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API vs ANSI PUMPS

During design phase of pumping system, operation, and maintenance trouble


shooting we must know which pump is most suited with our requirements. This
article try to explain the differences between API pump and ANSI pump. Below is
a table that summarizes pumps general feature comparison.

Below are some pump differences and more explanation:

Pump Rating

ANSI Pump Rating : 300 PSIG at 300 F (21 BARG 149 C)


API Pump Rating : 750 PSIG at 500 F (53 BARG 260 C)

Volute Cases & Suction/Discharge Flanges

Both pump styles have a radial split casing, and most ANSI pumps and some API
pumps employ a single volute design of the interior passages. This is particularly
evident in the smaller sizes that involve low-flow rates and lower specific speeds
of the impeller. As shown in Figure 1, the area of the volute increases at a rate
that is proportional to the rate of discharge from the impeller, thus producing a
constant velocity at the periphery of the impeller. This velocity energy is then
changed into pressure energy by the time the fluid enters the discharge nozzle.
Most of the larger API pumps are produced with a double volute design to reduce
these loads on high-flow and high-head units.

The top suction/top discharge arrangement, which has also been used in a
slightly different configuration in a vertical inline pump design. In this
arrangement with a horizontal pump, the suction nozzle is located at the top of
the casing adjacent to the discharge nozzle, rather than on the end. On the
vertical inline design, the suction nozzle is once again on the side, but now it is
opposite to the discharge nozzle, thus creating the inline appearance. The
drawback of this design is, for most of these pumps, that the NPSH required is
often considerably greater than it would be in the end suction arrangement. More
NPSH is needed in order to accommodate the friction losses in the tortuous path
from the suction flange to the eye of the impeller.

Back Cover Arrangements

One of the major differences between the ANSI and API pump casings is in the
manner in which the back cover is secured to the casing. In the ANSI design
shown in Figure 3, the back cover and gasket are held against the pump casing by
the bearing frame adaptor, which is most frequently supplied in cast iron. This
usually results in a gap between the mating faces of the frame adaptor and the
pump casing that has the potential to permit uneven torquing of the bolts. In the
event of a higher-than-normal pressurization of the casing by the process system,
this may cause a fracture of the adaptor.
The API design in Figure 4 bolts the back cover directly to the casing and uses a
confined controlled compression gasket with metal to metal fits. The adaptor is
bolted independently to the back cover and does not play a part in the pressure
boundary of the pump casing.
Mounting Feet & Bearing Housing

Another difference between the two pump styles is the configuration of the
mounting feet. All ANSI pump casings are mounted on feet projecting from the
underside of the casing and bolted to the baseplate. If these pumps are used on
high-temperature applications, the casing will expand upwards from the
mounting feet and cause severe thermal stresses in the casing that will
detrimentally affect the reliability of the pump. Operation at lower temperatures
will not be affected by this feature. On the other hand, API pumps are mounted at
the horizontal centerline of the casing on feet projecting from each side of the
casing and bolted to pedestals that form part of the baseplate. This arrangement
provides the API pump with the advantage of being able to operate with pumpage
at elevated temperatures. As the pump comes up to temperature in such cases,
any expansion of the metal will be above and below the casing centerline, and will
exert minimal amounts of stress to the casing, thus contributing to optimum
reliability of the pump. The ability to handle higher temperature services is also
evident in the bearing housings of the API pumps, which tend to be much more
robust in design and also accommodate cooling jackets with a greater capacity of
cooling water.
Materials of Construction

Pump manufacturers can provide ANSI and API pumps in a wide assortment of
materials, the selection of which depends on the operating stress and effects, as
well as the type of wear from the product being pumped. The most common
materials used in these centrifugal pumps are:

Cast iron
Ductile iron
Bronze
Carbon and low alloy steels such as 4140
Chrome steels such as 11%, 12% or 13%
Martenistic stainless steels: the 400 series
Precipitation hardening stainless steels: 17-4 PH
Austenitic stainless steels: the 300 series or alloy 20
Duplex stainless steels: CD4MCu
exotic alloys: Hastelloy, Titanium, dll.

Repair Considerations

It is important to remember, before any repair procedures are performed on any


pump component, that the material of construction must be accurately identified
by means of the appropriate tests. Prior to any repairs being conducted on a
pump casing, it is also advisable to consider the economic advantage of the repair
under consideration. Smaller and medium-sized ANSI pumps are designed with a
high degree of interchangeability and produced in volume. Consequently, it can
frequently be more cost effective to replace the entire pump rather than a
combination of the impeller, casing and back cover. In addition, both the
individual parts and complete pumps are available fairly quickly. This can make it
more cost effective to replace rather than repair the parts, unless the wet
ends are made of the more exotic alloys. It is clear, in the case of non-metallic
pumps (which may also conform to ANSI standards), that the components must
be replaced, as they generally cannot be repaired. API pumps, however, are
generally more economical to repair than to replace. These units are usually
installed in more rugged duties and hazardous applications in refineries or other
petrochemical industries, and are consequently more durable and more
expensive. Delivery periods are also frequently longer, and the parts more costly
than their ANSI equivalents particularly the cases and impellers.
This makes it very tempting to source these parts from an after-market supplier
rather than the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). It should be noted,
though, that the major parts of a centrifugal pump (i.e. the casing, the impeller
and the back cover) are all cast from patterns involving intricate hydraulic
designs, which are of a proprietary nature. These parts are also the ones that
provide the hydraulic performance of the pump. While the parts might be
available from after-market suppliers at slightly lower prices than they are from
the OEM, that cost saving will fade into insignificance if the pump does not meet
its hydraulic performance. Your OEM can accept the responsibility for the
subsequent hydraulic performance of these replacement parts.

Price

API pumps is more expensive than ANSI pump.

CONCLUSION

So, Let’s Stay Focused and Practical. Pump selection is not a beauty contest
ANSI and API are not brands to be preferred. Instead, its up to the system
designer and equipment supplier to cooperate as much as possible to ensure that
the best possible and most reliable pump selection ensues.