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W.D. Callister, Jr Materials Science and Engineering, 8th Edition
12.5 On the basis of ionic charge and ionic radii given in Table 12.3, predict crystal structures for the following
materials:
(a) CsI,
(b) NiO,
(c) KI, and
(d) NiS.
Justify your selections.
Solution
This problem calls for us to predict crystal structures for several ceramic materials on the basis of ionic
charge and ionic radii.
(a) For CsI, using data from Table 12.3
r
Cs
+
r
I
÷
=
0.170 nm
0.220 nm
= 0.773
Now, from Table 12.2, the coordination number for each cation (Cs
+
) is eight, and, using Table 12.4, the predicted
crystal structure is cesium chloride.
(b) For NiO, using data from Table 12.3
r
Ni
2+
r
O
2÷
=
0.069 nm
0.140 nm
= 0.493
The coordination number is six (Table 12.2), and the predicted crystal structure is sodium chloride (Table 12.4).
(c) For KI, using data from Table 12.3
r
K
+
r
I
÷
=
0.138 nm
0.220 nm
= 0.627
The coordination number is six (Table 12.2), and the predicted crystal structure is sodium chloride (Table 12.4).
(d) For NiS, using data from Table 12.3
r
Ni
2+
r
S
2÷
=
0.069 nm
0.184 nm
= 0.375
The coordination number is four (Table 12.2), and the predicted crystal structure is zinc blende (Table 12.4).
12.7 Compute the atomic packing factor for the rock salt crystal structure in which r
C
/r
A
= 0.414.
Solution
This problem asks that we compute the atomic packing factor for the rock salt crystal structure when r
C
/r
A
= 0.414. From Equation 3.2
APF =
V
S
V
C
With regard to the sphere volume, V
S
, there are four cation and four anion spheres per unit cell. Thus,
V
S
= (4)
4
3
tr
A
3

\

.
 + (4)
4
3
tr
C
3

\

.

But, since r
C
/r
A
= 0.414
V
S
=
16
3
tr
A
3
1 + (0.414)
3
 
= (17.94) r
A
3
Now, for r
C
/r
A
= 0.414 the corner anions in Table 12.2 just touch one another along the cubic unit cell edges such
that
V
C
= a
3
= 2(r
A
+ r
C
)
 
3
= 2(r
A
+ 0.414r
A
)
 
3
= (22.62)r
A
3
Thus
APF =
V
S
V
C
=
(17.94) r
A
3
(22.62) r
A
3
= 0.79
12.13 Calculate the density of FeO, given that it has the rock salt crystal structure.
Solution
We are asked to calculate the theoretical density of FeO. This density may be computed using Equation
(12.1) as
p =
' n A
Fe
+ A
O
( )
V
C
N
A
Since the crystal structure is rock salt, n' = 4 formula units per unit cell. Using the ionic radii for Fe
2+
and O
2
from
Table 12.3, the unit cell volume is computed as follows:
V
C
= a
3
= 2r
Fe
2+
+ 2r
O
2 ( )
3
= 2(0.077 nm) + 2(0.140 nm)  
3
= 0.0817
nm
3
unit cell
= 8.17 × 10
23
cm
3
unit cell
Thus,
p =
(4 formula units/unit cell)(55.85 g/mol + 16.00 g/mol)
8.17 × 10
23
cm
3
/unit cell
( )
6.022 × 10
23
formula units/mol
( )
= 5.84 g/cm
3
12.14 Magnesium oxide has the rock salt crystal structure and a density of 3.58 g/cm
3
.
(a) Determine the unit cell edge length.
(b) How does this result compare with the edge length as determined from the radii in Table 12.3,
assuming that the Mg
2+
and O
2
ions just touch each other along the edges?
Solution
(a) This part of the problem calls for us to determine the unit cell edge length for MgO. The density of
MgO is 3.58 g/cm
3
and the crystal structure is rock salt. From Equation 12.1
p =
' n ( A
Mg
+ A
O
)
V
C
N
A
=
' n (A
Mg
+ A
O
)
a
3
N
A
Or, solving for a
a =
' n (A
Mg
+ A
O
)
p N
A
1/ 3
Inasmuch as there are 4 formula units per unit cell for the rock salt crystal structure, and the atomic weights of
magnesium and oxygen are 24.31 and 16.00 g/mol, respectively, when we solve for a from the above equation
a =
(4 formula units/unit cell)(24.31 g/mol + 16.00 g/mol)
(3.58 g/cm
3
)(6.022 × 10
23
formula units/mol)
1/ 3
= 4.21 × 10
8
cm = 0.421 nm
(b) The edge length is determined from the Mg
2+
and O
2
radii for this portion of the problem. Now for
the rock salt crystal structure
a = 2r
Mg
2+
+ 2r
O
2
From Table 12.3
a = 2(0.072 nm) + 2(0.140 nm) = 0.424 nm
12.21 The unit cell for MgFe
2
O
4
(MgOFe
2
O
3
) has cubic symmetry with a unit cell edge length of 0.836 nm. If the
density of this material is 4.52 g/cm
3
, compute its atomic packing factor. For this computation, you will need to use
ionic radii listed in Table 12.3.
Solution
This problem asks us to compute the atomic packing factor for MgFe
2
O
4
given its density and unit cell
edge length. It is first necessary to determine the number of formula units in the unit cell in order to calculate the
sphere volume. Solving for n' from Equation 12.1 leads to
n' =
pV
C
N
A
A
C
+ A
A
¯ ¯
=
(4.52 g/cm
3
) (8.36 × 10
8
cm)
3
/unit cell
 
