Shakespeare and Music

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE MUSIC OF THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES
BY

EDWARD W. NAYLOR, M.A., Mus. Bac.
LONDON J.M. DENT & CO., ALDINE HOUSE, E.C. 1896 All rights reserved. Transcriber's Notes 1. The original text uses a "fraction" format for citations to Shakespeare's plays, e.g.:

For clarity, in this e-text the "fractions" have been converted to a one-line citation, e.g., Rom. III, v, 25 (signifying Act III, scene v, line 25). Where the original does not use the fraction format, the citation style has not been altered. 2. The original text sometimes misspells "Passamezzo" as "Passemezzo" and "viol da gamba" as "viol de gamba." These have been corrected in this e-text. 3. The original text inconsistently uses a breve over the e in "Parthenia" and "Passameso." For clarity, the breve has been removed in this e-text, as it is not part of the usual spelling of these words, and has in fact been omitted from the 1931 revised edition of the book. 4. The music images and sound files in this e-text were created using Finale Allegro 2005. The original text occasionally uses old-style symbols for time signatures and rests; these have been modernized in the images. [Pg v]

PREFACE
This book contains little that is not tolerably well known both to Shakespeare scholars and musicians who have any acquaintance with the history of music. It is hoped that it may be of some use to a large class of students of Shakespeare who have no opportunity to gather up the general information which will be found here. The author also ventures to believe that some brother musicians will be gratified to see at one view what a liberal treatment the great Poet has given to our noble art. It will be observed that settings of Shakespearian Songs of a later date than the generation immediately succeeding Shakespeare's death are not noticed. The Shakespeare and Music 1

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. large number of settings of the 18th century, by such men as Arne, though interesting musically, have nothing whatever to do with the student of Shakespeare and the circumstances of his time. It can only be regretted [Pg vi]that so much of the original music seems to have perished. The author is greatly indebted to Mr Aldis Wright, who has kindly looked through the work in MS., and contributed one or two interesting notes, which are acknowledged in the proper place. London, March 1896. [Pg vii]

CONTENTS
PAGE Description of Frontispiece Introductory Technical Terms and Instruments Musical Education Songs and Singing Serenades and 'Music' Dances and Dancing Pythagoreanism, etc. Use of Musical Stage Directions Appendix ix 1 21 58 65 96 113 152 165 185 Index [Pg ix]

DESCRIPTION OF FRONTISPIECE

PREFACE

2

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor.

[I am indebted for the arrangement of this picture to the kindness of the authorities at South Kensington Museum, where all these instruments may be found, except the Pipe and Cornet, which belong to my friend, Mr W.F.H. Blandford.] In the middle, on table. Queen Elizabeth's 'Virginal.' Date, latter half of 16th century. Outside of case (not visible in picture) covered with red velvet. Inside finely decorated. Has three locks. Is more properly a Spinet, the case not being square, but of the usual Spinet shape—viz., one long side (front view), and four shorter ones forming a rough semi-circle at back. Top row, counting from the right. 1. Tabor-pipe. Modern, but similar to the Elizabethan instrument. French name, 'galoubet.' Merely a whistle, cylindrical bore, and 3 holes, two in front, one (for thumb) behind. The scale is produced on the basis of the 1st harmonic—thus 3 holes are sufficient. It was played with left hand only, the tabor being hung to the left wrist, and beaten with a stick in the right hand. Length over all of pipe in picture, 1 ft. 2-1/2 in.; speaking length, 1 ft. 1-1/8 in.; lowest note in use, B flat above treble staff.[Pg x] Mersennus (1648), however, says the tabor-pipe was in G, which makes it larger than the one in the picture. A contemporary woodcut (in Calmour's 'Fact and Fiction about Shakespeare') of William Kemp, one of Shakespeare's fellow-actors, dancing the Morris, to tabor and pipe, makes the pipe as long as from mouth to waist—viz., about 18 inches, which agrees DESCRIPTION OF FRONTISPIECE 3

as one of the greatest of the great. and one behind for thumb. across the head. 3. Modern shape. Tube slightly curved. 1637. Cremona. Flat head. Treble Viol. by Edward W. and find it treated of from several points of view. With Shakespeare. 2. Lute. off the fingerboard. Small French Treble Viol. Three joints. 5. obliquely. and the breadth. therefore. Cupped mouthpiece of horn.' and probably half of them duplicates. with Mersennus. not including beak. It is scarcely a matter of surprise. 18 strings. plain head. late 17th century. The usual 6 finger holes in front. that in them each man can find that for which he seeks. 3. label inside—Andreas (?) Amati. Naylor. this is pre-eminently the case. The beak has a hole at the back. Bass Viol. Recorder.. Italian. 1580. 9 in. 6 strings. Back view. No screw. 1 single (treble). in these two woodcuts. 6. 10 on higher. INTRODUCTORY 4 . shews carved head and flat back. Cornet (treble). 1600. like oboe. Large beak-flute of dark wood. 6 strings. 8 on lower neck. and a right-or-left little-finger hole in lowest joint. 6 holes. 7 frets. and each is more than satisfied with the treatment of his own special subject. Carved head. 7. This shape in use later than 1756. The length of the tabor. 5 more on belly. 2. Lowest note. counting from left. 6 strings. and 2 singles off the fingerboard (basses). The latter are 'basses. Italian. 7 frets. Italian. A similar woodcut in 'Orchésographie' makes the pipe even longer. seems to be about 1 ft. Front view. 1. Tenor Viol. One reader looks for simply dramatic interest. that the musical student should look in Shakespeare for music.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Three plain holes in belly. a thumb hole behind. 4 frets. which vibrates and gives a slight reediness to the tone. shewing sloping shoulders. inlaid fingerboard. 10 frets. 6 strings. 1 single. Both represent pipe as conical. 9 or 10 in. 4 doubles. as used in England and Italy. carved and inlaid tailpiece. 12 strings—viz. ivory nut. 8. Violoncello Bow. 4. and in a form which includes his own view. date 16th or 17th century. Ancient shape. No snare in the English woodcut. Arch Lute. Bottom row. Pegs turned with key from behind. 4 frets. Viol da Gamba Bow. with screw. another for natural philosophy. covered with a thin skin. same shape as of all other viols of whatever size. but the French one has a snare. or Viol da Gamba. 7 frets on neck. Ornamental back. [Pg 1] INTRODUCTORY A principal character of the works of a very great author is.. completely and accurately. 17th century. or Division Viol. 17th century. bore conical. external shape octagonal. and a third for morals. English. A under treble staff. Side[Pg xi] view.

both at the first and now. and to shew the very age and body of the time. and we believe. Hamlet tells us. This is the more satisfactory. as no subject in literature has been treated with greater scorn for accuracy. and is." Mr Shorthouse. by Edward W. and which clearly shew his thorough personal appreciation of its higher and more spiritual qualities. the second (so to speak) psychological. he is trustworthy in all. or general lack of real interest. Out of thirty-seven plays of Shakespeare. no Shakespeare student will deny that some general help is necessary. here follows a short sketch of the history of this subject. There are also over three hundred stage directions which are musical in their nature. with the records of the practice and social position of the musical art in Elizabethan times. that the "layman" has managed to write the simplest sentence about a specialty. that players are the abstracts and brief chronicles of the time. it argues very much indeed in a writer's favour. the most superficial comparison of the plays alone. and that the end of playing. was. and are generally the occasion or instrument of word-quibbling and witticisms. there are many most interesting passages which treat of music from the emotional standpoint. displayed in any other matter. will surely go some way to give definiteness and force to our ideas of Shakespeare's magnificent grip of all other phases of thought and of action. which the reader is requested to peruse with the deliberate object of finding every detail confirmed in Shakespeare's INTRODUCTORY 5 . whether he "crammed" his music or not." To a professional reader at all events. the first purely historical. without some more or less serious blunder. The study of this one feature of the "age and body" of Shakespeare's time. with the view of clearly grasping the extreme accuracy of the "abstract and brief chronicle" to be found in his works. often without clearly understanding. while.[Pg 2] The author of "John Inglesant. when Schmidt's admirable Lexicon commits itself to such a misleading statement as that a virginal is a kind of small pianoforte. there[Pg 4] are no less than thirty-two which contain interesting references to music and musical matters in the text itself. Naylor. has in that book given a lively and quite accurate picture of the art as practised about Charles I. than this of music. This statement will admit of comparatively few exceptions. and when a very distinguished Shakespeare scholar has allowed a definition of a viol as a six-stringed guitar to appear in print under his name. The student of music in Shakespeare is bound to view the subject in two different ways. The argument recommends itself—"If he is trustworthy in this subject. while the musical stage directions belong chiefly to the tragedies.'s time. would have brought on them the just contempt of any reviewer. his form and pressure. and are mostly of a military nature. Finally.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. shews that Shakespeare is in every way a trustworthy guide in these matters. As it is indispensable that the student of Shakespeare and Music should have a clear idea of the social status and influence of music in Shakespearian times. one of which must here be mentioned. There is no need here to name the many well-known writers who have spoken of music with a lofty disregard for facts and parade of ignorance which. to[Pg 3] hold the mirror up to nature. The musical references in the text are most commonly found in the comedies. and these occur in thirty-six out of thirty-seven plays. As for the first. as for the second view.

and an allurement to vices." after supper. and that inability to take "a part" was liable to remark from the rest of the company.. works. sesqui-paltery (saith the other): nay (would the other say). till the which time I wish you such contentment of mind[Pg 6] and ease of body as you desire to yourselfe (Master's health had been very bad for long enough) or mothers use to wish to their children.[Pg 8] Music in Social Life. is ashamed—and goes to seek Gnorimus the music-master. sesqui-paltery. by Edward W.. What? (saith the one). Philomathes has to make many excuses as to his vocal inability.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. a descanter himself. sesqui-altera (3 equal notes against 2). 16th and 17th centuries. Here we read of a[Pg 5] dinner-party.[1] This brother had had lessons formerly from a master who carried a plainsong book in his pocket. are perversions of names of "proportions" used in the 16th century—as. but they fell to contention. you sing[Pg 7] you know not what.. Naylor. which I doubt not but you will doe. Also—after supper—according to custom—"parts" were handed round by the hostess.'s experience of the supper-party has so far changed his views that he wishes as soon as may be to change his character of Stoic for that of Pythagorean.. the art of extemporaneously adding a part to the written plainsong. you keepe not time in your proportions: you sing them false (saith the other). and by singing them recreate us after our more serious studies.) Morley. 6 . 208." at which the conversation was entirely about music. sesqui-blinda." 1597. that both Philomathes and Polymathes are young University gentlemen—looking forward hereafter to be "admitted to the handling of the weightie affaires of the common wealth. (Temp. "Plain and Easy Introduction to Practical Music." [These mocking terms. and sesqui-harken-after.. and finally is obliged to confess that he cannot sing at all. and cause me to sing the descant. At this the rest of the company "wonder"—and some whisper to their neighbours. it shoulde seeme you came latelie from a Barber's shop. pp." The lessons end with their request to the master to give them "some songes which may serve both to direct us in our compositions. etc. "and so walking in the fields.] We find." Then follows a long lesson—which is brought to an end by Philomathes giving farewell to the master as thus—"Sir. what proportion is this? (saith hee).e. Thereupon the master begins to teach him from the very beginning.'s brother Polymathes comes with him to Gnorimus for a lesson in Descant—i. that then I thinke I shall be able to render you a full account of all which you have told me." Polymathes tells us also that his master had a friend. "as though he were a child. and sesqui-harken-after. 1 and 2. has heretofore distinguished himself by inveighing against music as a "corrupter of good manners. "How was he brought up?" Phil.. 136) Phil. where you had Gregory Walker (derisive name for 'quadrant pavan." The Master replies—"I thanke you: and assure your selfe it will not be the smallest part of my contentment to see my schollers go towardly forward in their studies." Phil. Music in Social Life. who used often to drop in—but "never came in my maister's companie . I thanke you. and indeed that such inability cast doubt on the person having any title to education at all. called sesqui-blinda. and caused him to do the like. on p. or "banket. and meane so diligently to practise till our next meeting." Thus we find that in Elizabeth's reign it was the "custom" for a lady's guests to sing unaccompanied music from "parts. if you take but reasonable pains in practise.. hee would sing the plaine song." Later on in the Third Part (p.' 'which was most common 'mongst the Barbars and Fidlers') or a curranta plaide in the new proportions by them lately found out. The master is surprised to see him—as Phil.

1551. was a diversion of such young University gentlemen. Thomas Saintwix. 367). and Hawkins gives a motet in three parts by the king. July 19th. "Quam pulchra es." It appears from the Diary of King Edward VI. Also in Vol. see Hawkins. there is abundant evidence that she was a good virginal player. we find Henry VIII. the statutes of Trinity College. We find that one music master was accustomed to have his gentleman pupils so constantly "in his company" that they would practise their singing while "walking in the fields. 'Pastyme with good companye' and 'Wherto shuld I expresse. by Edward W.[Pg 11] The best known MS. Music in Social Life. and the following quaint story is quoted by Hawkins from Melvil's Memoirs (Lond.[2] (Long before this." etc. Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1592. in which she exhorts her "to use her virginals and lute.'[Pg 10] A somewhat unclerical amusement of Henry VIII. 7 . according to Hawkins (History of Music. doctor in music. 1752). the mother of Queen Mary. founded by Henry VIII. "O Lord. and also the extempore singing of a second part (descant) to a written plainsong.'s is related by Sir John Harrington (temp." was set to music in a canon of three parts by Harrington's father (who had married a natural daughter of Henry VIII." is ascribed to him.. and was looked on as a proper form of recreation after hard reading. An anthem. make part of the Examination of Candidates for Fellowships to be in "Quid in[Pg 9] Cantando possint". Anne Boleyn was an enthusiastic musician. as they called it.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.)." Finally—that part-singing from written notes." Chappell's Old English Popular Music gives a passage from a letter of Pasqualigo the Ambassador-extraordinary. was elected Master of King's College. are given two part-songs by the king. pp. says that no one "could be admitted to primam tonsuram.)." For the music and words. indeed. James I. or Monkes Hymn to Saunte Satane. and to sing well. 921 and 922. all members were supposed capable of singing a part in choir service. as a younger brother. that he was a musician. except he could first bene le bene con bene can. Naylor..] Also. dated about 1515. p. as he mentions playing on the lute before the French Ambassador as one of the several accomplishments which he displayed before that gentleman. if she has any. Cambridge. and King Henry was used "in pleasaunt moode to sing it. which says that Henry VIII. and had collections of them made for the private practice of herself and her maiden companions. in which last he hath good judgment. There is also a letter from Queen Catherine (of Arragon)." [The three bene's are of course le-gere. and. in 1463. and eventually for the See of Canterbury. "The Blacke Saunctus. was a good practical musician. Erasmus says he composed offices for the church. A letter from Sir John Harrington to Prince Henry (brother of Charles I. "plays well on the lute and virginals. An old monkish rhyme. con-struere. In the 16th century music was considered an essential part of a clergyman's education. to conster [construe] well. collection of virginal music (that in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge) has at least always been known as Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. the maker of all things. who." As for Elizabeth. "doted on the compositions of Jusquin and Mouton. was intended for the Church. I.) Accordingly. sings from book at sight. which is to read well. Cambridge. can-tare.) about Dr John Still. according to Hawkins.

] To go on with the Royal musicians (who are interesting as such. but she left off immediately so soon as she turned her about and saw me." There seems to have been little that was not pure enjoyment in these meetings." "Ralph Sheldon. Counter-Tenor. hearing her play excellently well.. living in Halywell neare Oxon. Virginal." [Queen Elizabeth's Virginal is in South Kensington Museum. play'd three.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. that the king "often appointed the service and anthems himself" in the Royal Chapel.A. that he went usually twice every week . 8 . Treble-Viol. for feare of making their Meetings to be vaine and fidling. with whom he used to play and sing.'s time... but alwaies played out of Tune. Naylor. She appeared to be surprised to see me. and came forward. In his Life. who was "an admirable Lutenist. one of the seven bishops who[Pg 14] were deprived at the Revolution). This was in 1656." This was fourteen years after Shakespeare's death. which. His love to music was such. or Harpsicon joyn'd with them: and they esteemed a Violin to be an Instrument only belonging to a common Fidler.e. who was at Oxford University in 1651.. organist of Christ Church. gentlemen of rank. Thus we find that in the 16th and 17th centuries a practical acquaintance with music was a regular part of the education of both sovereign. my Lord of Hunsdean drew me up to a quiet gallery that I might hear some music (but he said he durst not avow it). George Herbert. four.. Ken of New Coll.) says of Charles I.." and "could not endure any common Musitian to come to the meeting.W. Mr Low." and a Master of Arts of Magdalen.. there were eight or nine professional musicians who frequented these meetings. which he set and sung to his lute or viol." All the rest played either viol. a Rom. they were much improved. alledging she was not used to play before men.. Charles II. a Fellow of All Souls. virginals. as. M. where I might hear the queen play upon the virginals. who were mixed with them. Also Playford (temp. Besides the amateurs. and five Parts with Viols. "and would play his part exactly well on the bass-violl. "The same day. After I had hearkened a while I took by [aside] the tapestry that hung before the door of the chamber. to the cathedral church in Salisbury. he would usually sing and play his part at an appointed private music meeting." Wood went to a weekly meeting of musicians in Oxford.. admired for his smooth and admirable way in playing on the Viol. with an Organ." This last gentleman was afterwards Bishop of Durham. because their habit must have set the fashion of the day)." But not only was the poet-priest a lover of church music. found in music "his chiefest recreation. in James I. Masters of Arts.. Music in Social Life. by Edward W. and at his return would say that his time spent in prayer and cathedral music elevated his soul." "These did frequent the Weekly Meetings.. and in 1658 Wood gives the names of over sixteen other persons. Crew. but when she was solitary to shun melancholy. a Violinist and Violist. a Junior" (afterwards Bishop Ken. or harpsichord.. who could "sing his part. after dinner. and Bass.e. or at least members of the University. Only two persons out of the thirty-two mentioned seem to have had any undesirable quality—viz." "and did himself compose many divine hymns and anthems. John Cooper)." and "Nathan. Amongst those whom he names as "performing their parts" are four Fellows of New College. for (Walton's Life goes on) "before his return thence to Bemerton. Amongst them was "Thom. seeming to strike me with her hand. the viol da gamba."—i. Catholick . Coll.'s reign we find that Prince Charles learnt the Viol da Gamba[Pg 12] from Coperario (i.. he mentions that[Pg 13] "the gentlemen in privat meetings. frequented. Anthony Wood. and by the help of public Masters of Musick. Fellow of Linc. Tenor. who was "a proud man. or were "songsters. and stood a pretty space. had superseded the feebler viols) in Oxford.. who had a weekly meeting at his own college. all of whom were Fellows of Colleges. organ. violin. and could not endure that it should come among them. and the higher middle class. and was his heaven upon earth. who was by birth a courtier.. gives a most interesting account of the practice of chamber music for viols (and even violins. Gent. by Charles II. which A.

there is a catch in three parts. one of the characters. and F. Naylor. Peele's Old Wives Tale.e. Drawing in diligent ale. though more indirect in kind. says. good lieutenant. 1595. two years after the Regicide. and at the same time enjoying himself singing in the three-part canon composed by his friend. country parsons. In Damon and Pithias. Prebendaries. Jack and Will.. and F's. like careful members of the city. they sing the tune and words. We find that a Fellow of Trinity at the same time[Pg 15] was expected to sing "his part" in chapel as a matter of course. and Elizabeth to have all been capable players on lute or virginals. I am sure you are not without some round or other. says— "It must be late." [Pg 17] [In Bonduca. that catch may is all our life. Men who afterwards became Bishops. Sirrah Frolic. We find Edward VI. composing church music." i. and singing catches. the collier." Music in Social Life.'s Faithful Friends— "Bell.] In Sir William Davenant's (Davenant flourished 1635) comedy The Wits. you know. and lastly. a play of B. sings "a bussing [buzzing] base." Beaumont and Fletcher's Coxcomb has "Where were the watch the while? good sober gentlemen. a gentleman of rank. while he buzzes the burden. A large number of passages in contemporary authors shows clearly that[Pg 16] singing in parts (especially of "catches") was a common amusement with blacksmiths. Black. 9 . we find a courtier of James I.—Aye. cobblers.—Shall's have a catch. altered for operatic setting by Purcell in 1695. and to solace their weary hours by singing "in parts. were not ashamed to practise chamber music and singing to an extent which really has no parallel whatever nowadays. catch. that the lower classes were as enthusiastic about music as the higher. There is plenty of evidence. ere we set forth. We find that it was the merest qualification that an Elizabethan bishop should be able to sing well. Snore. 1565." and two of his friends. my hearts? Calve. "This smith leads a life as merry as a king. we find the University of Oxford to have been a perfect hotbed of musical cultivation." Also in B. sung by the Roman soldiers. the nailman. and soldiers. besides sixteen Fellows of Colleges. They were. watchmen." Immediately after Shakespeare's time. Mary.. and sundry gentlemen of family. by Edward W.. tinkers.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. "quiddel upon it..—Methinks a soldier[3] should sing nothing else. and the ill-fated Prince Charles himself. no doubt but Clunch [the smith] can bear his part. Archdeacons. both enthusiasts in both church and chamber music. and that young University gentlemen of birth thought it nothing out of the way to learn all the mysteries of both prick-song (a written part) and descant (an extempore counterpoint). We find Henry VIII. Grimme. colliers. cloth-workers. Had catechized his maids. for gossip Nock. and sung three catches And a song.

saluting every room where there is company with. Samuel Harsnet. and 10 parts. cannot but commend.' And in The Merry Devill of Edmonton.. that was held so delectable and precious [i. 10 .' To go on to instrumental music among the lower classes of Elizabethan and Shakespearian times. there is an allusion in the above quoted passage from Morley (1597) to the habit of playing on an instrument in a barber's shop while waiting one's turn to be shaved. to give him a dance before he depart. and was thought a vulgar instrument. 'thinking verily. there is a curious preface. and began to quarrel with the Parson. like a guitar. King and courtier. In the latter play. peasant and ploughman. being such." 'so long to and fro." 1587. 5.' and exclaims 'that cursed barber! I have married his cittern that is common to all men': meaning that as the barber's cittern was always being played. 7. as all such whose love of musick exceeds their skill. 1643] with their instruments under their cloaks—I mean.' that country was England." These men sang ballads and catches as well.' that Smug forgot he was singing a catch. with a pot of good ale between their legs. there is a comical story of how Smug the miller was singing a catch with the merry Parson in an alehouse. mentions a 'merry catch. at any rate. while so far from being above knowing the difference between a minim and a crotchet.e. There is a poem of the 18th century which speaks of the old times. speaks of the decay of music in taverns. in Shakespeare's times]. he had meant (as he said in his song) to ty his mare in his ground. which had four strings and frets. which he says was sung by tinkers 'as they sit by the fire. now wander [i. in the 16th and 17th centuries.' Finally. a collection of Rounds and[Pg 18] Catches of 3. and Catches of England).' 'Now God be with old Simeon' (for which see Rimbault's Rounds.e. This is also referred to in Ben Jonson's Alchemist and Silent Woman. That barber's musick was most barbarous. a thing which could only be managed 'first Music in Social Life. 1631.' with each music was a part of his daily life. that if ever a country deserved to be called 'musical. by Edward W. because they are so consonant to all ordinary musical capacity." All this leads to the just conclusion. the 'good old days' were indeed better than those that we now see. gentlemen?'" Finally..The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' The preface further asserts that the book is 'published only to please good company. that a man can no sooner enter a tavern.. in his Declaration of Egregious Impostures.' However true that may have been—at all events it is certain that in the 16th and 17th centuries it was customary to hear instrumental music in a barber's shop. in Gosson's "Short Apologie of the Schoole of Abuse. 4. that they scorned to come to a tavern under twenty shillings salary for two hours. Also they played during dinner.[Pg 19] 'In former time 't hath been upbrayded thus. so his wife was always talking. which followed the closing of theatres in 1642. Lyly says—"Thou need no more send for a fidler to a feast. In this respect. Cutberd the barber has recommended a wife to Morose. Even a public-house song in Elizabeth's day was a canon in three parts. a gentleman would have been ashamed not to know it. 8. in Pammelia. printed 1643. than a beggar to a fair. 1603. generally of a cittern. than two or three cast of them hang at his heels. 9. Canons. and published in 1609. we find that "London is so full of unprofitable pipers and fiddlers. Morose finds that instead of a mute helpmate he has got one who had 'a tongue with a tang. each could 'take his part.[4] Another use of instrumental music was to entertain the guests in a tavern. such as have any—into all houses of good[Pg 20] fellowship. which states that 'Catches are so generally affected . 6. edited by Thomas Ravenscroft. Naylor.. indeed. and how they 'tost' the words "I'll ty my mare in thy ground. as follows:—"Our music. 'Will you have any music. A pamphlet called The Actor's Remonstrance.

