
s
=
3.5
10
4
= 350 microseconds
23-6. Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. At
large currents, these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of
second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct.
In the thyristor, no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is
consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. The current density is
uniform across the entire cross-sectional area of the thyristor and there is much less
likelyhood of second breakdown.
23-7. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. However in a well-designed
thyristor, the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual
avalanche breakdown voltage. Thus an estimate of the n
1
thickness and doping level
based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
2x10
3
= 6.5x10
13
cm
-3
; W
d
≈ (10
-5
)(2x10
3
) = 200 microns
b) t =
qW
d
2
kT(m
n
+m
p
)
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
-2
)
2
(1.4x10
-23
)(300)(900)
= 17 microseconds
Used (m
n
+ m
p
) = 900 cm
2
/V-sec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier
densities (approaching 10
17
cm
-3
)
c) V
on
= I

R
drift
; Ignore I
2/3
contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear
term.
R
drift

W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
;
2
2000
= 10
-3
=
0.02
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
17
)A
;
Solving for A gives A =
0.02
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
17
)(10
-3
)
= 1.4 cm
2
23-4. Advantages - Shorter N
-
region length W
d
means shorter carrier lifetimes can be
accomodated and thus faster switching times.
Disadvantages - Junction J
1
is now a P
+
- N
+
junction with a low breakdown voltage.
Since J
3
already has a low breakdown voltage, the modified thyristor has no significant
reverse blocking capability.
23-5. t
on
=
(4-0.5)cm
u
s
=
3.5
10
4
= 350 microseconds
23-6. Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. At
large currents, these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of
second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct.
In the thyristor, no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is
consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. The current density is
uniform across the entire cross-sectional area of the thyristor and there is much less
likelyhood of second breakdown.
23-7. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. However in a well-designed
thyristor, the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual
avalanche breakdown voltage. Thus an estimate of the n
1
thickness and doping level
based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
2x10
3
= 6.5x10
13
cm
-3
; W
d
≈ (10
-5
)(2x10
3
) = 200 microns
b) t =
qW
d
2
kT(m
n
+m
p
)
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
-2
)
2
(1.4x10
-23
)(300)(900)
= 17 microseconds
Used (m
n
+ m
p
) = 900 cm
2
/V-sec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier
densities (approaching 10
17
cm
-3
)
c) V
on
= I

R
drift
; Ignore I
2/3
contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear
term.
R
drift

W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
;
2
2000
= 10
-3
=
0.02
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
17
)A
;
Solving for A gives A =
0.02
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
17
)(10
-3
)
= 1.4 cm
2
23-4. Advantages - Shorter N
-
region length W
d
means shorter carrier lifetimes can be
accomodated and thus faster switching times.
Disadvantages - Junction J
1
is now a P
+
- N
+
junction with a low breakdown voltage.
Since J
3
already has a low breakdown voltage, the modified thyristor has no significant
reverse blocking capability.
23-5. t
on
=
(4-0.5)cm
u
s
=
3.5
10
4
= 350 microseconds
23-6. Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. At
large currents, these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of
second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct.
In the thyristor, no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is
consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. The current density is
uniform across the entire cross-sectional area of the thyristor and there is much less
likelyhood of second breakdown.
23-7. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. However in a well-designed
thyristor, the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual
avalanche breakdown voltage. Thus an estimate of the n
1
thickness and doping level
based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
2x10
3
= 6.5x10
13
cm
-3
; W
d
≈ (10
-5
)(2x10
3
) = 200 microns
b) t =
qW
d
2
kT(m
n
+m
p
)
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
-2
)
2
(1.4x10
-23
)(300)(900)
= 17 microseconds
Used (m
n
+ m
p
) = 900 cm
2
/V-sec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier
densities (approaching 10
17
cm
-3
)
c) V
on
= I

R
drift
; Ignore I
2/3
contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear
term.
R
drift

W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
;
2
2000
= 10
-3
=
0.02
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
17
)A
;
Solving for A gives A =
0.02
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
17
)(10
-3
)
= 1.4 cm
2
Resulting current density is
2000
1.4
= 1430 A/cm
2
which is excessively large. Probably
should use n
b
≈ 10
16
cm
-3
which would give a current density of 140 A/cm
2
, a more
realistic value.
23-8. Cathode area =
3000
200
= 15 cm
2
= 0.65 A
si
; A
si
=
15
0.65
= 23 cm
2
23 cm
2
= π R
si
2
; R
si
=
23
π
= 2.7 cm
23-9.
dv
AK
dt
|
max

I
BO
C
j2
(0)
; C
j2
(0) = zero bias value of junction J
2
space charge capacitance
C
j2
(0) ≈
e A
W
depl
(0)
; W
depl
(0) ≈
2e f
j2
qN
d
; f
j2
=
kT
q
ln[
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
]
f
j2
= 0.026 ln[
(10
14
)(10
17
)
(10
20
)
] = 0.66 V ;
W
depl
(0) ≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.66)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
14
)
= 2.9 microns
C
j2
(0) =
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(10)
2.9x10
-4
= 36 nF
dv
AK
dt
|
max
=
0.05
3.6x10
-8
= 1.4x10
6
V/sec or 1.4 V per microsecond
Resulting current density is
2000
1.4
= 1430 A/cm
2
which is excessively large. Probably
should use n
b
≈ 10
16
cm
-3
which would give a current density of 140 A/cm
2
, a more
realistic value.
23-8. Cathode area =
3000
200
= 15 cm
2
= 0.65 A
si
; A
si
=
15
0.65
= 23 cm
2
23 cm
2
= π R
si
2
; R
si
=
23
π
= 2.7 cm
23-9.
dv
AK
dt
|
max

I
BO
C
j2
(0)
; C
j2
(0) = zero bias value of junction J
2
space charge capacitance
C
j2
(0) ≈
e A
W
depl
(0)
; W
depl
(0) ≈
2e f
j2
qN
d
; f
j2
=
kT
q
ln[
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
]
f
j2
= 0.026 ln[
(10
14
)(10
17
)
(10
20
)
] = 0.66 V ;
W
depl
(0) ≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.66)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
14
)
= 2.9 microns
C
j2
(0) =
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(10)
2.9x10
-4
= 36 nF
dv
AK
dt
|
max
=
0.05
3.6x10
-8
= 1.4x10
6
V/sec or 1.4 V per microsecond
Resulting current density is
2000
1.4
= 1430 A/cm
2
which is excessively large. Probably
should use n
b
≈ 10
16
cm
-3
which would give a current density of 140 A/cm
2
, a more
realistic value.
23-8. Cathode area =
3000
200
= 15 cm
2
= 0.65 A
si
; A
si
=
15
0.65
= 23 cm
2
23 cm
2
= π R
si
2
; R
si
=
23
π
= 2.7 cm
23-9.
dv
AK
dt
|
max

I
BO
C
j2
(0)
; C
j2
(0) = zero bias value of junction J
2
space charge capacitance
C
j2
(0) ≈
e A
W
depl
(0)
; W
depl
(0) ≈
2e f
j2
qN
d
; f
j2
=
kT
q
ln[
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
]
f
j2
= 0.026 ln[
(10
14
)(10
17
)
(10
20
)
] = 0.66 V ;
W
depl
(0) ≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.66)
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
14
)
= 2.9 microns
C
j2
(0) =
(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(10)
2.9x10
-4
= 36 nF
dv
AK
dt
|
max
=
0.05
3.6x10
-8
= 1.4x10
6
V/sec or 1.4 V per microsecond
Chapter 24 Problem Solutions
24-1. Cross-sectional view of GTO gate-cathode area with reverse gate current flowing.
N
2
P
2
Gate
Cathode
Center
Line
t
+
+ -
-
v
GK
v
GK
R
R
-i
G
The negative gate current, -i
G
, flowing through the P
2
layher beneath the N
2
cathode
layer develops a lateral voltage drop v
GK
as indicated. Maximum negative v
GK
= BV
J3
|v
GK
| = |I
G,max
| R
GK
< BV
J3
in order to avoid breakdown or I
G,max
<
BV
J3
R
GK

R
GK
=
R
2N
=
r
p2
W
4NLt
; N = number of cathode islands in parallel.
I
G,max
=
BV
J3
R
GK
=
I
A,max
b
off
: Solving for I
A,max
yields
I
A,max
=
4NLtb
off
BV
J3
r
p2
W

24-2. Assume that the current is communtated from the GTO to the turn-off snubber and
associated stray inductance linearly as a function of time. That is the inductor current
Chapter 24 Problem Solutions
24-1. Cross-sectional view of GTO gate-cathode area with reverse gate current flowing.
N
2
P
2
Gate
Cathode
Center
Line
t
+
+ -
-
v
GK
v
GK
R
R
-i
G
The negative gate current, -i
G
, flowing through the P
2
layher beneath the N
2
cathode
layer develops a lateral voltage drop v
GK
as indicated. Maximum negative v
GK
= BV
J3
|v
GK
| = |I
G,max
| R
GK
< BV
J3
in order to avoid breakdown or I
G,max
<
BV
J3
R
GK

R
GK
=
R
2N
=
r
p2
W
4NLt
; N = number of cathode islands in parallel.
I
G,max
=
BV
J3
R
GK
=
I
A,max
b
off
: Solving for I
A,max
yields
I
A,max
=
4NLtb
off
BV
J3
r
p2
W

24-2. Assume that the current is communtated from the GTO to the turn-off snubber and
associated stray inductance linearly as a function of time. That is the inductor current
i
Ls
= I
o

t
t
fi
; Assume that just prior to the end of the current fall time interval, the
voltage across the snubber capacitor has built up to approximately V
d
.
v
AK,max
= 1.5 V
d
= L
s

di
Ls
dt
+ v
cap
= L
s
I
o
t
fi


+ V
d
; Solving for L
s
yields
L
s
=
V
d
t
fi
2I
o

24-3. Equivalent circuit during t
gq
shown below.
-
+
V
GG-
L
G
P
N
P
N
J3 forward
biased during
t
gq
i (t)
G
L
G
di
G
dt


= - V
GG-
; i
G
(t) =
-V
GG-
L
G
t ; At t = t
gq
want i
G
= -
I
o
b
off
; Solve for L
G
L
G
=
b
off
V
GG-
t
gq
I
o
=
(5)(15)(5x10
-6
)
(500)
= 0.75 microhenries
Equivalent circuit during t
w2
interval.
i
Ls
= I
o

t
t
fi
; Assume that just prior to the end of the current fall time interval, the
voltage across the snubber capacitor has built up to approximately V
d
.
v
AK,max
= 1.5 V
d
= L
s

di
Ls
dt
+ v
cap
= L
s
I
o
t
fi


+ V
d
; Solving for L
s
yields
L
s
=
V
d
t
fi
2I
o

24-3. Equivalent circuit during t
gq
shown below.
-
+
V
GG-
L
G
P
N
P
N
J3 forward
biased during
t
gq
i (t)
G
L
G
di
G
dt


= - V
GG-
; i
G
(t) =
-V
GG-
L
G
t ; At t = t
gq
want i
G
= -
I
o
b
off
; Solve for L
G
L
G
=
b
off
V
GG-
t
gq
I
o
=
(5)(15)(5x10
-6
)
(500)
= 0.75 microhenries
Equivalent circuit during t
w2
interval.
-
+
V
GG-
L
G
i (t)
G
+
-
BV
J3
L
G
di
G
dt


= BV
J3
- V
GG-
; i
G
(0) = -
I
o
b
off
; i
G
(t) = -
I
o
b
off
+
BV
J3
-V
GG-

L
G
t
At t = t
w2
, i
G
= 0 ; solving for t
w2
yields
t
w2
=
I
o
L
G
b
off
[BV
J3
-V
GG-
]
=
(500)(7.5x10
-7
)
(5)(25-15)
= 7.5 microseconds
Chapter 25 Problem Solutions
25-1.
R
on
(MOS)
A
proprotional to
1
m
majority
; m
n
= 3 m
p
; Hence
R
on
(p-channel)
A
= 3
R
on
(n-channel)
A

R
on
(IGBT)
A
proportional to
1
d n(m
n
+m
p
)
; d n = excess carrier density
d n = d p so p-channel IGBTs have the same R
on
as n-channel IGBTs
25-2. Turn-off waveforms of short versus long lifetime IGBTs
i
D
long lifetime
short lifetime
I (long)
BJT
I (short)
BJT
t
Long lifetime IGBT -
a. BJT portion of the device has a larger beta and thus the BJT section carries the largest
fraction of the IGBT current. Thus I
BJT
(long) > I
BJT
(short).
b. Longer lifetime leads to longer BJT turn-off times.
Short lifetime IGBT -
a. BJT beta smaller. MOSFET section of the device carries most of the current.
b. Shorter lifetime means less stored charge in the BJT section and thus faster turn-off.
Chapter 25 Problem Solutions
25-1.
R
on
(MOS)
A
proprotional to
1
m
majority
; m
n
= 3 m
p
; Hence
R
on
(p-channel)
A
= 3
R
on
(n-channel)
A

R
on
(IGBT)
A
proportional to
1
d n(m
n
+m
p
)
; d n = excess carrier density
d n = d p so p-channel IGBTs have the same R
on
as n-channel IGBTs
25-2. Turn-off waveforms of short versus long lifetime IGBTs
i
D
long lifetime
short lifetime
I (long)
BJT
I (short)
BJT
t
Long lifetime IGBT -
a. BJT portion of the device has a larger beta and thus the BJT section carries the largest
fraction of the IGBT current. Thus I
BJT
(long) > I
BJT
(short).
b. Longer lifetime leads to longer BJT turn-off times.
Short lifetime IGBT -
a. BJT beta smaller. MOSFET section of the device carries most of the current.
b. Shorter lifetime means less stored charge in the BJT section and thus faster turn-off.
25-3.
P
P
+
N
-
Body region of
MOSFET section
of IGBT
Collector junction of
pnp BJT section of IGBT
Base of pnp BJT
Emitter of pnp BJT
V
DS1
V > V
DS1 DS2
Depletion layer
Effective
base width
Drain of
IGBT
Significant encroachment intoa the base of the PNP BJT section by the depletion layer of
the blocking junction. The effective base width is thus lowered and the beta increases as
v
DS
increases. This is base width modulation and it results in a lower output resistance
r
o
(steeper slope in the active region of the i
D
-v
DS
characteristics).
P
P
+
N
-
Body region of
MOSFET section
of IGBT
Collector junction of
pnp BJT section of IGBT
Base of pnp BJT
Emitter of pnp BJT
Depletion layer
Drain of
IGBT
N
+
V
DS
Effective base
width independent
of V
DS
Depletion encroaches into the N
-
layer but the advance is halted at moderate v
DS
values
by the N
+
buffer layer. The PNP base width becomes constant and so the effective
resistance r
o
remains large.
25-4. One dimensional model of n-channel IGBT
P
P
+
N
-
N
+
Source
Drain
10
17
10
14
10
19
10
19
25 m m
N
+
10
19
Reverse blocking junction is the P
+
- N
+
junction because of body-source short.
BV
RB

1.3x10
17
10
19
< 1 volt. No reverse blocking capability.
Forward breakdown - limited by P - N
-
junction.
P
P
+
N
-
Body region of
MOSFET section
of IGBT
Collector junction of
pnp BJT section of IGBT
Base of pnp BJT
Emitter of pnp BJT
Depletion layer
Drain of
IGBT
N
+
V
DS
Effective base
width independent
of V
DS
Depletion encroaches into the N
-
layer but the advance is halted at moderate v
DS
values
by the N
+
buffer layer. The PNP base width becomes constant and so the effective
resistance r
o
remains large.
25-4. One dimensional model of n-channel IGBT
P
P
+
N
-
N
+
Source
Drain
10
17
10
14
10
19
10
19
25 m m
N
+
10
19
Reverse blocking junction is the P
+
- N
+
junction because of body-source short.
BV
RB

1.3x10
17
10
19
< 1 volt. No reverse blocking capability.
Forward breakdown - limited by P - N
-
junction.
BV
FB
=
1.3x10
17
10
14
≈ 1300 volts ; But W
depl
(1300 V) = (10
-5
)(1300) = 130 microns
130 microns > 25 micron drift region length. Hence forward blocking limited by
punch-through.
BV
FB
= (2x10
5
)(2.5x10
-3
) -
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
14
)(2.5x10
-3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
= 453 volts
25-5. IGBT current - I
on,IGBT
; V
on
(IGBT) = V
j
+ I
on,IGBT
R
on,IGBT

Assume V
j
≈ 0.8 V ; Exact value not critical to an approximate estimate of I
on,IGBT
.
I
on,IGBT

3-0.8
R
on,IGBT
; R
on,IGBT

W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A

W
d
= (10
-5
)(750) = 75 m m ; R
on,IGBT
=
7.5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
16
)(2)
= 2.6x10
-3
W
I
on,IGBT

2.2
2.6x10
-3
≈ 850 amps
MOSFET current - I
on,MOS
; V
on
(MOS) = I
on,MOS
R
on,MOS
I
on,MOS
=
V
on
(MOS)
R
on,MOS
; R
on,MOS
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; W
d
= 75 m m
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
750
= 1.7x10
14
cm
-3
R
on,MOS
=
7.5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1.5x10
3
)(1.7x10
14
)(2)
= 0.09 ohms
I
on,MOS
=
3
0.09
= 33 amps
25-6. V
on
(PT) = V
j,PT
+ I
on,PT
R
on,PT
= V
j,NPT
+ I
on,NPT
R
on,NPT
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT



R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
since V
j,NPT
≈ V
j,PT
BV
FB
=
1.3x10
17
10
14
≈ 1300 volts ; But W
depl
(1300 V) = (10
-5
)(1300) = 130 microns
130 microns > 25 micron drift region length. Hence forward blocking limited by
punch-through.
BV
FB
= (2x10
5
)(2.5x10
-3
) -
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
14
)(2.5x10
-3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
= 453 volts
25-5. IGBT current - I
on,IGBT
; V
on
(IGBT) = V
j
+ I
on,IGBT
R
on,IGBT

Assume V
j
≈ 0.8 V ; Exact value not critical to an approximate estimate of I
on,IGBT
.
I
on,IGBT

3-0.8
R
on,IGBT
; R
on,IGBT

W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A

W
d
= (10
-5
)(750) = 75 m m ; R
on,IGBT
=
7.5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
16
)(2)
= 2.6x10
-3
W
I
on,IGBT

2.2
2.6x10
-3
≈ 850 amps
MOSFET current - I
on,MOS
; V
on
(MOS) = I
on,MOS
R
on,MOS
I
on,MOS
=
V
on
(MOS)
R
on,MOS
; R
on,MOS
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; W
d
= 75 m m
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
750
= 1.7x10
14
cm
-3
R
on,MOS
=
7.5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1.5x10
3
)(1.7x10
14
)(2)
= 0.09 ohms
I
on,MOS
=
3
0.09
= 33 amps
25-6. V
on
(PT) = V
j,PT
+ I
on,PT
R
on,PT
= V
j,NPT
+ I
on,NPT
R
on,NPT
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT



R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
since V
j,NPT
≈ V
j,PT
BV
FB
=
1.3x10
17
10
14
≈ 1300 volts ; But W
depl
(1300 V) = (10
-5
)(1300) = 130 microns
130 microns > 25 micron drift region length. Hence forward blocking limited by
punch-through.
BV
FB
= (2x10
5
)(2.5x10
-3
) -
(1.6x10
-19
)(10
14
)(2.5x10
-3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
= 453 volts
25-5. IGBT current - I
on,IGBT
; V
on
(IGBT) = V
j
+ I
on,IGBT
R
on,IGBT

Assume V
j
≈ 0.8 V ; Exact value not critical to an approximate estimate of I
on,IGBT
.
I
on,IGBT

3-0.8
R
on,IGBT
; R
on,IGBT

W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A

W
d
= (10
-5
)(750) = 75 m m ; R
on,IGBT
=
7.5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
16
)(2)
= 2.6x10
-3
W
I
on,IGBT

2.2
2.6x10
-3
≈ 850 amps
MOSFET current - I
on,MOS
; V
on
(MOS) = I
on,MOS
R
on,MOS
I
on,MOS
=
V
on
(MOS)
R
on,MOS
; R
on,MOS
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; W
d
= 75 m m
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
750
= 1.7x10
14
cm
-3
R
on,MOS
=
7.5x10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1.5x10
3
)(1.7x10
14
)(2)
= 0.09 ohms
I
on,MOS
=
3
0.09
= 33 amps
25-6. V
on
(PT) = V
j,PT
+ I
on,PT
R
on,PT
= V
j,NPT
+ I
on,NPT
R
on,NPT
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT



R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
since V
j,NPT
≈ V
j,PT



R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
=
W
d,NPT
W
d,PT
≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than
the doping level in the NPT drift region.
Hence
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈ 2
25-7. C
v
d T = d Q ; d Q =
P
V
d t ; P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.
V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated.Duration of transient = d t.
P = I
ov
2
R
on
; I
ov
=
VC
v
d T
d tR
on
; V ≈ A W
drift

R
on
=
W
drift
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
; I
ov
=
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
2
C
v
d T
d t

I
ov
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
16
)(0.5)
2
(1.75)(100)
(10
-5
)
≈ 2.5x10
3
amps
Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such
as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions.
However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10
microseconds or less and survived.
25-8. The IGBT has the smaller values of C
gd
and C
gs
because its effective cross-sectional
area is smaller than that of the MOSFET. The IGBT has a smaller area even though its
current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity
modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific on-state resistance.
25-9. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turn-off ;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds

dv
DS
dt
>
V
d
t
off
=
700
3x10
-7
= 2330 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit.
Device is overstressed by an overly large
dv
DS
dt
.