(6.022 × 10
23
formula units/mol)
(1)(24.31 g/mol) + (2)(55.85 g/mol) + (4)(16.00 g/mol)
= 8.0 formula units/unit cell
Thus, in each unit cell there are 8 Mg
2+
, 16 Fe
3+
, and 32 O
2
ions. From Table 12.3, r
Mg
2+
= 0.072 nm, r
Fe
3+
=
0.069 nm, and r
O
2 = 0.140 nm.
Thus, the total sphere volume in Equation 3.2 (which we denote as V
S
), is just
V
S
= (8)
4
3
t

\

.
 (7.2 × 10
÷9
cm)
3
+ (16)
4
3
t

\

.
 (6.9 × 10
÷9
cm)
3
+ (32)
4
3
t

\

.
 (1.40 × 10
÷8
cm)
3
= 4.02 × 10
22
cm
3
Now, the unit cell volume (V
C
) is just
V
C
= a
3
= (8.36 × 10
8
cm)
3
= 5.84 × 10
÷22
cm
3
Finally, the atomic packing factor (APF) from Equation 3.2 is just
APF =
V
S
V
C
=
4.02 × 10
22
cm
3
5.84 × 10
22
cm
3
= 0.688
12.33 If cupric oxide (CuO) is exposed to reducing atmospheres at elevated temperatures, some of the Cu
2+
ions
will become Cu
+
.
(a) Under these conditions, name one crystalline defect that you would expect to form in order to maintain
charge neutrality.
(b) How many Cu
+
ions are required for the creation of each defect?
(c) How would you express the chemical formula for this nonstoichiometric material?
Solution
(a) For a Cu
2+
O
2
compound in which a small fraction of the copper ions exist as Cu
+
, for each Cu
+
formed there is one less positive charge introduced (or one more negative charge). In order to maintain charge
neutrality, we must either add an additional positive charge or subtract a negative charge. This may be
accomplished be either creating Cu
2+
interstitials or O
2
vacancies.
(b) There will be two Cu
+
ions required for each of these defects.
(c) The chemical formula for this nonstoichiometric material is Cu
1+x
O or CuO
1x
, where x is
some small fraction.
12.42 A threepoint bending test is performed on a glass specimen having a rectangular cross section of height d =
5 mm (0.2 in.) and width b = 10 mm (0.4 in.); the distance between support points is 45 mm (1.75 in.).
(a) Compute the flexural strength if the load at fracture is 290 N (65 lb
f
).
(b) The point of maximum deflection Δy occurs at the center of the specimen and is described by
Ay =
FL
3
48EI
where E is the modulus of elasticity and I is the crosssectional moment of inertia. Compute Ay at a load of 266 N
(60 lb
f
).
Solution
(a) For this portion of the problem we are asked to compute the flexural strength for a glass specimen that
is subjected to a threepoint bending test. The flexural strength (Equation 12.7a) is just
o
fs
=
3F
f
L
2bd
2
for a rectangular crosssection. Using the values given in the problem statement,
o
fs
=
(3)(290 N) (45 × 10
÷3
m)
(2)(10 × 10
÷3
m)(5 × 10
÷3
m)
2
= 7.83 × 10
7
N/m
2
= 78.3 MPa (10, 660 psi)
(b) We are now asked to compute the maximum deflection. From Table 12.5, the elastic modulus (E) for
glass is 69 GPa (10 × 10
6
psi). Also, the moment of inertia for a rectangular cross section (Figure 12.32) is just
I =
bd
3
12
Thus,
Ay =
FL
3
48E
bd
3
12

\

.