Lucrece. time through' nowadays by the very first rank of professional singers. when time is kept with tears. SHAKESPEARE PASSAGES 11 . Naylor. and a general caution to the student not to pass over words or phrases that[Pg 22] appear obscure. (4) Serenades and other domestic 'Music. "Come. [Pg 21] SHAKESPEARE PASSAGES I Technical Terms and Instruments We now proceed to consider some representative passages of Shakespeare which deal with music. with the result that the point is wholly or partly missed. Relish your nimble notes to pleasing ears. Make thy sad grove in my dishevell'd hair: As the dank earth weeps at thy languishment." (Then to the nightingale)&#8212. are so full of musical similes that it may be useful to take them at once. (3) Songs and Singing. (6) Miscellaneous. while she herself bears the 'burden' with her groans. and these are liable to be understood by the reader in a merely general way. including Shakespeare's account of the more spiritual side of music. There are many most interesting passages which bristle with technical words. Shall tune our heart-strings to true languishment." Here Lucrece tells the birds to cease their joyous notes. as frets upon an instrument.. Distress like dumps. And with deep groans the diapason bear. So I at each sad strain will strain a tear. The following lines. (2) Musical Education. With a reasonable amount of explanation. For burden wise I'll hum on Tarquin still. A woful hostess brooks not merry guests.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.viz. To begin on the first division. These means. by Edward W. though not in a play.. (1) Technical Terms and Instruments. To keep thy sharp woes waking. that sing'st of ravishment. "My restless discord loves no stops nor rests. Philomel.. While thou on Tereus descant'st better skill. These may be taken roughly in six divisions&#8212. "And while against a thorn thou bear'st thy part. line 1124.' (5) Dances and Dancing. and calls on the nightingale to sing the song[Pg 23] of Tereus. there is no reason why these passages should not be understood by all in a much fuller light.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [See Appendix. Cuccu. 12. [See Introduction. guitar. There is a quaint illustration of ll. Technical Terms and Instruments 12 . Lhudè sing Cuccu.] L. Naylor. the viol. by Edward W.. 'By a bank as I lay. but they were then simply bits of string tied round at the right places for[Pg 26] the fingers.. where 'buzzing bass' is referred to. and was considered a 'light' tune on that account. read at sight the treble. To 'descant' meant to sing or play an extempore second 'part' to a written melody. In Shakespeare days. The modern equivalent for 'bear a part' (l.' which they repeat ad infinitum till the four who sing the Round are tired. 80. 41. Morley (Introduction to Practical Music. The tune. Sing cuccu. and cittern all had frets on the fingerboard.' where the poem has these lines on the nightingale&#8212. alto. to 'tune' the strings. see the Introduction.[5] The art of descant in Elizabeth's time corresponded closely with what we call 'Strict Counterpoint' (contra. For instance. Awè bleteth after lomb. lhouth after calvè cu. Here Lucrece says she will 'bear the diapason' with deep groans. 1597) says a 'straine' should consist of 8.' [See also Sonnet VIII. 1135) is 'sing a part.' in l. and banjo.'&#8212.let A sing a hymn tune. yet fewer then eight I have not seene in any pauan. I. 'Descant. about the nightingale singing 'against a thorn' to keep her awake. where she could keep slow time with her tears. tenor. 'Sumer is icumen in.e. Their use is referred to in the next line. in the words of a favourite old part song of King Henry VIII. lute. in a Pavan. or bass 'part' of the work presented by the host for the diversion of his guests. iv. The point was that it should be extempore. i.' A rough example may be had in the extempore bass or alto which some people still sing in church instead of the melody. B is 'descanting' on the melody that A sings. 'Sing cuccu nu. This refrain is called Pes (or 'foot')..] There is another quibble in l. A more accurate example of descant would be this&#8212.' The word 'hum' may be considered technical. Sing Cuccu. Here four voices sing the real music in canon to these words&#8212.] Any person of decent education could 'bear a part' in those days.' of the 13th[Pg 24] century. and let B accompany him extempore with a separate melody within the bounds of harmony. 'Nimble notes' was used in the Shakespearian time as we should use the term 'brilliant music..' The earliest 'burden' known is that in the ancient Round 'Sumer is icumen in.' or 'written' descant). A 'strain' is the proper Elizabethan word for a formal phrase of a musical composition. and made fast with glue. Bulluc sterteth. to dance awkwardly) was a slow. 1135-6. while all the time two other voices of lower pitch sing a monotonous refrain. used to go without a burden. Groweth seed and bloweth mead and springth the wdè nu. punctus. 'hum' a 'burden' or drone an octave lower than the nightingale's 'descant. on strain. Wel singès thu cuccu. as we know from Much Ado III. i. say the Old 100th. The first line contains a quibble on 'rests' and 'restless' discord. dumpa. wants explaining. if written down[Pg 25] it ceased to be true descant. Buckè verteth. mournful dance. murie sing cuccu. but rather for Dumps. 1140.e. i. and this is the kind of thing which Lucrece means by 'burden. see Two Gent.' 'Diapason' meant the interval of an octave. hence 'prick-song. The Dumpe (from Swedish Dialect. 1131. 1134. and was then called 'prick-song. or 16 semibreves (we should say 'bars' instead of 'semibreves') 'as they list. ii. ne swik thu naver nu. to 'stop' the string accurately at each semitone.e. 'Frets upon an instrument' can still be seen on the modern mandoline. 'Light o' love' [see Appendix].' Lucrece was in no humour for trills and runs. Cuccu.

and melodious were it.How now. The mean is drown'd with your unruly base. there is a punning reference (somewhat prophetic) by Lucetta. to 'give the note' in order to 'set' the pitch for singing.' In close connection with this is the conversation between Julia and her maid Lucetta. in Two Gent..' to 'sing out'.. Lucetta recommends the middle course. or one voice is 'drowned' by another. Some love of yours hath writ to you in rhyme. You. as the 'mean' (alto) by the 'bass. Jul. to perfect the harmony. And why not you? Luc. Let's see your song. viz. that neither is in 'concord' with the spirit of the love-letter. Another play upon words should not be missed. madam.&#8212. is 'too sharp. ii. in forsaking Julia for Silvia. in ll. 'She syngeth in the thyke. Jul. Jul. Luc. to the 'base' conduct of Proteus. You do not? Luc. Naylor. and under her brest A pricke... would you sing it. 'to fill the song. about the letter from Proteus. it is too sharp.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Jul. Luc.Lucetta says the 'tune. minion! Luc. I bid the base for Proteus. Julia's testiness about Proteus' letter. Jul.' meaning. it hath some burden then.' and that her chiding of herself is 'too flat.e. or 'mean' (alto voice. That I might sing it. I. It is too heavy for so light a tune. now you are too flat.g. Perhaps it is sufficient to remark that many of the italicized words above are still in ordinary use by musicians&#8212.e. Ay. madam. As little by such toys as may be possible: Best sing it to the tune of "Light o' love. so you will sing it out. And yet. [Pg 27]Jul. I do not like this tune.' Once more we have quibbles on musical terms&#8212. And mar the concord with too harsh a descant: There wanteth but a mean to fill your song. Finally.Nay. Jul. to 'keep in tune.' i. Jul. to a tune: Give me a note: your ladyship can set. 76-93.' i.I cannot reach so high. Luc. minion. Heavy? belike.No. Luc. Indeed." Luc. to kepe hur fro sleepe.e. methinks. 78 Technical Terms and Instruments 13 . midway between treble and bass). are too saucy. Keep tune there still. by Edward W.

Romeo. my soul? let's talk. a Royalist soldier.' The lark heralds the dawn. or bass. This doth not so.] Further on. 'A ground. call it what you please. one for him who is to play the ground upon an organ. has a further use. (see Twelfth Night I. the 'Tortoise-shell of Diminutions. away! It is the lark that sings so out of tune. of short notes. How is't.' A very clear example of Divisions may be found in 'Rejoice greatly' in the Messiah. he distinguishes between 'breaking the notes of the ground' and 'descanting upon' the ground. harpsichord. where 'set' does double duty. the lark sings 'out of tune. it is. however. the other for him that plays upon the viol. A cant term for the old-fashioned variation (e. and readers of John Inglesant will remember that 'Mr Inglesant. Some say. The lark's song suggests musical metaphors in Juliet's speech. Romeo and Juliet's parting at day[Pg 28]break. Naylor. The manner of expressing it is thus:&#8212. v.' his strains are full of 'discords' and 'sharps. The long 'runs' on the second syllable of 'Rejoice. To give his own words[Pg 30]&#8212. is prick'd down in two several papers. Jul. and 79. called Chelys Minuritionum. is the breaking either of the bass or of any higher part that is applicable thereto. This was a favourite accomplishment of gentlemen in the 16th and 17th centuries. it is not day. so Romeo must leave her. by Edward W. Rom. In 1665 there was published an instruction book in this art.. until the viol player had exhausted his capacity to produce further 'breakings' of the harmony.e.' Playing a descant on a ground bass meant playing extempore 'divisions' or variations.' The last two lines contain an interesting allusion in the word 'division. the variations of the 'Harmonious Blacksmith') was 'Note-splitting. the third of which is devoted to the method of ordering division on a ground.' [See the Appendix for an example by Sympson.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. plays such variety of descant or division in concordance thereto as his skill and present invention do then suggest unto him. iii. It is. The work is in three parts. Straining harsh discords. and the older word 'Division. ergo.' hence (Chelys meaning a lyre. to the harmony of a 'ground bass' which (with its proper chords) was repeated again and again by the harpsichordist. Sir Andrew Aguecheek numbered this amongst his attainments..' The book is by Christopher Sympson. who having the said ground before his eyes as his theme or subject. played a descant upon a ground bass in the Italian manner. the lark makes sweet division. hie hence.' which at once explains itself. Juliet evidently agrees with Portia that 'nothing is good without respect. being pressed to oblige the company. are simply 'division' or 'note-splittings' of the first note of each group. III. 24). 25. subject. for she divideth us. or what other instrument may be apt for that purpose.g. which is founded essentially on a much simpler passage of longer notes. be gone. 'Diminution or division to a ground. i.' besides the pun on 'she divideth us. namely. and unpleasing sharps. Technical Terms and Instruments 14 . a brilliant passage. who was a well-known viol-da-gamba player. made of a tortoise-shell) 'The Division Viol.' 'Division' means roughly. to play 'divisions' on a viol-da-gamba.[Pg 29] The word.' consisting of several groups of four semiquavers.

where 'broken music' is referred to. and this has resulted in breaking the Technical Terms and Instruments 15 . it seems. ***** This music mads me: let it sound no more: For though it hath holp madmen to their wits. seem to have been described as 'Broken Music. In Sylva Sylvarum Bacon mentions several 'consorts of Instruments' which agree well together.. first a bass[Pg 31] note. performed by some friendly hands. and an instrument of another kind.. Katherine.' All these.e. An entirely separate use of 'break' is in the phrase 'broken time. v. 45 Richard reflects on the sad contrast between his quick 'ear' for 'broken time' in music.[Pg 32] K. [Mr Aldis Wright has given me references to Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum. i. as we now say. But. your answer in broken music. Hen. In l. Rich. see Hen.' Cf. queen of all. the strings were plucked.g.. a flute. 'the Irish Harp and Base-Viol agree well: the Recorder and Stringed Music agree well: Organs and the Voice agree well. i. II. Locke's 'Compositions for Broken and Whole Consorts. and similar combinations. III. Rich. and Essay of Masque and Triumph.Music do I hear? Ha. where Henry proposes to Katherine. In this connection we will take the passage of King Richard's speech in prison at Pontefract&#8212. (quoted further on).'] In point. if one of the players was absent.. 'a bar wrong'). and the play upon 'time broke' admirable. may be taken as a partial explanation of several passages on Shakespeare. was substituted. the player relying on the hearer to piece the harmony together. 'breaking' notes.' which has the simple and obvious meaning that the notes do not receive their due length and proportion. 52 and ff. by Edward W. e.. V. in prison. viz. and his slowness to hear the 'breaking' of his own 'state and time.How sour sweet music is. which.' 1672.e. And here have I the daintiness of ear.when he hears music without.). being a pizzicato instrument (i. which show that 'Broken Music' was understood to mean any combination of instruments of different kinds. etc.&#8212. not played with a bow).The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. higher up in the scale. V. King R. Matt.g. it will make wise men mad.. could not do more than indicate the harmony in 'broken' pieces. therefore. ii. Naylor.' The 'disorder'd string' is himself.. agree not so well. Had not an ear to hear my true time broke. for the concord of my state and time. K. then perhaps two notes at once. When time is broke. for thy voice is music. Come. 41. e.i. and thy English broken. the music was thus said to be 'broken. But the Virginals and the Lute .. An entirely different explanation is that of Mr Chappell (in Aldis Wright's Clarendon Press Edition of Henry V. 248. V. although it is likely that a better account of this may be found in the natural imperfection of the Lute. break thy mind to me in broken English: wilt thou have me? Also see Troilus III. This phrase. To check time broke in a disorder'd string. [Pg 33]The simile is perfect.. 278. that when a 'consort' of viols was imperfect. and no proportion kept! So is it in the music of men's lives.e. In me. ha! keep time. who has been playing his part 'out of time' ('Disorder'd' simply means 'out of its place'&#8212.

'From the hagg and hungrie Goblin. 'Doomsday.] Our modern Tarantellas derive their name and characteristic speed from the old Tarantula. Vol. and 4 in the bar. Sesquialtera. Duple (two beats to the bar) and Triple (three beats to the bar).The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. and multiplex superpartiens. 2 in the bar. like the catastrophe of the old comedy: my cue is villainous melancholy.' mad-songs they were called.] Sesquialtera is more complicated.O! these eclipses do portend these divisions.&#8212.viz. The first three correspond to what we still call[Pg 34] Duple. I. the greater and the lesser inequality. Pat he comes. Kircher mentions King Saul's madness. perhaps. Technical Terms and Instruments 16 . la. he should find it a matter not only hard but almost impossible. Edmund (aside). This is more amusing than instructive. In his "Phonurgia nova" (1673) Kircher actually gives the notes of the tune by which one case was cured. by which the patient is stimulated to dance violently. 137. and 'Sesquitertia is when four notes are sung to three of the same kinde. Fa. Its date is some time before 1626. ['Bars' were not in general use till the end of the 16th century. of Lear. The three last lines of this passage refer to the[Pg 35] various stories of real or pretended cure of disease by the use of particular pieces of music. the harmony of the various parts which compose the state.. gives an account.. A few words are necessary about 'Proportion. in his "Musurgia.but there was plenty of mystery left even after all deductions. in Italy.' This term was used in Elizabethan times exactly as we now use 'Time. [Pg 36] Songs like 'Tom o' Bedlam.viz. Of course many of these 'Proportions' never really came into practical use&#8212. Triple. and Sesquitertia.. 'concord'&#8212. Tripla. 1597) gives Five kinds of proportions 'in most common use'&#8212. and Quadruple Time&#8212. gives us an idea of the way this subject of proportion was treated by more 'learned' writers. But in Elizabeth's day the table of various Proportions was a terribly elaborate thing. but the principle was the same. a learned Jesuit (1601-1680). Dupla. Lear I.i.' or the frenzy produced by the bite of the Tarantula. p.' and the whole is as full of ejaculations of 'Poor Tom' as Act III.' Ornithoparcus. The tune and words of the original 'Tom a Bedlam' are to be found in Chappell. and set down all them which Franchinus Gaufurius [1496] hath set down in his booke De Proportionibus Musicis. mi. sol.viz. One of the best known of these diseases is 'Tarantism.e. (2) that this is two-fold&#8212.' The 'times' used in modern music can practically be reduced to two&#8212. 175. multiplex. multiplex superparticular.i.' 'But' (Morley adds). He says (1) that music considers only the proportion of inequality. with a sigh like Tom o' Bedlam. The perspiration thus produced was said to effect a cure.[6] and verse 1 begins. Kircher. 3 in the bar. [See George Herbert's poem. Quadrupla. and means 'three notes are sung to two of the same kinde'. namely. The bars themselves are merely a convenience. (3) The greater inequality contains five proportions. Naylor. ii. Edmund pretends not to see Edgar's entrance. by Edward W. Morley (Introduction.e." of the cure of this madness by certain airs. which was relieved by David's harp playing. superparticular..' verse 2. superpartiens. were very commonly sung in England in the 17th century. and may well have been in Shakespeare's mind. 'if a man would ingulphe himselfe to learn to sing. in his Micrologus (1535).. This is certainly to the point. In this connection.

III. or B flat. then would follow F. 'between the child and the parent .' etc. Re. La. E. La. a tone.A. Hist.' [Burney. which contains the[Pg 37] augmented fourth. la.'] Guido d'Arezzo (or Aretinus). corresponds to F. as we should now put it.G. sol. dissolutions of ancient amities. Mi. D. F.. in this musical phrase.. A. Shrew I. divisions in state. and accordingly we find Christopher Sympson (1667) saying. Fa. the octave C beginning once more with Do. or mi contra fa. ii. E. A. D. in Sympson.viz.namely. A modern Tonic Solfaist would understand this arrangement quite differently.E. Re.. sol. 163. In this connection see the following passage:&#8212. Mi. the 'leading note. the notes assigned to the syllables in capitals were successively those of the scale. These were the first syllables of certain words in the Hymn for the feast of St John Baptist. G. O Holy John.' that Ut and Re are 'superfluous. Sol. Thus we have the first six notes of the scale.' therefore.. G. and this. F sharp. p. sol. Sancte Joannes. and[Pg 38] therefore laid aside by most Modern Teachers. Sol. sol. of which the old theorists used to say 'diabolus est. G. under the names Fa. in the key of C.. the remaining six notes being named Fa. B. E is exactly the same as that of the next three notes. release us.Ut. G. C.' In the ancient tune of this verse. Naylor. D&#8212. 16. Technical Terms and Instruments 17 . Mi. Fa. Sol.' or. Mi is in E.[Pg 39] Edmund's 'Fa. A). E. la. or C. A&#8212. as explained above. a tone. thus&#8212. mi. G. Fa. 344. fa. according to the pitch taken by the singer. "Ut queant laxis Re-sonare fibris Mi-ra gestorum Fa-muli tuorum Sol-ve polluti La-bii reatum. by Edward W. C&#8212. mi. G&#8212. and so on. D. Mi is in F sharp: in F. p. D. named the six notes of the Hexachord (e. C. and these same syllables were still used in singing in the 16th century.' the B. La. la.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. in his Micrologus (about 1024). The reader will remember that the tonal relation of C.Fa. for he promptly carries off his assumed blindness to Edgar's presence by humming over his 'fa. la. is named Mi. Therefore the two blocks of three notes (which are separated by a semi-tone) might have the same names&#8212. la. 'That thy servants may be able with free hearts to sound forth the wonders of thy deeds. The last sentence has yet another play on the double meaning of 'divisions. F. D. E. the whole scale of eight notes is named thus&#8212. La. that the scale could be easily expressed by fewer names. la.. sol. however. So the principal thing in the sol-fa-ing of a passage was to 'place the Mi. fa. Fa. to find 'what key' it is in. and similarly with F&#8212. Fa.' In his book. has a sensible observation on this passage&#8212. sol." A rough translation of which is&#8212. Sol. etc. E would be called Do (instead of Ut). There only remains one note. But the very use of the word in the quoted lines brings its musical meaning into his head. Sol. the words and tune of which are in Hawkins. Thus. from the guilt of a defiled lip. Vol. in his 'Compendium. D.D. and the 'leading note' [top note but one] would be called Ti (instead of Si).g. Mi is in B: in G. F.that Edgar alludes to the unnatural division of parent and child.. C. It was noticed.' A few lines further on Edmund explains what kind of 'divisions' he expects to follow the eclipses&#8212.viz. etc. A. C.. La.

Petr. for humours do abound. [Pg 40]C-fa-ut. the humour of it is too hot. came to be known by the term 'Plain-song. Fight at Harfleur. B-mi. represents the lover's sigh 'to plead his passion. take him for thy lord. Pray thee.' or 'key. corresponding to the low G on the first line of our present bass staff.' because its position on the staff gave the 'key' to the position of the semitones and tones on the various lines and spaces. means that.' A-re. The 'cliff' is what is now called a 'clef. Bianca. Pistol. III. just as Hortensio is Hortensio. show pity or I die. Gam-ut the lowest note then recognised in the scale.' Shrew III. an you'll not knock. [Gam-ut was the name of the Ut of lowest pitch. two notes have I: E la. and was marked specially with a Greek Gamma.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' The written melody itself was called the 'Plain-song. i.. one cliff.namely.. A-re. one cliff. The lines may be taken separately as fantastic commentaries on the syllables themselves. 72. that is the very plain-song of it. hence Gam-ut. Here is a pun on 'wring' and 'ring'.[Pg 41] It has been mentioned that the art of adding an extempore counterpoint to a written melody was called 'descant. E.. The six notes here mentioned are the G. As he says&#8212.. stay: . For instance. which was known as 'Prick-song. Naylor. as well as having their ulterior meaning for Bianca.'For though they should all be moste excellent men .' Here Hortensio puts in his love-verses under the guise of a musicmaster's Gamut. I'll wring it: I'll try how you can sol. mi. D. 5. and 'sol-fa' is used as an equivalent for 'sing. at any rate when it was attempted to add more than one extempore part at a time to the plainsong. the ground of all accord.' More important still is 'the gamut of Hortensio. the F clef. plainsong and descant together. Technical Terms and Instruments 18 . B. The expression 'two notes have I. may be twisted into 'Be mine. while 'D sol re. that loves with all affection: D sol. it is unpossible for them to be true one to another.' B-mi. D is called Sol. H. re. and sing it. in the key of G.' as opposed to the performance of plainsong with a written descant. 'Gam-ut I am.' The following passage will be more clear on this light. and at the same time masquerades as a singing-master. two notes have I' obviously refers to Hortensio's disguise.' Morley gives us a clear idea that the extempore descant was often a very unsatisfactory performance. by Edward W.'] In this passage the names of the notes are simply those to be found in all instruction books of the 16th and 17th centuries. sirrah. in the bass staff. is called 'the ground of all accord. 'Faith.' by the light of the remaining words in the line. I suppose. C. They could only be written (as they are yet) in one clef&#8212. ii. 3.' as applied to the D. Nym. corporal. The plain-song is most just. to plead Hortensio's passion. fa. The word became a synonym for 'the Scale. while in the key of C it would have the name Re. A.' [He wrings Grumio by the ears.' and hence the whole performance.