R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
=
W
d,NPT
W
d,PT
≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than
the doping level in the NPT drift region.
Hence
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈ 2
25-7. C
v
d T = d Q ; d Q =
P
V
d t ; P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.
V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated.Duration of transient = d t.
P = I
ov
2
R
on
; I
ov
=
VC
v
d T
d tR
on
; V ≈ A W
drift

R
on
=
W
drift
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
; I
ov
=
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
2
C
v
d T
d t

I
ov
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
16
)(0.5)
2
(1.75)(100)
(10
-5
)
≈ 2.5x10
3
amps
Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such
as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions.
However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10
microseconds or less and survived.
25-8. The IGBT has the smaller values of C
gd
and C
gs
because its effective cross-sectional
area is smaller than that of the MOSFET. The IGBT has a smaller area even though its
current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity
modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific on-state resistance.
25-9. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turn-off ;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds

dv
DS
dt
>
V
d
t
off
=
700
3x10
-7
= 2330 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit.
Device is overstressed by an overly large
dv
DS
dt
.



R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
=
W
d,NPT
W
d,PT
≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than
the doping level in the NPT drift region.
Hence
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈ 2
25-7. C
v
d T = d Q ; d Q =
P
V
d t ; P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.
V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated.Duration of transient = d t.
P = I
ov
2
R
on
; I
ov
=
VC
v
d T
d tR
on
; V ≈ A W
drift

R
on
=
W
drift
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
; I
ov
=
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
2
C
v
d T
d t

I
ov
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
16
)(0.5)
2
(1.75)(100)
(10
-5
)
≈ 2.5x10
3
amps
Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such
as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions.
However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10
microseconds or less and survived.
25-8. The IGBT has the smaller values of C
gd
and C
gs
because its effective cross-sectional
area is smaller than that of the MOSFET. The IGBT has a smaller area even though its
current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity
modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific on-state resistance.
25-9. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turn-off ;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds

dv
DS
dt
>
V
d
t
off
=
700
3x10
-7
= 2330 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit.
Device is overstressed by an overly large
dv
DS
dt
.



R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
=
W
d,NPT
W
d,PT
≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than
the doping level in the NPT drift region.
Hence
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈ 2
25-7. C
v
d T = d Q ; d Q =
P
V
d t ; P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.
V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated.Duration of transient = d t.
P = I
ov
2
R
on
; I
ov
=
VC
v
d T
d tR
on
; V ≈ A W
drift

R
on
=
W
drift
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
; I
ov
=
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
2
C
v
d T
d t

I
ov
=
(1.6x10
-19
)(900)(10
16
)(0.5)
2
(1.75)(100)
(10
-5
)
≈ 2.5x10
3
amps
Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such
as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions.
However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10
microseconds or less and survived.
25-8. The IGBT has the smaller values of C
gd
and C
gs
because its effective cross-sectional
area is smaller than that of the MOSFET. The IGBT has a smaller area even though its
current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity
modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific on-state resistance.
25-9. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turn-off ;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds

dv
DS
dt
>
V
d
t
off
=
700
3x10
-7
= 2330 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit.
Device is overstressed by an overly large
dv
DS
dt
.
Check switching losses P
sw
= V
d
I
o
t
ri
+t
rv
+t
fi
+t
fv
2


f
s
P
sw
= (700)(100)
(3x10
-7
+7.5x10
-7
)
2
(2.5x10
4
) = 875 W
Allowable power loss =
T
j,max
-T
a
R
q ja
=
150-25
0.5
= 250 watts
Switching losses exceed allowable losses. Module is overstressed by too much
power dissipation.
Chapter 26 Problem Solutions
26-1. Equivalent circuit for JFET in active region.
+
-
C
GD
C
GS
r
o
m v
GS
v
GS
v
DS
+
-
+
-
Equivelent circuit for JFET Linearized I-V characteristics
in the blocking state.
C
GD
C
GS
v
GS
v
DS
+
-
+
-

0
-V
GS2
GS1
-V
i
D
V
DS1
V
DS2
0
26-2. Drive circuit configuration
+
-
V
DD
R
L
2
R
1
R
V
drive

MOSFET off
V
DS
= V
KG
= - V
GK
=
V
DD
R
2
R
1
+R
2
Negative enough to insure that
the FCT is off.
MOSFET on
V
DS
= V
KG
= - V
GK
= 0
and FCT is on.
Chapter 26 Problem Solutions
26-1. Equivalent circuit for JFET in active region.
+
-
C
GD
C
GS
r
o
m v
GS
v
GS
v
DS
+
-
+
-
Equivelent circuit for JFET Linearized I-V characteristics
in the blocking state.
C
GD
C
GS
v
GS
v
DS
+
-
+
-

0
-V
GS2
GS1
-V
i
D
V
DS1
V
DS2
0
26-2. Drive circuit configuration
+
-
V
DD
R
L
2
R
1
R
V
drive

MOSFET off
V
DS
= V
KG
= - V
GK
=
V
DD
R
2
R
1
+R
2
Negative enough to insure that
the FCT is off.
MOSFET on
V
DS
= V
KG
= - V
GK
= 0
and FCT is on.
MOSFET characteirstics:
- High current sinking capability
- Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
26-3. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si

W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs
t
GaAs

t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs

Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)

2
(m
n
+ m
p
)|
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/V-sec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)|
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/V-sec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9

Î ˚
3
4

2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
26-4. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
-4
cm = 1 micron
26-5. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 1500 amperes
26-6. P-MCT fabricated in silicon can turn-off three times more current than an identical
N-MCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the n-channel OFF-FET in the
P-MCT and p-channel OFF-FET in the N-MCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 4500 amperes
26-7. Assume an n-type drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
- High current sinking capability
- Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
26-3. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si

W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs
t
GaAs

t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs

Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)

2
(m
n
+ m
p
)|
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/V-sec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)|
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/V-sec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9

Î ˚
3
4

2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
26-4. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
-4
cm = 1 micron
26-5. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 1500 amperes
26-6. P-MCT fabricated in silicon can turn-off three times more current than an identical
N-MCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the n-channel OFF-FET in the
P-MCT and p-channel OFF-FET in the N-MCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 4500 amperes
26-7. Assume an n-type drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
- High current sinking capability
- Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
26-3. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si

W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs
t
GaAs

t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs

Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)

2
(m
n
+ m
p
)|
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/V-sec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)|
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/V-sec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9

Î ˚
3
4

2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
26-4. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
-4
cm = 1 micron
26-5. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 1500 amperes
26-6. P-MCT fabricated in silicon can turn-off three times more current than an identical
N-MCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the n-channel OFF-FET in the
P-MCT and p-channel OFF-FET in the N-MCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 4500 amperes
26-7. Assume an n-type drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
- High current sinking capability
- Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
26-3. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si

W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs
t
GaAs

t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs

Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)

2
(m
n
+ m
p
)|
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/V-sec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)|
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/V-sec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9

Î ˚
3
4

2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
26-4. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
-4
cm = 1 micron
26-5. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 1500 amperes
26-6. P-MCT fabricated in silicon can turn-off three times more current than an identical
N-MCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the n-channel OFF-FET in the
P-MCT and p-channel OFF-FET in the N-MCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 4500 amperes
26-7. Assume an n-type drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
- High current sinking capability
- Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
26-3. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si

W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs
t
GaAs

t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs

Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)

2
(m
n
+ m
p
)|
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/V-sec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)|
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/V-sec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9

Î ˚
3
4

2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
26-4. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
-4
cm = 1 micron
26-5. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 1500 amperes
26-6. P-MCT fabricated in silicon can turn-off three times more current than an identical
N-MCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the n-channel OFF-FET in the
P-MCT and p-channel OFF-FET in the N-MCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 4500 amperes
26-7. Assume an n-type drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
- High current sinking capability
- Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
26-3. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si

W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs
t
GaAs

t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)|
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)|
GaAs

Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)

2
(m
n
+ m
p
)|
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/V-sec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)|
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/V-sec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9

Î ˚
3
4

2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
26-4. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
-4
cm = 1 micron
26-5. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 1500 amperes
26-6. P-MCT fabricated in silicon can turn-off three times more current than an identical
N-MCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the n-channel OFF-FET in the
P-MCT and p-channel OFF-FET in the N-MCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
-2
) = 4500 amperes
26-7. Assume an n-type drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
R
drift
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; R
drift,sp
= R
drift
A =
W
d
qm
n
N
d

Using Eq. (20-1) N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
; Using Eq. (20-3) W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

Substituting into the expression for R
drift,sp
yields
R
drift,sp
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

1
qe

2qBV
BD
e E
BD
2
=
4(BV
BD
)
2
e m
n
(E
BD
)
3

26-8. Silicon : R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(11.7)(1500)(8.9x10
-14
)(3x10
5
)
3
= 0.024 ohms-cm
2
GaAs: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(12.8)(8500)(8.9x10
-14
)(4x10
5
)
3
= 0.0016 ohms-cm
2
6H-SiC: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(10)(600)(8.9x10
-14
)(2x10
6
)
3
= 2.3x10
-4
ohms-cm
2
Diamond: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(5.5)(2200)(8.9x10
-14
)(10
7
)
3
= 9.3x10
-7
ohms-cm
2
26-9. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation. It has the largest
bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any
given temperature. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in
the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C).
26-10. Eq. (20-1): N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD

For GaAs: N
d
=
(12.8)(8.9x10
-14
)(4x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
5.7x10
17
BV
BD

For 6H-SiC: N
d
=
(10)(8.9x10
-14
)(2x10
6
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.1x10
19
BV
BD

R
drift
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; R
drift,sp
= R
drift
A =
W
d
qm
n
N
d

Using Eq. (20-1) N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
; Using Eq. (20-3) W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

Substituting into the expression for R
drift,sp
yields
R
drift,sp
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

1
qe

2qBV
BD
e E
BD
2
=
4(BV
BD
)
2
e m
n
(E
BD
)
3

26-8. Silicon : R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(11.7)(1500)(8.9x10
-14
)(3x10
5
)
3
= 0.024 ohms-cm
2
GaAs: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(12.8)(8500)(8.9x10
-14
)(4x10
5
)
3
= 0.0016 ohms-cm
2
6H-SiC: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(10)(600)(8.9x10
-14
)(2x10
6
)
3
= 2.3x10
-4
ohms-cm
2
Diamond: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(5.5)(2200)(8.9x10
-14
)(10
7
)
3
= 9.3x10
-7
ohms-cm
2
26-9. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation. It has the largest
bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any
given temperature. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in
the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C).
26-10. Eq. (20-1): N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD

For GaAs: N
d
=
(12.8)(8.9x10
-14
)(4x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
5.7x10
17
BV
BD

For 6H-SiC: N
d
=
(10)(8.9x10
-14
)(2x10
6
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.1x10
19
BV
BD

R
drift
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; R
drift,sp
= R
drift
A =
W
d
qm
n
N
d

Using Eq. (20-1) N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
; Using Eq. (20-3) W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

Substituting into the expression for R
drift,sp
yields
R
drift,sp
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

1
qe

2qBV
BD
e E
BD
2
=
4(BV
BD
)
2
e m
n
(E
BD
)
3

26-8. Silicon : R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(11.7)(1500)(8.9x10
-14
)(3x10
5
)
3
= 0.024 ohms-cm
2
GaAs: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(12.8)(8500)(8.9x10
-14
)(4x10
5
)
3
= 0.0016 ohms-cm
2
6H-SiC: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(10)(600)(8.9x10
-14
)(2x10
6
)
3
= 2.3x10
-4
ohms-cm
2
Diamond: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(5.5)(2200)(8.9x10
-14
)(10
7
)
3
= 9.3x10
-7
ohms-cm
2
26-9. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation. It has the largest
bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any
given temperature. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in
the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C).
26-10. Eq. (20-1): N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD

For GaAs: N
d
=
(12.8)(8.9x10
-14
)(4x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
5.7x10
17
BV
BD

For 6H-SiC: N
d
=
(10)(8.9x10
-14
)(2x10
6
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.1x10
19
BV
BD

R
drift
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; R
drift,sp
= R
drift
A =
W
d
qm
n
N
d

Using Eq. (20-1) N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
; Using Eq. (20-3) W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

Substituting into the expression for R
drift,sp
yields
R
drift,sp
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

1
qe

2qBV
BD
e E
BD
2
=
4(BV
BD
)
2
e m
n
(E
BD
)
3

26-8. Silicon : R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(11.7)(1500)(8.9x10
-14
)(3x10
5
)
3
= 0.024 ohms-cm
2
GaAs: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(12.8)(8500)(8.9x10
-14
)(4x10
5
)
3
= 0.0016 ohms-cm
2
6H-SiC: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(10)(600)(8.9x10
-14
)(2x10
6
)
3
= 2.3x10
-4
ohms-cm
2
Diamond: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(5.5)(2200)(8.9x10
-14
)(10
7
)
3
= 9.3x10
-7
ohms-cm
2
26-9. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation. It has the largest
bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any
given temperature. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in
the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C).
26-10. Eq. (20-1): N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD

For GaAs: N
d
=
(12.8)(8.9x10
-14
)(4x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
5.7x10
17
BV
BD

For 6H-SiC: N
d
=
(10)(8.9x10
-14
)(2x10
6
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.1x10
19
BV
BD

For diamond: N
d
=
(5.5)(8.9x10
-14
)(10
7
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.5x10
20
BV
BD

Eq. (20-3): W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

For GaAs: W
d
=
2BV
BD
4x10
5
= 5x10
-6
BV
BD
[cm]
For 6H-SiC: W
d
=
2BV
BD
2x10
6
= 10
-6
BV
BD
[cm]
For diamond: W
d
=
2BV
BD
10
7
= 2x10
-7
BV
BD
[cm]
26-11. Use equations from problem 26-10.
Material N
d
W
d
GaAs
2.9x10
15
cm
-3
10
-2
cm
6H-SiC
5.5x10
16
cm
-3
2x10
-3
cm
Diamond
7.5x10
17
cm
-3
4x10
-5
cm
26-12. T
j
= R
q jc
P
diode
+ T
case
: R
q jc
= C.• (k )
-1
k = thermal conductivity and C = constant
Using silicon diode data: C =
(T
j
-T
case
)k
P
diode
=
(150-50)(1.5)
200
= 0.75 cm
-1
R
q jc
(GaAs) =
0.75
0.5
= 1.5 °C/W : R
q jc
(SiC) =
0.75
5
= 0.15°C/W
R
q jc
(diamond) =
0.75
20
= 0.038°C/W
T
j
(GaAs) = (1.5)(200) + 50 = 350 °C : T
j
(SiC) = (0.15)(200) + 50 = 80 °C
For diamond: N
d
=
(5.5)(8.9x10
-14
)(10
7
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.5x10
20
BV
BD

Eq. (20-3): W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

For GaAs: W
d
=
2BV
BD
4x10
5
= 5x10
-6
BV
BD
[cm]
For 6H-SiC: W
d
=
2BV
BD
2x10
6
= 10
-6
BV
BD
[cm]
For diamond: W
d
=
2BV
BD
10
7
= 2x10
-7
BV
BD
[cm]
26-11. Use equations from problem 26-10.
Material N
d
W
d
GaAs
2.9x10
15
cm
-3
10
-2
cm
6H-SiC
5.5x10
16
cm
-3
2x10
-3
cm
Diamond
7.5x10
17
cm
-3
4x10
-5
cm
26-12. T
j
= R
q jc
P
diode
+ T
case
: R
q jc
= C.• (k )
-1
k = thermal conductivity and C = constant
Using silicon diode data: C =
(T
j
-T
case
)k
P
diode
=
(150-50)(1.5)
200
= 0.75 cm
-1
R
q jc
(GaAs) =
0.75
0.5
= 1.5 °C/W : R
q jc
(SiC) =
0.75
5
= 0.15°C/W
R
q jc
(diamond) =
0.75
20
= 0.038°C/W
T
j
(GaAs) = (1.5)(200) + 50 = 350 °C : T
j
(SiC) = (0.15)(200) + 50 = 80 °C
For diamond: N
d
=
(5.5)(8.9x10
-14
)(10
7
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
-19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.5x10
20
BV
BD

Eq. (20-3): W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD

For GaAs: W
d
=
2BV
BD
4x10
5
= 5x10
-6
BV
BD
[cm]
For 6H-SiC: W
d
=
2BV
BD
2x10
6
= 10
-6
BV
BD
[cm]
For diamond: W
d
=
2BV
BD
10
7
= 2x10
-7
BV
BD
[cm]
26-11. Use equations from problem 26-10.
Material N
d
W
d
GaAs
2.9x10
15
cm
-3
10
-2
cm
6H-SiC
5.5x10
16
cm
-3
2x10
-3
cm
Diamond
7.5x10
17
cm
-3
4x10
-5
cm
26-12. T
j
= R
q jc
P
diode
+ T
case
: R
q jc
= C.• (k )
-1
k = thermal conductivity and C = constant
Using silicon diode data: C =
(T
j
-T
case
)k
P
diode
=
(150-50)(1.5)
200
= 0.75 cm
-1
R
q jc
(GaAs) =
0.75
0.5
= 1.5 °C/W : R
q jc
(SiC) =
0.75
5
= 0.15°C/W
R
q jc
(diamond) =
0.75
20
= 0.038°C/W
T
j
(GaAs) = (1.5)(200) + 50 = 350 °C : T
j
(SiC) = (0.15)(200) + 50 = 80 °C
T
j
(diamond) = (0.038)(200) + 50 = 57.4 °C
26-13. Pinch-off of the channel occurs when the depletion region of the gate-channel (P
+
N
-
)
junction is equal to W/2 where W is the width of the channel. Occurs at a gate-source
voltage of -V
p
. The other half of the channel is depleted by the depletion region from
the gate-channel junction on the other side of the channel. See Figs. 26-1 and 26-3.
W
2
= W
o
1+
V
p
f
c
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
; W
o
=
2e f
c
qN
d