=
FL
3
4Ebd
3
=
(266 N) (45 × 10
÷3
m)
3
(4) (69 × 10
9
N/m
2
)(10 × 10
÷3
m)(5 × 10
÷3
m)
3
= 7.0 × 10
5
m = 7.0 × 10
2
mm (2.5 × 10
3
in.)
12.47 The modulus of elasticity for beryllium oxide (BeO) having 5 vol% porosity is 310 GPa (45 × 10
6
psi).
(a) Compute the modulus of elasticity for the nonporous material.
(b) Compute the modulus of elasticity for 10 vol% porosity.
Solution
(a) This portion of the problem requests that we compute the modulus of elasticity for nonporous BeO
given that E = 310 GPa for a material having 5 vol% porosity. Thus, we solve Equation 12.9 for E
0
, using P = 0.05,
which gives
E
0
=
E
1 ÷ 1.9P + 0.9P
2
=
310 GPa
1 ÷ (1.9)(0.05) + (0.9)(0.05)
2
= 342 GPa (49.6 × 10
6
psi)
(b) Now we are asked to determine the value of E at P = 10 vol% (i.e., 0.10). Using Equation 12.9 we get
E = E
0
(1 ÷ 1.9P + 0.9P
2
)
= (342 GPa) 1 ÷ (1.9)(0.10) + (0.9)(0.10)
2
 
= 280 GPa (40.6 × 10
6
psi)
13.4 Find the maximum temperature to which the following two magnesia–alumina refractory materials may be
heated before a liquid phase will appear.
(a) A spinelbonded alumina material of composition 95 wt% Al
2
O
3
5 wt% MgO.
(b) A magnesiaalumina spinel of composition 65 wt% Al
2
O
3
35 wt% MgO.
Consult Figure 12.25.
Solution
(a) From Figure 12.25, for a spinelbonded magnesia material (95 wt% Al
2
O
3
5 wt% MgO), the maximum
temperature without a liquid phase corresponds to the temperature of the eutectic isotherm on the Al
2
O
3
rich side of
the phase diagram, which is approximately 2000°C (3630°F).
(b) The maximum temperature without the formation of a liquid phase for a magnesiaalumina spinel (65
wt% Al
2
O
3
35 wt% MgO) lies at the phase boundary between MgAl
2
O
4
(ss)MgAl
2
O
4
+ Liquid phase fields (just
slightly to the left of the congruent melting point at which the two phase boundaries become tangent); this
temperature is approximately 2030°C (3685°F).
13.13 The viscosity η of a glass varies with temperature according to the relationship
n= A exp
Q
vis
RT

\

.

where Q
vis
is the energy of activation for viscous flow, A is a temperatureindependent constant, and R and T are,
respectively, the gas constant and the absolute temperature. A plot of ln η versus l/T should be nearly linear, and
with a slope of Q
vis
/R. Using the data in Figure 13.7, (a) make such a plot for the borosilicate glass, and (b)
determine the activation energy between temperatures of 500 and 900°C.
Solution
(a) Below is shown the logarithm viscosity versus reciprocal of temperature plot for the borosilicate glass,
using the data in Figure 13.7. The dashed line has been drawn through the data points corresponding to
temperatures between 500 and 900ºC (as stipulated in the problem statement).
(b) The activation energy, Q
vis
, may be computed according to
Q
vis
= R
Alnn
A
1
T

\

.

= R
lnn
1
÷ lnn
2
1
T
1
÷
1
T
2

\

.




where R is the gas constant, and
A lnn
A
1
T

\

.

is the slope of the dashed line that has been constructed. Taking 1/T
1
and
1/T
2
as 0.8 × 10
3
and 1.3 × 10
3
K
1
, respectively, then the corresponding values of ln n
1
and ln n
2
are 10.59 and
32.50. Therefore,
Q
vis
= R
lnn
1
÷ lnn
2
1
T
1
÷
1
T
2

\

.