['Minims' is a modern conjecture. his filching was like an unskilful singer. The next quotation still concerns Jack Falstaff and his crew.'[Pg 43] and when he begins to sing. and seems to have liked it so much that he carried it 36 miles before his worser nature prevailed on him to sell it for 1-1/2d.g. By an easy transition we pass to the following:&#8212. that he should 'keep time. 41 hardly enrols Bardolph amongst music lovers. This time they are speaking. three. They will steal anything.' one in the kitchen. bore it twelve leagues. mine Host the Tenor. Falstaff (of Bardolph) .. 41.. there is little doubt that both Ancient and Corporal managed to take a part in the skirmishings with as little damage as possible to their sconces. but of Prick-song. or find his place in another book.' Similarly. and sold it for three half-pence.. and your sense the strings. distance. Nym. [Pg 42] Falstaff's worthy body-guard are getting tired of hard knocks in fight.' religiously counting his rests. You're a fair viol. by which Falstaff and Nym probably understood both sacred and secular part-music. and Nym the Bassus. another in the taproom. Technical Terms and Instruments 19 . to resin his bow. as explained above]. iii. Bardolph stole a lute-case. Naylor. Pericles addresses the daughter of King Antiochus. A 'just' plainsong would mean that the singer had managed his extempore descant 'without singing eyther false chords or forbidden descant one to another. Per. Who..] The metaphor is of an anthem or madrigal. i. Nym compares their late activity to a somewhat florid 'plain-song' [meaning an extempore descant. Merry Wiv. light the gas. The good humour is to steal at a minim's rest.e. and call it purchase. The three former are all hard at work on their respective 'parts. All this is thoroughly appreciated by Falstaff and his corporal in the following lines:&#8212. 81. all of whom (and strictly in accordance with history) seem to have been sound practical musicians. he kept not time. finger'd to make man his lawful music. a tapster the Altus. and the third in your bosom. and proportion. two. Any musician has had experience of what can be done during a short 'rest'&#8212.[Pg 44] or turn up the corners of the next few pages of his music. At all events he stole a lute-case. The chiefest virtue in the performance of Prick-song. by Edward W. see Romeo II.' and during that short respite takes advantage of the absorbing occupations of the other three 'singers' to lay hands on whatever portable property is within his reach. 25. the third in familiar converse outside the front door. say in four parts. iv. is that a man should 'keep time. But Nym has 'a minim rest. Pericles I. The speech of the boy at l.. not of descant.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' as Mercutio says Tybalt did in his fencing. Pistol says it is a 'just' plainsong. Boy (speaks of the 3 rogues). I. We will suppose the Hostess of the 'Garter' is taking the Cantus. 20. 'A minim rest' is not much&#8212.but the point remains. his thefts were too open. 'one. ***** L..

and a pair of 'lusty. under the staff. Mace also says that the treble viol had its strings just half the length of the bass viol. There were three different sizes. The treble viol (as mentioned above) was tuned exactly an octave above the bass. 'arm' fiddle]. 84 is of this girl's lawless passion with the 'disorder'd' playing of a bad violist. braccio. E in the third space. that all the viol family had frets on the fingerboard to mark out the notes.two trebles. low D.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' The comparison in l.i. 'in tune.' as we say. in his 'Musick's Monument. the principal difference being that they are a little feebler. lay clerk of Trinity. published his 'Introduction to the Skill of Music. and the tenor was of a medium size between these. they would generally play 'Fancies' (or Fantasias) see H. of Cambridge. The tone of the viols is very much like that of our modern bowed instruments. and the finger of the performer has to do without any help of that kind.[Pg 45] both of the sizes and the use of viols. as there are six strings on the arc of the bridge. G on the first line. and Thomas Mace. D over the staff. so the compass of the Bass Viol or Viol da Gamba would be about two octaves and a half. or gamut. the proper characteristics of which would be. 1st string.] The tenor-viol had its top string tuned to G on the second line of the treble staff.'[8] 'you have a ready entertainment for the greatest prince in the world. arranged semitonally. loud instruments) for jovial occasions. 4. Would draw heaven down and all the gods to hearken. and when his musical friends visited him.[7] John Playford. The reader will get a sufficiently accurate idea. by Edward W. C in the second space. B. two tenors. which has only four. [In South Kensington Museum[Pg 47] is a Viol da Gamba with no less than twelve frets still remaining. gives full instructions how many viols and other instruments of this kind are necessary. The viol was decidedly the most important stringed instrument played with a bow that was in use in Elizabethan times. whereas the finger-boards of all our modern instruments are smooth. from D under the bass staff to A on the second space of the treble staff.which[Pg 46] set was technically known as a 'Chest' of viols. for. The principal difference from our modern stringed instruments was that all the viols had six strings. and the remaining five were the same in pitch as the top five on the bass viol. to the modern violoncello. A secondary difference was. from two to the full six.' pub. or Bratsche&#8212. Amongst a great number of composers of this kind of Technical Terms and Instruments 20 . whereas now there is no 'fiddle' of any sort with more than four. 1676. more care is required to avoid striking two or even three at once than on the violin. or viol-da-gamba [so called because held between the knees]. From these we learn that viols were always kept in sets of six&#8212. The amateur of music would keep a 'Chest' of six Viols in his house. ii. A on the top line. III. the tenor viol to the modern viola [which is also called Alto. full-sized Theorboes.e. or treble. Hell only danceth at so harsh a chime. in several parts. 5th or tenor.. Also he says that if you add to these a couple of violins (which were then thought somewhat vulgar. according to the number of those present. on the bass staff. Tenor. and two basses&#8212. and the bass-viol. Pericles compares the lawful love of a wife with the performance of a good viol player. This would make the compass nearly three octaves. The reason is that vigorous 'bowing' is a risky thing on the viol. and the 6th or bass. who is playing 'before his time. Naylor. which becomes a dance for devils rather than angels.' which gives an account of the viols.' thus entirely spoiling the music. 3rd or great mean.' The tuning of the six strings on the bass-viol was. On the most complete viol there would be seven frets. who has got 'out. 2nd or small mean. and naturally more calm. 323. 4th or counter-tenor. But being play'd upon before your time. if he will consider the treble viol to have corresponded closely with our modern violin. in 1683.' and 'in time.

even in music. the blunt curves of the waist.. Held current music too. that you'll say so! he plays o' the viol-de-gamboys . and hath all the good gifts of nature. beaten A long time out of play. is referred to in the following:&#8212. iii. The language I have learn'd these forty years. by Edward W. some very well known names are. Fie. Banishment of Norfolk. Or like a cunning instrument cas'd up. Sands. It was common for the Organ or other keyed instrument to join with the viols in these pieces. that at the very beginning of the 18th century.' took up the 'French fiddles. that it is clear they had entirely fallen out of use by 1700. iii. being open. 41. And now my tongue's use is to me no more [Pg 49]Than an unstringed viol.. The following two quotations therefore will not require further remark. Lovell. [Pg 50]For. round hose in France. Dr Tudway of Cambridge describes a chest of viols. French manners in England. Coperario (John Cooper). This growing tendency to adopt French customs. he's a very fool. Chris. iii. And have an hour of hearing: and. I. Richard II. sure. My native English. and thus fill out the chords of the 'consort. Tw. 159.. Its shape. true to their ancient habit of buying their 'doublet in Italy. The devil fiddle 'em! I am glad they're going. VIII. and thus the English nation.. and even the shape of the bow. Maria [of Sir Andrew Aguecheek] . especially at the shoulders. After that time. William Lawes. and so rapidly. bonnet in Germany. I. 24. Norfolk. and the Italian[Pg 48] Monteverde. now I must forego. The practice of playing extempore variations on the viol da gamba has already been mentioned as one of the elegant accomplishments of a gentleman in those days. Technical Terms and Instruments 21 . the violin took its place. A French song. Hen. John Jenkins.. The violin family had only a precarious footing amongst musicians up to 1650. As the viol fell out of fashion.' as it was called. Sir Toby. I. and elsewhere&#8212. The violin family had come into general and fashionable use under the patronage of the Court of Louis XIV. An honest country lord. and behaviour everywhere. in a letter to his son. with such particularity. Sympson.. the outline of the back.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. by'r lady.e. and a prodigal. We still have one of the viol tribe left in our orchestra. and a fiddle. has no fellow. as I am.' and let their national Chest of viols go to the wall. Naylor. there's no converting of 'em: now. music. is quite characteristic. put into his hands That knows no touch to tune the harmony. Or. the viols declined in favour. or a harp. and has kept it ever since. may bring his plain-song. The double-bass (or viol-one) is lineal descendant of the Chest of viols.g.

look you now. by Edward W. but was played with a 'whistle' mouthpiece instead of a reed. though you can fret me. Hawkins identifies it with the Fistula Dulcis. I cannot.' One of the illustrations from Mersennus [b. The Recorder was known for its sweet tone. and gives two pictures which help to explain the next quotation. It is as easy as lying: govern these ventages with your finger and thumb.. or the brass flageolets in the music-shops. ***** Ham. that the old accomplishments of which Lord Sands speaks would be still thought 'up to date' and in the fashion. be controlled by the thumbs.. Poets used the word 'record' to signify the song of birds. Why. 346. and it will discourse most eloquent music. The six holes may still be seen on any penny whistle.) There were other beaked flutes of the same period. The holes in a flute have always been called 'ventages.. and six holes. Lord Bacon says it had a conical bore.. 2 in. You would play upon me: you would seem to know my stops. But these cannot I command to any utterance of harmony: I have not the skill.' because the 'wind' comes through them[Pg 52] when the fingers are removed. Ham. Technical Terms and Instruments 22 . O! the recorders: let me see one. how unworthy a thing you make of me. Guil. This was a kind of 'Beak-flute. especially of the nightingale. 'Sblood! do you think I am easier to be played on than a pipe? Call me what instrument you will. Look you. In South Kensington Museum there is a Recorder[9][Pg 51] made of a dark wood.' like a flageolet. They were 'governed' 'with the finger and thumb. Another instrument in common domestic use was the Recorder... Its length is 2 ft. ***** L. 1588] shows a conical flute with four holes in front and two at the back. Will you play upon this pipe? Guildenstern. yet cannot you make it speak. . conical.. seu Anglica. ii. give it breath with your mouth. My lord. The only word here that has not already been fully explained is 'current music. and its bore is that of the modern flageolet and old flute&#8212. These latter would. Ham. which is nothing else but a big flageolet.' which I suppose to mean simply. these are the stops. of a better class. and there is much music. which had several keys as well as the holes. Naylor. Hamlet III. in this little organ [the recorder]. .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. So it had the general figure of a modern Oboe. Enter Players with recorders. 351.viz. excellent voice. but with the wide end nearest the player's mouth. of course. you cannot play upon me. while the others would occupy two fingers on each hand. you would sound me from my lowest note to the top of my compass... (Modern flageolets still keep a thumb hole at the back.

was arranged by Byrd as a Virginal 'lesson' for 'Lady Nevell's booke. Hippolyta. it figured frequently in 'serenading' especially when a love song had to be sung outside a lady's window. Winter's Tale I. and the case is square. the lute[12] was the most popular stringed instrument.. It is singular that the Virginal. 125. One of these two duplicate holes was temporarily stopped with wax. It was used both as a Solo instrument on which to play sprightly 'Ayres.[11] which were secured to the 'jacks' [see Sonnet cxxviii. and from this circumstance is supposed to derive its name. The title 'Parthenia. one on the right and the other on the left.also like a child who has not learned to stop the holes on the flute à bec. however. He hath rid his prologue like a rough colt.' etc. so that the instrument might be used either by a right-handed or left-handed person. Mids.[10]) Its keyboard has four octaves. but about four times as big.[Pg 53] Theseus. Bull. Naturally. [The passing play upon 'fret' in the last line should not be missed. The first music ever printed for the Virginals was 'Parthenia. by Edward W.. still virginalling Upon his palm? The Virginal (generally known as 'a pair of virginals') was most commonly used by ladies for their private recreation.'s time. ii. This fellow doth not stand upon points. There is. That is&#8212.' published in London. Queen Elizabeth was fond of playing on it. seems to confirm our explanation of the name of this instrument. that at the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. there is no need to connect the[Pg 54] name with the Virgin Queen. Of Hermione.' is being published by Breitkopf & Härtel. and further. commonly known as 'Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. he hath played on this prologue like a child on a recorder.]. The oldest country dance known.] In the next passage the meaning of stop as applied to Recorders is punned on by Hippolyta.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. (Elizabeth's own Virginal is in South Kensington Museum. Like the mandoline.like a young horse that refuses to stop&#8212. The strings of the virginal were plucked. 108. V. a sound. This collection contains principally Pavans and Galliards by Byrd. The strings were wire. The Prologue speaks with all the punctuation wrong. Lysander. Leon. and Polixenes. or the Maydenhead of the firste musicke. Queen of Leontes. the Sellenger's (St Leger's) Round. who carries on the play from Lysander's horsebreaking metaphor.. But in every other respect it was entirely different. King of Bohemia. a reference to the action of the fingers on its keys in the following. he knows not the stop. and its strings (which were of gut) were plucked with the fingers. by quills. &#8212.the Prologue has misplaced all his stops&#8212. 1611. The general shape of a Lute was that of a mandoline.' or as an accompaniment for the voice. and a great basin-shaped back. King of Sicilia. with a picture of a young lady playing on the virginal.[Pg 55] Next to the viol. which in turn were set in motion by the keys. Indeed. of Henry VIII. like that of a very old pianoforte. one example of the Fistula Dulcis given by Mersennus has two different holes for the lowest note. it had a flat belly. i. Naylor.. but not in government.' Another well-known Virginal Book. which was the most popular of all the keyed instruments. and Gibbons. is nowhere directly named in Shakespeare.&#8212. It was used more in the fashion of a guitar. 'The stops' referred to by Hamlet are merely the 'ventages. Technical Terms and Instruments 23 . but as it was in vogue before her time.' The act of covering a hole with the finger or thumb was called 'stopping'. or 'in consort' with other instruments.

Thomas[Pg 56] Mace (Musicks Monument. 1676) tells of several objections against the lute. With ravishing division.' Hen. As who should say. I. 6. that it was out of fashion.] The five lower strings of the lute were 'doubled'&#8212. Nero. C in third space. however (Naples 1601).. pp. F on fourth line. which helped the tone of the chords by 'sympathetic' vibration. the speech of Juliet about the lark's song [p. that it was a costly instrument to keep in repair..' see the remarks on the third of the foregoing passages. for thy tongue Makes Welsh as sweet as ditties highly penn'd. Adrian Le Roy's book. and the considerable size of the instrument. first for one lute. 'He beckons with his hand. the same piece twice. but only six different pitches. and 3rd. by Edward W.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [Pg 58] II II 24 . Hawkins (Hist. Mortimer to Lady Mortimer."&#8212. there were two of each pitch.1st. A. and like thee. There were eight frets on the fingerboard. the tuning of which seems to have extended the compass downwards to C under the bass staff. 4th (counter-tenor). For 'ravishing division. H. Mace refutes these calumnies. iv. that it made young people grow awry. the most noteworthy of which were&#8212. and a large number of strings. 5th (tenor). rather. III. 92. and smiles on me. 3rd (great mean). and 6th (base). gives quite a different account of the Italian Lute of eight strings. Sung by a fair queen in a summer's bower.. both of which had very long double necks.1st (minikin). Naylor. Plantagenet. treble staff. 4. G on second line. 28]. or. beholding the towns burn. The Lute leads us quite easily from Musical Instruments and Technical Terms to the second division. "When I am dead and gone. A. i. 730 and 731) gives two pieces for the lute by Mace. says the six strings were tuned as follows&#8212. of Music. Mort. published in Paris about 1570. 2nd. I will. Other varieties were the Arch-Lute[13] and the Theorbo-Lute. B flat over the bass staff. So there were really eleven strings. Remember to avenge me on the French. to her lute. 206. Play on the lute. then arranged for two. [Appendix.[Pg 57] Talbot (of Salisbury dying). C in second space. Scipione Cerreto. eleven of which are duplications. One Archlute in South Kensington Museum has as many as 24.i. duplicates. D under the staff.. the last of which no doubt was set about on account of the very awkward shape of the lute back.e. 2nd (small mean).

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor.

Musical Education
The following passages give a lively picture of what a music-master might have to put up with from young ladies of quality. Shrew. II, i, 142. Re-enter Hortensio with his head broken. Bap. How now, my friend? why dost thou look so pale? Hor. For fear, I promise you, if I look pale. Bap. What, will my daughter [Kate] prove a good musician? Hor. I think, she'll sooner prove a soldier: Iron may hold her, but never lutes. Bap. Why, then thou canst not break her to the lute? Hor. Why, no, for she hath broke the lute to me. I did but tell her she mistook her frets, And bow'd her hand to teach her fingering, When, with a most impatient, devilish spirit, "Frets call you these?" quoth she; "I'll fume with them;" And with that word she struck me on the head, And through the instrument my pate made way; [Pg 59]And there I stood amazed for a while, As on a pillory, looking through the lute, While she did call me rascal fiddler, And, twangling Jack, with twenty such vile terms, As had she studied to misuse me so. Shrew II, i, 277. Bap. Why, how now, daughter Katherine? in your dumps? Shrew. Act III. i. Hortensio and Lucentio, the sham musical and classical tutors, give a lesson to Bianca. They quarrel which is to start first. Lucentio. Fiddler, forbear: you grow too forward, sir. ***** Hortensio. But, wrangling pedant, this is The patroness of heavenly harmony; Then give me leave to have prerogative, And when in music we have spent an hour, Your lecture shall have leisure for as much. Luc. Preposterous ass, that never read so far To know the cause why music was ordained! Musical Education 25

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. Was it not to refresh the mind of man, After his studies, or his usual pain? Then give me leave to read philosophy, And while I pause, serve in your harmony. Bianca settles the question, and orders Hortensio (l. 22): Take you your instrument, play you the whiles; [Pg 60]His lecture will be done, ere you have tun'd. Hor. You'll leave his lecture, when I am in tune? Luc. That will be never: tune your instrument. Lucentio now goes on with his 'classics'; further on— Hor. [Returning]. Madam, my instrument's in tune. Bianca. Let's hear. [Hor. plays.] O fie! the treble jars. Luc. Spit in the hole, man, and tune again. ***** Hor. Madam, 'tis now in tune. Luc.All but the base. Hor. The base is right; 'tis the base knave that jars. Hortensio now takes his place, and addresses the classical Lucentio— L. 58. Hor. You may go walk, and give me leave awhile: My lessons make no music in three parts. ***** L. 63. Hor. Madam, before you touch the instrument, To learn the order of my fingering, I must begin with rudiments of art; To teach you gamut in a briefer sort. ***** Bianca. Why, I am past my gamut long ago. Hor. Yet read the gamut of Hortensio. Musical Education 26

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. The first of these three passages will be quite clear to the reader in the light of the remarks on the lute[Pg 61] already made. The second should be read in connection with the name of the doleful dance above mentioned, the Dump. [See Appendix.] The third quotation contains interesting allusions to the peculiarities of the lute. Lines 22-25 are very naturally accounted for. The lute, having at least eleven strings, took a long time to get into tune. Even our modern violins, with only four strings, want constant attention in this respect; and the lute, therefore, especially in the hands of an amateur, might well get a name for being a troublesome instrument. The reference to the 'treble' and 'bass' strings (i.e., the 1st and 6th) has been explained before. 'Spit in the hole, man,' Lucentio's very rude advice to Hortensio, will direct our attention to the variously shaped 'holes' which were made in the belly of all stringed instruments to let out the sound. On the lute, this hole was commonly a circular opening, not clearly cut out, but fretted in a circle of small holes with a star in the middle. But this was not the only way. A lute in South Kensington Museum has three round holes, placed in an oblique line, nearly at the bottom of the instrument.[14] The holes on the viol were generally in the form of crescents,[Pg 62] and were put one on each side of the bridge. On the modern violins, as everybody has seen, they are in the shape of known as 'f' holes. , and are

Line 59, about 'lessons in three parts,' is of interest. Primarily, it is another form of 'Two's company, three is none'—but its musical meaning is very plainly present. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was very common to call the pieces of music in any volume for an instrument by the name 'Lessons.' The first meaning, of course, was that they were examples for the pupil in music, but the word was used quite freely with the purely general signification of 'Pieces' or 'Movements.' One more word deserves remark—viz., 'to touch,' in line 63. This is used technically, and means strictly 'to play' on the instrument. The word comes both in meaning and form from Ital., toccare. Toccata was a common word for a Prelude (often extempore), intended as a kind of introduction to two or three more formal movements. The Italian for a peal of bells is tocco di campana, and we have the word in English under the form tocsin, an alarm bell. The trumpet-call known as 'Tucket,' which occurs seven times in the stage directions of six Shakespeare[Pg 63] plays, and is also found once in the text (Henry V. IV, ii, 35), also is derived from toccare. Similarly with the German 'Tusch,' a flourish of trumpets and other brass instruments, which may be heard under that name to the present day. The next passage confirms Morley's account of the high estimation in which music was held as a part of a liberal education. Baptista evidently considers 'good bringing up' to include 'music, instruments, and poetry.' Moreover, the visiting master was to be well paid,—'to cunning men I will be very kind.' Shrew I, i, 81. Bianca. Sir to your pleasure humbly I subscribe: My books, and instruments, shall be my company, On them to look, and practise by myself. ***** Baptista (To Hortensio and Gremio). Go in, Bianca. [Exit Bianca]. And for I know, she taketh most delight In music, instruments, and poetry, Schoolmasters will I keep within my house, Musical Education 27

daughter of Prince Pericles. which are given in Hawkins. The 3rd verse begins&#8212. i. 185. Laureate. The general statement must suffice that vocal music. The English Round or Catch. Skelton wrote the words of the first. know any such.. being very melodious. A fine musician to instruct our mistress. Hortensio. Junior. i. to rouse her father from his melancholy. weave. ii. in Pericles IV. 78. Refer them hither. III 28 .e. in the same play. Moreover. This composition is advanced in every way. some for voices only.If you. Fit to instruct her youth. 'Ah. 'what an unweighed behaviour hath this Flemish Drunkard picked (with the devil's name!) out of my conversation.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. for to cunning men I will be very kind. and the second one. [Pg 65] III Songs and Singing It is impossible here to give even an outline of the history of Songs and Singing in England. jolly ruttekin. you. To proceed to a time nearer the age with which we are concerned&#8212. accompanied by viols and harps. there were many songs written.' Also see V. and some with[Pg 66] instrumental accompaniment. Amongst the former are two songs in three parts. that to bring one's lady-love a music master was thought a handsome compliment. Mrs Page (Wiv. singing in parts) was greatly appreciated. 'Sumer is icumen in. as was frequently the case with him. sew. can 'sing. sodyldym syllorym ben. where Marina actually does sing. after receiving Falstaff's love-letter. and at the same time showing that vocal harmony (i. Naylor. the music by William Cornyshe. that he dares in this manner assay me?' The following is a curious picture by 'Skelton. and that alone would be sufficient to characterise the popular vocal music of that day.in Henry VII. II. beshrew you by my fay. who appears to have been throwing mud at the poet.&#8212.' of an ignorant singer. mentioned above. she exclaims.' which is very coarse in tone. Shrew I.' is a satire on the drunken habits of the Flemings who came over with Anne of Cleves. Hath promis'd me to help me to another. [Pg 64]We find further on. 23) refers to these Dutchmen. With hey troly loly.'s reign. Alumbek.' is most probably of the 13th century. we find that Marina. Or Signior Gremio. and dance. vi. 170. 'Tis well: and I have met a gentleman. lo whip here Jak. 'Hoyday. and any reader of Chaucer and Gower may see for himself that vocal music was flourishing in the 14th century in England. by Edward W. were common in the year 1230 in France. Skelton gives us a sad account both of his morals and his music. with songs and catches. where. and liberal To mine own children in good bringing up. Hortensio.

[16] with about three and a half octaves. now now. Comely he clappyth a payre of clavicordys He whystelyth so swetely he maketh me to swet.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 'lewde lewte' means merely 'vulgar lute'. For lordes and ladyes lerne at his scole. thus constituting 'fayned' music. It[Pg 69] was used by nuns.e. 'For Jak wold be a Jentilman that late was a grome. and he wyst how. and all his merry men. He fumblyth in his fyngering an ugly rude noise. Skelton's main objection to this person is that he. being in reality of very humble origin. 'Solfyth too haute' is 'Solfa's too high. his wyt is too lene. In the first verse. A red angry man. is his 'my'. In verse 3.. or Musica Ficta. He solfyth too haute. and therefore had its strings muffled with bits of cloth to deaden the sound.' Evidently 'Jak' had managed to make good his position as a fashionable teacher of singing. Naylor. Hys musyk withoute mesure. how Perkyn is proud of his Pohen. It seemyth the sobbyng of an old sow: He wolde be made moch of. Too fat is his fantsy. here used with the meaning of 'to embroider' the tale. too sharp. mentioned above as the critical point in Solfa. That neither they sing wel prike-song nor plain. 'Knack' is still used in Yorkshire for 'affected talk.' so as to change the key. in spite of the defects plainly mentioned in the above verses. etc. He trymmeth in his tenor to counter pardy. Well sped in spindels and tuning of travellys A bungler.' i. As he says. but easy to intrete. Curiously he can both counter and knak. which in 1536 was a keyed instrument of much the same kind as the virginals. He tumbryth on a lewde lewte.[15] it is without a mene.' The latter is 'feigned' music. This account will give a general idea of the kind of songs and singing that were to be found in 1500. But ask wher he findeth among his monachords [Pg 67]An holy-water-clark a ruler of lordes. by Edward W. The last three lines quoted mention 'solfa' and 'fayne. The 'payre of clavicordys' is the clavichord. the seventh note of the scale.' The 'my' which was 'too sharp' is the Mi. on the musical staff. and 'Rotybulle Joyse' is the title of an old song. Rumbill downe. 'counter' is a musical term. presumed on his very doubtful musical abilities to gain a foot[Pg 68]ing amongst his betters. a brawler. Rotybulle Joyse. which at this time was the art of dislocating the 'Mi. hey go. Further on we read&#8212. a picker of quarrels.' In verse 2. He cannot fynd it in rule nor in space. and is here used as a joke on 'monachi' or 'holy water clarks. Of Martin Swart. His discant is dashed full of discordes. It was seldom that more than one flat was found in those days. tumbill downe. He braggyth of his byrth that borne was full base. and this would move the Mi from B to E. 'rule and space' is simply 'line and space. Lord. His descant is besy.' 'Monachord' is the ancient one-stringed fiddle called Tromba Marina. hys trybyll is too high. He techyth them so wysely to solf and to fayne. Songs and Singing 29 .