Solving for V
p
yields V
p
= f
c

Î ˚
W
2W
o

2
- f
c
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(2x10
14
)
10
10
= 0.8 V
W
o
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.8)
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
14
)
= 2.3 microns
V
p
= (0.8)
Î ˚
10
(2)(2.3)

2
- 0.8 = 3.8 - 0.8 = 3 V
26-14. Single cell of the multi-cell JFET shown below. See Fig. 26-1 for a fuller picture of the
multi-cell nature of the JFET. The diagram on the left indicates the various
contributions to the on-state resistance and the figure on the right shows the various
geometrical factors that determine the resistance. Each cell is d centimeters deep in the
direction perpendicular to the plane (page) of the diagram. The gate-source voltage is
set at zero.
T
j
(diamond) = (0.038)(200) + 50 = 57.4 °C
26-13. Pinch-off of the channel occurs when the depletion region of the gate-channel (P
+
N
-
)
junction is equal to W/2 where W is the width of the channel. Occurs at a gate-source
voltage of -V
p
. The other half of the channel is depleted by the depletion region from
the gate-channel junction on the other side of the channel. See Figs. 26-1 and 26-3.
W
2
= W
o
1+
V
p
f
c
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
; W
o
=
2e f
c
qN
d

Solving for V
p
yields V
p
= f
c

Î ˚
W
2W
o

2
- f
c
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(2x10
14
)
10
10
= 0.8 V
W
o
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.8)
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
14
)
= 2.3 microns
V
p
= (0.8)
Î ˚
10
(2)(2.3)

2
- 0.8 = 3.8 - 0.8 = 3 V
26-14. Single cell of the multi-cell JFET shown below. See Fig. 26-1 for a fuller picture of the
multi-cell nature of the JFET. The diagram on the left indicates the various
contributions to the on-state resistance and the figure on the right shows the various
geometrical factors that determine the resistance. Each cell is d centimeters deep in the
direction perpendicular to the plane (page) of the diagram. The gate-source voltage is
set at zero.
T
j
(diamond) = (0.038)(200) + 50 = 57.4 °C
26-13. Pinch-off of the channel occurs when the depletion region of the gate-channel (P
+
N
-
)
junction is equal to W/2 where W is the width of the channel. Occurs at a gate-source
voltage of -V
p
. The other half of the channel is depleted by the depletion region from
the gate-channel junction on the other side of the channel. See Figs. 26-1 and 26-3.
W
2
= W
o
1+
V
p
f
c
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
; W
o
=
2e f
c
qN
d

Solving for V
p
yields V
p
= f
c

Î ˚
W
2W
o

2
- f
c
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(2x10
14
)
10
10
= 0.8 V
W
o
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)(0.8)
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
14
)
= 2.3 microns
V
p
= (0.8)
Î ˚
10
(2)(2.3)

2
- 0.8 = 3.8 - 0.8 = 3 V
26-14. Single cell of the multi-cell JFET shown below. See Fig. 26-1 for a fuller picture of the
multi-cell nature of the JFET. The diagram on the left indicates the various
contributions to the on-state resistance and the figure on the right shows the various
geometrical factors that determine the resistance. Each cell is d centimeters deep in the
direction perpendicular to the plane (page) of the diagram. The gate-source voltage is
set at zero.
R
d
R
t
R
c
R
s
P
+
P
+
drain
source
P
+
P
+
W - 2W
o
W
W + W
g
W + W /2
o g
l
c
l
gs
W
g
l - W - W /2
gd o
g
R
s
=
l
gs
qm
n
N
d
dW
=
10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(2x10
14
)(0.07)(10
-3
)
= 298 ohms
R
c
=
l
c
qm
n
N
d
d(W-2W
o
)

=
10
-3
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(2x10
14
)(0.07)(10
-3
-4.6x10
-4
)
= 552 ohms
R
t
estimate. Treat the region of thickness W
o
+ W
g
/2 as though it has an average width
given by
(W-2W
o
)+(W+W
g
)
2
= W + W
g
/2 - W
o
. R
t
now approximately given by
R
t
=
W
o
+W
g
/2
qm
n
N
d
d(W+W
g
/2-W
o
)

R
t
=
(10
-3
+5x10
-4
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(2x10
14
)(0.07)(10
-3
+5x10
-4
-2.3x10
-4
)
= 351 ohms
R
d
=
(l
gd
-W
o
-W
g
/2)
qm
n
N
d
d(W+W
g
)
=
R
d
=
(35x10
-4
-2.3x10
-4
-5x10
-4
)
(1.6x10
-19
)(1500)(2x10
14
)(0.07)(10
-3
+10
-3
)
= 412 ohms
Total resistance of a single cell is R
cell
= R
s
+ R
c
+ R
t
+ R
d
R
cell
= 298 + 552 + 351 + 412 = 1613 ohms
There are N = 28 cells in parallel so the the net on-state resistance is
R
on
=
R
cell
N
=
1613
28
= 58 ohms
26-15. As the drain-source voltage increases, the reverse-bias on the gate-drain pn junction
increases. The depletion region of the two adjacent P
+
regions merge and then grow
towards the drain. The drift region of length l
gd
and doping N
d
must contain this
depletion region and will determine the breakdown voltage. The short length of the
drift region suggests that punch-through will limit the breakdown voltage. Check for
this possibility first.
Non-punch-through estimate:
BV =
1.3x10
17
2x10
14
= 650 V ; W
d
> (10
-5
)(6.5x10
2
) = 65 microns > 35 microns
Hence this is a punch-through structure. Use Eq. (21-21) and E
BD
= 2x10
5
V/cm
BV = (2x10
5
)(3.5x10
-3
) -
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
14
)(3.5x10
-3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
= 700 - 189
BV = 511 V
R
cell
= 298 + 552 + 351 + 412 = 1613 ohms
There are N = 28 cells in parallel so the the net on-state resistance is
R
on
=
R
cell
N
=
1613
28
= 58 ohms
26-15. As the drain-source voltage increases, the reverse-bias on the gate-drain pn junction
increases. The depletion region of the two adjacent P
+
regions merge and then grow
towards the drain. The drift region of length l
gd
and doping N
d
must contain this
depletion region and will determine the breakdown voltage. The short length of the
drift region suggests that punch-through will limit the breakdown voltage. Check for
this possibility first.
Non-punch-through estimate:
BV =
1.3x10
17
2x10
14
= 650 V ; W
d
> (10
-5
)(6.5x10
2
) = 65 microns > 35 microns
Hence this is a punch-through structure. Use Eq. (21-21) and E
BD
= 2x10
5
V/cm
BV = (2x10
5
)(3.5x10
-3
) -
(1.6x10
-19
)(2x10
14
)(3.5x10
-3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
-14
)
= 700 - 189
BV = 511 V
Chapter 27 Problem Solutions
27-1. a. During turn-off of the GTO, I
o
communtates linearly to C
s
.
C
s

dv
C
dt
= I
o

t
t
fi
;
dv
C
dt
=
dv
AK
dt
=
I
o
t
C
s
t
fi
< 5x10
7
V/s
Maximum
dv
AK
dt
occurs at t
fi
. Solving for C
s
yields
C
s
> I
o

Î ˚

dv
AK
dt

-1
=
500
5x10
7
= 10 microfarads
R
s
chosen on basis of limiting discharge current from C
s
to safe level when GTO
turns on. I
Cs,max
= I
AM
- I
o
- I
rr
. Assume i
rr
= 0.2 I
o
. Then
I
Cs,max
= 1000 - 500 -100 = 400 A
R
s
=
500
400
≈ 1.3 ohms
Snubber recovery time = 2.3 R
s
C
s
= (2.3)(10
-5
)(1.3) = 30 microseconds.
b. Power dissipated in snubber P
Rs

f
sw
C
s
V
d
2
2

P
Rs
= (0.5)(10
3
)(10
-5
)(500)
2
= 1.25 kW
27-2. L
s
di
A
dt

max
= V
d
; L
s

500
3x10
8
≈ 1.7 microhenries.
Voltage across GTO at turn-off = V
d
+ I
o

R
s
: Assume I
o

R
s
= 0.2 V
d
R
s
=
(0.2)(500)
(500)
= 0.2 ohms.
27-3. v
Cs
(t) = V
d
- V
d
cos(w
o
t) + V
d

C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t) = V
d
+ K sin(w
o
t - f )
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K ; K sin(w
o
t - f ) = K sin(w
o
t) cos(f ) - Kcos(w
o
t) sin(f )
Chapter 27 Problem Solutions
27-1. a. During turn-off of the GTO, I
o
communtates linearly to C
s
.
C
s

dv
C
dt
= I
o

t
t
fi
;
dv
C
dt
=
dv
AK
dt
=
I
o
t
C
s
t
fi
< 5x10
7
V/s
Maximum
dv
AK
dt
occurs at t
fi
. Solving for C
s
yields
C
s
> I
o

Î ˚

dv
AK
dt

-1
=
500
5x10
7
= 10 microfarads
R
s
chosen on basis of limiting discharge current from C
s
to safe level when GTO
turns on. I
Cs,max
= I
AM
- I
o
- I
rr
. Assume i
rr
= 0.2 I
o
. Then
I
Cs,max
= 1000 - 500 -100 = 400 A
R
s
=
500
400
≈ 1.3 ohms
Snubber recovery time = 2.3 R
s
C
s
= (2.3)(10
-5
)(1.3) = 30 microseconds.
b. Power dissipated in snubber P
Rs

f
sw
C
s
V
d
2
2

P
Rs
= (0.5)(10
3
)(10
-5
)(500)
2
= 1.25 kW
27-2. L
s
di
A
dt

max
= V
d
; L
s

500
3x10
8
≈ 1.7 microhenries.
Voltage across GTO at turn-off = V
d
+ I
o

R
s
: Assume I
o

R
s
= 0.2 V
d
R
s
=
(0.2)(500)
(500)
= 0.2 ohms.
27-3. v
Cs
(t) = V
d
- V
d
cos(w
o
t) + V
d

C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t) = V
d
+ K sin(w
o
t - f )
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K ; K sin(w
o
t - f ) = K sin(w
o
t) cos(f ) - Kcos(w
o
t) sin(f )
Chapter 27 Problem Solutions
27-1. a. During turn-off of the GTO, I
o
communtates linearly to C
s
.
C
s

dv
C
dt
= I
o

t
t
fi
;
dv
C
dt
=
dv
AK
dt
=
I
o
t
C
s
t
fi
< 5x10
7
V/s
Maximum
dv
AK
dt
occurs at t
fi
. Solving for C
s
yields
C
s
> I
o

Î ˚

dv
AK
dt

-1
=
500
5x10
7
= 10 microfarads
R
s
chosen on basis of limiting discharge current from C
s
to safe level when GTO
turns on. I
Cs,max
= I
AM
- I
o
- I
rr
. Assume i
rr
= 0.2 I
o
. Then
I
Cs,max
= 1000 - 500 -100 = 400 A
R
s
=
500
400
≈ 1.3 ohms
Snubber recovery time = 2.3 R
s
C
s
= (2.3)(10
-5
)(1.3) = 30 microseconds.
b. Power dissipated in snubber P
Rs

f
sw
C
s
V
d
2
2

P
Rs
= (0.5)(10
3
)(10
-5
)(500)
2
= 1.25 kW
27-2. L
s
di
A
dt

max
= V
d
; L
s

500
3x10
8
≈ 1.7 microhenries.
Voltage across GTO at turn-off = V
d
+ I
o

R
s
: Assume I
o

R
s
= 0.2 V
d
R
s
=
(0.2)(500)
(500)
= 0.2 ohms.
27-3. v
Cs
(t) = V
d
- V
d
cos(w
o
t) + V
d

C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t) = V
d
+ K sin(w
o
t - f )
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K ; K sin(w
o
t - f ) = K sin(w
o
t) cos(f ) - Kcos(w
o
t) sin(f )
K sin(w
o
t) cos(f ) - K cos(w
o
t) sin(f ) = V
d

C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t) - V
d
cos(w
o
t)
K cos(f ) = V
d

C
base
C
s
and K sin(f ) = V
d
;
[ ]
Kcos(f )
2
+
[ ]
Ksin(f )
2
= K
2
= V
d
2

C
base
C
s
+ V
d
2
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K = V
d
+ V
d
1+
C
base
C
s

27-4. a. Equivalent circuit after diode reverse recovery.

L = 10 m H
R
s
C
s
200 V
+
-
i
L
i
L
(0
+
) = I
rr
; During reverse recovery L
di
R
dt
= 200 V

di
R
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
=
200
10
-5
= 2x10
7
A/sec ; I
rr
= (2x10
7
)(3x10
-7
) = 6 A
b. v
Cs,max
= 500 V = 200 + 200 1+
C
base
C
s

1+
C
base
C
s
= 1.5 ;
C
base
C
s
= 1.5 ≈ 1.25
C
base
= (10
-5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
C
s
=
9nF
1.25
≈ 7 nF
K sin(w
o
t) cos(f ) - K cos(w
o
t) sin(f ) = V
d

C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t) - V
d
cos(w
o
t)
K cos(f ) = V
d

C
base
C
s
and K sin(f ) = V
d
;
[ ]
Kcos(f )
2
+
[ ]
Ksin(f )
2
= K
2
= V
d
2

C
base
C
s
+ V
d
2
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K = V
d
+ V
d
1+
C
base
C
s

27-4. a. Equivalent circuit after diode reverse recovery.

L = 10 m H
R
s
C
s
200 V
+
-
i
L
i
L
(0
+
) = I
rr
; During reverse recovery L
di
R
dt
= 200 V

di
R
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
=
200
10
-5
= 2x10
7
A/sec ; I
rr
= (2x10
7
)(3x10
-7
) = 6 A
b. v
Cs,max
= 500 V = 200 + 200 1+
C
base
C
s

1+
C
base
C
s
= 1.5 ;
C
base
C
s
= 1.5 ≈ 1.25
C
base
= (10
-5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
C
s
=
9nF
1.25
≈ 7 nF
27-5. Use the circuit shown in problem 27-4.
C
s
= C
base
= (10
-5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
R
s
= 1.3 R
base
= (1.3)
Î ˚
200
6
= 43 ohms
v
Cs,max
= (1.5)(200) = 300 V
27-6. P = W
R
f
sw
=
Î ˚
L
s
I
rr
2
+C
s
V
in
2
2
f
sw
W
R
= (0.5)(10
-5
)(6)
2
+ (0.5)(9x10
-9
)(200)
2
= 3.6x10
-4
Joules
P = W
R
f
sw
= (3.6x10
-4
)(2x10
4
) = 7.2 watts
27-7. a. BJT waveforms (t
rv
assumed to be zero for C
s
= 0)
I
o
i
Cs
t
t
f i
t
v
CE
V
d
C = 0
s
C > 0
s
0
0
Power dissipation for C
s
= 0 is P
c
=
V
d
I
o
t
fi
2
f
sw
27-5. Use the circuit shown in problem 27-4.
C
s
= C
base
= (10
-5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
R
s
= 1.3 R
base
= (1.3)
Î ˚
200
6
= 43 ohms
v
Cs,max
= (1.5)(200) = 300 V
27-6. P = W
R
f
sw
=
Î ˚
L
s
I
rr
2
+C
s
V
in
2
2
f
sw
W
R
= (0.5)(10
-5
)(6)
2
+ (0.5)(9x10
-9
)(200)
2
= 3.6x10
-4
Joules
P = W
R
f
sw
= (3.6x10
-4
)(2x10
4
) = 7.2 watts
27-7. a. BJT waveforms (t
rv
assumed to be zero for C
s
= 0)
I
o
i
Cs
t
t
f i
t
v
CE
V
d
C = 0
s
C > 0
s
0
0
Power dissipation for C
s
= 0 is P
c
=
V
d
I
o
t
fi
2
f
sw
27-5. Use the circuit shown in problem 27-4.
C
s
= C
base
= (10
-5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
R
s
= 1.3 R
base
= (1.3)
Î ˚
200
6
= 43 ohms
v
Cs,max
= (1.5)(200) = 300 V
27-6. P = W
R
f
sw
=
Î ˚
L
s
I
rr
2
+C
s
V
in
2
2
f
sw
W
R
= (0.5)(10
-5
)(6)
2
+ (0.5)(9x10
-9
)(200)
2
= 3.6x10
-4
Joules
P = W
R
f
sw
= (3.6x10
-4
)(2x10
4
) = 7.2 watts
27-7. a. BJT waveforms (t
rv
assumed to be zero for C
s
= 0)
I
o
i
Cs
t
t
f i
t
v
CE
V
d
C = 0
s
C > 0
s
0
0
Power dissipation for C
s
= 0 is P
c
=
V
d
I
o
t
fi
2
f
sw
P
c
=
(200)(25)(4x10
-7
)
2
(2x10
4
) = 20 W
Power dissipation for C
s
= C
s1
P
c
= W
c
f
sw
; W
c
=
ı
0
t
fi
I
o
(1-
t
t
fi
)
I
o
2C
s1

t
2
t
fi
dt =
V
d
I
o
t
fi
12

P
c
=
(200)(25)(4x10
-7
)(2x10
4
)
12
= 3.3 watts
Factor of six reduction in the turn-off losses.
b. BJT losses increase at turn-on only becaue of energy stored in C
s
being dissipated
in the BJT, but also because the time to complete turn-on is extended as shown in
Fig. 27-14a. This extended duration of traversal of the active region also increases
the turn-on losses.
During the turn-on interval, the collector-emitter voltage is given by (assuming
that the external circuit dominates the transient)
C
s1

dv
CE
dt
= -
di
C
dt
t - I
rr
; v
CE
(t) = V
d
-
di
C
dt

t
2
2C
s1
- I
rr

t
C
s1


Seting the expression for

v
CE
(t) equal to zero and solving for the time
D T = t
2
- (t
ri
+ t
rr
) (see Fig. 27-14a) required for v
CE
to reach zero yields
D T = -
I
rr
di
C
/dt
+
Î ˚

I
rr
di
C
/dt
2
+
2V
d
C
s1
di
C
/dt

Note that D T = 0 if C
s1
= 0 which is consistent with the assumption that the
external circuit and not the BJT that dominates the turn-on transient. Extra energy
disspated in the BJT at turn-on due to C
s1
is thus
ı
0
D T
v
CE
(t)i
C
(t)dt = V
d
I
rr
D T +
Î ˚
V
d
2

di
C
dt
-
[I
o
+I
rr
]I
rr
2C
s1
D T
2
-
(I
o
+3I
rr
)
2C
s1

di
C
dt
D T
3
- Î ˚
di
C
dt

2
D T
4
8C
s1


The increase in the BJT loss is
Î ˚
ı
0
D T
v
CE
(t)i
C
(t)dt f
s
where f
s
is the switching
frequency. Numerical evaluation of D T gives D T = 0.29 m s (I
rr
= 10 A and C
s1
=
25 nF).
Evaluation of the loss gives 1.3x10
-3
f
s
= 26.5 watts
27-8. a. D
s
shorts out the snubber resistance during the BJT turn-off. Hence C
s1
is
directly across the BJT as in problem 27-7a. Thus the loss reduction is the same as
in problem 27-7a.
b. Equivalent circuit during BJT turn-off after free-wheeling diode reverse recovery
is shown below.
R
s
s
C
I + t
r r
di
C
dt
v
CE
+
-
v
C
+
-
v (0 ) = V
+
C
d
v
CE
= C
s
R
s

dv
C
dt
+ v
C ;
; C
s
dv
C
dt


= - I
rr
-
di
C
dt
t
Combining equations and solving for v
CE
(t) yields
v
CE
(t) = V
d
- I
rr
R
s
-
Î ˚