= (8.31 J/mol÷ K)
10.59 ÷ 32.50
0.8 × 10
÷3
K
÷1
÷ 1.3 × 10
÷3
K
÷1

\

.

= 364,000 J/mol
13.14 For many viscous materials, the viscosity η may be defined in terms of the expression
n =
o
dc/ dt
where σ and dc/dt are, respectively, the tensile stress and the strain rate. A cylindrical specimen of a sodalime glass
of diameter 5 mm (0.2 in.) and length 100 mm (4 in.) is subjected to a tensile force of 1 N (0.224 lb
f
) along its axis.
If its deformation is to be less than 1 mm (0.04 in.) over a week’s time, using Figure 13.7, determine the maximum
temperature to which the specimen may be heated.
Solution
This problem calls for us to determine the maximum temperature to which a cylindrical specimen of soda
lime glass may be heated in order that its deformation be less than 1 mm over a week's time. According to Equation
6.1
o =
F
A
0
=
1 N
t
5 × 10
÷3
m
2

\

.

2
= 5.09 × 10
4
Pa
Also,
dc
dt
=
d
Al
l
0

\

.


dt
=
1 mm/100 mm
(1 wk)(7 days / week)(24 h/ day)(3600 s / h)
= 1.653 × 10
8
s
1
Thus,
n =
o
dc/ dt
=
5.09 × 10
4
Pa
1.653 × 10
÷8
s
÷1
= 3.1 × 10
12
Pa s
From Figure 13.7, the temperature at which the viscosity of the sodalime glass is 3.1 × 10
12
Pas is about 500°C
(930°F).
Thus. VS.62) rA = 0.414. Solution This problem asks that we compute the atomic packing factor for the rock salt crystal structure when rC/rA = 0.62) rA 2 APF = VS VC = 3 (17.2 APF = VS VC With regard to the sphere volume.414. From Equation 3.7 Compute the atomic packing factor for the rock salt crystal structure in which rC/rA = 0.414 VS = 16 3 3 r 1 (0.94) rA 3 A Now. since rC/rA = 0.94) rA 3 (22. 4 3 4 3 VS = (4) rA + (4) rC 3 3 But.12.414 the corner anions in Table 12. there are four cation and four anion spheres per unit cell. for rC/rA = 0.79 .414rA ) (22.414) 3 = (17.2 just touch one another along the cubic unit cell edges such that VC = a 3 = (rA rC ) 2 3 3 Thus 3 (rA 0.
the unit cell volume is computed as follows: 3 3 VC a 3 2rFe 2+ + 2rO 2 2 (0.077 nm) 2 (0.022 1023 formula units/mol (4 formula units/unit cell)(55.1) as n AFe + AO VC N A Since the crystal structure is rock salt.3. assuming that the Mg2+ and O2. This density may be computed using Equation (12.13 Calculate the density of FeO. given that it has the rock salt crystal structure. From Equation 12.17 1023 unit cell unit cell Thus. n' = 4 formula units per unit cell.ions just touch each other along the edges? Solution (a) This part of the problem calls for us to determine the unit cell edge length for MgO. Solution We are asked to calculate the theoretical density of FeO.3. (b) How does this result compare with the edge length as determined from the radii in Table 12.17 1023 cm3/unit cell6.140 nm) = 0.84 g/cm3 12. solving for a .58 g/cm3 and the crystal structure is rock salt.85 g/mol + 16.14 Magnesium oxide has the rock salt crystal structure and a density of 3.58 g/cm3.00 g/mol) = 5.0817 nm3 cm 3 = 8.1 n AMg + AO ) ( n AMg + AO ) ( VC N A a3 N A Or. The density of MgO is 3.12. (a) Determine the unit cell edge length. 8. Using the ionic radii for Fe2+ and O2.from Table 12.
It is first necessary to determine the number of formula units in the unit cell in order to calculate the sphere volume.424 nm 12. Solution This problem asks us to compute the atomic packing factor for MgFe 2O4 given its density and unit cell edge length.00 g/mol) 3 a (3.00 g/mol) = 8.1 leads to n' AC VC N A + AA (4. and the atomic weights of magnesium and oxygen are 24.52 g/cm3) (8.3 a = 2(0. If the density of this material is 4.072 nm) + 2(0.21 10 8 cm = 0.85 g/mol) + (4)(16. you will need to use ionic radii listed in Table 12. Now for the rock salt crystal structure a = 2rMg 2+ + 2rO 2 From Table 12.022 1023 formula units/mol) (1)(24.140 nm) = 