Sir Hugh is in a state of nervous excitement.. tumbill downe. 106. accompanied by a 'lewde lewte'. 'When Arthur first in court began. 41. there are allusions to many kinds of vocal music. 18. The Ballad of 'The King and the Beggar. iii. 'Fill the cup. and Fletcher. In Shakespeare. 18.' etc.e. Naylor. Scarlet. "By force I am fixed my fancie to write. (e) Song by Parson Evans.' for words of which see Marlowe's 'Come live with me. L. singing of both 'prick-' and 'plain-' song. either quoted or alluded to.' etc. Ingratitude willeth me not to refrain: Then blame me not. 4.' (c) By Benedick.' Moth says "The world was very guilty of such a ballad some three ages since. Add to these the songs in three parts.some with accompaniment. with outward allurements. which the men of Shakespeare's day might inherit..g.' (b) By Master Silence. II.' printed in the 'Passionate Pilgrim.' 'And was a worthy king. besides the delectable art of 'whysteling'. And dub me knight.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' (d) The old tune 'Light o' love' [see Appendix]. it would neither serve for the writing. ii. and[Pg 70] scraps of the actual words of old songs&#8212. iv.' Various snatches of ballads." Id. Dothe moove my endevour to be the more playne: Your nicyngs and tycings.. with rounds or catches for several voices. I. H. 4. and the word 'rivers' brings 'Babylon' into his head. ancient and modern&#8212. 2." There were several songs of the 16th century that went to this tune. nor the tune. 'A cup of wine. Gent. i. 'Do nothing but eat. my wife has all. See also Shakespeare. H.' etc. a duet.[Pg 71] the original words of which are unknown. Much Ado III. i. not to mention several rounds. with sundrie procurements. Popular songs. that's brisk and fine.' which Armado calls a 'sweet air. seem to have been matters in ordinary practice at the beginning of the 16th century. III. with Marlowe. or. 'and Robin Hood. besides the songs most commonly known (some of which are by earlier authors).' etc... so he goes on mixing up a portion of the version of Ps. some without.' with a burden of 'Rumbill downe.. a trio. a chorus. with Musica Ficta. I. and we have no mean list of musicianly accomplishments. Songs and Singing 30 . (a) By Falstaff. Ladies. Moth begins a song 'Concolinel. do you sing it.L. It will be useful here to refer to a few of these less known examples.L.' Here is one verse of 'A very proper Dittie. 'Rotybulle Joyse. be merry." that goes without a burden. V. by Edward W. 'To shallow rivers. solfaing. 23.' etc.' to the tune of "Lightie Love" (date 1570). B. ii. 54. 32. although I indite What lighty love now amongst you doth rayne. and let it come. Your traces in places. iv. clavichord playing. Much Ado V. 80. 'Clap us into "Light o' love. To publish your lightie love doth me constraine. and I'll dance it. and John. B. Two Noble Kinsmen V.' etc. ii. 'The god of love. III. [see tunes in Appendix].' Part xx. ii. 'Be merry. cxxxvii. and make good cheer. 'Do me right. but I think now 'tis not to be found. if it were. Wiv.

for I must go". 'I shall no more to sea. two verses sung by the Fool.' 'But shall I go mourn for that. Swete Musick hath a salve in store. H.' The last verse is charming&#8212. ii. of which the music is still to be had. Amongst these are&#8212. l. sc. 'Fools had ne'er less grace in a year. Song. Hunting thee hence with hunts-up to the day. 'O heart. 95. v. ii. ii. iv. was called a hunts-up. l. 'Jog on' [see Appendix]. l. Id. 14. 198. nothing but love. 85. v. 297. 100. 275. Id.. Nt. 'Heart's ease' [Appendix]. 'very pitiful'. 102. (i) Another. heavy heart. 'Come. 'Love.' accompanied on an 'instrument' by the singer himself. Id. Songs and Singing 31 .' see Rimbault's Rounds.' Id. Tune before 1560. Canons. 'Where griping grief the hart would wound. 'When daffodils. 175. Ballad of a Fish. And doleful domps the mind oppresse. 116. 258.' Temp. do me no harm. Id. by Richard Edwards. b. 262. II. and Jul. There Musick with her silver sound Is wont with spede to give redresse. The tune of this song was also sung (in 1584) to 'O sweete Olyver. Song with Chorus.' (k) Ballads by Autolycus. 1. 15. Id. as white as driven snow'. 168. 125. Winter's Tale IV.' etc. 'Will you buy any tape' (cf. printed in the 'Paradyse of daynty Devises'[Pg 74] (printed 1577). 219. 'Lawn.' (h) By Pandarus. end. i. (l) Duet by King Cymbeline's two sons. II. sc.' but altering the time to 4 in a bar. ii. Peg-a-Ramsey. Id. the words of which are not known.' 'The master. by Edward W.' Id. 'My heart is full of woe.' 'O! the twelfth day of December. 'The Hunt is up' [Appendix]. see Appendix]. III. good man' [Appendix].' Besides these there are allusions to the names of various popular tunes and catches. 'When griping grief' [Appendix]. 'Fear no more the heat of the sun. 'Whoop.' "Get you hence. 'Orpheus. III. 1592. for every sore. Cymb. Hawkins gives four verses.' 2nd verse 'all together here. Id. Id. l. IV. iv.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 'Farewell. Ballad of the 'Usurer's wife. gentleman of Queen Elizabeth's Chapel. Caliban's Song. Naylor. and Catches). See As You Like It III.' etc. Juliet says of the lark's song.' (m) Stephano's 'scurvy tunes. v. Of troubled minds.' 'Farewell. pretty maidens.' Any rousing morning song. l. l. 'Under the greenwood tree. 'that voice doth us affray.' to a 'very doleful tune'. See Romeo IV. Id. dear heart. iii. A song in three parts. Troil. Funeral[Pg 73] Song over Imogen. See Rom. leave me not behind the. 41. (n) Song accompanied by lute. to the tune of 'Two maids wooing a man. (f) By Sir Toby. i. the swabber. 79. III. iii. IV. [Appendix]. but with several variations&#8212.' [For tunes. 319. Tw. 34. (g) As You Like It II. even a love-song. love. the first of which is here quoted by Shakespeare.' (j) Lear I.' 'There dwelt a[Pg 72] man in Babylon. l. iii. 8. 'Three merry men be we. master. Song. The round by Jenkins.

v. and sware&#8212. while the second half is quite unmanageable without altering the notes. or his goodnights. H. 'A new Northerne dittye of the Ladye Greene Sleeves. I would have sworn his disposition [Falstaff's] would have gone to the truth of his words. If the reader will try to sing it to the tune in the Appendix. and sung those tunes .. i. .' Verse 1 is as follows:&#8212. Sith thou both man and beast doest move. that turnes the minde. ¯ &#728. 'Les maîtres du Clavecin. Greensleeves was my heart of gold. The tune is given in its most complete form by Chappell. you do me wrong To cast me off discourteously.they were his fancies. III. however. ¯ &#728. &#728. 20.. a form of the tune in Hawkins which is much further off 'the truth of the words. And I have lovèd you so long.'s time. Falstaff soliloquises on Shallow's lies concerning his wild youth. Greensleeves was my delight. ¯ &#728. What wise man then will thee reprove.[Pg 75] with title. To comfort man whom cares would nip.' Songs and Singing 32 .' for it has exactly the right quantity of notes. but the accents are all as wrong as possible. 320.' Also see Wiv. Mrs Ford. &#728.' 'Green Sleeves' [Appendix].. &#728. ¯ All peo-ple that on earth do &#728. ¯ It may be that this form of 'Green Sleeves' was known better than the older one in Shakespeare's day.. And who but my Lady Greensleeves.. This arrangement can be had most readily in Litolff's publication. Naylor.. Delighting in your company. ii. and was arranged as a virginal lesson by Byrd. Fal.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. The case of a treble hautboy was a mansion for him. There is. Wiv. ¯ &#728. 4. &#728." The 'Hundredth Psalm' (All people that on earth do dwell) will only adhere and keep place with the tune of Green Sleeves to a certain extent. V. Of musick whom the Gods assignde. &#728. he will find that in the first half he is led into several false accents. by Edward W. 'Oh heavenly gift.[Pg 76] 'Carman's whistle' [Appendix]. but they do no more adhere and keep place together. Greensleeves was all my joy. than the Hundredth Psalm to the tune of 'Green Sleeves. II. The Carman's Whistle was a popular Elizabethan tune. that he heard the carmen whistle. B. Like as the sterne doth rule the ship. "Alas my love. He (Shallow) came ever in the rearward of the fashion. Dwell sing to the Lord with cheerful voice. 60. a court. thus&#8212. The ballad was published in 1580.. and is probably of Henry VIII.

62. 'My Robin is to the greenwood gone. Autolycus sells ballads 'of all sizes' among his wares.' for the foresters in As You Like It IV. and let him approach singing. and the rustic servant distinctly prefers the pedlar's vocalisation to their accustomed 'tabor and pipe. 'tis St Valentine's day'. 'They bore him barefaste'. v. and 'What shall he have that killed the deer. and was sung to the ancient ballad of "Titus Andronicus. news. ho boy. is in the Appendix.' in the 4tos and 1st Fol. He hath songs.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.. if Fortune thy foe were not. Songs and Singing 33 . for ever breed my pain. except the title. The cat is in the well. 'How[Pg 77] should I your true love know'. so they are not printed here. buy them. he utters them as he had eaten ballads. Sir Andrew. A Round for four voices by John Hilton (flourished 1600) to 'What shall he have. the country folk. and Caliban in Tempest III. and Feste in Twelfth Night II.' Hamlet IV. The original music of the first two. besides 'Flout 'em and scout em. 212. p. by Edward W. Purcell (1675) set 'Flout 'em' as a catch for three voices. 'Bonny sweet Robin'. merrily set down. Servant. The 'fancies' referred to above are the 'Fantazies' already remarked on (chest of viols)."[Pg 79] L. Mopsa.' or even to the 'bagpipe.. no. for man or woman. there are the old catches..' [Appendix]. 'Hold thy peace.' is probably the first setting. Lastly. . and flout 'em! Thought is free. Dorcas.. I say. why dost thou frown on me? And will thy favour never better be? Wilt thou. do me no harm. Nature thy friend. 'Jack boy. ii.' The line Shakespeare gives would be the last.' sung by Toby.. Serv.. ii. Naylor. or dirges. so without bawdry. 1864. Pr'ythee. the bagpipe could not move you.' Winter's Tale IV. He has the prettiest love-songs for maids. iii. He could never come better: he shall come in." The first verse of 'Fortune my foe' is as follows:&#8212. 'Good morrow. and is one of the most important to be found in Shakespeare. These last two are poor specimens of Catches. bring him in. [The proper reading of 'Flout 'em. is[Pg 78] 'Flout 'em and cout 'em! and skowt 'em. Clown. Falstaff (to Mrs Ford). Clo. with such delicate burdens of "dildos" and "fadings. 'Fortune my foe." "jump her and thump her". And wilt thou not restore my joyes again?" 'Ophelia's Songs. Merry Wives III. "Whoop. and all men's ears grew to his tunes. if it be doleful matter..' etc. and sung lamentably. O master! if you did but hear the pedlar at the door.'] The following passage contains a large quantity of the history of songs in the 16th century. which is in Caulfield's Collection of Shakespeare Vocal Music. which is strange. and the Clown. [Appendix]. and the 'Goodnights' are songs in memoriam. good man. Trinculo. you would never dance again after a tabor and pipe. "Fortune my foe. 42. which is also the first line&#8212. One tune to it is at any rate older than 1597.viz. or a very pleasant thing indeed. 19.' sung by Stephano. and afterwards sing them. iii. I love a ballad but even too well. He sings several tunes faster than you'll tell money. i. 'I see what thou wert. probably much earlier than Shakespeare. 5.' This old tune is at latest of Elizabeth's time.' The one line of 'Bonny sweet Robin' is all that remains of the song. 'And will he not come again. and may be seen in Rimbault. of all sizes. iii. referred to by Grumio in Shrew IV. 181.

. the ballad is very pitiful.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Dorcas. Songs and Singing 34 . 273. that he would not stir his pettitoes. Aut. 'tis in three parts. Aut. lay it by: and let's first see more ballads. Let's have some merry ones.. Clo. [They sing 'Get you hence. L. Clo. 285. because they are not in't. till he had both tune and words. Servant. Autolycus]. Perdita. three shepherds. We'll have the song out anon by ourselves. thou shalt hear. [of a usurer's wife].. L. I can tell you. This is a merry ballad. three swine herds. Come on... Why. Here's one to a very doleful tune ." there's scarce a maid westward but she sings it: 'tis in request. and goes to the tune of "Two maids wooing a man. Master. 259. My clown (who wants but something to be a reasonable man) grew so in love with the wenches' song.. We had the tune on't a month ago. this is a passing merry one. Here's another ballad. L. three neat herds. Clo. Autolycus. that he use no scurrilous words in 's tunes. that . Lay it by too: another. buy some: I love a ballad in print. Aut. 328. o' life.] Clo. by Edward W. which the wenches say is a gallimaufry of gambols. and as true. What hast here? ballads? Mopsa. [to Autolycus]. Mop. there is three carters. Mop.. ***** L. but a very pretty one. 609.' in three parts.. Naylor. sung this ballad against the hard hearts of maids: . of a fish. Aut. for then we are sure they are true.e...[Pg 80] Aut. 'tis my occupation: have at it with you. 'Pray now... We can both sing it: if thou'lt bear a part [i.. you must know. and they have a dance. I can bear my part. that have made themselves all men of hair: they call themselves Saltiers. L. Forewarn him.

At the present moment there are four kinds in use&#8212. who was an[Pg 81] accomplished player. 13.' but in other ways they are very much alike. how know you that I am in love? Speed. fading. Mersennus (middle of 17th century) mentions an Englishman. and the[Pg 83] songs themselves 'Threeman songs. Songs and Singing 35 . First. in the preface to 'Rounds. rounds.. where Falstaff compares his low spirits to the melancholy 'drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe.. II. 'Alas. In l. 4.. Also Much Ado II. Northumbrian. in Hen. were common popular instruments. 1611. iv. I. and Catches. Berlingozzo. Rimbault.' or 'Freemen's Songs. John Price. Also a drunken or threemen's song.' is highly indignant with Ritson's 'inconceivably strange notion' that Freemen is only a form of Threemen. Cantarini.' 'dildos and fadings. also these definitions.'[18] The servant's second speech refers to the character of the words of the popular ballads. Two Gent. catches. see a subsequent quotation from The Tempest III. 285 to l.) In its curiously disproportionate compass.. frequently referred to.viz. A Round of Matt. fading.. ii. in the servant's first speech. Perdita again takes precaution against Autolycus using 'scurrilous words.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' etc. 327. it may be compared to the modern 'Picco' pipe of the music shops.. 'Whoop. The tabor and pipe. II. fading. do me no harm' has already been spoken of. i. 15.' The 'delicate burdens. while the tune is played on the 'chanter. like a robin-redbreast. 214 of the Winter's Tale passage. Why.' are to be found in examples of the period. by Edward W. For instance.' 'jump her and thump her. The Bagpipe[17] was very similar to the instruments of that name which still exist. 'The Courtier scorns the country clowns' (date about 1600) has for its third and last line 'With a fading. where Feste offers Sir Toby and Sir Andrew their choice between 'a love-song. was a small drum.' which sound a particular note or notes continually.' besides the passage from Twelfth Nt. Italian Dictionary. 'Love-songs' are quite a large class. and the tabor alone. It is played on by Ariel. i. such as sing threemen's songs. II. To relish a love song.' Shakespeare himself tells us of another variety&#8212. or a song of good life. which will all go to settle the matter: Florio. A. The tabor. iii.. Mr Aldis Wright also gives me the expression 'six-men's song. but with a compass of 18 notes. White.' [Freemen is simply a corruption of Threemen. the habit of performing songs in three vocal parts. 15. run thorough the ear with a love-song. of course..Highland Scotch. Rimbault's reason was that 'Deuteromelia' (1609) does contain Freemen's Songs in four parts. Lowland Scotch.viz.. the passage refers to a very interesting department of 16th century singing&#8212. Rom. The last has bellows instead of a 'bag. (See Frontispiece.' From l. Canons.[Pg 82] Val. poor Romeo! he is already dead. in Twelfth Night III. you have learn'd . and Irish. which was used as accompaniment to the pipe. 76. The singers were called Threeman-songmen. quoted further on. iii. Mr Aldis Wright tells me it is analogous to Thills or Fills. They all have 'drones. for the shafts of a waggon. country gigges. Naylor. Marry by these special marks. ii. virelaies or threemen's songs. Mercutio. . a small whistle with three holes.' from Percy's Reliques. Strambotti. 126 and 152. the Lincolnshire bagpipe. which were too often coarse and even indecent.

fie. he was familiar with members of the celebrated choir of St George's Chapel at Windsor. Thou didst swear to me . but one Puritan amongst them. your wind short. 1611. and very good ones. capable of 'bearing a part' in a composition of this sort. I say. H.' may derive their name from the dance. fie. 4. i. Clown. Is not your voice broken. m. round. and he sings psalms to hornpipes. and every part about you blasted with antiquity.. For my voice. was a notable singer of Anthems. upon Wednesday in Wheeson week. by his own account. and grows old. She hath made me four-and-twenty nosegays for the shearers. B. I could sing psalms or anything.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.viz. An example of a threemansong will be found in the Appendix. Chief Justice. Giraldus Cambrensis says that singing in parts was indigenous to the parts beyond the Humber. Here were 24 good glee singers.' The Puritan was most accommodating.. or hotch potch. when the prince broke thy head for liking his father to a singing-man of Windsor. French Dict. I. This last is referred to in the above passage. Threeman singing may still be heard (not as an exotic). Hen. and two country lasses. Falstaff laments the degeneracy of the times. your chin double. 88. My lord. who would sing the by no means respectable words of popular[Pg 85] comic ditties to the solemn strains of the mass 'l'homme armé. There live not three good men unhanged in England. by Edward W. 4. Hostess. God help the while! a bad world. but they are most of them means and bases. your wit single. 'There's scarce a maid westward but she sings it'&#8212. three-man song-men all.[Pg 84] Shakespeare is strictly historical in making a pedlar. with the single defect that their tenors were very weak. and will you yet call yourself young? Fie. 137. freemans song]. in Wales and the West of England. 41. and his singing the words of psalms to the tune of the hornpipe would tend to shew that the Old Adam was not all put away as yet..' Shakespeare also alludes to sacred part-music. (See Merry Wives II. and was not above practising the metrical Psalmody in his sadder moments. and singing of anthems. II. i. Songs and Singing 36 . A virelay. A. of music amongst the lower classes..' or whatever well-known melody the music happened to be constructed on. 'most of them means [altos] and basses. iv.' Gallimaufry is 'Galimathias. B. 4. 115). H. 'Saltarello. Falstaff.[Pg 86] Fal. I have lost it with hollaing. The company of 'men of hair. the song in three parts. ii. II. Naylor. and on the borders of Yorkshire. 'We be soldiers three. and one of them is fat. Virelay. These musical harvesters square closely with the account given in the Introduction. I would I were a weaver.' calling themselves 'Saltiers. His compromise with his conscience reminds one of the old stories (all too true) of church singers in the 15th and 16th centuries. 182. Cotgrave. in which holy service he had lost his voice.. The threemansong men are more particularly described in Winter's Tale IV.' a muddle. ii.. Sir John! Falstaff.

' Falstaff knew well what a Ballad was too&#8212. Now let's have a catch. Next. 'draw three souls out of one weaver. II. Bridge's 'Shakespeare Songs. as well as a sly reference to 'weavers' singing catches. Go hang thyself in thine own heir-apparent garters! If I be ta'en. let's have a song. 'gabbling like tinkers. Sir Toby gives Feste sixpence[Pg 87] to sing a song. These Flemish Protestants. 94 and 115 ought not to be missed. An I have not ballads made on you all. ass.' [For the original music see Prof.[Pg 88] Tw. 30. Price 2s. where they settled. they all three sing a catch. Ay. and were distinguished for their love of Psalmody.' 'alehouse. were mostly woollen manufacturers. [Clown sings 'O mistress mine.' The Clown then sings them 'O mistress mine. Sir To. There's a testril of me too.as the following shews:&#8212.' Novello. or sings odd lines of four old songs [Appendix]. who had fled from the persecutions in their own country. Sir And. 43. Inter alia. or. and this is not the man. by Edward W. I'll peach for this. 4. in his own words. (to Hal. who were noted for their psalm singing. Fal. at Sir Toby's suggestion.. Sir And. 4.' an allusion to the three vocal parts which are evolved from the one melody of the catch. he applies precisely those epithets to their proceedings that our histories lead us to expect&#8212. furious with the noise they are making in the middle of the night. Come on. Clown. Hence the allusion to 'weavers' and 'Psalms. Now.' But according to the Epilogue of Hen. ii.g. and sung to filthy tunes. 'Oldcastle died a martyr. if one knight give a&#8212. Sir Toby's puns on 'keep time' in ll. and when Malvolio comes in. there is sixpence for you. but sounds humorous if done smartly.e.'] Sir And. the fool has an excellent breast. 6d.' squeaking out your 'cozier's catches' ['cozier' is 'cobbler']. 18. as the fool has. II. B. Naylor. Hen. which indeed gave them the name. I had rather than forty shillings I had such a leg. Two other worthy knights claim our attention in the next quotation. iii. Would you have a love-song. A. L. (See Introduction. I care not for good life. Songs and Singing 37 .).] Then. throughout the western counties. after Maria's entrance. as I am true knight. A love-song.) They sing 'Thou knave. This last sentence connects curiously with Sir John Oldcastle. which contains many interesting allusions. or a song of good life? Sir To. Sir And.' for which see the Appendix. By my troth. let a cup of sack be my poison. It is not a good catch. Toby either quotes the titles. the leader of the Lollards. a song. Sir Andrew follows it up with a 'testril. a love-song.. Welcome. and perhaps its very roughness suits the circumstances. Sir To. a collection which every reader of Shakespeare ought to have. ay. Sir And.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. A mellifluous voice. To 'keep time' is almost the only virtue a catch singer must have. and so sweet a breath to sing.&#8212.

Mar. lady! [Sings. another song. "Hold thy peace. My masters. that ye squeak out your cozier's catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place. Come.] Enter Maria." knight? I shall be constrained to call thee knave. persons. A contagious breath. An you love me. Mal. begin. knight. 'Tis not the first time I have constrained one to call me knave. but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house. let's do't: I am dog at a catch. and some dogs will catch well. I shall never begin. Good. My lady's a Cataian. Sir To. nor honesty. if I hold my peace. To hear by the nose. It was not till quite modern times that 'Catch' implied a Songs and Singing 38 . "Farewell. we are politicians. [They sing a catch. i'faith. sir. more clearly. Mar.&#8212."&#8212. Very sweet and contagious. Let our catch be. Sneck up! L." Clo. it is dulcet in contagion. thou knave. i'faith. lady. lady!" ***** Sir To. "Thou Knave. and "Three merry men be we.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. or time in you? Sir To. It is perhaps necessary to explain the nature of a[Pg 90] Catch. or Round. Sir And. Most certain.] "There dwelt a man in Babylon. What a caterwauling do you keep here! ***** Sir To.] "O! the twelfth day of December. manners. [Sings.". that will draw three souls out of one weaver? Shall we do that? Sir And. By'r lady. Clo. Begin. "Hold thy peace. sir. Malvolio's a Peg-a-Ramsey.. dear heart" [Appendix]. peace! Enter Malvolio. in our catches." Clo. are you mad? or what are you? Have you no wit. Naylor. But shall we make the welkin dance indeed? Shall we rouse the night-owl in a catch. We did keep time.. The two names were interchangeable in the 16th and 17th centuries. by Edward W. Sir And. Tilly-valley. 103-114. Sir And. Sir To. For the love o'God.[Pg 89] Sir And. fool: it begins.