I
rr
C
s
+R
s
di
C
dt
t -
di
C
dt

t
2
2C
s

At t = D T, v
CE
= 0 and turn-on is completed.
D T = -
I
rr
+R
s
C
s

di
C
dt

di
C
dt

+
Î ˚
I
rr
+R
s
C
s

di
C
dt

di
C
dt

2
+
2C
s
di
C
dt
[V
d
-I
rr
R
s
]
D T goes to zero when R
s
=
V
d
I
rr
. hence there is no increase in power dissipation
in the BJT due to the presence of C
s
.
The increase in the BJT loss is
Î ˚
ı
0
D T
v
CE
(t)i
C
(t)dt f
s
where f
s
is the switching
frequency. Numerical evaluation of D T gives D T = 0.29 m s (I
rr
= 10 A and C
s1
=
25 nF).
Evaluation of the loss gives 1.3x10
-3
f
s
= 26.5 watts
27-8. a. D
s
shorts out the snubber resistance during the BJT turn-off. Hence C
s1
is
directly across the BJT as in problem 27-7a. Thus the loss reduction is the same as
in problem 27-7a.
b. Equivalent circuit during BJT turn-off after free-wheeling diode reverse recovery
is shown below.
R
s
s
C
I + t
r r
di
C
dt
v
CE
+
-
v
C
+
-
v (0 ) = V
+
C
d
v
CE
= C
s
R
s

dv
C
dt
+ v
C ;
; C
s
dv
C
dt


= - I
rr
-
di
C
dt
t
Combining equations and solving for v
CE
(t) yields
v
CE
(t) = V
d
- I
rr
R
s
-
Î ˚

I
rr
C
s
+R
s
di
C
dt
t -
di
C
dt

t
2
2C
s

At t = D T, v
CE
= 0 and turn-on is completed.
D T = -
I
rr
+R
s
C
s

di
C
dt

di
C
dt

+
Î ˚
I
rr
+R
s
C
s

di
C
dt

di
C
dt

2
+
2C
s
di
C
dt
[V
d
-I
rr
R
s
]
D T goes to zero when R
s
=
V
d
I
rr
. hence there is no increase in power dissipation
in the BJT due to the presence of C
s
.
27-9. a. Proposed snubber circuit configuration shown below.
1
2
3
4
L
s
R
s
C
s
I
o
2 V
s
Equivalent circuit swith SCRs 3 & 4 on and 1&2 going off or vice-versa.
Continuous flow of load current formces SCRs 1 & 2 to remain on past the time
of natural commutation (when v
s
(t) goes through zero and becomes negative).
L
s
R
s
C
s
2 V
s
3 or 4
1 or 2
I
r r
With 3 & 4 on, 1 & 2 are off, and effectively in parallel with the R
s
-C
s
snubber.
same is true when 1 & 2 are on and 3 & 4 are off. Thus the R
s
-C
s
snubber
functions as a turn-off snubber.
b. w L
s
=
0.05V
s
I
a1
; worst case situation (maximum reverse voltage across SCR
which is turning off) occurs when SCR which is turning on is triggered with a
delay angle of 90°. During reverse recovery of SCR1, L
s

di
dt
= 2 V
s
and
di
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
. Solving for I
rr
yields
I
rr
=
2w t
rr
I
a1
0.05
; C
base
= L
s

Î ˚

I
rr
2V
s

2
=
w I
a1
t
rr
2
0.05V
s

Smallest overvoltage occurs when C
s
= C
base
. Putting in numerical values
C
s
= 0.9933 I
a1
m F
R
base
=
2V
s
I
rr
=
0.05V
s
w t
rr
I
a1
=
(0.05)(230)
(377)(10
-5
)I
a1
=
3050
I
a1
ohms
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
I
a1
ohms
c. Peak line voltage = 2 (230) = 322 V
Smallest overvoltage = (1.5)(322) = 483 V which occurs when C
s
= C
base
and R
s
= 1.3 R
base
. For I
a1
= 100 A
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
100
= 40 ohms ; C
s
= (0.0033)(100) = 0.33 m F
27-10. The resistor in the BJT/MOSFET snubber must be shorted out during the device
turn-off so that the snubber capacitance is in parallel with the device. The uncharged
capacitor delays the build-up of the large V
d
voltage across the BJT/MOSFET until
most of the current has been diverted from the switch. The snubber diode is forward
biased during turn-off, thus providing the shorting of the snubber resistor as required.
The turn-off of the thyristor limits overvoltages arising from the interruption of current
through the stray inductance in series with the thyristor. Lowest overvoltages are
obtained when R
s
= 1.3 R
base
and C
s
= C
base.
Overvoltages are 70-% larger if R
s
is
zero. Hence a diode in parallel with the resistor is not desirable.
27-11. a. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turn-off;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds

dv
DS
dt
>
700
7.5x10
-7
= 930 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit so snubber is needed.
Not enough information available to check on power dissipation or overcurrents.
di
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
. Solving for I
rr
yields
I
rr
=
2w t
rr
I
a1
0.05
; C
base
= L
s

Î ˚

I
rr
2V
s

2
=
w I
a1
t
rr
2
0.05V
s

Smallest overvoltage occurs when C
s
= C
base
. Putting in numerical values
C
s
= 0.9933 I
a1
m F
R
base
=
2V
s
I
rr
=
0.05V
s
w t
rr
I
a1
=
(0.05)(230)
(377)(10
-5
)I
a1
=
3050
I
a1
ohms
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
I
a1
ohms
c. Peak line voltage = 2 (230) = 322 V
Smallest overvoltage = (1.5)(322) = 483 V which occurs when C
s
= C
base
and R
s
= 1.3 R
base
. For I
a1
= 100 A
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
100
= 40 ohms ; C
s
= (0.0033)(100) = 0.33 m F
27-10. The resistor in the BJT/MOSFET snubber must be shorted out during the device
turn-off so that the snubber capacitance is in parallel with the device. The uncharged
capacitor delays the build-up of the large V
d
voltage across the BJT/MOSFET until
most of the current has been diverted from the switch. The snubber diode is forward
biased during turn-off, thus providing the shorting of the snubber resistor as required.
The turn-off of the thyristor limits overvoltages arising from the interruption of current
through the stray inductance in series with the thyristor. Lowest overvoltages are
obtained when R
s
= 1.3 R
base
and C
s
= C
base.
Overvoltages are 70-% larger if R
s
is
zero. Hence a diode in parallel with the resistor is not desirable.
27-11. a. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turn-off;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds

dv
DS
dt
>
700
7.5x10
-7
= 930 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit so snubber is needed.
Not enough information available to check on power dissipation or overcurrents.
di
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
. Solving for I
rr
yields
I
rr
=
2w t
rr
I
a1
0.05
; C
base
= L
s

Î ˚

I
rr
2V
s

2
=
w I
a1
t
rr
2
0.05V
s

Smallest overvoltage occurs when C
s
= C
base
. Putting in numerical values
C
s
= 0.9933 I
a1
m F
R
base
=
2V
s
I
rr
=
0.05V
s
w t
rr
I
a1
=
(0.05)(230)
(377)(10
-5
)I
a1
=
3050
I
a1
ohms
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
I
a1
ohms
c. Peak line voltage = 2 (230) = 322 V
Smallest overvoltage = (1.5)(322) = 483 V which occurs when C
s
= C
base
and R
s
= 1.3 R
base
. For I
a1
= 100 A
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
100
= 40 ohms ; C
s
= (0.0033)(100) = 0.33 m F
27-10. The resistor in the BJT/MOSFET snubber must be shorted out during the device
turn-off so that the snubber capacitance is in parallel with the device. The uncharged
capacitor delays the build-up of the large V
d
voltage across the BJT/MOSFET until
most of the current has been diverted from the switch. The snubber diode is forward
biased during turn-off, thus providing the shorting of the snubber resistor as required.
The turn-off of the thyristor limits overvoltages arising from the interruption of current
through the stray inductance in series with the thyristor. Lowest overvoltages are
obtained when R
s
= 1.3 R
base
and C
s
= C
base.
Overvoltages are 70-% larger if R
s
is
zero. Hence a diode in parallel with the resistor is not desirable.
27-11. a. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turn-off;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds

dv
DS
dt
>
700
7.5x10
-7
= 930 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit so snubber is needed.
Not enough information available to check on power dissipation or overcurrents.
b.
dv
DS
dt
=
I
o
C
s
= 400 V/m s ; C
s
=
100
4x10
8
= 0.25 m F
Choose R
s
to limit total current I
D
to less than 150 A
150 A = 100 +
700
R
s
; R
s
=
700
150-100
= 14 ohms
Check snubber recovery time = 2.3 R
s
C
s
= (2.3)(14)(2.5x10
-7
) = 8 m s
Off time of the IGBT is 10 microseconds which is greater than the snubber
recovery time. Hence choice of R
s
is fine.
Chapater 28 Problem Solutions
28-1. Schematic of drive circuit shown below.
R
G
V
GG+
V
GG-
V
DS
100 A
100 V
+
-
v
DS
(t) waveform same as in problem 22-2.
During MOSFET turn-on
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
fv
< 500 V/m s
From problem 22-2,
V
d
t
fv
=
Î ˚
V
GG+
-V
GSth
-
I
o
g
m
R
G
C
gd

During MOSFET turn-off,
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
< 500 V/m s
From problem 23-2,
V
d
t
rv
=
Î ˚
V
GG-
+V
GSth
+
I
o
g
m
R
G
C
gd

g
m
=
I
o
V
GS
-V
GSth
=
60
7-4
= 20 A/V
Estimate of R
G
for MOSFET turn-on:
5x10
8
V/sec >
V
GG+
-4-
100
20
(R
G
)(4x10
-10
)
; V
GG+,min
= V
GSth
+
I
o
g
m
= 4 +
100
20
= 9 V
Choose V
GG+
= 15 V to insure that MOSFET driven well into ohmic range to
minimize on-state losses.
R
G
>
15-9
(4x10
-10
)(5x10
8
)
= 30 ohms
Estimate of R
G
at MOSFET turn-off:
5x10
8
V/sec >
V
GG-
+4+
100
20
(R
G
)(4x10
-10
)

Choose V
GG-
= -15 V to insure that MOSFET is held in off-state and to minimize
turn-off times.
R
G
>
15+9
(4x10
-10
)(5x10
8
)
= 115 ohms
Satisfy both turn-on and turn-joff requirements by choosing V
GG+
= V
GG-
= 15 V and R
G
> 115 ohms.
28-2. a. Circuit diagram shown below.
R
G1
R
G2
Q
s
T
sw
D
f
+
-
I
o
= 200 A
V
d
= 1000 V
When FCT is off we need V
KG
= (1.25)
1000
40
= 31.25 V = (1000)
R
G2
R
G1
+R
G2

Now R
G1
+ R
G2
= 10
-6
ohms so 31.25 = (1000) (10
-6
) R
G2
R
G2
= 31.25 kW and R
G1
= 969 kW
Choose V
GG+
= 15 V to insure that MOSFET driven well into ohmic range to
minimize on-state losses.
R
G
>
15-9
(4x10
-10
)(5x10
8
)
= 30 ohms
Estimate of R
G
at MOSFET turn-off:
5x10
8
V/sec >
V
GG-
+4+
100
20
(R
G
)(4x10
-10
)

Choose V
GG-
= -15 V to insure that MOSFET is held in off-state and to minimize
turn-off times.
R
G
>
15+9
(4x10
-10
)(5x10
8
)
= 115 ohms
Satisfy both turn-on and turn-joff requirements by choosing V
GG+
= V
GG-
= 15 V and R
G
> 115 ohms.
28-2. a. Circuit diagram shown below.
R
G1
R
G2
Q
s
T
sw
D
f
+
-
I
o
= 200 A
V
d
= 1000 V
When FCT is off we need V
KG
= (1.25)
1000
40
= 31.25 V = (1000)
R
G2
R
G1
+R
G2

Now R
G1
+ R
G2
= 10
-6
ohms so 31.25 = (1000) (10
-6
) R
G2
R
G2
= 31.25 kW and R
G1
= 969 kW
b. MOSFET characteristics
- large on-state current capability
- low R
on
-
low BV
DSS
(BV
DSS
of 50-100 V should work)
Chapter 29 Problem Solutions
29-1. Assume T
s
= 120 °C and T
a
= 20 °C.
R
q ,rad

0.12
A
; A in m
2
; Eq. (29-18)
R
q ,conv

1
(1.34)(A)

Î ˚
d
vert
D T

1/4
; Eq. (29-20)
R
q ,conv

0.24
A
[d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C.
A cube having a side of length d
vert
has a surface area A = 6 [d
vert
]
2
R
q ,conv

0.4
[d
vert
]
1.75
; R
q ,rad

0.02
[d
vert
]
2

R
q ,sa
= net surface-to-ambient thermal resistance =
R
q ,conv
R
q ,rad
R
q ,conv
+R
q ,rad


R
q ,sa
=
0.04
[d
vert
]
1.75
+2[d
vert
]
2

Heat Sink # 1 2 3 5 6
Volume [m]
3
7.6x10
-5
10
-4
1.8x10
-4
2x10
-4
3x10
-4
d
v
= (vol.)
1/3
[m]
0.042 0.046 0.057 0.058 0.067
A = 6 [d
v
]
2
[m]
2 0.011 0.013 0.019 0.002 0.027
d
v
1.75 0.004 0.046 0.0066 0.0069 0.0088
d
v
2 0.0018 0.0021 0.0032 0.0034 0.0045
R
q ,sa
[°C/W] 5.3 4.5 3.1 2.9 2.3
R
q ,sa
(measured) 3.2 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.7
Heat Sink # 7 8 9 10 11 12
Volume [m]
3
4.4x10
-4
6.810
-4
6.1x10
-4
6.3x10
-4
7x10
-4
1.4x10
-3
d
v
= (vol.)
1/3
[m]
0.076 0.088 0.085 0.086 0.088 0.11
A = 6 [d
v
]
2
[m]
2 0.034 0.046 0.043 0.044 0.047 0.072
d
v
1.75 0.011 0.014 0.013 0.014 0.014 0.021
d
v
2 0.0058 0.0078 0.0071 0.0073 0.0078 0.012
R
q ,sa
[°C/W] 1.8 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.9
R
q ,sa
(measured) 1.3 1.3 1.25 1.2 0.8 0.65
Heat sink #9 is relatively large and cubical in shape with only a few cooling fins.
Heat sink #9 is small and flat with much more surface area compared to its volume.
Large surface-to-volume ratios give smaller values of R
q ,sa
.
29-2. R
q ,conv

0.24
A
[d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C ; From problem 29-1
R
q ,conv
≈ 24 0 [d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C and A = 10 cm
2
= 10
-3
m
2
d
vert
R
q ,conv
1 cm 76 °C/W
5 cm 113 °C/W
12 cm 141 °C/W
20 cm 160 °C/W
Volume [m]
3
4.4x10
-4
6.810
-4
6.1x10
-4
6.3x10
-4
7x10
-4
1.4x10
-3
d
v
= (vol.)
1/3
[m]
0.076 0.088 0.085 0.086 0.088 0.11
A = 6 [d
v
]
2
[m]
2 0.034 0.046 0.043 0.044 0.047 0.072
d
v
1.75 0.011 0.014 0.013 0.014 0.014 0.021
d
v
2 0.0058 0.0078 0.0071 0.0073 0.0078 0.012
R
q ,sa
[°C/W] 1.8 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.9
R
q ,sa
(measured) 1.3 1.3 1.25 1.2 0.8 0.65
Heat sink #9 is relatively large and cubical in shape with only a few cooling fins.
Heat sink #9 is small and flat with much more surface area compared to its volume.
Large surface-to-volume ratios give smaller values of R
q ,sa
.
29-2. R
q ,conv

0.24
A
[d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C ; From problem 29-1
R
q ,conv
≈ 24 0 [d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C and A = 10 cm
2
= 10
-3
m
2
d
vert
R
q ,conv
1 cm 76 °C/W
5 cm 113 °C/W
12 cm 141 °C/W
20 cm 160 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
q
°C/W
d
vert
[cm]
R
,conv
29-3. R
q ,conv

1
(1.34)(A)

Î ˚
d
vert
D T

1/4
; Eq. (29-20)
R
q ,conv
≈ 353 [D T]
-.25
A = 10 cm
2
and d
vert
= 5 cm
D T R
q ,conv
60 °C 127 °C/W
80 °C 118 °C/W
100 °C 112 °C/W
120 °C 107 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
q
°C/W
d
vert
[cm]
R
,conv
29-3. R
,conv

1
(1.34)(A)

˚
d
vert
T

1/4
; Eq. (29-20)
R
,conv
≈ 353 [ T]
-.25
A = 10 cm
2
and d
vert
= 5 cm
T R
,conv
60 °C 127 °C/W
80 °C 118 °C/W
100 °C 112 °C/W
120 °C 107 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
60 70 80 90 100 110 120
R
,conv
°C/W
D T [°C]
29-4. R
,rad
=
T
5.1A

T
s
100
4
-

T
a
100
4

; Eq. (29-17)
R
,rad
= 196
120-T
a
(° C)

˚
239-
˚
T
a
(° K)
100
4
; A = 10 cm
2
and T
s
= 120 °C
T
a
R
,rad
0 °C 128 °C/W
10 °C 123 °C/W
20 °C 119 °C/W
40 °C 110 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
60 70 80 90 100 110 120
R
,conv
°C/W
D T [°C]
29-4. R
,rad
=
T
5.1A

T
s
100
4
-

T
a
100
4

; Eq. (29-17)
R
,rad
= 196
120-T
a
(° C)

˚
239-
˚
T
a
(° K)
100
4
; A = 10 cm
2
and T
s
= 120 °C
T
a
R
,rad
0 °C 128 °C/W
10 °C 123 °C/W
20 °C 119 °C/W
40 °C 110 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
T
a
[°C]
R
,rad
[ °C/W]
q
29-5. R
,rad
=
T
5.1A

T
s
100
4
-

T
a
100
4

; Eq. (29-17)
R
,rad
= 196
T
s
(° C)-40

˚ ˚
T
s
(° K)
100
4
-96
; A = 10 cm
2
and T
a
= 40 °C
T
s
R
,rad
80 °C 114 °C/W
100 °C 120 °C/W
120 °C 110 °C/W
140 °C 101 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
T
a
[°C]
R
,rad
[ °C/W]
q
29-5. R
,rad
=
T
5.1A

T
s
100
4
-

T
a
100
4

; Eq. (29-17)
R
,rad
= 196
T
s
(° C)-40

˚ ˚
T
s
(° K)
100
4
-96
; A = 10 cm
2
and T
a
= 40 °C
T
s
R
,rad
80 °C 114 °C/W
100 °C 120 °C/W
120 °C 110 °C/W
140 °C 101 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
80 90 100 110 120 130 140
T
s
[ °C]
R
q ,rad
[ °C/W]
29-6. P
MOSFET,max
=
150° C-50° C
1° C/W
= 100 W ; 100 W = 50 + 10
-3
f
s
Solving for f
s
yields f
s
= 50 kHz
29-7. P
MOSFET
= 50 +

10
-3
• 2.5x10
4
= 75 W
R
,ja
= R
,jc
+ R
,ca
=
150° C-35° C
75W
= 1.53 °C/W
R
,ca
= 1.53 - 1.00 = 0.53 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
80 90 100 110 120 130 140
T
s
[ °C]
R
q ,rad
[ °C/W]
29-6. P
MOSFET,max
=
150° C-50° C
1° C/W
= 100 W ; 100 W = 50 + 10
-3
f
s
Solving for f
s
yields f
s
= 50 kHz
29-7. P
MOSFET
= 50 +

10
-3
• 2.5x10
4
= 75 W
R
q ,ja
= R
q ,jc
+ R
q ,ca
=
150° C-35° C
75W
= 1.53 °C/W
R
q ,ca
= 1.53 - 1.00 = 0.53 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
80 90 100 110 120 130 140
T
s
[ °C]
R
q ,rad
[ °C/W]
29-6. P
MOSFET,max
=
150° C-50° C
1° C/W
= 100 W ; 100 W = 50 + 10
-3
f
s
Solving for f
s
yields f
s
= 50 kHz
29-7. P
MOSFET
= 50 +

10
-3
• 2.5x10
4
= 75 W
R
q ,ja
= R
q ,jc
+ R
q ,ca
=
150° C-35° C
75W
= 1.53 °C/W
R
q ,ca
= 1.53 - 1.00 = 0.53 °C/W

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4x10-23 [1/°K] yields Ti = 262 °C or 535 °K. k = 1.1 eV.2k ÌT .300˝˙ Î Ó i ˛˚ Solving for Ti using Eg = 1. . Thus È q Eg 1 1 ˘ Ï ¸ ni(Ti) = Nd = 1014 = 1010 exp Í .19-1. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density ni equals the lowest doping density in the pn juinction structure (the n-side in this problem).