0.00 g/mol.421 nm (b) The edge length is determined from the Mg2+ and O2.836 nm.31 and 16.0 formula units/unit cell . when we solve for a from the above equation 1/ (4 formula units/unit cell)(24.022 1023 formula units/mol) = 4.31 g/mol) + (2)(55. Solving for n' from Equation 12.52 g/cm3.1/ n AMg + AO ) 3 ( a NA Inasmuch as there are 4 formula units per unit cell for the rock salt crystal structure.36 108 cm) 3 /unit cell (6.31 g/mol + 16.58 g/cm3)(6. compute its atomic packing factor.21 The unit cell for MgFe2O4 (MgOFe2O3) has cubic symmetry with a unit cell edge length of 0. respectively.3.radii for this portion of the problem. For this computation.
where x is some small fraction.36 108 cm)3 5.140 nm.688 VC 5.84 1022 cm3 Finally. name one crystalline defect that you would expect to form in order to maintain charge neutrality.2 109 cm) 3 + (16) 6. and r 2. This may be (c) The chemical formula for this nonstoichiometric material is Cu1+xO or CuO1x. the unit cell volume (VC) is just = 4.069 nm. we must either add an additional positive charge or subtract a negative charge. (a) Under these conditions. in each unit cell there are 8 Mg2+. 16 Fe3+.ions.02 1022 cm3 APF S 0. for each Cu+ formed there is one less positive charge introduced (or one more negative charge).3.02 1022 cm3 VC a3 (8. is just O 4 4 VS = (8) 7. (b) There will be two Cu+ ions required for each of these defects. some of the Cu 2+ ions will become Cu+.33 If cupric oxide (CuO) is exposed to reducing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. (b) How many Cu+ ions are required for the creation of each defect? (c) How would you express the chemical formula for this nonstoichiometric material? Solution (a) For a Cu2+O2. r Mg2+ = 0.2 (which we denote as VS).9 109 cm) 3 ( ( 3 3 4 + (32) 1.= 0. accomplished be either creating Cu2+ interstitials or O2vacancies. .2 is just V 4. In order to maintain charge neutrality. r 3+ = Fe 0. Thus.40 108 cm) 3 ( 3 Now.Thus. the total sphere volume in Equation 3.compound in which a small fraction of the copper ions exist as Cu+. and 32 O2.072 nm. the atomic packing factor (APF) from Equation 3.84 1022 cm3 12. From Table 12.
7a) is just fs = 3F f L 2bd 2 for a rectangular crosssection. the moment of inertia for a rectangular cross section (Figure 12. Compute y at a load of 266 N (60 lbf). (b) The point of maximum deflection Δy occurs at the center of the specimen and is described by y = FL3 48EI where E is the modulus of elasticity and I is the crosssectional moment of inertia. y = FL3 FL3 = bd 3 4Ebd 3 48E 12 (266 N) (45 103 m) 3 = (4) (69 10 9 N/m2 )(10 103 m) (5 103 m) 3 = 7.12. Also.3 MPa (10.83 10 7 N/m2 = 78. The flexural strength (Equation 12.) and width b = 10 mm (0.660 psi) (2)(10 103 m) (5 103 m) 2 (b) We are now asked to compute the maximum deflection.75 in. (a) Compute the flexural strength if the load at fracture is 290 N (65 lbf).42 A threepoint bending test is performed on a glass specimen having a rectangular cross section of height d = 5 mm (0.). the elastic modulus (E) for glass is 69 GPa (10 106 psi).5 103 in.5.2 in.32) is just I = bd 3 12 Thus.0 102 mm (2. the distance between support points is 45 mm (1. Solution (a) For this portion of the problem we are asked to compute the flexural strength for a glass specimen that is subjected to a threepoint bending test.4 in.) .0 105 m = 7. Using the values given in the problem statement. From Table 12. fs = (3)(290 N) (45 103 m) = 7.).
