API vs ANSI PUMPS

During design phase of pumping system, operation, and maintenance trouble shooting we must know which pump is most suited with our requirements. This article try to explain the differences between API pump and ANSI pump. Below is a table that summarizes pumps general feature comparison.

Below are some pump differences and more explanation: Pump Rating ANSI Pump Rating : 300 PSIG at 300 F (21 BARG 149 C) API Pump Rating : 750 PSIG at 500 F (53 BARG 260 C) Volute Cases & Suction/Discharge Flanges Both pump styles have a radial split casing, and most ANSI pumps and some API pumps employ a single volute design of the interior passages. This is particularly evident in the smaller sizes that involve low-flow rates and lower specific speeds of the impeller. As shown in Figure 1, the area of the volute increases at a rate that is proportional to the rate of discharge from the impeller, thus producing a constant velocity at the periphery of the impeller. This velocity energy is then changed into pressure energy by the time the fluid enters the discharge nozzle.

Back Cover Arrangements One of the major differences between the ANSI and API pump casings is in the manner in which the back cover is secured to the casing. the suction nozzle is located at the top of the casing adjacent to the discharge nozzle. which is most frequently supplied in cast iron. that the NPSH required is often considerably greater than it would be in the end suction arrangement. In the ANSI design shown in Figure 3. but now it is opposite to the discharge nozzle. rather than on the end. which has also been used in a slightly different configuration in a vertical inline pump design. More NPSH is needed in order to accommodate the friction losses in the tortuous path from the suction flange to the eye of the impeller. The drawback of this design is.Most of the larger API pumps are produced with a double volute design to reduce these loads on high-flow and high-head units. This usually results in a gap between the mating faces of the frame adaptor and the pump casing that has the potential to permit uneven torquing of the bolts. this may cause a fracture of the adaptor. the suction nozzle is once again on the side. . for most of these pumps. thus creating the inline appearance. On the vertical inline design. the back cover and gasket are held against the pump casing by the bearing frame adaptor. The top suction/top discharge arrangement. In the event of a higher-than-normal pressurization of the casing by the process system. In this arrangement with a horizontal pump.

The adaptor is bolted independently to the back cover and does not play a part in the pressure boundary of the pump casing.The API design in Figure 4 bolts the back cover directly to the casing and uses a confined controlled compression gasket with metal to metal fits. .

thus contributing to optimum reliability of the pump. any expansion of the metal will be above and below the casing centerline. API pumps are mounted at the horizontal centerline of the casing on feet projecting from each side of the casing and bolted to pedestals that form part of the baseplate. If these pumps are used on high-temperature applications. and will exert minimal amounts of stress to the casing. The ability to handle higher temperature services is also evident in the bearing housings of the API pumps. which tend to be much more robust in design and also accommodate cooling jackets with a greater capacity of cooling water. As the pump comes up to temperature in such cases. Operation at lower temperatures will not be affected by this feature.Mounting Feet & Bearing Housing Another difference between the two pump styles is the configuration of the mounting feet. . This arrangement provides the API pump with the advantage of being able to operate with pumpage at elevated temperatures. On the other hand. All ANSI pump casings are mounted on feet projecting from the underside of the casing and bolted to the baseplate. the casing will expand upwards from the mounting feet and cause severe thermal stresses in the casing that will detrimentally affect the reliability of the pump.

it is also advisable to consider the economic advantage of the repair under consideration. In addition.Materials of Construction Pump manufacturers can provide ANSI and API pumps in a wide assortment of materials. that the components must be replaced. Repair Considerations It is important to remember. These units are usually installed in more rugged duties and hazardous applications in refineries or other petrochemical industries. This can make it more cost effective to replace rather than repair the parts. however. the selection of which depends on the operating stress and effects. the impeller and the back cover) are all cast from patterns involving intricate hydraulic designs. and the parts more costly than their ANSI equivalents particularly the cases and impellers. This makes it very tempting to source these parts from an after-market supplier rather than the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). It is clear. Prior to any repairs being conducted on a pump casing. Delivery periods are also frequently longer. the casing. While the parts might be available from after-market suppliers at slightly lower prices than they are from . are generally more economical to repair than to replace. These parts are also the ones that provide the hydraulic performance of the pump. though. Smaller and medium-sized ANSI pumps are designed with a high degree of interchangeability and produced in volume. The most common materials used in these centrifugal pumps are: Cast iron Ductile iron Bronze Carbon and low alloy steels such as 4140 Chrome steels such as 11%. in the case of non-metallic pumps (which may also conform to ANSI standards). it can frequently be more cost effective to replace the entire pump rather than a combination of the impeller. dll. It should be noted. casing and back cover. and are consequently more durable and more expensive.e. Consequently. API pumps. which are of a proprietary nature. as well as the type of wear from the product being pumped. 12% or 13% Martenistic stainless steels: the 400 series Precipitation hardening stainless steels: 17-4 PH Austenitic stainless steels: the 300 series or alloy 20 Duplex stainless steels: CD4MCu exotic alloys: Hastelloy. as they generally cannot be repaired. that the material of construction must be accurately identified by means of the appropriate tests. that the major parts of a centrifugal pump (i. Titanium. before any repair procedures are performed on any pump component. both the individual parts and complete pumps are available fairly quickly. unless the wet ends are made of the more exotic alloys.

Your OEM can accept the responsibility for the subsequent hydraulic performance of these replacement parts. Instead. CONCLUSION So. Let’s Stay Focused and Practical. Price API pumps is more expensive than ANSI pump. that cost saving will fade into insignificance if the pump does not meet its hydraulic performance. its up to the system designer and equipment supplier to cooperate as much as possible to ensure that the best possible and most reliable pump selection ensues. .the OEM. Pump selection is not a beauty contest ANSI and API are not brands to be preferred.