5 ohm-cm (1.6x10-19)(500)(1018) . 1 1 N-side resistivity rn = q m N = -19)(1500)(1014) = 43.6x10 n d 1 1 P-side resistivity rp = q m N = = 0.013 ohm-cm p a (1.19-2.

Hence use approximate formulas given in Chapter 19. p = N d 1020 = 1013 = 107 cm-3 .19-3. 2 ni n = Nd = 1013 cm-3 . Material is n-type with Nd = 1013 cm-3 >> ni = 1010 cm-3.

2po = 2 ni [300 + T] Nd .19-4.2k ÌT . .2 °K g DT = 305.2 . È q Eg Ï1 1 ¸˘ 2x1010 = 1010 exp Í .2 °K.k 300 ln(2)) = 305. po = 2 ni [300] Nd .300 = 5.300˝˙ Î ˚ Ó ˛ 2 2 2 ni [300] = ni [300 + T] q Eg 300 Solving for T yields T = (q E .

19-5. 10 I1 = Is exp( k T ) . kT dV = q ln(10) = 60 mV . q V1 I1 = Is exp( k T q V1 + dV .

. (a) xn(0) = depletion layer width on n-side at zero bias.19-6. xp(0) = depletion layer width on p-side at zero bias.

026 ) = 5x1011 È Dpt˘ ˙ 2 Í Dnt Is = q ni Í N t + N t ˙ A Î a d ˚ È ˘ Í (38)(10-6) (13)(10-6) ˙ 2 ˙ = (1.8x10-10 F/cm2 A 50 2. 19-9b. .8x10-4) o (c) From part a) fc = 0.6x10-19)(1020) Í Î (1015)(10-6) + (1014)(10-6)˚ (2) I = (6.900 V/cm Emax = W = (2.54) = 3. xp(0) = 0.7x10-9 F/cm2 2.54 qV qV 0.54 eV Î ni ˚ Conservation of charge: q Na xp = q Nd xn (2) Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously gives using the numerical values given in the problem statement gives: W o = 2.xn(0) + xp(0) = Wo = 2 e fc (Na + Nd) q Na Nd (1) È 1014 1015˘ k T È Na Nd˘ Í ˙ ˙ = 0.7x10-14 A .7)(8. exp( kT ) = exp (0.8x10-4 1 + 0.25 microns (b) Electric field profile triangular-shaped as shown in Fig.9x10-14) C(50) = = 3.9x10-14) = = 3. Maximum electric at zero bias given by 2 fc (2) (0.8 microns .54 eV (d) C(V) A = Wo C(0) A e V 1+f c .8x10-4 (11.55 microns .7x10-14 )(5x1011) = 34 mA Is = 6.7)(8.7 (e) I = Is exp(kT ) . xn(0) = 2. (11. C(V) = space-charge capacitance at reverse voltage V.026 ln Í fc = q ln Í 2 ˙ Î 1020 ˚ = 0.

4x1014 ) + (1.1) Ï 1 1 ¸˘ Ì At 250 °C (523 °K).6x10-19)(1500)(1.02 Resistance R = A .4 ohms . Putting in numerical values yields o Nd ˚ ˘ (4)(7.4 ohms È (1.8x1013 ) R(250 °C) ≈ (26.4x1014 and 1+ 14)2 ˚ (10 5.7)(2) = 83. Nd = 1014 >> ni so r = q m N = -19)(1500)(1014 ) n d (1.6x1013)2 ˙ ˙ = 1.8x10 10 Assuming temperature-independent mobilities (not a valid assumption but no other information is given in text or the problem statement).7 W-cm R(25 °C) = (41.6x103) = 7.2)(2) = 52. Thus we should solve Eqs.6x1013 which is an appreciable fraction of Nd = 1014.8x1027 13 14 = 5. Solving Eqs.01 = 2 cm-1 1 1 At 25 °C.4x10-23) Ó523 ˛˚ (1010)(7.6x10 = 41.6x10-19) (1. (19-2) and (19-3) exactly for no and po rather than using equations similiar to Eq.6x10-19)(500)(5. rL L 0.2 W-cm . (19-2) and (19-3) for Nd >> Na yields Nd È no = 2 Í1 + Î È 1014 Í no = 2 Í 1 + Î po = 2˘ 2 4 ni ni 1 + 2 ˙ and po = n . (19-4). resistance is R(250 °C) = r(250 ° C) L 1 .19-7. A = 0. (1. ni[523] = 1010 exp Í . r(250 °C) ≈ q m n + q m p A n o p o 1 = = 26.300˝˙ = Î (2)(1.

2 e (Na + Nd) EBD (11.7)(8.9x1014)(1015 + 1014)(3x105)2 BVBD = = 2 q Na Nd (2)(1.340 volts .6x10-19)(1015)(1014) = 3.19-8.

(19-11) . or f = 2 c EBD 2 2 4 BVBD W o BVBD Wo . .19-9. 2 4 fc BVBD 2 2 Emax = EBD ≈ 2 W o fc 2 4 BVBD Wo . Eq. Inserting f = and taking W 2(BVBD) = fc 2 c EBD 2 BVBD the square root yields W (BVBD) ≈ 2 EBD. (19-13). Eq.

19-10. Ln = Dn t = (39)(10-6) = 62 microns . Lp = Dp t = (13)(10-6) = 36 microns .

Thus 4 t2 = t1 . Assume a one-sided step junction with Na >> Nd Dp t1 Dp t2 qV 2 qV 2 I1 = q ni A N t exp(k T ) .19-11. I2 = q ni A N t exp(k T ) d 1 d 2 I2 I1 = 2 = t1 t2 .

7x10 cm .q mp n2 + q mn . Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly p-type. 2 ni 2 s = q mp p + q mn n .6x10-19)(1010) (500)(1500) = 2. Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields smin = 2 q ni mp mn . n = 10 500 9 -3 1500 = 6x10 cm . Putting in numerical values smin = (2)(1. np = ni . Combining yeilds s = q mp n + q mn n 2 mp mn ni ds mn and p = ni mp dn = 0 = . Solving for n yields n = ni p = 1010 1500 10 -3 10 500 = 1.8x10-6 mhos-cm .19-12.

20-1.3x1017 1. microns 1.3x1017 = 2500 = 5x1013 cm-3 . W(2500 V) = (10-5)(2500) = 250 Nd = BV BD .

-19 13 -3 2 5)(5x10-3) .20-2.(1. (20-9) applies.6x10 )(5x10 )(5x10 ) = 900 V BVBD = (2x10 (2)(11.9x10-14) . Drift region length of 50 microns is much less than the 250 microns found in the previous problem (20-1) for the same drift region doping density.7)(8. Hence this must be a punchthrough structure and Eq.

Vj = q ln Í I ˙ . (20-16) with I = forward bias current through the diode.6x10-19)2 (900)3 (1017)2 (2)2 (2x10-6) q2 mo nb A2 to . For one-sided step junction Is = N t Î s˚ d o (1. Von = Vj + Vdrift . 2 q A ni Lp kT È I˘ .20-3.6x10-19)(900)(2)(1017) 3 K2 = = 7.5x10-4 = 1.7x10-4 4 3 Wd (5x10-3)4 = 3 2 (1. Wd 5x10-3 K1 = q m A n = o b (1.6x10-19)(2)(1010)2 (13)(2x10-6) Evaluating Is yields = 1.6x10-9 A 13)(2x10-6) (5x10 Vd = K1 I + K2 (I)2/3 Eq.

68 0.033 0.2 1 0.001 0.8 0.65 0.Von in volts 1.2 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 Forward current in amperes • • • • • .59 0.53 0.67 Von 0V 0.4 0.53 0.96 1.6 1.74 Vdrift 0V 0.4 I 0A 1 10 100 1000 3000 Vj 0V 0.6 0.41 1.71 0.25 0.59 0.005 0.

0 < t < 4 microseconds Von(4 ms) = (5.5x107 t] Von(t) = {0.25 t2] .0.21 ohms . I(t) = 2.20-4.3x107 t Volts . t in microseconds .5x108 t . Rdrift = r A .6x10 Rdrift = (85)(2.3x107)(4x10-6) = 212 volts b) Von(t) = Rdrift (t) I(t) .5x10-3 r= -19)(1500)(5x1013) = 85 ohm-cm . 0 < t < 4 microseconds Von(t) = (0.21[1 . A = 2 (1. Rdrift (t) = 0. a) L 1 Von(t) = Rdrift I(t) >> Vj ≈ 1 V .5x108 t ) = 5.5x107 t]} { 2.2.5x10-3) = 0.21[1 .2. r = q m N n d -3 L 5x10 1 = 2.5x108 t } = 53[t .21)(2.

5 4 .5 3 3.250 200 Von in volts No carrier injection 150 100 50 With carrier injection 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.

5x108 trr = . IF 2000 toff = trr + t3 = trr + di /dt = trr + = trr + 8 ms R 2.6x10-5)(2x103) = 16 ms .5x108 2 t IF -12 2 = 4x10-12(2000)2 = 16 ms trr = diR/dt . toff = 8 ms + 16 ms = 24 ms 2.20-5. t = 4x10 (BVBD) (2)(1.

7x1014 cm-3 W d = 10-5 BVBD = (10-5) (150) = 15 microns . 1.20-6.3x1017 Nd = BV BD 1. Assume a non-punch-through structure for the Schottky diode.3x1017 = 150 = 8.

02 ohms . Rdrift = 0.20-7. 0.02 = = 0. Vdrift = (100 A) (Rdrift) = 2 V .42 cm2 (1.6x10-19)(1500)(1015)(2x10-2) 2x10-3 1 L q mn Nd A A = .

BVBD] Í 2˙ Í Î q Wd˚ -14 5)(2x10-3) . È 2e ˘ ˙ Use Eq.4x1014 cm-3 = [(2x10 d (1.9x10 ) = N = 3.300] (2)(11. Nd = [EBD Wd . (20-9) to solve for Nd .6x10-19)(2x10-3)2 .20-8.7)(8.

R A pt = = 1 W d(npt) x [ 1 1 .x] as x approaches is infinite for the plus root and 0. Nnpt = Nd of non-punch-throuth (npt) diode Npt = Nd of punch-through (pt) diode e EBD W d(npt) = q N .5 for the minus root. Hence the minus root is the correct choice to use.1 .x ] + ˚ 2 1-x x 2x d È 1 Í dx Î x2 8 8 Solving for x yields x = 9 i. (19-12).20-9. (20-10) 1 + Limit of x [ 1 _ 1 . and (19-13) npt e EBD W d(pt) = q N pt È Í + Í1 _ Î 2 q Npt BVBD˘ ˙ 1˙ 2 ˚ e EBD q Npt Nnpt 2 BVBD q Nnpt 2 BVBD Npt 2 q Npt BVBD = eE = eE 2 BD Nnpt EBD BD EBD Nnpt e EBD Npt Npt 1 = W (npt) Wd(npt) N =x= N d npt npt 1 .x] = 1 W d(npt) x [ 1 1 .x] Nnpt Nnpt q mn Npt q mn Npt W d(npt) 1 R 1 [1 . Wd(pt) = Wd(npt) x [ 1 _ 1 . Wd(pt) = 0.x ] q mn Nnpt x2 npt x2 ˘ -2 1 1 .75 Wd(npt) .x] + If Npt << Nnpt (x << 1) Wd(pt) ≈ 0. Npt = 9 Nnpt . (19-11).1 . Eq.x ˙ = 0 = 3 [1 .1 .e.x ] = A [1 . W d(npt) R A npt = q mn Nnpt W d(pt) R = qm N A pt n pt . Derived from Eqs.5 Wd(npt) . .

R R A npt = 0.84 A npt .

eA Cjo = W (0) .6x10-19)(900)(Apn)(1017) 3 K2 = 4 W d(150) = 2 m3 n2 A2 t q o b pn o 3 10-4 = A pn (1. Depletion-layer d width Wd(0) set by breakdown voltage. Apn = 0.7x1014) PN junction diode area: Vdrift = 2 volts = K1 IF + K2 (IF)2/3 . Solve by successive approximation .07) Schottky diode Cjo = 10-4 ≈ 11 nF = 0. Nd = = 8.67 (300)0. Vdrift = 2 volts = q m N A I n d Schottky F Drift region doping density Nd same for both diodes.9x10-14)(1.017 cm2 (11.333 . (20-16) W d(150) 1.7x1014 cm-3 1.7 ≈ 1 mm = (10-5)(150) = 15 mm .6x10-19)(1500)(8. 2 volts = A (300) + 2.7) 150 1 + 0.4x10-4 (Apn)-0.20-10.5x10-3)(300) ASchottky = = 1.6x10-19)2 (900)3 (1017)2 (Apn) (2x10-6) 10-4 K2 = 2. Wd(0) same for both diodes.5x10-3 K1 = q m A n = o pn b (1.67 pn 0.011 mF .5x10-3)4 2 (1. W d(150) = Wd(0) W d(0) = 15 (150)/(0.07 cm2 (2)(1.015 + 0.3x1017 150 (1. W d(150) Schottky diode area . Area A determined by on-state voltage and current.00154 (Apn) Apn ≈ 0.4x10-4 (Apn)-0.67 .7)(8. Eq.

017) ≈ 180 pF 10-4 .7)(8.9x10-14)(0.PN junction diode Cjo = (11.

5 0.2 0.20-11.4 0.9 0.8 0.3 0.1 1 r = R/(2W n ) 10 • • • • • • • • • . BVcyl BVp 1 1 = 2 r2 (1 + r ) ln (1 + r ) .7 0.2r BVcyl / BVp 1 0.6 0.1 0 0.

95 .20-12. BVcyl BVp 950 R = 1000 = 0. r ≈ 6 = 2 W n R ≈ 12 Wn . From graph in problem 20-11.

9 0. BVCEO = NPN BJT .21-1.1 0 1 • • •• * •• * * * ** * • * PNP • * NPN • • • •• • * * * ** * 10 100 . BVCBO BVCBO . PNP BJT .7 • * • * • BVCEO BVCBO 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.5 0. BVCEO = b 1/6 b 1/4 1J B 0.2 0.

. there is no emitter current and thus no emitter current crowding and second breakdown is much less likely to occur.21-2. When emitter-open switching is used. This accenuates the possibility of second breakdown. 21-8b. See Fig. The flow of large reverse base currents when emitter current is still flowing in the forward direction will lead to emitter current crowding towards the center of the emitter.

21-3. a) Idealized BJT current and voltage waveforms in step-down converter .

off t rv t fi 1 T 1 BJT power dissipation Pc = T Û vCE(t) iC(t) dt = {Eon + Esw }fs . fs = T ı 0 T 1 40 Eon = VCE.on} ≈ (2)(40) 2 f = f Joules s s Esw = Eri + Efv + Erv + Efi Eri = Vd Io tri 2 = (100)(40)(2x10-7) = 4x10-4 Joules 2 Vd Io tfv Efv = 2 Vd Io trv Erv = 2 Efi = Vd Io tfi 2 (100)(40)(1x10-7) = = 2x10-4 Joules 2 (100)(40)(1x10-7) = = 2x10-4 Joules 2 (100)(40)(2x10-7) = = 4x10-4 Joules 2 40 Esw = 1.2x10-3 fs s . Pc = [ f + 1.on Io {2 + td.off .td.on t ri t fv t d.2x10-3 Joules .2x10-3] fs = 40 + 1.T/2 i (t) C V (t) CE V I d o t d.

max = = 71 kHz 150 .P c 80 [watts] 40 0 33 kHz b) Tj = Rqja Pc + Ta .max (125 . Pc.40) fs.25 1 f s = 125 watts = 40 + 1.max = 1.2x10-3 fs.2x10-3 .

25]} with a = (125 .50 = Rqja {40 + 1. . Pc = {Eon + Esw }fs where Esw is proportional to the switching times.004(110-25)] (2.5x104)} Rqja = 0.21-4.2x10-3[1+0.75 °C/watt .25) = 4x10-3 110 . If the switching times vary with temperature then Esw can be written as 0.4 Esw(Tj) = Esw(25 °C){1 + a[Tj . This represents an upper limit. From problem 21-3.

i. q Dn Na A (1.6x10-19)(38)(1016)(1) IC = = = 200 A Wb (3x10-4) . Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to the doping density in the base.e.21-5. nbase(x) ≈ Na in an NPN BJT.

The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the maximum current that the transistor can carry. The diode has no such limitation.21-6. . The diode can carry the larger current. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter current crowding.

depl.21-7. Estimate of base-emitter base-side protusion = WEB. At reach-through xp will equal the difference between the base width WB and the baseside protusion of the base-emitter depletion layer width WEB.The reach-through voltage is approximately estimated as shown below. . This encroachment may stretch across the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion layer protrudes a significant amount into the base.depl at zero bias.