25. this temperature is approximately 2030C (3685F).9)(0. Solution (a) This portion of the problem requests that we compute the modulus of elasticity for nonporous BeO given that E = 310 GPa for a material having 5 vol% porosity.9)(0. which is approximately 2000C (3630F). (a) Compute the modulus of elasticity for the nonporous material. (a) A spinelbonded alumina material of composition 95 wt% Al2O35 wt% MgO. (b) Compute the modulus of elasticity for 10 vol% porosity. we solve Equation 12. Thus. Using Equation 12. for a spinelbonded magnesia material (95 wt% Al2O35 wt% MgO).10).9P 2 = 310 GPa = 342 GPa 1 (1.25.9P 2 ) = (342 GPa) 1 (1.05) (0. Consult Figure 12. (b) A magnesiaalumina spinel of composition 65 wt% Al2O335 wt% MgO.10)2 = 280 GPa (40.9P 0.05) 2 (49.e.9)(0. using P = 0.6 106 psi) (b) Now we are asked to determine the value of E at P = 10 vol% (i.9 we get E = E0 (1 1. the maximum temperature without a liquid phase corresponds to the temperature of the eutectic isotherm on the Al 2O3rich side of the phase diagram.47 The modulus of elasticity for beryllium oxide (BeO) having 5 vol% porosity is 310 GPa (45 106 psi). which gives E0 = E 1 1. 0.10) + (0.05.9P + 0. . (b) The maximum temperature without the formation of a liquid phase for a magnesiaalumina spinel (65 wt% Al2O335 wt% MgO) lies at the phase boundary between MgAl2O4(ss)MgAl2O4 + Liquid phase fields (just slightly to the left of the congruent melting point at which the two phase boundaries become tangent).9 for E0. Solution (a) From Figure 12..9)(0.12.4 Find the maximum temperature to which the following two magnesia–alumina refractory materials may be heated before a liquid phase will appear.6 106 psi) 13.
Using the data in Figure 13. using the data in Figure 13.13. and with a slope of Qvis/R. (a) make such a plot for the borosilicate glass. the gas constant and the absolute temperature.13 The viscosity η of a glass varies with temperature according to the relationship Q A exp vis RT where Qvis is the energy of activation for viscous flow. may be computed according to ln ln ln 2 Qvis = R R 1 1 1 1 T T1 T2 . A is a temperatureindependent constant.7. Solution (a) Below is shown the logarithm viscosity versus reciprocal of temperature plot for the borosilicate glass. and (b) determine the activation energy between temperatures of 500 and 900°C. A plot of ln η versus l/T should be nearly linear.7. Qvis. respectively. and R and T are. The dashed line has been drawn through the data points corresponding to temperatures between 500 and 900ºC (as stipulated in the problem statement). (b) The activation energy.
653 108 s1 (1 wk)(7 days / week )(24 h / day)(3600 s / h) Thus. Solution This problem calls for us to determine the maximum temperature to which a cylindrical specimen of sodalime glass may be heated in order that its deformation be less than 1 mm over a week's time. ln ln 2 10.where R is the gas constant.59 and 32.8 103 and 1. = 5. Therefore. Taking 1/T1 and 1 T 1/T2 as 0.09 104 Pa Also.2 in. the tensile stress and the strain rate.14 For many viscous materials.1 1012 Pas is about 500C (930F).31 J/mol K) Qvis R 1 3 K1 1.1 = F = A0 1 N 5 103 m 2 2 = 5. determine the maximum temperature to which the specimen may be heated. If its deformation is to be less than 1 mm (0. respectively. the temperature at which the viscosity of the sodalime glass is 3.50.3 103 K1. A cylindrical specimen of a sodalime glass of diameter 5 mm (0.s d/ dt 1.59 32.1 1012 Pa.) and length 100 mm (4 in.7. using Figure 13. and ln is the slope of the dashed line that has been constructed.8 10 T1 T2 = 364.) is subjected to a tensile force of 1 N (0.04 in.000 J/mol 13.3 103 K1 1 1 0. then the corresponding values of ln 1 and ln 2 are 10.09 10 4 Pa = = 3. d = dt l d l 0 dt = 1 mm/100 mm = 1.7. According to Equation 6. . respectively.224 lb f) along its axis. the viscosity η may be defined in terms of the expression = d / dt where σ and d/dt are.50 (8.) over a week’s time.653 108 s1 From Figure 13.