'Begin. and sweet airs. fool'] line 1. Thirdly. Thus when they are all three fairly set going. the said melody was always divisible into a certain number of equal sections. [Very likely. says the cuckoo. and immediately proceeds to line 2. is as follows:&#8212. each of these equal sections was deliberately arranged so as to make Harmony with every other. Trinculo.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Come on.] Ste. which is divisible into three equal sections. Good news the cuckoo brings to us. as they were tipsy. their one melody produces three part harmony. the way for three persons. 136. and hurt not. &c. necessary quibble in the words. to sing this Catch or Round. B in his turn begins line 1.] [Ariel plays the tune on a tabor and pipe. Naylor. a Catch or Round of the best type of Elizabethan times consisted of one melody. 'Flout 'em and scout 'em. and C. Be not afeard. Stephano. The original music of 'Flout 'em' has not come down to us. however great the number of parts. [They sing a catch. 122. played by the picture of Nobody. it is time for C also to begin at line 1. 2.'] Caliban. he begins again. When A has reached the first syllable in line 3.' The principle in all other Catches or Rounds is exactly the same. and as many sections as there were. and[Pg 91] B is at 'Good' in line 2. and therefore is sung by three voices. Spring is here. deliberately arranged by the writer. What is this same? Trin. and the catchers have drawn 'three souls out of one weaver.' Now. so many voices were necessary. 1. generally perfectly continuous. ii. 3. by Edward W. ***** L. that give delight. Tempest III. varying from three to six. This is the tune of our catch. First. Cal. A. That's not the tune. and sometime voices. or even eight. Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments [Pg 92]Will hum about mine ears. and so on with the others&#8212. and acts similarly. Songs and Singing 39 . In the following we have another case of catch-singing. the isle is full of noises. Secondly. As soon as A has finished line 3. B. A begins [see above. line 69. Here are the words of a Round of the 17th century.'round' and 'round' till they are tired of 'catching' each other up. let us sing. at this very instant. Sounds. 'Cuckoo! Hark! how he sings to us.

good Grumio. i' faith.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. III. young gentlemen. Also Id. Ste. 7. and is overjoyed to think that he will have all his music 'for nothing' (l. sit. i. in the Taming of the Shrew.] Touch. Naylor. bell. 'It was a lover. boy. I could see this taborer: [Ariel] he lays it on.' Could be sung as a two-part madrigal quite easily. is anonymous. like most of the scamps in Shakespeare. news. Ding. L. are&#8212. This will prove a brave kingdom to me. though there was no great matter in the ditty. Come. sit i' the middle. 152). we have the title of another old catch. 2 Page. ho! boy. He leads the catch. Shall we clap into 't roundly. ding. and both in a tune. By my troth. [Song follows. we kept time. which are the only prologues to a bad voice? 2 Page. ii. yet the note was very untuneable. The words of this catch. 119. Curtis. or spitting. Therefore. without hawking. Grumio. where I shall have my music for nothing. like two gipsies on a horse. of which the music has survived&#8212. 42. "Jack. boy! ho. and is of some date long before Shakespeare. well met. Truly. Stephano. is a good musician. 1 Page.' The music [see Appendix]. appreciates Ariel's tabor playing (l. Why.' for Morley's original setting. sir. See Bridge's 'Shakespeare Songs. 'Jack. like that of so many[Pg 93] other catches. 152. The cat is in the well. we lost not our time. We are for you. I' faith. 1 Page. and a song. Songs and Singing 40 . 145) in the magical isle. which takes four voices. Finally. You are deceived. or saying we are hoarse. boy. Touchstone. As You V. Let us ring now for her knell.viz..' Shrew IV. the news. boy!" and as much news as thou wilt. dong. sit. 'Jack. dong. iii. I would. by Edward W.

[To Cesario]&#8212. There is yet another pun on 'lost time' in ll. Mark it. By my troth. More than light airs. Music by Hilton. it did relieve my passion much. iv.' is a quaint description of a duet. Who was it? Cur. [Pg 95] L. and plain. Yes. date about 1600. Cesario. God be wi' you. 19. it is old. ii. but one verse. and play the tune the while.. Audrey. yes. so it make noise enough.[Pg 94] As You IV.How dost thou like this tune? Viola. [Clown sings 'Come away. Jaques' cynicism comes out even in his limited dealings with music. death. 5. Have you no song. Touch. is most humorously appropriate. probably the original setting. Duke. Give me some music. the jester. but that piece of song. Feste. 'Both in a tune.'] Songs and Singing 41 .' Rimbault. Duke..The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. The First Page's speech at l. that kill'd the deer. Come. good Cesario. 1. by Edward W. my lord: . L. I count it but time lost to hear such a foolish song. 36-8. Song follows. Methought.Now. Come.. good morrow. sir. for this purpose? 2 Lord.. Sing it. and God mend your voices. Seek him out. Curio. p. II. Jaques. 20. like two gipsies on a horse. we heard last night.&#8212. Now. Naylor. that should sing it. 'What shall he have. 'tis no matter how it be in tune. Duke. Duke. . He is not here. a Round for four foresters. 43. Tw. forester. This section will conclude with two quotations about singing of a more serious turn. That old and antique song. friends. Jaq. It gives a very echo to the seat Where love is thron'd. so please your lordship. 9.

' or 'Ship of Fools. I'll pay thy pleasure then.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 'Light airs' in line 5 means 'vain fiddling jigs'&#8212. John. 'The furies fearful. Naylor. lively instrumental music. and popular amusements in particular. King John V. Another with his bagpipe. Hen. but out they nede must go. 67. Here are some of the verses that treat of Serenades in the year 1450. sir. No pains. Clo. [Pg 96] IV Serenades and 'Music' The history of Serenades is as ancient as that of Songs. I take pleasure in singing. except that 'organ pipe of frailty' means simply the voice of the dying king. P. another with their lute. Bereft these vagabonds in their minds. Duke. and thence into English... More wildly wandring then either bucke or doe. 10. wrote in Dutch his 'Stultifera Navis. .e. vii. There's for thy pains. sir.. Some with their harpes. Doth he still rage? Pembroke. Lines 20-22 and 43 are worth remembering for many reasons. Death of K. by Edward W. The next and last passage requires no remark. 'Then measure they their songes of melody Before the doores of their lemman deare. And. a lawyer.. sprong of the floudes of hell. so That by no meane can they abide ne dwell Within their houses. The book was afterwards translated into Latin. 'Tis strange that death should sing. from the organ-pipe of frailty.He is more patient Than when you left him: even now he sung.. In the middle of the 15th century. IV 42 . or a foolishe flute. L. Sebastian Brant. sings His soul and body to their lasting rest.' a severe satire on things in general. Who chants a doleful hymn to his own death.i. Duke. Prince Henry. I am the cygnet to this pale faint swan. O vanity of sickness!.

And thy advice this night I'll put in practice.' Finally&#8212.' which implies that two voices at least took part.' Brant had no great opinion of the music provided either. 'One barketh. Some rore. colde. The instruments mentioned are such as were still in use in Shakespeare's time&#8212. He describes their singing before their lady's window&#8212.. wet. Naylor. unstable. sweet Proteus.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. but also yonge fooles of the spiritualtie. by Edward W. Howling with their foolishe songe and cry. 'Standing in corners like as it were a spye. in the more refined 'keys' of 'Musica Ficta']. and 'foolish' flute. 'States themselves therein abuse. harp. which evidently included both solo and part singing&#8212. and witless! What pleasure take you in this your foolishness? What joy have ye to wander thus by night. and not only laymen.viz.'feigned' ballads for a single voice [ballads. III. ii. Proteus (advises Thurio) 'Visit by night your lady's chamber window With some sweet concert: to their instruments Tune a deploring dump:' Thu. 83. Serenades and 'Music' 43 . and 'Countering. When his soveraigne lady hath of him disdayne. Two Gent. some counter. besides the several varieties of song.' 'With some yonge fooles of the spiritualtie: The foolish pipe without all gravitie Doth eche degree call to his frantic game: The darkness of night expelleth feare of shame. but also&#8212. my direction-giver. Whether that the wether be whot. Save that ill doers alway hate the light?' Another verse explains that not only the foolish young men of low birth were given to this practice. O madmen amased. that is.' Thus. Serenades of voices and instruments were common. That in cold winter they use the same madness. The following passage is an example of this nocturnal serenading by a company of gentlemen. or dry. Let us into the city presently.a Parthian shot&#8212. Therefore. some their ballads fayne: Another from singing geveth himself to wepe. bagpipe. [Pg 97]So that their lemman may their great folly heare: 'But yet moreover these fooles are so unwise. When all the houses are lade with snowe and yse. lute. 'foolish' pipe. and in general practice by all classes of young men. another bleateth like a shepe. one hundred years before Shakespeare was[Pg 98] born.

gentlemen. I perceive. Jul. Ay. He plays false. L. Naylor. Jul. Proteus advises Thurio to get a 'consort' (probably of viols) to play a 'dump' under Silvia's window. Why. L. Host. Not so. Now.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. ii. man? (i. You mistake: the musician (i. How do you. Let's tune. Host. it is called 'evening music. and see the gentleman that you ask'd for. IV. To sort some gentlemen well skilled in music. Not a whit. that he grieves my very heart-strings. Two Gent. my pretty youth? Jul.' so they sing 'Who is Silvia.' L. . Host.' but does not include the 'dump. where. That will be music. Ay. by Edward W.' Here is the passage. And give some evening music to her ear. Jul. 54. Host (to Julia. father. in boy's clothes).. Thu. Host. How? out of tune on the strings? Jul. which is full of quibbles on musical terms. 16. line 17. Proteus.' for Thurio has 'a sonnet that will serve the turn. .. but yet so false. Jul. 24. that you shall. But shall I hear him speak? Host. The serenade takes place in the next Act. I would I were deaf! it makes me have a slow heart..[Pg 99] He goes to arrange for some of his friends to attend for this purpose. you delight not in music. Jul.[Pg 100] Host.. Julia) the music likes you not.e. when it jars so.. 'Now must we to her window. I'll bring you where you shall hear music.. Proteus) likes me not. 28. Serenades and 'Music' 44 . in the 2nd scene.e. You have a quick ear.

First. sir! I am beholding to you For your sweet music this last night: I do Protest. I would this music would come. with admirable rich words to it.and then let her consider. gentlemen. 11. Another 'evening music' is provided by Pericles.' These 'fancies' were always contrapuntal. get you gone.' see II. You would have them always play but one thing? Jul.. L. so. it will penetrate. are referred to under this title. [The musicians perform 'Hark! hark! the lark. 'a very excellent good-conceited thing'.[Pg 102] Per.' Hark! hark! the lark. the second is the 'wonderful sweet air. Not my desert. it is a vice in her ears. 'Good-conceited' means having many 'conceits. if it do not. 'fingering' and 'tongue' correspond to 'playing' and 'singing. I am advised to give her music o' mornings. by Edward W. can never amend.'] So. a wonderful sweet air. Cymbeline II.&#8212. Ay. Cloten arranges for the musicians (who seem in this case to be professional players) to give two pieces. 24. which horse-hairs. I would always have one (Proteus) play but one thing. my ears were never better fed With such delightful pleasing harmony. Cloten. Serenades and 'Music' 45 . we'll try with tongue too: . . a very excellent good-conceited thing. The mention of 'horse-hairs and calves'-guts' makes it clear that the instruments in this 'morning music' were Viols.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Pericles. and the various artificial contrivances. Cloten serenades Imogen.[Pg 101] Enter Musicians. and calves'-guts.' The next passage is of a serenade in the early morning. If you can penetrate her with your fingering. Hark! what fine change is in the music. 'I thank you for your music. It is your grace's pleasure to commend. they say. iii.. Host. 85. imitations. v. Prince of Tyre. a musician [his education had been 'in arts and arms. 82]. If this penetrate. followed by a song.' The first is to be a 'Fancy' for viols. All fortune to the good Simonides! Sim. To you as much. Per. and what not. after. Silvia (from window). Host (misunderstanding again). Pericles II. one instrumental. that change (Proteus' unfaithfulness) is the spite. Jul. Naylor. In l. 14.. iii. answering of points. Come on: tune. I will consider your music the better..

we will not.' Further on. Cass.' but with a different object&#8212. that they speak i' the nose thus?[Pg 103] 1 Mus. ***** Clo.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. but a soldier. Clo. Are these. Ay... as they say. to hear music the general does not greatly care.Sir. What music is this? Serenades and 'Music' 46 . masters. to't again. you are music's master. Cassio brings musicians to salute Othello. Troilus and Cressida III. away! Pandarus appears to be a capital musician. to make no more noise with it. but. and are mentioned under the name 'pipes' in the last two lines. i. i." [Music. Sim. 'at the request of Paris. How. Paris also plays on the term 'broken' music. called wind-instruments? 1 Mus. which is terribly appropriate to that instrument. how? Clo. Clo.e. sir.' The servant amuses himself by giving 'cross' answers to Pandarus' crooked questions. Per. The passage seems to indicate the use of Bagpipes. Masters.not a lady.' 'wholly. If you have any music that may not be heard. Naylor. 48). . Then put up your pipes in your bag. play here. The worst of all her scholars. Moreover. for I'll away. sir. The next quotation is also of 'morning music. sir. are they. there is the remark of the Clown.g. vanish into air. 19. and are called wind-instruments. Othello III.' 'music in parts. 1 Mus.] Enter Clown. Well. to judge by the Clown's critical remarks. and in the process gets out two or three musical jokes&#8212. and the general so likes your music. sir.. masters. Go. In the following we find him questioning a musical servant of Priam's palace about some instrumental music which is going on within. 1 Mus. have your instruments been in Naples. I will content your pains: Something that's brief. general. Pandarus. sir. my good lord. by Edward W. marry. and bid "Good morrow. represented here by stars. I pray you. for love's sake. We have none such. Clo. Why. and of a somewhat rough and ready kind. i. here's money for you. for 'they speak in the nose' (see Merchant IV. that he desires you. 'partly know.

52. B. Fal. in a cooler room. Page. sir. Who play they to? Serv. Serenades and 'Music' 47 . Falstaff. Accordingly.[Pg 104] Pan. Naylor. l. Paris. ***** L. 95.. sir. 'Love. II. Pan. Let them play.) Id. near the end. To the hearers. nothing but love. At mine. sirs. 4. The music is come. Come. Eastcheap. Servant. and theirs that love music. 10. sirrah. iv. where we learn that the charge for playing before the guests was twenty shillings for two hours in Shakespeare's time. Pandarus sings.[Pg 105] H. You have broke it.'] The custom of having instrumental music in taverns has already been referred to in the Introduction. Pan. cousin. I do but partly know. cover. Play. you shall make it whole again: you shall piece it out with a piece of your performance. friend? Serv. 227. Wholly.&#8212. [And at Helen's request. Pan. sir. give me an instrument. while he was at dinner. [To Helen] Nell. Why then. Mistress Tearsheet would fain have some music. he [Pandarus] is full of harmony. l.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. love. here is good broken music. we find Sir John Falstaff enjoying such a performance at the Boar's Head. Fair prince. and set them down: and see if thou canst find out Sneak's noise. Know you the musicians? Serv. Pandarus. who would either sing or play for his pleasure. Id. 380. Pay the musicians..&#8212. 1 Drawer. by Edward W. by my life. sir. and. At whose pleasure. ***** L. it is music in parts. (After supper. also that a man could hardly go into a public house of entertainment without being followed by two or three itinerant musicians. sir. .

The rough and woful music that we have. 1. the tabret. 1.e. Ps. Tempest V. To work mine end upon their senses. Call for the music in the other room. 4. IV. verse ix. xcv. he has 'stringèd noise'&#8212. while the third represents Prospero using a solemn air to remove the magic[Pg 107] spell which he had cast on Alonso and his other enemies. with the meaning of 'music'&#8212. lxxxi. Cerimon's house at Ephesus. Hen. 4. The vial once more.' The same word is used in several other places. Pss. xcviii. B. 133.. The Prayer-book Version (Great Bible) of the Psalms. Pro. 2. where 'to make a joyful noise' is represented in the original by the same verb. A solemn air. the second is an account of Cerimon's attempt to rouse the half-drowned Thaisa with at least partial assistance from music. which was made in 1540.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. The next three examples are of somewhat similar cases. band of stringed instruments. and trumpet.e. when Dr Plot was present at the annual Bull-running held by the Minstrels of Tutbury. one of the features of which festivity was a banquet. with 'loud uplifted angel-trumpets. c. when I have required Some heavenly music (which even now I do). 'play skilfully with a loud noise.' Also in his Hymn on the Nativity.. lute. beseech you.' and the singing of psalms and hymns. 58.' 'immortal harps of golden wires.. 51. on his sick-bed. harp. lxvi. Unless some dull and favourable hand Will whisper music to my wearied spirit.. Naylor. 1. Also in the Authorised Version of 1611. Antonio. by Edward W. Serenades and 'Music' 48 . xcviii.. thou block!&#8212. Milton uses the word. The term 'Sneak's noise' is most interesting. Cause it to sound. my gentle friends. and. 3. Well said. Hen.' where the 'saintly shout' of the seraphic choir.g. in the poem 'At a Solemn Music. with 'a Noise of musicians playing to them. K. 6. . are collectively called 'that melodious noise. Henry IV.i. cure thy brains. 1. Let there be no noise made. 87. Pericles III. i. 'Make a cheerful noise unto the God of Jacob. cast up by the sea. Warwick. the fire and the cloths.. Thaisa. Cerimon. The music there! I pray you. ii. and Mr Sneak was the gentleman who gave his name to the particular band of instrumentalists who favoured the Boar's Head. L. 'Noise' means a company of musicians. In the first. Prospero employs music to disenchant Alonso.' and this in the next verses is said to consist of various musical instruments&#8212.. and the best comforter To an unsettled fancy. give her air. xxxiii. well said.' which was the instrumental accompaniment to a 'new song. in sickness asks for music. 4. is brought to life by his directions.' The reputed cure of the Tarantula's bite by music has already been mentioned. in this sense.&#8212. etc. The word was still in use in 1680. has the word[Pg 106] in Ps.. K..how thou stirr'st.e. H.g. except in one of the two cases in Ps. iv.

an't please you. 256. good night. good boy.It does. Stealing and giving odour. but thou art willing. iii. That plays thee music?&#8212. in Parthenia. If music be the food of love.&#8212.Varro! Claudius! sirs.Enough! no more: 'Tis not so sweet now.Claudius! Luc. i. I will not do thee so much wrong to wake thee. He thinks he still is at his instrument. and. play on. good night.] L. Brutus' musical establishment is on a smaller scale than the Duke's. it is[Pg 108] 'concerted' music. Bru. Ay. The appetite may sicken. Bru. good boy. and is such a willing servant as to perform when almost overcome by sleep.&#8212. are false.&#8212. Next we have two examples of 'Music at Home. my boy. And touch thy instrument a strain or two? [Pg 109]Luc. as it was before. Bear with me. That strain again! it had a dying fall: O! it came o'er my ear like the sweet sound That breathes upon a bank of violets. Naylor. that.'] Twelfth Night I.' who can sing to his own accompaniment on the lute.O murderous slumber! Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy. awake!&#8212. the last 'strain' of which has just such a 'dying fall' as is mentioned in line 4. my lord. Bru. Brutus and his servant Lucius. thou break'st thy instrument: I'll take it from thee. [See the remarks on the passage from Lucrece in Section I. ***** [Boy sings to lute.' In the case of the Duke in Twelfth Night.Lucius!&#8212. [Ghost of Cæsar appears. I trouble thee too much. I am much forgetful. surfeiting. and the players seem to be performing such a quaint old piece as 'The Lord of Salisbury his Pavin. Boy!&#8212. Serenades and 'Music' 49 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. by Edward W. Canst thou hold up thy heavy eyes awhile.] Bru. This is a sleepy tune: [Boy drops off]&#8212. and so die. [asleep].Gentle knave. Duke. If thou dost nod. on the technical meaning of 'strain. The strings. Bru. Julius Cæsar IV. He keeps a 'good boy. my lord. 290.' by Gibbons. Give me excess of it.

sick. dirges. For I must die. which they sing directly after. 'O Death. where Queen Katherine.. wench: my soul grows sad with troubles: Sing. then.. IV. Naylor. Bid the music leave. Cap. IV. The song.. Cause the musicians play me that sad note I named my knell. Leave working. whilst I sit meditating [Pg 111]On that celestial harmony I go to. It would be of great interest if it were possible to identify Queen Katherine's 'Knell. III. or 'good-nights. They are harsh and heavy to me.] . requests her gentleman-usher to get the musicians to play a favourite piece of this class&#8212." Sc. In close connection with these funeral songs is the passage in Hen. Our solemn hymns to sullen dirges change.. iv. All things. In Henry VIII. Good Griffith. Take thy lute.' [See H. In the following quotation 'dirges' are mentioned by name. v. and disperse them... rock me to sleep. by Edward W. Queen Catherine. VIII.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' which might be the very one. 'Orpheus.. funeral songs. given in Chappell's Popular Music. [She sleeps. in memory of Imogen.viz. 184. Rom. waking from the vision&#8212. or more properly. Capulet. 'Tole on thou passing bell Ringe out my dolefull knell Let thy sound my death tell. may be taken in this connection. "Good faith! 'tis day: The county [Count Paris] will be here with music straight. Serenades and 'Music' 50 . B. Cadwal (Arviragus) sounds an 'ingenious instrument' to signify Imogen's death. if thou canst. that we ordained festival. [Song. duet. 322].' There is an old song. for both music and words are singularly appropriate. III. 77. Unfortunately there seems to be no musical setting of 'Fear no more the heat o' the sun' any older than 1740. ii. Polydore (Guiderius) says[Pg 110] they had not used it since their mother died. .'] The next passage brings us to another class of music&#8212. In Cymbeline IV. 4. . The Refrain is as follows:&#8212. Turn from their office to black funeral: Our instruments to melancholy bells. ii. 84. ii. 21. i is a case of the same kind. Our wedding cheer to a sad burial feast.