7)(8. c W(V) xp = protrusion of CB depletion layer into p-type base region.8x10-4 1 + 0.84)(1019 + 1015) = 0.9x10-14)(0.depl.26 ln Í 20˚ = 0.CB = q NaB NdC 2 ˙ Î ˚ ni È 1029˘ ˙ fcC = 0.54 : Solving for V yields V = 59 volts.54 V Î 10 (2)(11.EB = Estimate of collector-base base-side protusion of WCB.CB 2 e fcC (NaB + NdC) È NaB NdC˘ kT Í ˙ .7)(8. V 1 + f = xp + xn .6x10-19)(1019)(1015) W o. fcE = q ln Í q NaB NdE 2 ˙ Î ˚ ni È 1034˘ ˙ fcE = 0.6x10-19)(1014)(1015) = W o. Reach-through voltage of 59 V is much less than the expected value of BVBD = 1000 V.33)x10-4}(11) = 2.EB = 2 e fc (NaB + NdE) È NaB NdE˘ kT Í ˙ .CB = V {(3 .9x10-14)(0.26 ln Í 20˚ = 0.54)(1014 + 1015) = 2.0. CB depletion layer thickness W(V) = Wo. .W o. xp = 11 using xp Na xn Nd (charge neutrality).33 microns (1.8 microns (1. fcC = q ln Í W o.84 V Î 10 (2)(11.

21-8.3x1016 cm-3 aB 17 1/4 BV 1/4(1000) = ≈ 1500 Volts ≈ 1.3x1017 BVEBO = 10 V = N . NaB = acceptor doping density in base = 1.3x10 BVCBO = b NdC CEO = (5) NdC = collector drift region donor density = 8.7x1013 cn -3 . 1.

7x10-3 xp(BVCBO) = NaB 1.7x10-3) = 1 micron = Wbase . xp.Set base width Wbase by calculating the protrusion. of the CB depletion layer into the base at VCB = 1500 volts = BVCBO.7x1013 = xn(BVCBO) = xn(BVCBO) 6.3x1016 xp(BVCBO) << xn(BVCBO) so xn(BVCBO) ≈ WCB(BVCBO) ≈ 150 mm Hence xp(BVCBO) = (1. Wbase = xp(BVCBO) Approximate width of CB depletion layer at breakdown WCB(BVCBO) ≈ (10-5)(1500) = 150 mm xn(BVCBO) NdC 8.5x10-2 cm)(6.

2 21 .20 = 6. Beta = 150 = bD bM + b D + b M = 20 bM + 20 + b M bM = 150 .21-9.

18 V. Initially assume driver BJT saturated and main BJT active.M 10 I B. Hence main BJT must be saturated.02)(9.382 V VCE.D = 9. Must first ascertain the operating states of the two transistors.D = 0.6 V + + 0.21-10.1) = 0.8 V which is > 1.D + 0.M = IC.8 V = 1.1A IC.M = 91 A going through 0.M = 100 A IB.M = 91 A VCE.8 V E 10 IB.02 W 0.2 +(.18 v But a saturated main BJT with I C.02 ohms generates a voltage drop of 1.M = VCE.8 V I B. .M + 0. C B 0.Two likely choices including (1) driver BJT saturated and main BJT active and (2) driver BJT and main BJT both saturated.M + IB.

M -0.8 V E Neglecting IB.02)I C.M [IC.6 V + + 0.6 V + I C.D +0.2 + (70)(.6 V PDarl = VCE.8 V I B.M = 0.C B 0.02 W 0.D ] PDarl = (1.M 0.M + IC.2 IC.02 W 0.02) = 1.M + IC.D IC.M = 70 A VCE.6 = (.M + 0.D = 30 A . IC.6 V)(100 A) = 160 W .D = 100 A (.02) I C.

7)(8.4x10-5 2 e fcC (NaB + NdC) È NaB NdC˘ kT Í ˙ W CBO = .7)(8. fcC = q ln Í q NaB NdC 2 ˙ Î ˚ ni È (1. fcC = 0.34 microns (1.89)(1019 + 1016) = 0.21-11.89 V .6x10-19)(1019)(1016) (11. e AC CCBO = W CBO W EBO = zero-bias emitter-base depletion layer thickness W CBO = zero-bias collector-base depletion layer thickness 2 e fcE (NaB + NdE) È NaB NdE˘ kT Í ˙ .9x10-14)(0.3) = 9.9x10-14)(0.2 nF CEBO = 3.7x1013)˘ ˙ = 0.6 V . e AE CEBO = W EBO . fcE = 0. fcE = q ln Í q NaB NdE 2 ˙ Î ˚ ni È (1019)(1016)˘ ˙ = 0.3x1016)(8.026 ln Í 20 Î ˚ 10 W EBO = W EBO = (2)(11.026 ln Í Î ˚ 1020 .

7)(8.3x1016 + 8.1 microns (1.9x10-14)(3) = 14.W CBO = (2)(11.6)(1.7)(8.3x1016)(8.7x1013) (11.8 nF CCBO = 2.1x10-4 .9x10-14)(0.6x10-19)(1.7x1013) = 2.

16 exp Í t˙ Î ˚ The voltage VBE changes from -8 V to 0.on = t ln Í 7. Need to find an average value for each of the two capacitors. . V C CB + 8V in 10 W C V in + - BE - VBE -8 V t .2 nF È -t ˘ VBE(t) = 8 .3˙ Î ˚ The space-charge capacitances are nonlinear functions of the voltages across them.21-12.on interval. td. Hence CCB will be given by CCB = CCBO VCB 1+ f cC 1. During the td. We must find the average value of CBE. calculation.on VBE(td. t = (10 W)(CBE + CCB) È 16 ˘ At t = td.on) = 0.on.6 = 1.7 volts during the same interval.5x10-8 = 100 1 + 0. td. the voltage VCB changes from 108 V to 100 volts and thus will be considered a constant.7 V . Equivalent circuit for turn-on delay time.

89) [ 8 8 1 + 0.2x10-9] ln Í 7.on = (10) [2.78) ≈ 27 nanoseconds Î ˚ .2x10-9)(0.89 .2x10-9 + 1.2 nF È 16 ˘ td.Û Ù Ù ı CBE = 8 0 CEBO VEB 1+ f cE 0 ÛdV ı EB 8 dVEB CEBO fcE È Í (-8) Î 0 1+f cE 8 ˘ 1+f ˙ cE˚ = CBE = (9.3˙ = (3.1] = 2.4x10-8)(0.

. Cox is the capacitance of the oxide layer and is a constant independent of vGS. 22-6. Cdepl(vGS) is the capacitance of the depletion layer which increases in thickness as VGS increases as is shown in Fig. However once vGS becomes equal to or greater than VGS(th). Any increase in the depletion layer thickness reduces the value of Cdepl(vGS) and hence the atotal gatesource capacitance Cgs. Thus both components of Cgs are constant for vGS > VGS(th). 22-6c shields the depletion layer from further increases in vGS (any additional increase in vGS is dropped across the oxide layer). the depletion layer thickness becomes constant because the formation of the inversion layer jillustrated in Fig. The capacitance of the gate-source terminals can be modeled as two capacitors connected electrically in series.22-1.

we need the numerical values of the various waveform parameters. The voltage and current amplitude parameters are given in the problem statement as: Vd = 300 V. . VGS. To complete the dimensioning. VGS(th) = 4 V. To dimensions the waveforms. Io = 10 A.Io = 7 V. we must calculate the various switching times.22-2. a) Idealized MOSFET waveforms shown below.

vGS = VGS(th). dvGS vGS VGG Governing equation is dt + R (C + C ) = R (C + C ) .off t rv t fi V GS. t = RG(Cgs + Cgd) . 22-12a. Solving for td.on estimate .2 VGG e-t/t .T/2 i (t) C V (t) CE V I d o t d.on V GG t ri t fv V (t) GS t d.VGG Solution is vGS(t) = VGG . G gs gd G gs gd Boundary condition vGS(0) = .Use equivalent circuit of Fig.on yields . At t = td.on .Io V GS(th) 0 -V GG td.

È 2 VGG ˘ ˙ td,on = RG(Cgs + Cgd) ln Í V Î GG - VGS(th)˚ È (2)(15) ˘ td,on = (50) (1.15x10-9) ln Í (15 - 4)˙ = 58 ns Î ˚ tri estimate - Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12b. vGS(t) still given by governing equation given above in td,on estimate. Changing time origin to when vGS = VGS(th) yields; vGS(t) = VGG + [VGG - VGS(th)] e-t/t . The drain current is given by d(Vd - vGS) 10 iD(t) = Cgd + gm[vGS(t) - VGs(th)] ; gm = 7 - 4 = 3.3 mhos dt At t = tri, iD = Io. Substituting vGS(t) into iD(t) and solving for tri yields Cgd È (V - V ˘ GG GS(th)){gm + RG(Cgs + Cgd)}˙ Í tri = RG(Cgs + Cgd) ln Î ˚ gm(VGG - VGS(th)) - Io È -10 ˘ Í (15 - 4)(3.3 + 1.5x10 )˙ Í (50)(1.15x10-9) ˙ ˚ = 21 ns tri = (50)(1.15x10-9) ln Î (3.3)(15 - 4) - 10 tfv estimate - Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12c. Io vGS approximately constant at VGS,Io = g + VGS(th) during this interval. m Io ˘ ÈV -V Í GG GS(th) - gm˙ Î ˚ RG

Governing equation is Cgd Solution is given by

dvDS =dt

with vDS(0) = Vd.

È Io ˘ t vDS(t) = Vd - Í VGG - VGS(th) - g ˙ R C ; At t = tfv, vDS = 0. Î m˚ G gd Solving for tfv yields

tfv =

300 -10 Io = (50)(1.5x10 ) (15 - 4 - 3) VGG - VGS(th) - g m

RG Cgd Vd

= 300 ns

td,off estimate - use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12d with the input voltagge VGG reversed. vGS(t) = - VGG + 2 VGG e-t/t ; At t = td,off, vGS = VGS,Io. Solving for td,off td,off = RG(Cgs + Cgd) ln 2 VGG È ˘ Io ˙ Í Î VGG + VGS(th) + gm˚

È (2)(15) ˘ ˙ = 18 ns = (50)(1.15x10-9) ln Í 10 Í ˙ Î 3.3 + 4 + 15˚

trv estimate - Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12c with the input voltage VGG reversed. vGS approximately constant at VGS,Io as in previous of tfv. Governing equation is VGG + VGS,Io d{vDS - VGS,Io} = with vDS(0) = 0. Solution given by Cgd RG dt VGG + VGS,Io t . At t = trv , vDS = Vd . Solving for trv yields vDS(t) = RG Cgd Vd RG Cgd (300)(50)(1.5x10-10) = = 100 ns trv = V (15 + 7) GG + VGS,Io tfi estimate - use equivalent circuit of Fig. 22-12b with the input voltage VGG reversed. Governing equation the same as in previous calculation of tri. At t = 0, vGS(0) = VGS,Io. Solution in this caae is given by vGS(t) = - VGG + [VGS,Io + VGG] e-t/t ; At t = tfi, vGS = VGS(th). Solving for tfi È VGG + VGS,Io ˘ È ˘ ˙ = (50)(1.15x10-9)ln Í 15 + 7˙ = 9 ns tfi = RG(Cgs + Cgd) ln Í V + V Î 15 + 4˚ Î GG GS(th)˚ b) Estimate the power dissipated in the MOSFET in the same manner as was done for the BJT in problem 21-3.Waveforms for the MOSFET are the same as for the BJT except for appropriate re-labeling of the currents and voltages.

Eri = (0.5)(300)(10)(2.1x10-8) = 3x10-5 Joules Efv = (0.5)(300)(10)(3x10-7) = 4.5x10-4 Joules Eon = Io VDS,on [0.5 T - td,on + td,off] ; VDS,on = Io rDS,on = (10)(0.5) = 5 V T >> td,on and td,off Eon = (10)(300)(0.5)(5x10-5) = 1.25x10-3 Joules Erv = (0.5)(300)(10)(10-7) = 1.5x10-4 Joules Efi = (0.5)(300)(10)(9x10-9) = 1.5x10-5 Joules Pc = (1.95x10-3)(2x104) = 39 watts

22-3.

Use test conditons to estimate Cgd. Then estimate the switching times in the circuit with the 150 ohm load. Test circuit waveforms are shown below.

V V (t) G

GG t

VGS,Io V GS(th) V (t) GS t d,on t ri = t fv

V

GG t d,off t f i = tr v t

V (t) DS

i (t) D Io V d

t Equivalent circuit during voltage and current rise and fall intervals: RG + C gd R

D

V (t) G

C gs

V d

g (V - V ) GS(th) m GS Governing equation using Miller capacitance approximation:

vGS VG(t) dvGS + t = t ; t = RG [Cgs + Cgd{1 + gmRD}] ; dt During tri = tfv interval, VG(t) = VGG. Solution is Vd -t/t ; At t = t , V vGS(t) = VGG + {VGS(th) - VGG} e ri GS = VGS(th) + gmRD ; Solving for tri = tfv yields tri = tfv = t ln VGG - VGS(th) È ˘ Vd ˙ Í Î VGG - VGS(th) - gm RD˚

During trv = tfi, vG(t) = 0 and solution is vGS(t) = VGS,Io e-t/t . At t = trv, vGS(t) = VGS(th). Solving for trv yields Vd ˘ ÈV + g R Í GS(th) m D˙ Î ˚. VGS(th)

trv = t ln

Invert equation for tri to find Cgd. Result is 1 ¸Ï ¸ - RG CgsÔ ÌR (1 + g R )˝ Ó G m D˛

Cgd =

tri Ï Ô È VGG - VGS(th) ˘ Ì ln Í Vd ˙ Ô ÎV -V Ó GG GS(th) - gm RD˚

˝ Ô ˛

Ï ¸ ¸ 1 Ô 3x10-8 -9Ô Ï Cgd = Ì È - 5x10 ˝ Ì5(1 + 25)˝ = 2.3x10-9 F = 2.3 nF 15 - 4 ˘ Ó ˛ ˙ Ô ln Í Ô Ó Î 15 - 4 - 1˚ ˛ Solving for switching times in circuit with RD = 150 ohms. t = [10-9 + 2.3x10-9 {1 + 150}][100] = 35 ms È 15 - 4 ˘ È 4 + 2˘ ˙ tri = 3.5x10-5 ln Í 15 - 4 - 2˙ = 7 ms ; trv = 3.5x10-5 ln Í 4 ˚ Î ˚ Î = 14 ms

22-4.

Waveforms for vDS(t) and iD(t) shown in previous problem. Power dissipation in MOSFET given by 1 T <PMOSFET> = [Eon + Esw] fs ; fs = T ; Eon = [ID]2 rDS,on(Tj) 2 ;

Vd È Tj - 25˘ È Tj ˘ 300 Í ˙ Í ˙ ID = R = 150 = 2 A ; rDS,on(Tj) = 2 Î 1 + 150 ˚ = 2 Î 0.833 + 150˚ D È Tj ˘ 1 1 Í ˙ Eon = (4)(2) Î 0.833 + 150˚ 2f = {3.32 + 0.027 Tj} f s s tri 1 Û t t Esw = T ÙVd ID(1 - t )(t )dt + ı ri ri 0 Esw = tfi V I 1 Û ÙV I (1 - t )( t )dt = d D [t + t ] T ı d D 6 tfi tfi ri fi 0

(300)(2) [7x10-6 + 14x10-6] = 2.1x10-3 joules 6

1 <PMOSFET> = {3.32 + 0.027 Tj} f fs + 2.1x10-3 fs s <PMOSFET> = {3.32 + 0.027 Tj} +[ 2.1x10-3][104] = 24.3 + 0.027 Tj PMOSFET 30 25 20 Watts 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [ °K] B B B B B

22-5.

Von = on-state voltage of three MOSFETs in parallel = Io reff

r1 r2 r3 reff = r r + r r + r r . Pi = 2 r = 2 r .09)2 P1 = (2)(2.8 100 ˚ .1 W .09)2 (5)2(1.28)(3. r1 etc.5 W .95) = 5 W .95 W . r2(105 °C) = 3.61)(2.61 W (2. Assume a 50% duty cycle and ignore i i switching losses. (5)2(1. r1(105 °C) = (1.61) + (3.64) r1(25 °C) etc. = on-state resistance of MOSFET #1 etc.25˘ Í ˙ r1(Tj) = r1(25 °C) Î 1 + 0.95)] = 1.28) = 4.09)2 (5)2(1.61) reff(105 °C) = [(2.09 ohms Von2 Io2 reff2 For the ith MOSFET. r1(105 °C) = 2.28) + (3.28)(3. P3 = (2)(3.95)(3. 1 2 2 3 3 1 È Tj . r3(105 °C) = 3. P2 = (2)(3.61) = 4.28 W .95)(3.

In order to obtain these advantages. . The waveforms shown below indicate the relative timing. The switch blocks Vd volts in the off-state and conducts Io amps in the on-state. Hybrid switch would combine the low on-state losses of the BJT and the faster switching of the MOSFET. The MOSFET would be turned on before the BJT and turned off after the BJT.22-6.

on V CE.r)I o C v GS v BE . r < 1 iD Io i (1 .VDS.on v =v CE DS r I o.

22-7.3x1017 BVDSS ≈ N = 750 volts . Î i ˚ W s. This must be included in the estimate of the required length of the body region.body ≈ . there is a depletion layer associated with it which is contained entirely on the body side of the junction.3 microns Nbody 5x1016 Even though body-source junction is shorted. fc = q ln Í n 2 ˙ .7x1014) ≈ = ≈ 0. 1.body . 2 e fc k T È Na Nd˘ Í ˙ q Na.body = protrusion of drain depletion layer into body region W drift Ndrift (75)(1. W drift ≈ (10 W d. Ndrift = 1.7x1014 cm-3 drift -5)(750) = 75 microns .

6x10-19)(5x1016) In order to avoid reach-through .9x10-14)(0.body + Ws.body ≈ (2)(11.16 microns (1.7)(8.3 + 0.È (1019)(5x1016)˘ ˙ = 0.body = 0.16 = 0. Wbody > Wd.94) ≈ 0.94 fc = 0.026 ln Í 20) Î ˚ (10 W s.46 microns .

vDS ≈ vGD>> vGS dt dvDS BJT will turn on if Rbody Cgd dt = 0. .7 V dvDS 0.7 dt > Rbody Cgd will turn on the BJT. Displacement current = Cgd dvDS dvGD ≈ Cgd dt .22-8.

VGS.67) (5x106) (5x10-6) = 16.22-9.67) EBD tox = (0.max = (0.7 volts .

04x10-7)(2x10-3)(15 .7)(8.VGS(th)) 2L e (11. a) iD = mn Cox N Wcell (vGS .800 cells N = (1500)(1.VGS(th)) (2)(100)(10-4) ≈ 5.9x10-14) Cox = t = = 1.4) 100 b) Icell = 5800 = 17 milliamps .22-10.04x10-7 F/cm2 10-5 ox 2 iD L N=m C W n ox cell (vGS .

22-11. Von = 4 volts = Ion Ron = (10 A) Ron . Ron = 0.4 ohms W drift Ron = q m N A n d : Wdrift = 10-5 BVDSS = (10-5)(800) = 80 microns .

6x10-19)(1500)(1.6x1014 cm-3 8x10-3 ≈ 0.1. 0.6x1014)(0.3x1017 800 ≈ 1.5 cm2 (1.4) 10 A A A = 20 2 << the allowable maximum of 200 .5 cm2 cm cm2 . so estimate is alright.3x1017 Nd = BV DSS A= = 1.

22-12.04x10-7)(5. Cgs ≈ Cox N Wcell L = (1.8x103)(2x10-3)(10-4) = 121 pF .

Pdissipated = [Eon + Esw] fs 1 Rq.22-13. overvoltage across drain-source terminals because of stray inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first. Pallowed = Tj.j-a Io2 rDS(on) (100)2(0.50 = = 100 watts .5x10-3)(3x104) = 75 watts Pdissipated = 50 + 75 = 125 watts > Pallowed = 100 watts MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.01) = = 50 watts Eonfs = 2 2 Esw = Vd Io (100)(100) [(2)(5x10-8) + (2)(2x10-7)] 2 [tri + tfi + trv +tfv] = 2 Esw = 2. Eswfs = (2.5x10-3 joules . . È 100 ˘ di ˙ VDS(turn-off) = Vd + L dt = 100 + (10-7) Í Î 5x10-8˚ = 300 V > BVDSS = 150 V Check for excessive power dissipation.Ta 150 . Two overstress possibilities.max .

However during the current rise and fall times the voltages VGS and VGD change by only a few tens of volts. Thus we have: .22-14. Gate current which charges/discharges Cgs and Cgd during turn-on and turn-off is approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the voltage rise and fall times VGD changes by approximately Vd which is much larger than a few tens of volts.

VGG Current rise/fall times proportional to [Cgs + Cgd] I G Vd Voltage rise/fall times proportional to Cgd I G Cgs roughly the same size as Cgd and Vd >> VGG Hence voltage switching times much greater than current switching times. .

a + <PSCR> = 2 ] Î L˚ 2 pRL . vs(t) .23-1. a < wt < p vs(t) = 2 Vs sin(wt) . iL(t) = R L p 1 Û <PSCR> = 2p ı[(1)iL(wt) + {iL(wt)}2Ron] d(wt) a Vs sin(2a) 1 È Vs ˘ 2 {1 + cos(a)} + π Í R ˙ Ron [π .

max 120 °F = 49 °C .1 Check <PSCR> at a = 0 1 È 220˘ 2 sin(0) 220 [1 + cos(0)] + π Í 1 ˙ (2x10-3)[π .14 . <PSCR>|max = Rqja <PSCR>|max = 125 .0 + 2 ] = 107 watts <PSCR> = Î ˚ 2π (1) <PSCR> = 107 watts less than the allowable 760 watts.49 = 760 Watts 0.23-2. Tj. Tj. π 1 Û Average load power <PL> = 2π ı{iL(wt)}2RL d(wt) .max .2 kW .max = 125 °C .28 2 a For a = 0 <PL> = 24. Hence trigger angle of zero where maximum load power is delivered is permissible.a + <PL> = 2π ] 6. iL(wt) = 2 (220) sin(wt) a π 2 sin(2a) 1 Û ı{ 2 (220)}2sin2(wt) d(wt) = (220) [3.Ta.

t dI PSCR(t) = vAK(t) iA(t) = VAK {1 . PSCR(t) = instantaneous power dissipated in the SCR during turn-on. A(t) = conducting area of SCR A(t) .t } dt t during tf f P(t) = power density = PSCR(t) = watts per cm2 .23-3.

the expression for dTj becomes (103)( 9.5x10 (2)(0.75 Joule/(°C-cm3).π ro2 = π [2 ro us t + (us t)2] Û V {1 . Using integral tables Î ˚ 0 tf bt Û È a + bt ˘ ÙÍ ˙ dt = f + [ab' .tt } dI t tf f dt 1 Ù AK 1 Û ıP(t) dt = C dt dTj = C v ıπ [2 ro us t + (us t)2] v 0 0 1 VAK dI dTj = C 2πr u dt o s v tf Û È 1 . and b' = 2r f o 0 tf Û Ù È a + bt ˘ Integral becomes ı Í a' + b't˙ dt . ı Î a' + b't˚ b' f [b']2 0 1 b= 2x10-5 4 4 sec-1 .A(t) = π [ro + us t]2 . b = t .4x10-6) dI dI dTj = 4)(0.5) dt = 125 .75)(10 dI 100 dt = 1.7x10-7 = 590 A/ms . b' = 10 = .tt ˘ ÙÍ f ˙ ust ˙ dt ÙÍ ı Î 1 + 2ro˚ tf us -1 .4x10-6 sec ı Î a' + b't˚ Î 104 108 ˚ 0 With Cv = 1. Let a = a' = 1.5) = 104 sec-1 Evaluating the integral yields tf È 4˘ Û È a + bt ˘ ÙÍ ˙ dt = -1 + Í 10-4 + 5x10 ˙ ln[1 + (104)(2x10-5)] = 9.ab] ln[a' + b' t ] . Solving for dt yields (2π)(1.25 = 100 °C .

Since J3 already has a low breakdown voltage. Disadvantages .Junction J1 is now a P+ .region length Wd means shorter carrier lifetimes can be accomodated and thus faster switching times.23-4. the modified thyristor has no significant reverse blocking capability.Shorter N. Advantages .N+ junction with a low breakdown voltage. .

ton = (4 .23-5.5 = 350 microseconds 104 .5) cm us = 3.0.

Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. The current density is uniform across the entire cross-sectional area of the thyristor and there is much less likelyhood of second breakdown.23-6. no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct. At large currents. . In the thyristor.

the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual avalanche breakdown voltage.6x10 . Thus an estimate of the n1 thickness and doping level based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt. However in a well-designed thyristor.4x10-23)(300)(900) n p Used (mn + m p) = 900 cm2/V-sec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier densities (approaching 1017 cm-3) c) Von = I Rdrift .23-7. (1. Nd = 1.6x10 n p b Solving for A gives A = 0.02 2 -19)(900)(1017)(10-3) = 1.4 cm (1.5x10 cm . Wd ≈ (10 )(2x10 ) = 200 microns 2x10 qWd2 (1. Ignore I2/3 contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear term.02 Rdrift ≈ q (m + m ) n A .3x1017 13 -3 -5 3 3 = 6. Wd 2 0.6x10-19)(2x10-2)2 b) t = kT(m + m ) = = 17 microseconds (1. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. 2000 = 10-3 = -19)(900)(1017) A .

2000 Resulting current density is 1.4 = 1430 A/cm2 which is excessively large. a more realistic value. . Probably should use nb ≈ 1016 cm-3 which would give a current density of 140 A/cm2.

7 cm . Rsi = 23 π = 2.65 Asi . Asi = 0. 15 3000 Cathode area = 200 = 15 cm2 = 0.23-8.65 = 23 cm2 23 cm2 = π Rsi2 .

fj2 = q ln[ 2 ] ni (1014)(1017) fj2 = 0.9x10-4 dvAK 0.66 V .9x10-14)(0. dvAK IBO ≈ C (0) . Cj2(0) = zero bias value of junction J2 space charge capacitance dt max j2 | eA Cj2(0) ≈ W depl(0) .4x10 V/sec or 1.23-9.6x10-8 = 1.7)(8.4 V per microsecond | .66) = 2.9 microns (1. (1020) W depl(0) ≈ (2)(11.7)(8.026 ln[ ] = 0.6x10-19)(1014) Cj2(0) = (11.9x10-14)(10) = 36 nF 2. Wdepl(0) ≈ 2 e fj2 q Nd NaNd kT .05 6 dt max = 3.

24-1.max < R GK r p2 W R RGK = 2 N = 4 N L t . flowing through the P2 layher beneath the N2 cathode layer develops a lateral voltage drop vGK as indicated. BVJ3 IG. -iG.max b off : Solving for IA. Cathode -i N 2 R + vGK t G R P 2 v GK + Center Line The negative gate current. Maximum negative vGK = BVJ3 BVJ3 |vGK| = |IG.max = IA.max yields = 4 N L t boff BVJ3 r p2 W .max| RGK < BVJ3 in order to avoid breakdown or IG. Gate Cross-sectional view of GTO gate-cathode area with reverse gate current flowing. N = number of cathode islands in parallel.max = R GK IA.

Assume that the current is communtated from the GTO to the turn-off snubber and associated stray inductance linearly as a function of time.24-2. That is the inductor current .

max = 1. Assume that just prior to the end of the current fall time interval. Solving for Ls yields fi Vd tfi Ls = 2 I o . the fi voltage across the snubber capacitor has built up to approximately Vd. diLs Io vAK.t iLs = Io t .5 Vd = Ls dt + vcap = Ls t + Vd .

P i (t) G L G V GG+ N P N J3 forward biased during t gq .VGG. At t = tgq want iG = .tgq Io = (5)(15)(5x10-6) (500) = 0. .24-3..75 microhenries Equivalent circuit during tw2 interval. iG(t) = L t . Equivalent circuit during tgq shown below. Solve for LG off G LG = b off VGG.VGGIo diG LG dt = .b .

5x10-7) = = 7. iG(0) = .b .i (t) G L G + BV J3 V GG+ Io Io BVJ3 .V off J3 GG-] (500)(7.. iG(t) = .5 microseconds (5)(25 .15) .VGG.VGGdiG LG dt = BVJ3 .b + t LG off off At t = tw2 . solving for tw2 yields Io LG tw2 = b [BV . iG = 0 .

mn = 3 mp . dn = excess carrier density A n p dn = dp so p-channel IGBTs have the same Ron as n-channel IGBTs .25-1. Hence A majority Ron(n-channel) Ron(p-channel) = 3 A A Ron(IGBT) 1 proportional to dn(m + m ) . Ron(MOS) 1 proprotional to m .

. b. MOSFET section of the device carries most of the current. Short lifetime IGBT a. Shorter lifetime means less stored charge in the BJT section and thus faster turn-off. Thus IBJT(long) > IBJT(short). Longer lifetime leads to longer BJT turn-off times.25-2. Turn-off waveforms of short versus long lifetime IGBTs i D long lifetime I I (long) BJT (short) BJT short lifetime t Long lifetime IGBT a. BJT beta smaller. b. BJT portion of the device has a larger beta and thus the BJT section carries the largest fraction of the IGBT current.

Collector junction of pnp BJT section of IGBT Body region of MOSFET section of IGBT Base of pnp BJT Emitter of pnp BJT P NV V DS1 >V P + Drain of IGBT DS2 DS1 Effective base width Significant encroachment intoa the base of the PNP BJT section by the depletion layer of the blocking junction. Depletion layer .25-3. This is base width modulation and it results in a lower output resistance ro (steeper slope in the active region of the iD-vDS characteristics). The effective base width is thus lowered and the beta increases as vDS increases.

layer but the advance is halted at moderate vDS values by the N+ buffer layer. .Collector junction of pnp BJT section of IGBT Body region of MOSFET section of IGBT Base of pnp BJT Emitter of pnp BJT P NV DS N + P + Drain of IGBT Depletion layer Effective base width independent of V DS Depletion encroaches into the N. The PNP base width becomes constant and so the effective resistance ro remains large.

BVRB ≈ 1.N.3x1017 < 1 volt.junction. 1019 Forward breakdown .25-4. No reverse blocking capability. One dimensional model of n-channel IGBT 25 m m Source N + P 17 10 N 14 10 N+ 19 10 P + Drain 19 10 19 10 Reverse blocking junction is the P+ .N+ junction because of body-source short. .limited by P .

(1.7)(8.3x1017 BVFB = ≈ 1300 volts . Hence forward blocking limited by punch-through.1.6x10-19)(1014)(2.5x10-3) (2)(11.5x10-3)2 = 453 volts BVFB = (2x105)(2. But Wdepl(1300 V) = (10-5)(1300) = 130 microns 14 10 130 microns > 25 micron drift region length.9x10-14) .

3x1017 = 1.IGBT ≈ 3 . Wd = 75 mm Nd = 1.IGBT .MOS = = 0.09 = 33 amps .IGBT.IGBT Assume Vj ≈ 0.6x10-3 MOSFET current .Ion.IGBT = (1.MOS . Ron.2 Ion.Ion.IGBT ≈ q (m + m ) n A n p b 7.MOS .8 Ron. Exact value not critical to an approximate estimate of Ion.0.7x1014)(2) 3 Ion. R W d = (10 on. Von(MOS) = Ion.7x1014 cm-3 750 7.8 V .MOS = Von(MOS) Ron.IGBT Ron.6x10-19)(1.5x10-3 Ron.5x103)(1.MOS = 0.5x10-3 -3 -5)(750) = 75 mm . Ion.09 ohms (1.6x10-19)(900)(1016)(2) = 2.MOS Ion. Von(IGBT) = Vj + Ion.25-5.MOS = Wd q mn Nd A .6x10 W 2. Ron.MOS Ron.IGBT Wd . IGBT current .IGBT ≈ ≈ 850 amps 2.

NPT Ron.NPT Ron.NPT Ion.NPT Ron.PT + Ion.PT since Vj.PT = Vj.PT Ron.NPT + Ion.25-6.PT ≈ .NPT ≈ Vj. Von(PT) = Vj.PT Ion.

Ion.NPT = W ≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than Ron.NPT W d.PT the doping level in the NPT drift region.PT d.NPT ≈ 2 .PT Hence I on.Ron.

P Cv dT = dQ . V ≈ A Wdrift q (mn + m p) nb A2 Cv dT dt W drift Ron = q (m + m ) n A .25-7. Iov = n p b Iov = (1.5x103 amps -5) (10 Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions. . Iov = V Cv dT dt Ron .6x10-19)(900)(1016)(0. However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10 microseconds or less and survived. P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.Duration of transient = dt.5)2(1.75)(100) ≈ 2. V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated. dQ = V dt . P = Iov2 Ron .

The IGBT has a smaller area even though its current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific on-state resistance. The IGBT has the smaller values of Cgd and Cgs because its effective cross-sectional area is smaller than that of the MOSFET.25-8. .

25-9. trv < 0. 3x10-7 dvDS Device is overstressed by an overly large dt . dt rv Vd dvDS > t dt off = 700 = 2330 V/ms > 800 V/ms limit. .75 microseconds Check dt at turn-off . dvDS Vd dvDS = t .

25 Allowable power loss = = = 250 watts Rqja 0.5 Switching losses exceed allowable losses. Module is overstressed by too much power dissipation. .max .5x10-7) (2.Ta 150 .5x104) = 875 W Psw = (700)(100) 2 Tj.tri + trv + tfi + tfv Check switching losses Psw = Vd Io fs 2 (3x10-7 + 7.

Equivalent circuit for JFET in active region.26-1. + v GS C GS C GD + - ro mv GS + v DS - Equivelent circuit for JFET in the blocking state. i + v GS D Linearized I-V characteristics 0 C GD C GS + v DS -V GS1 -V GS2 0 V DS1 V DS2 .

Drive circuit configuration V DD MOSFET off V R VDS = VKG = .VGK = RDD R 2 1+ 2 Negative enough to insure that the FCT is off.VGK = 0 and FCT is on. MOSFET on R1 R 2 + V drive - RL VDS = VKG = .26-2. .

MOSFET characteirstics: .Low Ron .High current sinking capability . Low BVDss .

BVBD = .26-3. Wd2 EBD Wd Vdrift = (m + m ) t . Vdrift.125 .Si 2 n p Wd2(Si) (mn + mp)|Si tSi = Wd2(GaAs) (mn + mp)|GaAs tGaAs (mn + mp)|Si È EBD(Si) ˘ 2 tGaA Í ˙ tSi = (mn + mp)|GaAs ÎE (GaAs)˚ BD (mn + mp)|Si = 2000 cm2/V-sec .GaAs = Vdrift. GaAs has the shorter lifetime. (m n + mp)|GaAs = 9000 cm2/V-sec EBD(Si) = 300 kV/cm tGaA tSi . Î ˚ . EBD(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm 2 È3˘ 2 = 9 Í4˙ = 0.

BVBD = EBD tox 103 = 10-4 cm = 1 micron tox = 107 .26-4. EBD = 107 V/cm .

26-5.max = (105)(1.5x10-2) = 1500 amperes . IA.

P-MCT fabricated in silicon can turn-off three times more current than an identical N-MCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the n-channel OFF-FET in the P-MCT and p-channel OFF-FET in the N-MCT.26-6. Hence IA.5x10-2) = 4500 amperes .max = (3)(105)(1.

.26-7. Assume an n-type drift region since m n > mp.

sp = E BD q e e EBD2 4 (BVBD)2 = e mn (EBD)3 .sp yields 2 BVBD 1 2 q BVBD Rdrift. Rdrift.sp = Rdrift A = q m N n d e EBD2 2 BVBD EBD Using Eq. Using Eq. (20-3) Wd = Substituting into the expression for Rdrift.Wd Rdrift = q m N A n d Wd . (20-1) Nd = 2 q BV BD .

0016 ohms-cm (12.5)(2200)(8.9x10 GaAs: Rdrift.7)(1500)(8.9x10-14)(2x106)3 6H-SiC: Rdrift.3x10-4 ohms-cm2 (10)(600)(8.3x10-7 ohms-cm2 (5.8)(8500)(8.sp = = 9.26-8. (4)(500)2 2 Silicon : Rdrift.9x10 (4)(500)2 = 2.sp = -14)(3x105)3 = 0.sp = (4)(500)2 Diamond: Rdrift.024 ohms-cm (11.9x10-14)(107)3 .sp = (4)(500)2 2 -14)(4x105)3 = 0.

. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C). It has the largest bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any given temperature. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation.26-9.

(20-1): Nd = 2 q BV BD 5.6x10-19)(BVBD) BD e EBD2 .7x1017 (12.6x10-19)(BVBD) (10)(8.26-10. Eq.9x10-14)(4x105)2 = BV For GaAs: Nd = BD (2)(1.9x10-14)(2x106)2 1.8)(8.1x1019 For 6H-SiC: Nd = = BV (2)(1.

For diamond: Nd = (5.5)(8.6x10-19)(BVBD) BD Eq.9x10-14)(107)2 1.5x1020 = BV (2)(1. (20-3): Wd = 2 BVBD EBD 2 BVBD = 5x10-6 BVBD [cm] 4x105 [cm] For GaAs: Wd = 2 BVBD = 10-6 BVBD For 6H-SiC: Wd = 2x106 2 BVBD = 2x10-7 BVBD For diamond: Wd = 7 10 [cm] .

9x1015 cm-3 5.5x1017 cm-3 Wd 10-2 cm 2x10-3 cm 4x10-5 cm . Material GaAs 6H-SiC Diamond Nd 2. Use equations from problem 26-10.5x1016 cm-3 7.26-11.

Tj = Rqjc Pdiode + Tcase : Rqjc = C.5)(200) + 50 = 350 °C : Tj(SiC) = (0.75 cm-1 200 0.15)(200) + 50 = 80 °C .5) = 0.75 Rqjc(diamond) = 20 = 0.Tcase) k Pdiode = (150 .• (k) -1 k = thermal conductivity and C = constant Using silicon diode data: C = (Tj .5 = 1.5 °C/W : R qjc(SiC) = 5 = 0.75 0.038°C/W Tj(GaAs) = (1.50)( 1.26-12.75 Rqjc(GaAs) = 0.15°C/W 0.

Tj(diamond) = (0.038)(200) + 50 = 57.4 °C .

The other half of the channel is depleted by the depletion region from the gate-channel junction on the other side of the channel.8 = 3 V Î ˚ .26-13.0.fc Î o˚ 2 e fc q Nd .8 V fc = 0.9x10-14)(0.026 ln Í Î ˚ 1010 (2)(11. W 2 = Wo Vp 1+ f c ÈNa Nd˘ kT Í ˙ fc = q ln Í 2 ˙ Î ni ˚ È W ˘ 2 fc Í2 W ˙ . Pinch-off of the channel occurs when the depletion region of the gate-channel (P+N-) junction is equal to W/2 where W is the width of the channel. .3 microns È 10 ˘ 2 Vp = (0.3)˙ .8) Í(2)(2. Wo = Solving for Vp yields Vp = È(1019)(2x1014)˘ ˙ = 0. 26-1 and 26-3.8 = 3.7)(8. See Figs.8 .6x10-19)(2x1014) Wo = = 2.8) (1. Occurs at a gate-source voltage of -Vp.0.