[Tw.' Again. 127. he speaks of 'a kind of[Pg 114] songs . V. All the ancient dances were originally sung. Through cruel spite and false report. ii.Pavans.viz. ii. Johnson. alone. I. it is very possibly of Hen.. 5. or 16 semibreves (two beats in a bar).' The same author also gives 'Passamesos with a dittie [i. there is given the music of a Pavan. VIII. 200. and consisting of the same number of straines.e. V. Hawkins gives the poem.' The song is most plaintive. i. shew us this development just at the point where instrumental music was dividing itself from vocal. with lutes in their hands. the first of which he says is for 'grave' dancing. 131.. where Bottom is not so very inaccurate after all in asking Duke Theseus to 'hear a Bergomask dance between two of our company.' which finally resulted in the Sonata itself. and has a very striking feature in the shape of a real independent accompaniment. indeed. H. p. i. by Robt. 1597) mentions Ballete. 30. iii. and two extra verses at the beginning. with certain variations. which are each repeated. like the bells of a village church. especially the Pavan.. 1588]. as being 'songs which being sung to a dittie may likewise be danced. ii.. all written in the Bergamasca language. Hawkins also gives[Pg 112] music (in four parts) to the first two verses. I.e.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 'St Thomas Wake. we have the germs of the modern 'Sonata' Form.. Morley (Practical Music. 'Defiléd is my name full sore. Vol. 'a kind of music made out of the other' [see Bull's Pavan and Galliard.] Hence it appears that in Elizabeth's reign some dances were sung.' and distinguishes between these aforesaid and 'those kinds which they make without ditties.. and others were simply played.' in Parthenia] in triple time. and manie times without any V 51 .' each containing 8.or Passamezzo&#8212. 'and frame ditties to them. ii.' and he says the verses are thought to have been written by Anne Boleyn. Dream V. Nt. [Pg 113] V Dances and Dancing The history of Dances is the history of the transition from pure vocal music to pure instrumental music. etc. which keeps up a continual figure of three descending notes. where a masque of Ladies as Amazons enter the banquetting hall at Timon's house. 676. as in England].. a contemporary of Shakespeare's.'s time. In Grove's Dictionary.' See Mids. 12. Naylor. and that this Pavan is usually followed by a Galliard. This stage direction corresponds closely with Morley's account. In the Dances of the 16th century. 200. with the words sung [copied from Arbeau's Orchésographie. 'the Italians make their galliards (which they tearm salta relly) plain' [i. dancing and playing. see Twelfth Nt. not as an appendage to the Pavan. 252]. The music of the song in Chappell is much older than that. The Elizabethan Dances. having three 'strains. Pavans and Galliards. 'a lighter and more stirring dance than the Pavan. which in their mascaradoes they sing and dance.. called Justinianas . by Edward W. the first commencing&#8212. There is no remedye. in four vocal parts. and in the association of certain of them we have the first attempt at a sequence of different 'movements.' [Passamesos are Passing-measures&#8212.'[Pg 115] The next passage from Morley is very interesting when compared with the stage direction in Timon I. sung]. Morley goes on to instance two particular dances which were commonly associated together&#8212.

but is in common time.' He says that the 'voltes and courantes' also are 'like unto this.' but are 'danced after sundrie fashions' [he means. Sarabands.' he says. dated 1678. 4. without even a tendency towards the rhythm[Pg 118] of triplets.' 'All these be made in straines. This may be a more modern feature.e. except (p. 258. and shewing how things had gone from bad to worse in respect of dignity and state in dancing. and the Cushion dance: Then all the company dances.. for an undoubtedly ancient Jig&#8212. because it shews us that in 1667. especially for Instrumental Music. Spanish.' Hen. IV. though it be danced after another form than any of the former. no distinction.' This is the Brawl. and 6 Parts.. ii. ii.' like our 'Sir Roger. 323. and most commonly in short notes. instruments at all. and was one of several tunes to which the Country Dance was danced.' Immediately afterwards.viz. where the 'pointed' note is quite characteristic. See his 'Compendium. whether in a ring. Etym. because at the time it was entirely justifiable.' For 'Consort. 5. the royalist soldier (1667). In king James's time things were pretty well. secondly. of 3.' or Julius Cæsar IV. 9. so that the same tune[Pg 116] would do].L. it 'containeth the time of eight. made properly [on purpose] for Instruments. 'You need not seek Outlandish Authors. then the Corantoes and the Galliards. 704) that there is no authority for a Jigg having generally a pointed (i. 83. confirms Morley's statements as to the constitution and use of these dances. no Nation (in my opinion) being equal to the English in that way. gay. III. He speaks of the association of Pavan and Galliard as being 'in course. but occupying the same rhythmical time. 'the volte rising and leaping. There is. lord and groom. however. either two or three. Dict. however.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. instrumental music had at last decidedly parted company with vocal part-writing. Hawkins (1776) does not add much of interest to the above account of the Elizabethan dances.[Pg 117] There is a capital bit of patriotism on page 118. i. first you had the grave measures. the courant travising and running. of Musical Terms. 'the country whence it came.' The 'French bransle.' 1622. i. At a solemn dancing. and had an independent existence. 'Cobbler's Jig. tolly Dances and Dancing 52 . gallardo (ll = ly). who sing and daunce to their own songes. So in our court in queen Elizabeth's time. as well for their excellent as their various and numerous Consorts. 'touch thy instrument a strain or two.' He spells the latter Giliard.] Here is a most entertaining quotation from Selden.. where he expressly states that pure instrumental music. and at length to Trenchmore. Naylor. [Also see Appendix. with different steps. or 'at length.' On page 117 he speaks of Corants. by Edward W. a 'Jegge' given in Stainer and Barrett's Dict. Jiggs... see L.' p. Country Dances. 'made only to delight the ear. But in king Charles's time. 4. in which measure also our Countrey dance is made. and says that it is 'according to its name' [see Skeat. iii.' is merely a development from Dances.' not only has no dotted note.' See Tw. dotted) note at the beginning of every bar.' Christopher Sympson. III. Sympson seems to forget his own remarks.i. as 'things so common in each one's ears' that he 'need not enlarge his Discourse' to them. of all which (as I said) Fancies are the chief. gravity and state were kept up. for he says the name is derived from Gallia. lively] 'of a loftly and frolick movement. and for 'Fancies.' see Two Gent. is like the Alman (Allemagne of Bach. but instead of instruments they have Curtisans disguised in men's apparell. pleasant. 'that strain again. 'The court of England is much alter'd. I. which deserves quoting. first. there has been nothing but Trenchmore and the Cushion-dance. omnium gatherum. III. 116.e.L.[19] dealing with fashionable court dances in Elizabeth's reign. lady and kitchen-maid. etc. and this kept up with ceremony. etc. Dr Bull's 'King's Hunting Jigg.)&#8212. under the Stuarts. B.

shake. And next. swing. and the Canary that he meant Falstaff to dance. Master. 68. are coupled together.. [See Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. polly.' Two other examples of dancing to one's own singing are. 74. III. and with this he connects the word Brandish. in Lajarte's 'Airs à Danser. I. ii. where the lively character of the dance is clear. One of Lully's. Lafeu. 25 and Wiv. and was a lively dance. and Canary. pipe (for dancing to).' There are very many passages of interest. V. Wiv. or perhaps from Old French Brandeler. hoite cum toite.. 93. 118. [See Note on 'Orchésographie. Also he mentions that Purcell wrote a Canaries for his Opera of Dioclesian.' dates 1666. I shall drink in pipe-wine first with him. iii. Quicken a rock. sometimes in a ring. There are several well-known tunes to it. There are two specially important passages which mention several dances at one time. swing. shake. The first one here given is an instance (in Shakespeare's very text) of singing a dance and dancing to it at the same time. Moth. sigh a note. a totter. so as to give[Pg 121] some prominence to their special characteristics&#8212.' 1588. I will to my honest knight Falstaff. L.[20] It was danced. III. i. I'll make him dance. 9. by Edward W. Hawkins does not attempt to account for the title.. Skeat says[Pg 120] it is so called from the Canary Islands. I have seen a medicine That's able to breathe life into a stone. to wag..viz.. How meanest thou? brawling in French? Moth. Much Ado II.] There are many examples by Lully and other Frenchmen of the 17th century. Mids. Farewell. and Twelfth Nt. . containing references to Dances. There is no history of the name.' All's Well II. but to jig off a tune at the tongue's end.L. [Stainer and Barrett's Dict. the first in alphabetical order.' 'pipe. and sometimes 'at length. i.' The Canary (or Canaries) was in 6/8 time. Host. my hearts. gives one by Delaborde in 4/4 time. 1690. i. Skeat thinks the original dance may have been a sword dance.' and 'canary. Naylor. 83. No. Here the Brawl.L. my complete master. and make you dance canary With spritely fire and motion. Dances and Dancing 53 . Lafeu connects the canary with 'spritely fire and motion. will you win your love with a French brawl?[Pg 119] Arm.] The derivation of the name is from the French. holding hands. V. etc. but cunningly infers that it is of English origin because it has not got a foreign name.' Of course he means whine. The Brawl was written in quick four-in-a-bar time. Ford. canary to it with your feet. [aside] I think.. . Mr Ford puns on 'wine. and drink canary with him.'] The Canary is also alluded to in two other places. and sing a note. v. ii. bransle.

by Edward W. was to be 'a jig. Skeat is entirely opposed to the derivation from Contra danza. A Courant by Frescobaldi (1591-1640) is in triple time. or measure. Measure. 138.. 1. Sir To.. iii.' which would appear to connect the Italian word with curro. 3. and is therefore called Cinque Pas. a measure. Galliard. i. To take these five dances in order&#8212. and come home in a coranto? My very walk should be a jig: . and repenting.' 2. 'country footing. Coranto is the Italian form of our Country dance. and a cinque-pace: the first suit is hot and hasty. cousin. 4. The Jig would be even faster. if you be not woo'd in good time: if the prince be too important [importunate]. Hero. Naylor. I.' Dances and Dancing 54 . wedding. That is. Praetorius (b. Jig (Scotch). sink-a-pace. Corantos. Coranto. full of state and ancientry. but the more lighthearted journey back to dinner he likens to the Coranto.. there is measure in everything.' Davies says it is 'on a triple dactile foot. why dost thou not go to church in a galliard. and full as fantastical. it was formed under the star of a galliard. The fault will be in the music. What dost thou mean? is it a world to[Pg 122] hide virtues in? I did think. See the Note on that work for the explanation of the steps of this and other Shakespeare dances. but under different foreign names has been called French or Italian. 68. 2. and so dance out the answer. Cinquepace is the name of the original Galliard. the wedding. The Country dance is original in England. Galliard. The budget of dances here named includes&#8212. Coranto. and in this he is confirmed by Shakespeare.' The old English name was 'current traverse. till he sink into his grave. Sir Roger de Coverly. as a measure. wooing.' 'close by the ground with sliding passages. measures. in his poem 'Orchestra. knight? Sir And. for he compares the walk to church to the latter. 5. Sir John Davies (1570-1626). ***** L. tell him. with a supposed reference to two opposite lines of partners.' According to Sir Toby. 'Repentance. and with his bad legs falls into the cinque-pace faster and faster till he sink into his grave. 1571) says a Galliard has five steps. These five steps are described in the Orchésographie. Beatrice. these variously named Country Dances could be performed to it. i. Much Ado II. Beatrice's description seems to connect the cinquepace with the tottering and uncertain steps of old age. Tempest IV. I can cut a caper.. by the excellent constitution of thy leg. and then comes repentance. for Sir Andrew's 'very walk. and some other dances with Country Dances. like a Scotch jig. As for its 'step. it would be a quicker and gayer dance than the Galliard.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 1588.' that is.' she says. our typical English Country Dance.' and Morley (1597) speaks of the Courant[Pg 123] step as 'travising and running. It means simply 'country' or 'rustic' dance. is as a Scotch jig. 1. 123. For hear me. whatever the rhythm or speed of the actual tune used. is in form almost the same as the Brawl. 'Faith. 118. Wherefore are these things hid?. or Sinkapace. or Courante. mannerly modest. Sir To. What is thy excellence in a galliard. 'with his bad legs falls into the cinquepace faster and faster. Cinque-pace.' identifies Rounds. Tw. his week-day gait.

to the lower depths of the Cushion-Dance. when the grave and reverend Elders may be supposed to have gone to bed. like 3/8. This last example is probably earlier than 1600. These statements do not all agree with the 'Orchésographie. Hamlet. Selden (see above). and says it is characterised by 'rising and leaping. in Qu.. 'it was formed under the star of a galliard. which were reached towards the close of the evening.[Pg 125] and were 'round dances' for a large number of people. There are several in Parthenia[Pg 124] (1611) by Byrde. Sir Toby seems to connect a Galliard with somewhat violent 'capers. and have no such characteristics as a 'dotted note' anywhere about them. 5. at least. The Galliard. As for the time of the Jig tunes. mannerly modest. 'tis strong. It shall to the barber's. gives a capital idea of the relative speed of the Scotch jig and the Measure. But 'The Cobbler's Jig' [Appendix]. in his 'Compositions for Broken and Whole Consorts of 2. meaning merely 'a dance. Bull. Jigg [later Gigue. is like the Wedding. ii. besides this. 3. Beatrice. 'I have half a dozen healths To drink to these fair ladies. puts 'grave Measures' at the sober beginning of his list.. 1622. They are always in triple time. and to other country dances. 6/4 or 12/8. 'An anapaest is all their music's song. a sort of fiddle in use during the 12th and 13th centuries. Measure. 'Ay. concerning which Sir John Davies says&#8212.' Sir Andrew complacently replies. through the more spirited Coranto.' 4. the word appears to have been used generically. and Jig]. as a 'nimble' galliard.' This capering or 'sault majeur' was also a feature of the 'high lavolt' [La Volta] mentioned in Troilus IV. both as a virginal piece and for dancing.[Pg 126] The term Measure certainly seems to have been used to signify a particularly staid and formal dance. I. 8. Naylor. Bull's 'The King's Hunting Jigg. There is quite a long list of Galliards by various composers. is properly described in H. and tolerably lively Galliard. and Gibbons. and third is long. The Jegge of 1678. or he sleeps. Whose first two feet are short..' It was certainly applied to the Passamezzo. Ha! higher. however. mentioned above. 'Let me see thee caper. 104. dated 1672. and fantastical. with a similar absence of dotted notes. .' Also he calls the lavolte 'a lofty jumping. This was extremely popular. as we can learn from Hamlet. by Edward W. 252. Elizabeth's Virginal Book. hasty. At any rate it was a lively dance. I. ii.' He remarks on the 'excellent constitution' of Sir Andrew's leg. 84. and a Jigg by Matthew Locke.&#8212. those of the 18th century were certainly written in a triple rhythm. The oldest jigs are Scottish. is like the lover's wooing. and so goes on. In H. The jig. The 1st Player recites a speech. with your beard. hot. and consist of either two or three strains of an even number of bars. This is too long.' are very decidedly in quick 4/4 time. full of state and ancientry.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 5. Hamlet II. and a measure Dances and Dancing 55 . But. say on: he's for a jig. and 6 parts.Pr'ythee (to the 1st Player). iv. The name comes from Giga (Geige). in the quoted passage from Much Ado About Nothing. is in quick 6/4 time. 504. Moreover. Polonius.' upon which Sir Toby proposes to the foolish knight to give an example of his powers.' is also in quick 4/4 time. . she says. King Henry says&#8212.. by easy descent. 4. 3. iv.' Morley (1597) speaks of the Volte. 5.' and is of the same 'measure' as a coranto. the measure. in accordance with its derivation.

192. 1 Lady. however. To tread a measure with you on this grass. Say to her. interspersed with dead pauses. As a serenade it is named in the Two Gent. a tapping of the foot at certain places. Duke Senior. an alternation of a slow sliding step... When my poor heart no measure keeps in grief: Therefore..' The next passage uses the word for a pun.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. III. Jaques.L. by Edward W. the princess bids you tell.viz. and secondly. As You V. Biron. I am for other than for dancing measures. you have measur'd miles. The measure then of one is easily told. Tell her. we have measur'd many miles. we'll dance. which may be inferred from the possible connection of the word with 'Thump'. Ask them how many inches Is in one mile: if they have measur'd many. no dancing. that they have measur'd many a mile. And l. My legs can keep no measure in delight. V.L. To lead 'em once again. Boyet (to the ladies). and Dances and Dancing 56 . to come hither. iv. Two features. If. may be guessed at&#8212. So. See especially the following. measure. iv. King of Navarre. to the measures fall. 184. To tread a measure with her on this grass. III. Madam. Naylor. L. girl. 209. where the queen asks her ladies to propose some sport to drive away care. the slow and mournful character of which has already been explained in the notes on Lucrece[Pg 128] 1127. 178. 6. Rosaline. Boyet. . Play Music! and you brides and bridegrooms all. They say. L. Masked ball. Queen. Another dance that is frequently referred to is the Dump. It is not so. we measure them by weary steps. ii. which holds a whole string of quibbles. And many miles. ii. 83. to your pleasures. [Pg 127] A similar play upon the word is in Richard II. With measure heap'd in joy. The nature of the steps of this dance is not certainly known. How many inches do fill up one mile.

play "Heart's ease.. about Songs and Singing. a quicker movement. Peter. For well you know.' the rebeck being the ancient English fiddle with three strings. or perhaps indicates that the pronunciation of singers even in that musical age was no better than it is now. ah! put up.' referring to the material of his viol strings. by my troth. (See H. used to play 'songés' on.' may be a[Pg 129] just reflection on Mr James Soundpost's lack of words. v.e. you note us. 1 Musician. the parish clerk in Chaucer. Hugh 'Rebeck. ***** Peter.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. I'll fa you.' 'sweet sound. In the next passage. 'You are the singer. Peter. which Absolon. An you re us. Paris. III. Heart's ease": O! an you will have me live. and quotes verse 1 of Richard Edwards' song. 42.' are further examples of Shakespeare's fondness for joking on musical matters. because my heart itself plays&#8212. the case may be amended." O! play me some merry dump. put up. Do you note me? 1. and this is also used commonly in Shakespeare. Then will I lay the serving creature's dagger on your pate. we may put up our pipes. by Edward W.. 2 Mus.) Enter Peter. sulky."My heart is full of woe.' Rom. Lady C. Simon 'Catling. and finally. speaks ironically of a 'merry' dump. is supposed to be the same instrument. to comfort me. I will say for you. These last seem to be indicated by the music of 'My Lady Carey's Dump. 96. Why "Heart's ease?" Peter. this is a pitiful case.i. 'tarry for the mourners. Naylor. The final remark of Musician 2 is delicious. Musicians. James 'Soundpost. 1 Mus.' For an account of that song see Section III."[Pg 130] 1 Mus. and be gone. musicians.' 'no gold for sounding. etc. about Bardolph and the lute case.. O. ii. Dances and Dancing 57 .' which wants no explaining. succeeded again by the slow step. 'Faith. IV. 5. musicians! "Heart's ease. the dumps are 'doleful. The improvised names of the musicians are pointed enough. The character of the Dump has given us the modern expression of 'in the dumps'&#8212. In Peter's quotation. Ay.' The quibbles on 'silver sound. After Juliet's apparent death. Honest good fellows. and fa us. and stay dinner. Nurse. Not a dump we: 'tis no time to play now.' part of which is given in the Appendix. I will carry no crotchets: I'll re you. O. Capulet's servant. Mus. 'When griping grief. The 'smalé' Ribible.' 'sound for silver. Exeunt Capulet. Peter's reply to the Third Musician.

e. or I will play [Pg 132]On the tabor to the Worthies. Peter. i. Jack! [Peter's names evidently all[Pg 131] wrong. Peter. sir.i." because musicians have no gold for sounding:&#8212. Hol. or Raye. [Exit. and stay dinner. Dull. arranging the Pageant of the Nine Worthies. Hang him. 148. What a pestilent knave is this same! 2 Mus.. the Sun. Constable Dull proposes to accompany the dancing of the hay with a tabor. I'll make one in a dance. because silver hath a sweet sound.' See the note on Arbeau's Orchésographie for the steps and tune of the Haye.. I know not what to say. Pretty!&#8212."silver sound" because musicians sound for silver.) 'wind round handing in passing until you come to your places. V. honest Dull. 'Faith. the performers stood in a circle to begin with. Marry. It is&#8212.. and put out your wit. O! I cry you mercy. by Edward W. 2. Then music with her silver sound&#8212. Dances and Dancing 58 . put up your dagger. and let them dance the hay. as a lively and even boisterous dance. Schoolmaster Holofernes & Co. the Earth.. you are the singer: I will say for you. Hugh Rebeck? 2 Mus. which is referred to in the above-quoted passage from Selden. which may be taken as the common practice. And doleful dumps the mind oppress. in the account of the preparations for the Pageant of the Worthies. Then have at you with my wit.L. Hey.L.' like himself. [Exeunt. Peter. and then (in the words of an old direction quoted in Stainer and Barrett's Dict. Answer me like men: When griping grief the heart doth wound. Simon Catling? 1 Mus. 705) that in an old comedy called the Rehearsal. James Soundpost? 3 Mus."music with her silver sound. Pretty too!&#8212. I say&#8212. we'll in here. The Hay was a Round country-dance&#8212. L. Why "silver sound"? why "music with her silver sound"? what say you. in Love's Labour's Lost. seems to be mentioned only once&#8212. Then music with her silver sound With speedy help doth lend redress.what say you.] The Hay. Hawkins says (Hist.viz. Peter. Holofernes says Dull's idea is 'most dull. Pray you. tarry for the mourners. 1 Mus. Naylor. and Moon are made to dance the Hey to the tune of Trenchmore. or so.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.] Come.what say you. Most dull. Mus..

and a man to play the tabor and pipe (makes twelve). which can be seen in London even now. with a stately name. [Pg 134]The Pavan has been mentioned before. for lawyers to wear their gowns. one a Moresca by Monteverde. and[Pg 133] that their ages one with another made up twelve hundred years. The only Pavan mentioned by Shakespeare is the Passy-measures pavin. Hawkins helps to confuse the matter by explaining that the Galliard has five bars or steps in the first strain. Some writers. and ribbons of various colours tied round their arms. Two tunes. 20. and ladies to take part in the fullest of full dress. Perhaps it was called so from being accompanied by the tabor. 1571). Shakespeare in particular. The Morrice Dance. 1608.. Thus the name is inverted. for Drums of all sorts are distinctly Eastern instruments. composed of ten men or twelve men. for the ambiguity of his expression renders it impossible to say which of the two numbers is meant.viz. H. with a reference. by Edward W. which is in May as often as not. mezzo Passo. And let us do it with no show of fear. Sir William Temple speaks of a pamphlet in the library of the Earl of Leicester. The first of the two following passages connects the morris with May Day.. the long trains of their gowns being supposed to correspond in appearance and movement to the peacock's tail. as the dance in Duple time which preceded the Galliard which was in a triple rhythm. Hawkins gives this account of the Morris. II. and the other an English Morris. 1650. Relics of it may still be seen in country places at certain times of the year. a pancake for Shrove Tuesday.. the second with Whitsuntide. 5. as necessary in this recreation. a morris for May-day.. Countess. otherwise known as Passing-measures-pavin. a Maid Marian (makes eleven). are given in the Appendix. It was de rigueur for gentlemen to dance the Pavan in cap and sword. was very popular in England and other countries in the 16th century." [Temple's own words are quite clear&#8212. princes their mantles. or Morris. with bells at their feet. no doubt. or Morisco. than if we heard that England Were busied with a Whitsun morris-dance. and that the Passamezzo has just half that number. It was a stately dance.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. which last is the earliest form of the word. which gave an account of a set of morrice-dancers in King James's reign. to the majestic strut and gay feathers of that bird. says the Passe mezzo is so called because it has only half as many steps as a Galliard. "there are few country places in this kingdom where it is not known. Praetorius (b. No. Naylor.] The name Morrice means Moorish dance. who went about the country: that they danced a Maid Marian. for the derivation is most probably from Pavo. mention a Hobby-horse and a Maid Marian. and thus Dances and Dancing 59 . a peacock. however. ii. All's Well II. Dauphin. with a tabor and pipe. The very meagre celebrations of May Day. Also see Note on 'Orchésographie' for a Morisque. or Passameso. As fit as . iv. and slung across their shoulders. 23.. Will your answer serve fit to all questions? Clown. with no more.. it is a dance of young men in their shirts. are a survival of the ancient customs with which the Morrice-Dance was always associated. or Pass e mezzo. that there were ten men who danced.

so this account is difficult to reconcile. 60 . and under the guise of Arbeau he is best known. 197. our grace is only in our heels. and the Note on the Orchésographie of Arbeau (1588) makes all quite clear. v. This must be borne in mind. didst see Dick surgeon. The French ladies here recommend their runaway husbands and brothers to cross the Channel and try to earn a living by teaching French dances to the stately English.e. and so is a Pavan set 'at eight. Tw. 5. There are other passages too which show that Shakespeare (or his characters) had a fine 'insular' feeling against these 'newfangled' fashions from France. and a passy-measures pavin.' [Appendix. the strains consist of eight bars each.. Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie. or 'bars. 'step and a half. his eyes were set at eight i' the morning. being anagrammatised into Thoinot Arbeau. The Passamezzo (or passy-measures pavin) tune in the Appendix has a similar construction to the ordinary pavan.. No Galliard ever had an uneven number of bars in any of its strains.' is the most trustworthy form of the name. 'fewer then eight I have not seen in any Pavan.' It is easy to see Sir[Pg 136] Toby's musical gifts asserting themselves.' In the case given. [Pg 137]And teach lavoltas high. by Edward W. H.[Pg 135] However. Sir To.i.Sot. [The date on the title page is 1589. 'St Thomas Wake.' 1588. Toby being only moderately sober.' Bull's Pavan. it consists of regular 'strains. [Drunk.] The last passage given here shows clearly that the Lavolta and Coranto were considered exotic in England in Shakespeare's time. Saying. the form of which has been explained earlier in this section&#8212.' 1588.' which in their turn contain a certain even number of semibreves. in connection with Sir Toby's drunken fancy about the surgeon.e. in the following passage:&#8212.' has two strains of sixteen bars each&#8212. Sir To. Bourbon (Speaks of the mocking French ladies). but his real name does not appear in the work. III. Probably the "English dancing-schools" in those days would think the solemn walk of the Pavan quite as lively an amusement as good society could allow. This interesting book on the Art of Dancing was published at Mâcon in 1588. the Clown's remark about the latter's eyes brings this fantastic comparison into his head. and swift corantos. Pass e mezzo. The doctor's eyes were set at eight. quite as naturally. Sir Toby. naturally feels indignant at the doctor's indiscretions in the same kind.i. i. no matter how manie foures you put in your straine. of that old rule in Morley about the right number of semibreves in a strain. an hour agone. Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie. 32.' 'Also in this you must cast your musicke by foure: . two 'eights. Then he's a rogue. sot? Clo... V. They bid us to the English dancing-schools. O! he's drunk.] The author was Jehan Tabourot. Naylor. gets its name. confused recollections reeling across his brain. and with a bloody coxcomb]&#8212. And that we are most lofty runaways.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. and.

C. the 1st and 2nd parts of which are composed of various arrangements of the following movements&#8212. take off your hat or cap in your left hand. i. Retour de la basse dance. 1. This takes four bars. 'n'est aultre chose qu'une gaillarde par terre'. and cast on her 'un gracieux regard. and incidentally.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. what is she sitting there for amongst the rest?[Pg 139] The Master then gives his pupil an account of the basse dance.. Tordion. This 3rd part. 1. R.' Before Arbeau answers his pupil. If she does. Then conduct her to the end of the room. The treatise is written (like Morley's Introduction to Practical Music) in the form of Dialogue between Master (Arbeau) and Pupil (Capriol). Deux simples. Le double. he gives him some preliminary instruction as to the etiquette of the ball room. And when they begin to play. and tell the band to play a basse dance.e. 5. which beats all the time. some of the principal descriptions will be given here. with the proper music. and in doing the révérence. 3. ou sans sauter. for if she doesn't want to dance.i. face each the other. 25. she is accounted foolish (sotte). the Tordion of a Basse dance was simply a Galliard par terre. and con[Pg 138]tained three parts.. For if you do not. As much light is thrown upon the dances which are mentioned in Shakespeare by this book. or a 'mesure' of the chanson. the dance tune. The 'chanson'&#8212.. marked with a big R.' Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie. 2. 61 . was played on the flute. Arbeau. was in triple time. I should feel dreadfully ashamed. La révérence. will give you her left hand. Begin with left foot forward. marked with a little r. Every 'bar' of the music is called either a 'battement' of the drum. they may inadvertently play some other kind of dance. B. marked d. He says&#8212. La reprise.' which was of the 15th century. On p. or tordion. Capriol (the Pupil) asks his Master (Arbeau) to describe the steps of the 'basse' dance. She. without the leaping or 'Sault majeur. A. and gives a most clear description of all the fashionable dances of the time. as far as words can do it. Naylor. many instructions as to the manners of good society.. being modest and well brought up. dance tunes in music type. If the lady should refuse. basse dance.' 1588. marked ss. you should choose some virtuous damsel whose appearance pleases you (telle que bon vous semblera). This was the 'danse par bas.'In the first place . and tender her your right hand to lead her out to dance. and rise to follow you. and accompanied by the 'tabourin' or drum. marked with b. Now Arbeau explains the steps and time of each of the above five movements. half turn your body and face towards the Damoiselle.e. you begin to dance. A properly educated young lady never refuses one who does her the honour to lead her out to the dance. 4.' Capriol. Le branle (not the dance of that name). by Edward W.

advance left foot. join right to left. advance left foot. swing to the right. which will fit to any of the innumerable diversities of Galliard. advance left foot. doulcement et discretement. in order to dance the Second Part&#8212.[21] Also takes four bars. 1st bar. with a quick and light step. 3rd bar. reprises. Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie.' And thus (he carefully adds) the three doubles are achieved in 12 'battements et mesures du tabourin. and the retour (part 2) has 12 'fours. The Memoire of the movements of the basse dance&#8212.. Keep the feet joined[Pg 140] together.' etc. For two doubles (dd) do it over again. by Edward W.' as if your feet were shaking under you.'[Pg 141] 5. or 'les artoils seullement.' 3rd bar. 3rd bar.namely.Always suit the length of your steps to the size of the room. and for the 4th bar. swing the body gently to the left side. b.' 3. The C means the 'congé. which is Part 3 of the basse dance.' Arbeau then describes the Tordion. and sometimes before the double (d) [see the Memoires]. 2nd. is&#8212. N. The Reprise (r) is commonly found before the branle (b). are the same in both parts]. In it you have to cultivate a certain movement of the knees. beginning with the Right foot.' or 'leave' which you must take of the Damoiselle. 1st bar.. and low on the ground. bring right foot up to the said left foot.' and does not[Pg 142] consist of 'simples. advance left foot. swing again to the left.e. 'puis tumberà pieds joincts comme a estè faict au premier double.' He gives the following tune. doubles.B. 1st bar. 62 . 4th. 2nd bar. and finds that the music of the basse dance proper (part 1) has 20 'fours' (vingt quaternions). like the first and second parts. R b ss d r | d r b ss ddd r d r b | ss d r b C. if slower. or feet. no bars in the original. and keep hold of her hand. but 'plus legiere et concitée. 4th.. Capriol now remarks that he has been counting up. the Retour de la basse dance. 3rd. He says it is still in triple time. who cannot with modesty take such big steps as you can. 2nd bar. but is danced almost exactly as a Galliard.] Tordion or Galliard (Cinquepace). et ainsi sera parfaict le mouvement des deux simples. the form of the third will be. salute her. but contrariwise.i. 2. with a slower and weightier 'mesure. 4. it is a Tordion. of the right foot again. advance the right foot.i. and lead her back to where you began.' 1588. [The nine movements enclosed between the upright lines. while gazing modestly upon 'les assistants. 4th. 4th bar. 3rd. of the left foot. a Galliard. join the left foot to the said right foot. d. and. looking on the Damoiselle with an 'oeillade defrobée. swing to the right side. left foot forward.e. b | d r b ss ddd r d r b | C. the Memoire for which is&#8212. do. except that it is par terre&#8212. ss. If played fast. whereas the Galliard is danced high. 'les artoils' of the right foot.. Naylor. 1st bar.&#8212. of course.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [There are. For three doubles (ddd). 2nd bar. advance right foot. its first Part. and the convenience of the Damoiselle. then for the 1st bar. advance right foot. without any capers.

by Edward W. ['Greve' is explained as a 'coup de pied. or 'sault majeur. 2. The next six minims are danced to the Revers. Greve droicte. 63 ."gaulche. called 'Anthoinette. Then repeat till the tune is finished. 4. Listen Here are the Steps of the Galliard. Naylor.' Galliard. consisting of five movements of the feet. Greve gaulche.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 6. 3. 6 are the 'Cinq' pas. Sault majeur. except that the words 'right' and 'left' (droicte and gaulche) change places all the way down."droicte.' 1588. and the caper. 1. 5. and 5 is the characteristic leap or caper. Arbeau gives several other varieties of Galliard.' The five steps give the Galliard the name of Cinque pas. which is just the same. Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie. 4. 3. and another very good tune for it.'] [Pg 143]2. Posture gaulche. 1.

princes. avec une gravité posée. Arbeau gives the vocal Pavan for four voices. and the Passamezzo Pavan. consisting only of 'two simples and a double' advancing. 'les yeulx baissez. have their robes 'abaissées et trainans. saying that he makes the Pavan 8 measures [semibreves] 'en marchant. by Edward W.[Pg 144] Of the Pavan [commonly danced before the Basse-dance]. Arbeau says it is very easy. this dance was used in Mascarade. again. Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie. and by the time it has reached the moderate speed of a basse-dance. 'marchants honnestement. others in long robes. regardans quelquefois les assistans avec une pudeur virginale. flutes. wear their 'grands manteaux. or of emperors and kings 'plains de maiesté. [Listen] The 'sault majeur' in this tune would come in the middle of the semibreves in the first strain. you can play or sing it.i. or. and Ladies accompanying them. but Passemeze. 'Belle qui tiens ma vie. is very simple.' which has some similarity to the Canaries. and the careful Capriol once more joins in with his calculations of time. hautboys.' 1588. and that for dancing you may use violins.' The master now gives particular instructions about the form and manner of dancing the Pavan. at the 'dot' of the dotted minims in the 2nd and 3rd strains. Moreover. he adds. and. that the drum is not a necessity. continued throughout the 32 bars (2/2) is&#8212. both traverse and 'à neuf trous' (nine-holed flute&#8212. 64 . it is no longer called Pavan. in fact. and the music is provided. and 'Seigneurs graves. there is the 'Pavane d'Espagne.' And the damoiselles with an humble countenance.' 'quelquefois portées par demoiselles. or you may sing instead. in the middle of the semibreves in the same strains.' in dancing the pavan on great occasions.' The Pavan on these occasions is called Le Grand Bal. not by simple flute and drum.e. spinets. when triumphal chariots of gods and goddesses enter.[Pg 146] Besides the State Pavan. but by 'haulbois et saquebouttes. Naylor. etc. It is (as we already know) in Binary measure.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' Kings.' and they[Pg 145] continue the tune until the dancers have made the circuit of the 'salle' twice or thrice.' Also. 29 ff.' On p. The proper drum accompaniment. Princesses. He says that the instrumentalists increase the speed of the pavan every time they play it through.' with cap and sword. and says if you do not wish to dance. but is good to keep the time equal. and again 'two simples and a double' retiring. a flageolet).' and 8 measures 'desmarchant. et robes de parade. Besides this state dancing of pavans.' which is quoted in Grove.. Arbeau's account of the Passemeze. Queens. or Passy-measures-pavin of Shakespeare. He also gives seven more verses of words to it. Noblemen dance these pavans and basse-dances 'belles et graves. 'all sorts of instruments'.

He says it is danced by a gentleman and a lady. each advancing and then retiring in turn. Marque talon droit (right heel). 2 beats in a bar. Marque pied droit.' as savages. comme si on marchoit dessus un crachat. like the branle doubles.) Arbeau gives 17 different kinds of Branle (Brawl of Shakespeare) before coming to the Branle des Sabots. with various coloured feathers. 2. 4. rabaissée en tappement de pied trainé en derrier. 7-12 are the same again. 6. which is danced. causant pied en l'air droit. instead of the 'tappements' at the minims. [Listen] 1. Tappement du pied gauche. Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie. Marque talon gauche (left heel). and Repeat. then two simples (see above). four steps to the right. The steps and tune are as follows&#8212. and three taps of the foot. 3. Naylor.' 1588. Canaries. you should make 'une greve fort haulte. scrape it backwards.' (Make a very high step.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. then four to the left. Then for the 2nd half. ou qu'on voulust tuer une araignée.[Pg 147] 5. where the dancers were clad as kings and queens 'de Mauritanie. Tappement du pied droit. Arbeau says that some consider the name Canaries to be that of a dance in use in those islands. causant pied en l'air gauche. But he thinks it more likely to have originated in a Ballet in a Mascarade. or wanted to kill a spider. from opposite ends of the room. as if you were treading on spittle. 65 . by Edward W. but instead of tapping the foot. Marque pied gauche.

66 .' 1588. so the tune must have been played fast.' { 9. Pied gaulche largy. P.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.g. largy. 2. 64 Arbeau treats of the Lavolta ('high lavolt' of Shakespeare). { {11. largy. a.'[Pg 149] Air d'une Volte. for he immediately says&#8212.] Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie. One feature was that you had to keep turning round.'Ces vertigues et tornoiements de cerveau me fascheroient. On p. by Edward W. Pieds joincts. P. 'right' and 'left' changing places. Tappement du pied droit. [La Volta. { {12. 4. { { { Simple gauche. Branle des Sabots. [Listen] [Pg 148] { Double { 1. Pieds joincts. Naylor. " droit approché (right foot up to the left). Simple droit. c. b. Capriol does not agree with these whirlings. Pieds joincts (join feet).d. 3. forming a 'double droit. gaulche. { { {10. There is only one step to each Semibreve. Do. Pied gaulche largy (left foot forward). which he says is a kind of galliard well known in Provence. p. 88. Do. 5-8 are the same.

A. Sault majeur. B and A change places. A. [Listen] 1. C and A change places. all over again every two bars.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. A. then together so as to interlace. 4. simple droit.' 1588. Arbeau says&#8212. C. and make B. the dancers change places one with another. each separately. [Listen] The movements are&#8212. C. 67 he gives the Courante&#8212. 3. 2. 1. 67 . etc. and 5-8. etc. in the next 4 steps.' the Hay of Shakespeare. The sault majeur of the 'high lavolt' comes at the semibreves in this tune. simple gauche. a 'double à gauche. 3. Plus grand pas du droit. 4. in the first 4 steps.' These terms have already been explained. 2.first the dancers dance alone. Posture en pieds joincts. so that if there are three dancers.' That is. by Edward W. Courante. B. Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie.. pour faire pied en l'air droit. C. during each batch of 4 steps. On p. en saultant sur le gaulche. and make B. Petit pas. Naylor. 'et font la haye les uns parmy les aultres. One of the many Bransles is the 'Branle de la[Pg 150] Haye.

d. ss. The Morisque. by Edward W. seems to have been very violent exercise for the heels (talon). Deux simples (ss). 68 . Double (d). ss. d. and reckoning one step to each semibreve&#8212. 3.' 1588. d. The reader will notice that there is a separate movement for each crotchet in the following tune. Here is the tune and the formula of steps&#8212. 6. Note on Arbeau's 'Orchésographie. The Haye. 5. Morisque. 7. 4.1. [Listen] Beginning at the 1st complete bar. Naylor. Arbeau mentions that it is bad for the gout. ss. which may at all events be compared with the little we know of the Shakespearian Morris dance.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 8.[Pg 151] 2.

ending with 5. which never forsakes celestial beings. 5.'[22] 'Pythagoras. Besides the two passages here quoted. are same as 1-4. Ant. and understood that[Pg 153] the spheres sounded something concordant. No wonder it was bad for the gout! [Pg 152] VI Miscellaneous. 84. i.""g. V. Pythagoras. 3. The particular branch of the Pythagorean system with which we are concerned. 6. 6. 'the tunèd spheres'.e.""d. Soupir (slight pause).' The Opinion of Pythagoras 'concerning Music' is at least equally interesting.c.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [Listen] 1.] conceived in his mind. Frappe talons (perhaps 'strike heels together'). Frappe talon droit (strike right heel). Naylor. 5-8. 115. by how much the moon is distant from the earth: from the moon to Mercury the half of that space. by Edward W. as in the 1st half. calleth that a tone. Twelf. there are others dealing with this subject&#8212. and from Mercury to Venus almost as much.1-4. first of all the Greeks [560 b.g. and is appropriated and assimilated by Shakespeare. 226. Per. by musical proportion. 2. is that which treats of the Music of the Spheres. 'The music of the spheres."gaulche (left).' 'This. ii. 4. V. because of the necessity of proportion. i. III.. then the second half&#8212. including Pythagoreanism and Shakespeare's Account of the More Spiritual Side of Music A well-known passage in Twelfth Night gives us the Opinion of Pythagoras 'concerning wild-fowl. from Venus to the VI 69 . Repeat. 'music from the spheres'. 9-12.

. as it is the farthest away. though inaudible to us by reason of the greatness of the sounds. half.' in this connection. and that the seven planets .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Naylor. vii. but the composition and symphony . And let the bass of heaven's deep organ blow. and thence to the zodiac. from the Sun to Mars. half as much more as a tone]. b. and from Jupiter to Saturn. Book V. which sounds are so concordant as to produce a most sweet melody. 5.. Duke Senior [of Jaques]. which note was therefore called Hypate. in the twelve lines beginning 'So spake the Omnipotent.' 'Thus there are made seven tones. And let your silver chime Move in melodious time. there remains at least the possibility of drawing fantastical analogies between the proportionate distances of the planets and the proportionate vibration numbers of the partial tones in a musically vibrating string or pipe.' Even finer is the 13th verse of the Nativity Hymn. ye crystal spheres. An excellent example[Pg 155] is in Paradise Lost. and the sphere of fixed stars. which they call a diapason harmony. 'To these things we may add what Pythagoras[Pg 154] taught. that the whole world was constructed according to musical ratio.e. And. sesquiple.. 7. a Roman Grammarian.. make. and was supposed to give the gravest note of the heavenly Diapason. the Mother of the Muses]. that is as far as the moon is from the earth: from Mars to Jupiter. including Pythagoreanism and Shakespeare's Accountof the More Spiritual Side of Music 70 . Here follow the two Shakespeare extracts. he named Mnemosyne [Memory. Pythagoras affirmed to be the Nine Muses. Miscellaneous. and emit sounds. and even to our modern ideas. grow musical. in which Saturn moves in the Doric mood.' Censorinus.' 'Those sounds which the seven planets. or 'highest']. and Milton naturally refers to it in the previous verse. every one different in proportion to its height [Saturn was said to be the highest. half. If ye have power to touch our senses so.c. namely. The second one is full of beauty of every kind. termed by them Antichton [opposite the earth].. 238. Once bless our human ears. which the narrow passages of our ears are not capable of admitting. We shall have shortly discord in the spheres. but the Pythagoreanism is in the last six lines. have a rhythmical motion and distances adapted to musical intervals. in his book De Die Natali. Make up full concert to the angelic symphony. There was a strong tendency last century to revive the notion. and in the rest the like. Sun. by Edward W. an universal concent. says&#8212. sesquiple [i. As You Like It II. If he.' These extracts fairly represent the ancient opinion about the Music of the spheres. with our Copernican astronomy. 'When the morning stars sang together. 'Ring out. that is. and that which is above us. a tone. The idea of the musical Chorus or dance of the heavenly bodies was perfectly familiar to all writers in the 16th and 17th centuries. with Shakespeare's own view about why we cannot hear the heavenly music.. compact of jars. with your nine-fold harmony.' No one could help thinking of the text in Job xxxviii. Jupiter in the Phrygian.

which is emulation.e. Naylor. Still quiring to the young-ey'd cherubims. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank! Here we will sit.' As You IV. 13. whilst this muddy vesture of decay Doth grossly close it in. i. and believe me so. the crow sings as well as the lark. Become the touches of sweet harmony. signify. and well could wish You had not found me here so musical: Let me excuse me. 'Tis good: though music oft hath such a charm. Mariana. makes the music sound sweeter than by day. i. and let the sounds of music Creep in our ears: soft stillness and the night.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. nor the musician's. Such harmony is in immortal souls. Measure for Measure IV. but pleas'd my woe. But.[Pg 156] Lor. 'by day. while Portia and Nerissa preach a neat little sermon on the text 'Nothing is good without respect. But in his motion like an angel sings. including Pythagoreanism and Shakespeare's Accountof the More Spiritual Side of Music 71 . There's not the smallest orb. which thou behold'st.' with musical illustrations of the powerful influence of time and place&#8212.. or if the lark is not present to give immediate comparison. Jaques. Enter Duke. Within the house. your mistress [Portia] is at hand. which is fantastical. if the circumstances favour the crow. the silence of night. when every goose is cackling. Mariana and the Duke speak of a certain doubleness that may be noticed in the action of music on the mind. 12.viz. Duke. This is finer than Pythagoras. [Exit Stephano. sir. etc.g. I cry you mercy. Jaques gives an opinion in a general form&#8212. (Lorenzo and Jessica alone. And bring your music forth into the air. 60. I have neither the scholar's melancholy. we cannot hear it. My mirth it much displeased. I pray you.. Jessica is 'never merry' when she hears sweet music: Lorenzo descants on the evident effects of music on even hardened[Pg 157] natures. Merchant V. My friend Stephano. by Edward W.) Lor. 51. i. and even the nightingale's song is no better than the wren's. Miscellaneous. The next three passages are concerned with the 'fantasie' of Music. disguised as a friar (after Song). ***** L. that the musician's 'melancholy' is 'fantastical'.

madam. Or any air of music touch their ears. your spirits are attentive. [Pg 159]When every goose is cackling.. [Music.. 97. . if she should sing by day. and full of rage. The nightingale. By the sweet power of music: therefore. the poet Did feign that Orpheus drew trees. Silence bestows that virtue on it. Lor. 66.. Por. of the house. Methinks.Mark the music. i. Merchant V.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. it sounds much sweeter than by day. You shall perceive them make a mutual stand. When neither is attended. without respect. Nothing is good. Portia and Nerissa. How many things by season season'd are To their right praise. Jessica. I am never merry when I hear sweet music. ***** If they but hear perchance a trumpet sound. Lor. colts. Por. and good provoke to harm. Let no such man be trusted. I see. The reason is. stratagems. The motions of his spirit are dull as night. The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark. To make bad good. Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds. would be thought No better a musician than the wren. Is fit for treasons.. It is your music. including Pythagoreanism and Shakespeare's Accountof the More Spiritual Side of Music 72 . Enter musicians. And his affections dark as Erebus. Miscellaneous. The man that hath no music in himself. and spoils. and floods: Since nought so stockish. But music for the time doth change his nature. Come ho! and wake Diana with a hymn: [Pg 158]With sweetest touches pierce your mistress' ear. and I think. hard. madam. Their savage eyes turn'd to a modest gaze. by Edward W. and true perfection. L. Music! hark! Ner. For . stones. Por. Ner.&#8212. And draw her home with music. Naylor.

4 Sold. Hark! 1 Sold. Now leaves him." Merry and tragical! Tedious and brief! That is.Peace. The lamentable play of Pyramus and Thisbe follows. Say.Music in the air. and wonderous strange snow. i. IV.List. tumblers. I say! What should this mean? 2 Sold. How shall we find the concord of this discord? In the Merchant of Venice. where the music of the stage is an integral part of the drama. Miscellaneous. an entertainment to shorten the hours. Shylock mentions the procession of a masque through the streets. which would consist of a public procession with decorated cars containing the characters. list! 2 Sold. This is referred to in the next passage. drum and fife. Theseus. forbidding Jessica to look out of the window at these 'Christian fools with varnished faces. and open air music. by Edward W.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 12.e. iii. accompanied by hobby horses.. 39.No. 'Tis the god Hercules. Naylor.. including Pythagoreanism and Shakespeare's Accountof the More Spiritual Side of Music 73 .' The music accompanying the procession is named&#8212. A very usual popular amusement was the Masque.. which. 4 Soldier.Under the earth.i. it will be noticed. . Antony and Cleop. hot ice. has some of the main features of a masque. what music?.. There are very few cases of this kind in Shakespeare&#8212.viz. what noise? 1 Sold. And his love Thisbe. Here is an example of a superstitious meaning attaching to supposed mysterious music. that is. does it not? 3 Sold. Peace. where Theseus[Pg 160] speaks of the masque as an 'abridgement' for the evening. ***** [Reads from the paper] "A tedious brief scene of young Pyramus. what abridgment have you for this evening? What masque.. It signs well.. Mid's Night's Dream V. very tragical mirth. 3 Sold. 1 Sold. whom Antony lov'd. Music of hautboys under the stage.

iii. with the usual six holes. Parolles earns his nickname of 'Tom Drum. K.' and Antony IV. and now had he rather hear the tabor and the pipe: . 353) were of a decided military cast. iii. and a big hole near the stopped end. not to the instrument itself. v. an excellent musician. i. 'You shall see a masque' . that's certain. and when you hear the drum. and vi.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.. The following is an interesting passage of a more serious kind&#8212. 13.. 275. by Edward W. which was simply a small edition of the Flauto Traverso. The 'vile squeaking of the wryneck'd fife' is of some musical interest. v. I have known. whose head has to be slightly twisted round to get at the mouthpiece. Much Ado II... Rich she shall be. Besides these more civilised 'pipes. in[Pg 162] Section III. Ben. John V. besides having its importance as a means of signalling orders to the troops. II. Lock up my doors. wise. Benedick draws a distinction between the Drum and Fife and the Tabor and Pipe. corresponding to the modern side-drum. [Pg 161]Clamber not you up to the casements then. Miscellaneous. bull-baitings.' The drum supplied the great proportion of military music in those days. And the vile squeaking of the wryneck'd fife. about Autolycus) a tiny whistle with only three holes.' the country-man's pipe of cornstalk is mentioned by Titania. 22. in Mids. Mersennus (b. What! are there masques? Hear you me. The tabor leads one on to the Tabourine. This was really a 'reed. Lancelot. 164.' not a whistle of any kind. but till all graces be in one woman. Nor thrust your head into the public street To gaze on Christian fools with varnish'd faces. including Pythagoreanism and Shakespeare's Accountof the More Spiritual Side of Music 74 . ii.. which was straight. Naylor. where the breath was applied. one woman shall not come in my grace. The former (see Othello III. The two were played simultaneously by one person. 37. iii. but to the player. In Much Ado. 'our rattling tabourines. and out-of-door amusements generally. That is. the Fife of those days was much the same as the modern Fife of the cheaper kind. Shylock.' in Act V. and IV. 8. . of good discourse. or German Flute. which was the full-sized military drum. This is dealt with more fully in the chapter on Stage Directions. whose head would be turned sideways. of Claudio in love.. when there was no music with him but the drum and the fife. Benedick. whereas the latter were more associated with May Day entertainments. v. and hence comes Shylock's description of it as the 'wryneck'd' fife.. and her hair shall be of what colour it please God. Jessica. the Pipe (as explained before. or I'll none. The Tabor was a little drum. viii. 'Beat loud the tabourines. Merchant II. 320.[Pg 163] Parolles' sham anxiety about a lost drum is mentioned fourteen or fifteen times in All's Well III. The adjective 'wryneck'd' refers. 1588) says that the Fife is the same as the Tibia Helvetica.. IV. The instrument was therefore held across [traverso] the face of the player. ii. See Troil.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Alarum within. And so shall you. Do but start An echo with the clamour of thy drum. Alarums and Excursions occurs about 21 times. And even at hand a drum is ready brac'd. 1 Soldier. Alarums (of Drums). iii. where the direction has 'Alarum. IV.] Strike up the drums! and let the tongue of war Plead for our interest.. vi. he has led the drum before the English tragedians.e. but drums are not mentioned in this connection except here. 'Faith.' also Id.. says&#8212. and more of his soldiership I know not. and another shall. Short alarum. Sound but another.' see the stage direction H."Instead of the trumpets sounding thrice before the play begin. sometimes qualified&#8212. Dekker. sir. referring to the list of errata in his 'Satiromastix. All's Well IV. always in fight. it shall not be amiss for him that will read. in his slanderous evidence against Captain Dumain. [Pg 164] There are several occasions in Shakespeare when trumpets are sounded to herald the approach of play-actors. What say you to his expertness in war? Parolles. ['Excursions' merely means 'parties of men running about. wherein Talbot's son is hemmed about. Naylor. will cry out. being beaten. Indeed. That shall reverberate all as loud as thine. and our being here. 262. 'Excursions. A.g. as above. being beaten. always in connection with battle. And mock the deep-mouth'd thunder. An entirely different use of the Drum is alluded to by Parolles. v. Lewis [Dauphin. It is found alone. Rimbault's Preface to Purcell's Opera 'Bonduca' (Musical Antiquarian Society) says that a Play was always introduced by the trumpet sounding three times. As loud as thine. . Bastard.' instead of the usual 'excursions. Skirmishings. Loud alarum. after which the Prologue entered. occurs as a stage direction about 72 times in fourteen of the historical plays. about 45 times. your drums. by Edward W.. rattle the welkin's ear. I." [Pg 165] VII On the Use of the Musical Stage Directions With references to the same Words as they occur in the Text Alarum. first to behold this short Comedy of Errors.'] VII 75 . Low alarum. 6.' 1602.