26-1 for a fuller picture of the multi-cell nature of the JFET. See Fig. Single cell of the multi-cell JFET shown below. Each cell is d centimeters deep in the direction perpendicular to the plane (page) of the diagram. The gate-source voltage is set at zero. The diagram on the left indicates the various contributions to the on-state resistance and the figure on the right shows the various geometrical factors that determine the resistance. .26-14.

6x10-19)(1500)(2x1014)(0.07)(10-3 .W g /2 R W + Wg d Rs drain lgs 10-3 =qm N dW = = 298 ohms n d (1.07)(10-3 + 5x10-4 . Treat the region of thickness Wo + Wg/2 as though it has an average width (W .2W o Wo + W /2 g P + lc l gd .3x10-4) (lgd .3x10-4 .W ) n d g o (10-3 + 5x10-4) = 351 ohms = (1.2W ) n d o 10-3 = 552 ohms = (1.07)(10-3) lc = q m N d (W .source Rs P + Rc R t P + W g W l gs P + W .07)(10-3 +10-3) Total resistance of a single cell is Rcell = Rs + Rc + Rt + Rd . Rt now approximately given by 2 Rt Rt Wo + Wg/2 = q m N d (W + W /2 .5x10-4) (35x10 = 412 ohms Rd = (1.6x10-4) Rc Rt estimate.6x10-19)(1500)(2x1014)(0.2.Wo.6x10-19)(1500)(2x1014)(0.4.6x10-19)(1500)(2x1014)(0.2.2 Wo) + (W + Wg) given by = W + Wg/2 .Wo -Wg/2) Rd = q m N d (W + W ) = n d g -4 .W o .

Rcell = 298 + 552 + 351 + 412 = 1613 ohms There are N = 28 cells in parallel so the the net on-state resistance is Ron = Rcell 1613 = 28 = 58 ohms N .

5x10-3) (2)(11.5x102) = 65 microns > 35 microns 2x1014 Hence this is a punch-through structure.6x10-19)(2x1014)(3. The depletion region of the two adjacent P+ regions merge and then grow towards the drain. Wd > (10-5)(6.3x1017 = 650 V . Non-punch-through estimate: BV = 1.5x10-3)2 BV = (2x105)(3. (21-21) and EBD = 2x105 V/cm (1.189 . The short length of the drift region suggests that punch-through will limit the breakdown voltage. Use Eq. As the drain-source voltage increases.26-15. the reverse-bias on the gate-drain pn junction increases. Check for this possibility first.9x10-14) BV = 511 V = 700 .7)(8. The drift region of length lgd and doping Nd must contain this depletion region and will determine the breakdown voltage.

3)(10-5)(1. ICs.3 Rs Cs = (2.max = 1000 .3 ohms Snubber recovery time = 2. fsw Cs Vd2 Power dissipated in snubber PRs ≈ 2 PRs = (0. dvC dvC dvAK Io t t Cs dt = Io t .max = IAM .Irr .2 Io. Assume irr = 0.Io . Io communtates linearly to Cs.3) = 30 microseconds. Solving for Cs yields dt 500 5x107 = 10 microfarads Cs > È dvAK˘ -1 Í ˙ Io Î dt ˚ = Rs chosen on basis of limiting discharge current from Cs to safe level when GTO turns on. .27-1.25 kW b. dt = = C t < 5x107 V/s dt fi s fi Maximum dvAK occurs at tfi. Then ICs. a. During turn-off of the GTO.5)(103)(10-5)(500)2 = 1.500 -100 = 400 A 500 Rs = 400 ≈ 1.

2)(500) = 0.27-2.2 ohms. Ls ≈ ≈ 1.7 microhenries. diA 500 L s dt max = Vd . 3x108 Voltage across GTO at turn-off = Vd + Io Rs : Assume Io Rs = 0. (500) .2 Vd Rs = (0.

f) vCs.27-3.Vd cos(wot) + Vd Cbase Cs sin(wot) = Vd + K sin(wot .f) = K sin(wot) cos(f) . vCs(t) = Vd . K sin(wot .max = Vd + K .Kcos(wot) sin(f) .

max = Vd + K = Vd + Vd .Vd cos(wot) K cos(f) = Vd and K sin(f) = Vd . C 2 + K sin(f) 2 = K2 = V 2 base + V 2 [ K cos(f)] [ ] d Cs d Cbase 1+ C s vCs.K sin(wot) cos(f) .K cos(wot) sin(f) = Vd Cbase Cs Cbase Cs sin(wot) .

vCs. L = 10 mH + 200 V Rs Cs i L diR iL(0+) = Irr .27-4.25 s s È 2 ˘ -5) Í 6 ˙ = 9 nF Cbase = (10 Î (200)2˚ 9 nF Cs = 1.5 .max = 500 V = 200 + 200 Cbase Cbase 1+ C = 1. a.25 ≈ 7 nF .5 ≈ 1. C = 1. Irr = (2x10 )(3x10 ) = 6 A Cbase 1+ C s b. Equivalent circuit after diode reverse recovery. During reverse recovery L dt = 200 V diR Irr 200 7 7 -7 dt = trr = 10-5 = 2x10 A/sec .

3) Í 6 ˙ = 43 ohms Î ˚ vCs. Use the circuit shown in problem 27-4.5)(200) = 300 V .max = (1. È 62 ˘ ˙ Cs = Cbase = (10-5) Í Î(200)2˚ = 9 nF È200˘ Rs = 1.27-5.3 Rbase = (1.

5)(9x10-9)(200)2 = 3.5)(10-5)(6)2 + (0. ÈL I 2 + C V 2˘ Í s rr s in ˙ ˚ f P = WR fsw = Î 2 sw WR = (0.6x10-4 )(2x104) = 7.27-6.2 watts .6x10-4 Joules P = WR fsw = (3.

27-7. a. BJT waveforms (trv assumed to be zero for Cs = 0) i Cs Io 0 v CE Cs = 0 Cs > 0 0 V d t tfi t Power dissipation for Cs = 0 is Pc = Vd Io tfi fsw 2 .

Seting the expression for vCE(t) equal to zero and solving for the time DT = t2 . This extended duration of traversal of the active region also increases the turn-on losses. the collector-emitter voltage is given by (assuming that the external circuit dominates the transient) diC diC t2 dvCE Cs1 dt = .Irr C s1 b.dt t .Irr .di /dt + C È Irr ˘2 2 Vd Cs1 Í ˙ Î diC/dt˚ + diC/dt Note that DT = 0 if Cs1 = 0 which is consistent with the assumption that the external circuit and not the BJT that dominates the turn-on transient. Extra energy disspated in the BJT at turn-on due to Cs1 is thus ÈVd diC [Io + Irr] Irr˘ DT 2 ˙ ÛvCE(t) iC(t) dt = Vd Irr DT + Í 2 dt ı 2 Cs1 ˚ DT Î 0 4 (Io + 3 Irr) diC Èdi ˘ 2 3 .3 watts Pc = 12 Factor of six reduction in the turn-off losses.dt 2 C s1 t . During the turn-on interval.Í C˙ DT Î dt ˚ 8 C 2 Cs1 dt DT s1 . but also because the time to complete turn-on is extended as shown in Fig. 27-14a.t ) 2 C t d t = 12 s1 fi fi 0 (200)(25)(4x10-7)(2x104) = 3.Pc = (200)(25)(4x10-7) (2x104) = 20 W 2 Power dissipation for Cs = Cs1 tfi Û Io t2 Vd Io tfi t Ù Pc = Wc fsw . Wc = ıIo(1 . BJT losses increase at turn-on only becaue of energy stored in Cs being dissipated in the BJT. vCE(t) = Vd . 27-14a) required for vCE to reach zero yields Irr DT = .(tri + trr) (see Fig.

29 ms (I rr = 10 A and Cs1 = 25 nF).ÈDT ˘ The increase in the BJT loss is Í ÛvCE(t) iC(t) dt˙ fs where fs is the switching Íı ˙ Î0 ˚ frequency. Numerical evaluation of DT gives DT = 0. Evaluation of the loss gives 1.5 watts .3x10-3 fs = 26.

dt t Combining equations and solving for vCE(t) yields diC t2 È Irr diC˘ vCE(t) = Vd .Irr Rs] C dt in Vd D T goes to zero when Rs = I .Í C + Rs dt ˙ t . Equivalent circuit during BJT turn-off after free-wheeling diode reverse recovery is shown below.27-8. a. Ds shorts out the snubber resistance during the BJT turn-off.dt 2 C Î s ˚ s At t = D T. hence there is no increase in power dissipation rr the BJT due to the presence of Cs. Cs dt = . Thus the loss reduction is the same as in problem 27-7a. vCE = 0 and turn-on is completed.Irr Rs . Hence Cs1 is directly across the BJT as in problem 27-7a. Rs + v CE I r r+ di C dt t Cs + v C v (0+ ) = V C d dvC diC dvC vCE = CsRs dt + vC . diC Irr + Rs Cs dt DT= + diC dt È ÍIrr + Rs Cs diC Í Î dt diC˘ 2 dt ˙ ˙ ˚ 2 Cs + di [Vd . .Irr . b..

05 Vs . Continuous flow of load current formces SCRs 1 & 2 to remain on past the time of natural commutation (when vs(t) goes through zero and becomes negative). L s dt = 2 Vs and b. w Ls = . same is true when 1 & 2 are on and 3 & 4 are off. Thus the Rs-Cs snubber functions as a turn-off snubber. Ls 2 Vs Rs 1 4 Io Cs 3 2 Equivalent circuit swith SCRs 3 & 4 on and 1&2 going off or vice-versa.27-9. Proposed snubber circuit configuration shown below. 0. worst case situation (maximum reverse voltage across SCR Ia1 which is turning off) occurs when SCR which is turning on is triggered with a di delay angle of 90°. 3 or 4 Ls Irr 2 Vs Rs 1 or 2 Cs With 3 & 4 on. a. 1 & 2 are off. During reverse recovery of SCR1. and effectively in parallel with the R s-Cs snubber.

3 Rbase = 100 = 40 ohms .9933 Ia1 mF 0.05 Vs Smallest overvoltage occurs when Cs = Cbase.opt = 1.05 Vs 2 Vs = wt I Irr rr a1 4000 Ia1 (0.0033)(100) = 0.05 Î Irr ˘ 2 ˙ = 2 Vs˙ ˚ w Ia1 trr2 0.5)(322) = 483 V which occurs when Cs = Cbase and Rs = 1.3 Rbase = c.05) (230) 3050 = I -5) I (377) (10 a1 a1 ohms Rbase = = ohms Rs. Peak line voltage = 2 (230) = 322 V Smallest overvoltage = (1. Cbase = Ls Í 0. For Ia1 = 100 A 4000 Rs.33 mF .Irr di = t . Cs = (0.3 Rbase.opt = 1. Putting in numerical values Cs = 0. Solving for Irr yields dt rr È 2 w trr Ia1 Í Irr = .

. Hence a diode in parallel with the resistor is not desirable.3 Rbase and Cs = Cbase. The uncharged capacitor delays the build-up of the large Vd voltage across the BJT/MOSFET until most of the current has been diverted from the switch. The turn-off of the thyristor limits overvoltages arising from the interruption of current through the stray inductance in series with the thyristor.27-10. The resistor in the BJT/MOSFET snubber must be shorted out during the device turn-off so that the snubber capacitance is in parallel with the device. thus providing the shorting of the snubber resistor as required. Lowest overvoltages are obtained when Rs = 1. Overvoltages are 70-% larger if Rs is zero. The snubber diode is forward biased during turn-off.

dt 7. a.27-11.75 microseconds Check dt at turn-off. dt = t rv dvDS 700 > = 930 V/ms > 800 V/ms limit so snubber is needed.5x10-7 Not enough information available to check on power dissipation or overcurrents. trv < 0. . dvDS Vd dvDS .

5x10-7) = 8 ms Off time of the IGBT is 10 microseconds which is greater than the snubber recovery time. Rs = 150 .3 Rs Cs = (2.3)(14)(2.b. .100 = 14 ohms s Check snubber recovery time = 2.25 mF dt s 4x108 Choose Rs to limit total current ID to less than 150 A 700 700 150 A = 100 + R . Cs = = 0. dvDS Io 100 = C = 400 V/ms . Hence choice of Rs is fine.

dvDS Vd During MOSFET turn-on dt = t < 500 V/ms fv Vd From problem 22-2.min = VGSth + g = 4 + 20 = 9 V m . t rv ÈV + V Í GG.VGSth =Î RG Cgd dvDS Vd = t dt rv Io ˘ gm˙ ˚ < 500 V/ms Io ˘ gm˙ Vd From problem 23-2.4 . 100 V GG+ 100 A R G + V V DS V GG- vDS(t) waveform same as in problem 22-2. t fv During MOSFET turn-off.20 5x108 V/sec > (RG)(4x10-10) Io 100 .4 = 20 A/V GS Estimate of RG for MOSFET turn-on: 100 VGG+ . Schematic of drive circuit shown below.VGSth = 7 . VGG+.28-1. ÈV Í GG+ .GSth + =Î RG Cgd ˚ Io 60 gm = V .

+ 4 + 20 5x108 V/sec > (RG)(4x10-10) Choose VGG.9 -10)(5x108) = 30 ohms (4x10 Estimate of RG at MOSFET turn-off: 100 VGG. . RG > 15 + 9 = 115 ohms (4x10-10)(5x108) Satisfy both turn-on and turn-joff requirements by choosing VGG+ = VGG= 15 V and RG > 115 ohms.= -15 V to insure that MOSFET is held in off-state and to minimize turn-off times.Choose VGG+ = 15 V to insure that MOSFET driven well into ohmic range to minimize on-state losses. RG > 15 .

25 = (1000) (10-6) RG2 RG2 = 31.25 kW and RG1 = 969 kW .25) 40 = 31.28-2. Circuit diagram shown below.25 V = (1000) R G1 + RG2 Now R G1 + RG2 = 10-6 ohms so 31. a. + R G1 Df Tsw I o = 200 A V = 1000 V d - R G2 Qs RG2 1000 When FCT is off we need VKG = (1.

low BVDSS (BVDSS of 50-100 V should work) . MOSFET characteristics .low Ron .large on-state current capability .b.

3 3 1.0018 5.9 2.0069 0.7 Heat Sink # 7 8 9 10 11 12 .conv ≈ 0. Assume Ts = 120 °C and T a = 20 °C.34)(A) Î DT ˚ .5 2.75 0.067 0.002 0. Eq.046 0.027 0.4 [dvert]1.rad Rq.0034 2.sa = net surface-to-ambient thermal resistance = R q.02 .004 0.2 5 2x10-4 0.058 0.3 3. A in m2 .75 dv2 Rq.0066 0.0045 2. (29-18) Rq.24 1/4 for DT = 100 °C. A [dvert] A cube having a side of length dvert has a surface area A = 6 [dvert]2 Rq.rad 0.6x10-5 0.12 .)1/3 [m] A = 6 [dv]2 [m]2 dv1. Rq.0032 3.0021 4.04 Rq.conv Rq.conv + Rq.sa = [dvert]1.75 + 2 [dvert]2 Heat Sink # Volume [m]3 dv = (vol.8x10-4 0.rad ≈ A Èd ˘ 1 Í vert˙ 1/4 Rq. 0.conv ≈ 0.013 0.057 0.2 2 10-4 0. Eq.042 0. (29-20) Rq.sa [°C/W] Rq.29-1.conv ≈ (1.0088 0.046 0.019 0.sa (measured) 1 7.011 0.3 1.rad ≈ [dvert]2 Rq.1 2.1 6 3x10-4 0.

4x10-4 0.75 dv2 Rq.4 1.072 0.013 0.3x10-4 0.4 1.014 0.014 0.047 0.076 0.1x10-4 0.sa [°C/W] Rq.012 0.Volume [m]3 dv = (vol.9 0. Heat sink #9 is small and flat with much more surface area compared to its volume.0078 1.034 0.014 0.088 0.8 1.0058 1.3 6.sa.0078 1.085 0. Large surface-to-volume ratios give smaller values of Rq.25 6.086 0.65 Heat sink #9 is relatively large and cubical in shape with only a few cooling fins.sa (measured) 4.)1/3 [m] A = 6 [dv]2 [m]2 dv1.043 0.046 0.044 0.021 0.2 7x10-4 0.3 0.0071 1. .810-4 0.011 0.4x10-3 0.11 0.3 6.0073 1.8 1.5 1.088 0.

conv ≈ 24 0 [d vert]1/4 for DT = 100 °C and A = 10 cm2 = 10-3 m2 dvert 1 cm 5 cm 12 cm 20 cm Rq. Rq.conv ≈ 0. From problem 29-1 A [dvert] Rq.24 1/4 for DT = 100 °C .29-2.conv 76 °C/W 113 °C/W 141 °C/W 160 °C/W .

conv °C/W 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 B B B B 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 dvert [cm] .160 140 120 R q .

29-3. Eq.conv 127 °C/W 118 °C/W 112 °C/W 107 °C/W Rq.34)(A) Èd ˘ Í vert˙ 1/4 .conv ≈ (1.25 . 1 Rq.conv ≈ 353 [DT]-. (29-20) Î DT ˚ A = 10 cm2 and dvert = 5 cm DT 60 °C 80 °C 100 °C 120 °C Rq.

conv °C/W 80 60 40 20 0 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 DT [°C] B B B B .140 120 100 Rq .

Î 100 ˚ ˚ Ta 0 °C 10 °C 20 °C 40 °C . (29-17) Rq.Ta(° C) . Rq.rad 128 °C/W 123 °C/W 119 °C/W 110 °C/W .1 A Ë Ë100¯ .rad = 196 È ÈTa(° K)˘4 ˘ Í Í ˙ ˙ Î239 .rad = DT Ê Ê Ts ˆ4 Ê Ta ˆ4 ˆ ÁÁ ˜ Á ˜ ˜ 5.29-4.Ë100¯ ¯ 120 . A = 10 cm2 and Ts = 120 °C Rq. Eq.

rad 80 [ °C / W ] 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Ta [°C ] B B B B .140 120 R 100 q .

rad = DT Ê Ê Ts ˆ4 Ê Ta ˆ4 ˆ ÁÁ ˜ Á ˜ ˜ 5.Ë100¯ ¯ . Rq. A = 10 cm2 and Ta= 40 °C Rq. Eq.40 Rq.96˚ Ts 80 °C 100 °C 120 °C 140 °C .rad = 196 ÈÈT (° K)˘4 ˘ ÍÍ s ˙ ˙ ÎÎ 100 ˚ . (29-17) Ts(° C) .29-5.rad 114 °C/W 120 °C/W 110 °C/W 101 °C/W .1 A Ë Ë100¯ .

rad [ °C / W ] 80 60 40 20 0 B B B B 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 T s [ °C ] .120 100 R q.

50 ° C 1 ° C/W = 100 W . PMOSFET.29-6. 100 W = 50 + 10-3 fs Solving for fs yields fs = 50 kHz .max = 150 ° C .

ca = 1.ja = Rq.ca = 150 ° C .35 ° C 75 W = 1.29-7.53 °C/W .53 .00 = 0.1.jc + Rq.5x104 = 75 W Rq.53 °C/W Rq. PMOSFET = 50 + 10-3 • 2.

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