H. I. In Grove's Dictionary (under 'Fanfare') is given a seven bar Flourish which is believed to be of Charles II. drums!' we have a clear definition of the two terms mentioned.' Jul. the occasion of the betrothal of H. iv. with Royal persons in it.. where it refers to the noise of the dogs hunting the hare. II. and Troil. and Katherine of France. I.'s time. as at a sea fight. and once with the arrival of Players (Shrew. 97. For the form of the word. Nt. and in 6 of these it refers to drums. l. III. vi. he compares arum (arm) and koren (corn).Alarum with thunder and lightning. II. On 18 of these occasions it announces the entrance or presence of a King or Royal personage. by Edward W. 6. A. Out of these. 433. Trumpets. 10 times in the public welcome of a Queen or great general. or in connection with Sennet. 7. which was to signify the presence of Royal persons. Alarum afar off. III. In Richard III.]. twice it is connected with the advent of Royal Heralds. 6. Flourish and Alarums. occurs about 68 times in seventeen plays. R. and is still used at the opening of Parliament. either alone. Drums and trumpets. while other more extended meanings are found&#8212.][Pg 168] 'Flourish' in the text is only found twice. I. The word is used 13 times in the text of Shakespeare. iii. B. IV. etc. where the Alarum is identified with trumpets. v. of Tarquin's 'drumming heart' 'giving the hot charge. trumpets!&#8212. orders a Flourish to drown the reproaches of Qu. of Desdemona's voice. which Iago says is 'an alarum to love. iii.. H. great generals. Skeat gives the original of the term as 'all'arme' (Ital. 70 mean a call to battle by drums. v.. Flourish of Trumpets (6 times). line 33 of the chorus. B. iv.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. V. V. Eliz.g.' and Othello II. But in two of the remaining examples. 92. 3. 'even as the flourish when true subjects bow To a new-crowned monarch. at end]. it is used some 22 times for the entrance or exit of a King or Queen. [Players in Hamlet. H. which occurs several times. Eliz. H. and the public welcome of the three Ladies in Coriolanus. 49. Prologue. etc. On the Use of the Musical Stage Directions 76 . 5. 6. discharge of cannon. iii. Trumpet sounded within.. in Venus and Adonis. 7 times it marks the end of a scene. 75 and V. H. IV. 99.) a war cry of the time of the Crusades. 112. 18. 117. and in Merchant III.[Pg 166] Alarum and cry within. fly. 6 times heralds a victorious force. where alarum is used of a Bell.. and twice gives warning of the approach of Play-actors [See Section VI. IV. in Macbeth II. Out of the 72 cases in the stage directions. and Pyramus and Thisbe in Mids. 35. or the commencement of a Play. A trumpet sounds. 76. 6. Act iii. twice announces the proclamation of a King. 'Alarum' in the text. ii. Cæs. [Appendix. 700. fly. Alarum and chambers [cannon] go off. ii. v. either simply in this form. 'Fly.' a reference to the principal use of the Flourish. end of scene 1. used by Rich. 149. 3. 10 times signifies the entrance or exit of principal persons. twice signalises the entrance or exit of Senate or Tribunes. 'A flourish. to drown the reproaches of Q. Cor. I. IV. not royal. 3 times precedes a public procession. 5. iv. and again Id. 51. etc. i. also in Lucrece. i. and the Duchess of York. Ant. II. 27. ii. 12 times for the entrance or exit of a distinguished person not a king. See also Flourish). Naylor. A few special cases are&#8212. II. alarum is distinctly said to be trumpets. 13 times it figures as part of the proceedings in Duels. One or other of the above occurs some 51 times in twenty-two plays. or 'Flourish of Trumpets' (six times) or 'Flourish of Cornets' (twice). iii. 42. x.'[Pg 167] Flourish. There are only two exceptions. as in the stage directions H.e. ii.strike alarum. A. The last is A Flourish with drums and trumpets. Some solitary uses are where Rich. 93 and V.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. Thus 'Trumpets' divides the honours with 'Flourish' as the mark of Royalty.[Pg 169] Examples of the use of the term in the text are numerous, and are found in most of the plays. They are not generally of very special interest. Music, Music plays, Music within. This direction is found 41 times in twenty-two plays, half of which are comedies. In 8 cases we have Music during a speech or dream of one of the characters; 7 times as the symphony or the accompaniment to a Song; 7 times in Wedding processions or Pageants; 6 times for Dancing; and 5 times during a banquet. To give a just idea of the amount of Stage Music considered necessary in or near Shakespeare's time, there must be added to the above, all the stage directions in other terms—e.g., Hautboys, which is found about 14 times. Here are a few relics of Stage Music before Shakespeare's day. The playing of the minstrels is frequently mentioned in the old Miracle Plays, and the instruments used were the horn, pipe, tabret, and flute. In the Prologue to the Miracle Play, Childermas Day, 1512, the minstrels are requested to 'do their diligence,' and at the end of the Play to 'geve us a daunce.' In Richard Edwards's Damon and Pithias, acted[Pg 170] in 1565, there is a stage direction. "Here Pythias sings and the regalles play." Also, when Pythias is carried to prison, "the regalls play a mourning song." Thus the Regal, a tiny organ that could be easily carried about, was considered a proper instrument for the stage. In the old Comedy, Gammer Gurton's Needle, 1566, mention is made by one of the characters of the music between the acts— "Into the town will I, my friendes to visit there, And hither straight again to see the end of this gere; In the meantime, fellowes, pype up your fidles: I say take them, And let your friends hear such mirth as ye can make them." In Gascoyne's Jocasta, 1566, each act is preceded by a dumb show, accompanied by "viols, cythren, bandores, flutes, cornets, trumpets, drums, fifes, and still-pipes." In Anthony Munday's comedy The Two Italian Gentlemen (about 1584), the different kinds of music to be played after each act are mentioned—e.g., 'a pleasant galliard,' 'a solemn dump,' or 'a pleasant Allemayne.' A little later, Marston, in his Sophonisba, 1606, goes into considerable detail as to the music between the Acts; after Act I., 'the cornets and organs playing loud full music'; after Act II., 'organs mixed with recorders'; after Act III., 'organs,[Pg 171] viols, and voices'; after Act IV., 'a base lute and a treble viol'; and in the course of Act V., 'infernall music plays softly.' Fiddles, flutes, and hautboys are mentioned by other dramatists as instruments in use at the theatre at this time. Rimbault's Introduction to Purcell's opera 'Bonduca' gives the names of twenty-six Masques and Plays produced between 1586 and 1642 (when the theatres were closed), all of which contained important music. Amongst them are Jane Shore, by Henry Lacy, 1586, with music by William Byrd; seven masques by Ben Jonson, dating 1600-1621, four of which had music by Ferrabosco; a masque by Beaumont (1612) with music by Coperario; a play Valentinian, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1617) set by Robt. Johnson; The Triumphs of Peace by Shirley (1633), with music by William Lawes and Simon Ives; several other masques, set by Henry Lawes, who did the music to Milton's Comus (1634), etc. The list also includes Shakespeare's Tempest, with Robt. Johnson's music, two numbers of which, viz., 'Full fathom five,' and 'Where the bee sucks,' are printed On the Use of the Musical Stage Directions 77

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. in Bridge's Shakespeare's Songs, with date 1612. Retreat, or A Retreat sounded, generally with Alarum, or Excursions, or with both.[Pg 172] Retreat by itself occurs only three times, but in company with Alarums and [or] Excursions may be found in 16 other places. The whole 19 cases occur in eleven plays. The word explains itself. The actual notes of a Retreat of Shakespeare's time are not known. In the text it has the same meaning. H. 6. A. II, ii, 3. 'Here sound retreat, and cease our hot pursuit.' H. 6. B. IV, viii, 4. 'Dare any be so bold to sound retreat or parley, when I command them kill'? H. 4. A. V, iv, 159. 'The trumpet sounds retreat; the day is ours.' H. 5. III, ii, 89. Macmorris, 'the work ish give over, the trumpet sound the retreat.' March, Dead March. There are 18 marches provided for altogether; 4 are Dead Marches; 3 National—viz., English, French, and Danish; and 11 ordinary military marches. Probably all are identified with Drums, without any other instruments. For the three national marches, see H. 6. A. III, iii, 30 and 33, and Hamlet III, ii, 91. Hawkins gives (Hist., p. 229) the text of a Royal Warrant of Charles I., ordering the revival of the[Pg 173] ancient 'march of this our English nation, so famous in all the honourable achievements and glorious wars of this our kingdome in forraigne parts [being by the approbation of strangers themselves confest and acknowledged the best of all marches].' The warrant goes on to say that this ancient war march of England 'was, through the negligence and carelessness of drummers, and by long discontinuance, so altered and changed from the ancient gravitie and majestie thereof, as it was in danger utterly to have bene lost and forgotten.' It appears that 'our late deare brother prince Henry' had taken steps to have the old march restored, at Greenwich, in 1610; 'In confirmation whereof' the warrant orders all English or Welsh drummers to 'observe the same,' whether at home or abroad, 'without any addition or alteration whatever.' 'Given at our palace of Westminster, the seventh day of February, in the seventh yeare of our raigne, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland.' Then follows the march, expressed both in musical notes and onomatopoetic words. It consists of a Voluntary, and then seven lines of 'The March,' each of which ends with a 'pause.' The first line is given thus—

Pou tou Pou tou poung. The next three[Pg 174] lines are very similar. Line 5 is more elaborate, and the last two lines run as follows:—

R R R R poung.

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor.

R R R pou R R pou tou pou R tou pou R poung potang. See the appendix for the translation into musical notes, which is given in the warrant itself, but the accuracy of which is questionable. It seems pretty clear that this ancient march of England is of a period long anterior to the warrant of Charles I. Several passages of that document point to this. At any rate, it was so old as to have almost dropped out of knowledge in 1610. Hawkins gives an interesting note, in which he mentions that the characteristic of the old English march of the foot was 'dignity and gravity,' in which it differed greatly from that of the French, which is given by Mersennus (b. 1588) as 'brisk and alert.' There is a curious story of a conversation between Marshal Biron, a French general, and Sir Roger Williams, a gallant Low-country soldier of Elizabeth's time. The marshal observed that the English march being beaten by the drum, was slow, heavy, and sluggish. 'That may be true,' answered Sir Roger, 'but[Pg 175] slow as it is, it has traversed your master's country from one end to the other.' The references in Shakespeare all go to confirm the opinion that the March was played by drums alone—e.g., H. 6. C. I, ii, 69, where the stage direction is A march afar off, which is immediately followed by 'I hear their drums.' Again, in the same play, Act IV., sc. vii. line 50, 'Drummer, strike up, and let us march away. [A march begun.] Hautboys. This is an important musical term, and occurs about fourteen times in eight plays. It always implies a certain special importance in the music, and is generally connected with a Royal banquet, masque, or procession. In six cases, at least, the direction has some special qualification—e.g., Hautboys playing loud music; A lofty strain or two to the hautboys; Trumpets and hautboys sounded, and drums beaten all together. In Ant. IV, iii, 12, Hautboys supply the supposed ominous 'music in the air.' The term is closely connected with 'Music,' the remarks on which apply equally to the present case. (See above, on 'Music,' and the music of 16th century plays). Not long after Shakespeare's time, orchestral music for the theatre consisted of stringed instruments only[Pg 176] (i.e., the violin family, violins, violas, violoncellos, and the sole surviving 'viol,' the double-bass) with harpsichord, for general use; while in the more important pieces, hautboys, and sometimes flutes as well, were added, playing, as a rule, with the 1st and 2nd violin parts. This, at any rate, is the case in Purcell's operas. (Purcell died 1695). Thus the word Hautboys represented very nearly the climax of power to 17th century ears. Anything beyond this was supplied by the addition of trumpets, though this was rare; while Drums were very occasionally used. The stage direction in Shakespeare may be taken to mean—'Let the hautboys be added to the usual band of strings.' In the last of the above examples, Coriol. V, iv, 50, we have the extreme limit of power of this time provided for—viz., trumpets and hautboys and drums, all together. It is interesting to notice the wording of Menenius's description of this stage music. 'The trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries, and fifes, Tabors and cymbals.' The 'sackbut' was merely our modern slide trombone, while the rest of these instruments were in common use in the 16th century, except the Psaltery, which Kircher (b. 1601) says is the same as the Nebel of the Bible. The picture he gives is remarkably like the dulcimers[Pg 177] which may be seen and heard outside public-houses to this very day, i.e., a small hollow chest, with the strings stretched across it. An instrument of this kind could be played with the fingers, like a harp, or with a plectrum, like a zither, or with two little knob-sticks, like the dulcimer. Mersennus (b. 1588) also identifies the Psaltery with the Dulcimer. On the Use of the Musical Stage Directions 79

The Cornet was an entirely different instrument. Act iii. and curiosity shops. ii. There were two instruments called Cornet. where he says that Shallow was such a withered little wretch that the case of a treble hautboy was a mansion for him. the other. which is a fifth lower in pitch. Signate.Synnet. which may be proper derivatives of signum. of thin[Pg 180] wood covered with leather. the Oboe proper. Museums. In the 1st Folio of Hen. and a bass cornet. etc. and correspondingly larger. not sennet. that nothing can be more sweet. This is also rare. 4.'[Pg 179] In the text of Shakespeare the word does not occur. Naylor.. and the remaining cases are royal. V. we find 'sound a sonnet' [enter Pope. Many people now living will remember the Serpent. and finger holes for the intermediate notes of the scale. These seem to point to a derivation of the word from sonare. black. the word is spelt senet. and its cousin.viz. as against sixty-eight 'Flourishes' and fifty-one 'Trumpets. i. or Flourish Cornets (only twice). Three times it marks the entrance or exit of a Parliament. but that those who are skilful. 1648) are able so to soften and modulate them. of which only two now survive&#8212. This is a rare direction..e. But other forms are found&#8212. and the use of it accordingly is very much more limited in these stage directions. Hautboys in four parts were the backbone of the French regimental bands in Lully's time&#8212. The term is by no means synonymous with Trumpets. about 1670. as if the former were a misprint. In Marlowe's Faustus (published 1604).' The notes of a sennet are unknown.' caused by a misunderstanding of the original misspelling 'senet. within the last fifty years. perhaps of the somewhat featureless form 'Synnet. Cardinal. a court. a sort of Horn (hence its name). such as Quiclet. who remarks that the sounds of the cornet are vehement. Cornets. or English Horn. a coarse sort of Oboe which was nearly obsolete in the 17th century. copied from Mersennus. and was the smallest in size of the hautboy tribe.. The tenor and bass of the family have not survived. This Serpent was a true Cornet in every respect.' instead of 'a sounding'. for it has been entirely superseded by the Bass Tuba and the Euphonium. in H. or near it. a large.] The spelling of the word in the old editions of[Pg 178] Shakespeare is 'hoeboy. One case only is in war. the Hautboy is only named once.]. near the end of Falstaff's soliloquy. and thus the spelling ought to be sonnet. Signet. the royal cornetist (i. the one with a reed.' which is very like the modern German Hoboe. In the text the word Cornet does not occur. Sonet. B III. curly instrument.. Sennet. by Edward W. the others being all connected with Royal or triumphal processions. on old men and lying. Hawkins gives pictures of a treble. which helped to play the loud bass in oratorios. Also the French Cavalry of 1636 used trumpet calls named Sonneries. In the text. Cor Anglais. with a cup mouthpiece. 332.i. It may now commonly be seen in Exhibitions. of France. and is found only nine times in eight plays. a tenor. [Appendix.e. or (which is as likely) may be corruptions. On the Use of the Musical Stage Directions 80 . and thus make this trumpet call 'a signal.. None the less it is the Alto Hautboy. three times is used in a Royal or quasi-royal procession. sc. but in later ones. and which has curiously picked up the name of Corno Inglese. The 'treble' hautboy corresponds with our modern instrument. with which we are concerned.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. occurring only eight times in four plays.

It is perhaps worth noting. and its connection with tocco di campana. as explained above. in his Clarendon Press Edition of Hen. 5. In three cases. toquet. the word is used several times. 'Sound a Parley ye fair. and in the Induction of the Taming of the Shrew. Of course the name is derived from parler. in Hen. B.&#8212. and Id. it is a French general[Pg 182] who uses the word. This call is named in the stage directions 7 times in five plays.e. or Trumpets sound a parley. In the rest. On the Use of the Musical Stage Directions 81 . H. once. or Horns wind a peal. 4. 6.viz. It seems to have been a French term. Horns. iii. Rare. A. I know't. Lorenzo says to Portia. III.' which explains 'Tucket' as a trumpet signal. have already been explained in the notes on Hortensio's music lesson to Bianca. ii. The derivation of the word from toccare. quoted by Grose in 'Military Antiquities. 4. C. IV. 6. II.. Lear I. 2. or for cessation of hostilities during the fight itself. Count of Rousillon. viii.H. Parley. Naylor. H.for instance.[Pg 183] This is very rare. not the trumpet call summoning them. Titus II. Perhaps this may be regarded as confirming the view of its foreign origin. II. H. 6. i.e. Three times it is used of hunting horns.. once announcing the Post from England. iii. 'Your husband is at hand. once. 16. Once it is used to herald Cupid and the masked Amazons. IV. This is one of the several trumpet calls we have noticed. i. only one. and this is defined by Littré. tocsin. is supposed to be an English one. 'the parle' means the conference of the parties itself. Mr Aldis Wright. [Perhaps a little light may be got out of the symphony to Purcell's duet in King Arthur. V. I.g. 6. only seven times in six different plays. 6. iii. from war. Merchant V. i. Tucket. three times. I hear his trumpet&#8212. III. 192. iii and I. H. R. the arrival of Goneril (Cornwall.. and tusch. with a reference to the proposed 'pow-wow' of the opposing forces. It means either a trumpet call announcing an embassy from one party to the other. 226 and H. either alone. 'parle' or 'parley' simply means the sound of the trumpet. R. H. viz. which. ii. iv. one of which is the doubtful Titus Andronicus. 205. A. the name 'toquet' was applied to the fourth trumpet in a cavalry fanfare. 23. the 'tucket sounded' which is indicated in the stage direction.' Certainly in Shakespeare it seems to be used as a personal trumpet call&#8212.) In the Appendix is given an Italian Tucket of 1638. and twice at the entrance of Montjoy. for the passage appears to recognise the tucket as in some sort a preparatory signal. once. Othello II. B. C. III. or with Retreat. The notes of a parley do not appear to exist. and the note to mount. and once blown by Talbot as a military signal at the forcing of Auvergne Castle gates. 10. where the Constable of France orders the trumpets to 'sound the tucket-sonance. In the text the word is only found once&#8212. commands nothing but marching after the leader. 121.that is.'i. once. or Horns winded. twice as a part of Lear's lessened state.. II. iii. Seven times in only four plays. What trumpet's that? Regan. (See Sec. in Timon. that of the seven tuckets in the stage directions. 5. iii.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 35.[Pg 181] Other cases of the use of the Tucket are quite similar&#8212. 33. V. l. 'being heard simply of itself without addition. my sister's:) or the embassy of Æneas. Goneril's. A. i.' which fits in with Markham's definition. gives Markham. John II.'] In the text. 6. H. and a French one of 1643. and H. or doquet. H. V. 2. as quatrième partie de trompette d'une fanfare de cavalerie&#8212. by Edward W. 5. the French Herald. In the single instance just given of its use in the text. the return of Bertram.

' at the words 'Hark! the cry comes on apace. 6 and p. From the position of the added part. The Plain-song is perhaps more often found in a lower part.' Here we have a last example of punning on a technical term of music. 1134] from Morley. it was called Prick-song. [Listen] If the lower part was added extempore. Example of Descant [Lucrece. 1665. 2.] Also in Purcell's 'Dido and Eneas. APPENDIX 82 . in his overture 'Le jeune Henri. 24). ii. p. III. The 'peal' of horns referred to in Titus II. 10 is a technical term in forestry for a particular set of notes on the horn. the above example is called 'bass' descant. v. Titus II. Rom. in the scene between the Sorceress and the two witches who are plotting the destruction of 'Elissa. 5.' the violins give an imitation of a hunting call. Naylor. 25. because 'pricked' down.' No. 28.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. which perhaps may give an idea of what was meant by 'Horns wind a peal. 1597 (see Introduction.' introduces several old French hunting fanfares. by Edward W. The only instance of the use of the word 'peal' in the text is in the same passage. 16 (date 1675). see p. the Descant being higher. but if written down as here. it was called Descant. by Christopher Sympson. where Titus tells his hunters to 'ring a hunter's peal. [Pg 185] APPENDIX 1. Méhul (1763-1817). ii.' [See Appendix. Divisions on a Ground Bass for viol-da-gamba.

3 (more elaborate). [Listen] The 'Ground' itself is in large notes. APPENDIX 83 . by Edward W. [Listen] Division No. This the Organist or Harpsichordist plays again and again.[Pg 186] Here is a Division for the Viol. Division No. as often as necessary.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Naylor. with the above Ground before him. such as the player would produce extempore. the necessary chords (which were never written down) are indicated in small notes. 1.

Lear I. or 'is the divider. see p.' see p. [Listen] The augmented fourths formed by the notes fa and mi. i. 16th and 17th centuries. are the mi contra fa. which diabolus est. Naylor. 11th century.[Pg 187] Solmisation of the six notes of the Hexachord. Shrew III. Example of Sol-Fa. [Listen] APPENDIX 84 . by Edward W. 72. [Listen] 3.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. see p. marked with x. 137. 37. 35. ii. 36.

on 'Broken' music. etc. p. Merry Wives III. 5. Parson Hugh's song. Tune of Light o' Love. date probably 16th century. iv. by Edward W. 41. original words not known. from Musick's Monument. i. Shrew III. b. 1676. but date before 1570. 55. 1613. 18. with B flat. 30. 'To Shallow Rivers. APPENDIX 85 . Lesson for the Lute.' tune[Pg 188] anonymous. [Listen] 6. p." [Listen] Cf. Much Ado V. by Thomas Mace. i. "My Mistress. 58. 71. Naylor. see p. 4.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. p. The six notes from F. 70. were called the 'Soft' Hexachord.

Naylor. but probably much older. 'Come Live with Me. 71. APPENDIX 86 . II. Nt.' XX. 18. iii. [Listen] 8. Marlowe's 'Passionate Pilgrim. 71. Tw. i. Peg-a-Ramsey. [Listen] 7. 76. by Edward W. p.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' tune printed 1612. See p. or Merry Wives III..

[Pg 189] Words from Peele's 'Old Wives Tale. 1650 circ. where it is sung. 'There Dwelt a Man in Babylon. Music from J.' p. but most probably later than Shakespeare's time. 80. but may be older.' p.. by Edward W. APPENDIX 87 . [Listen] 9. Tw. [Listen] 10. Nt.. 'Three Merry Men be We. Tw. II.' 1595. Naylor. II. iii. 71. Playford. Music anon. 71. 76. Nt. iii.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.

'Farewell.' to which Toby refers.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Susanna she was callde by name. A woman faire and vertuous. APPENDIX 88 . iii. 'There dwelt a man in Babylon Of reputation great by fame. Dear Heart. 102. He took to wife a faire woman. [Listen] Here is one verse of the 'Ballad of Constant Susanna. Lady. Tw. Naylor. Nt.' p. II. 72. lady! Why should we not of her learn thus To live godly?' [Pg 190] 11. by Edward W.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor.

[Listen]

This can hardly be the original tune to "Corydon's Farewell to Phillis," from parts of the first and second verses of which the above words are quoted. See Percy's "Reliques," Vol. I. 12. Here are two relics of music for the Clown in Tw. Nt. IV, ii, probably of the same period as the above.

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APPENDIX

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. For the rest of the words of 'A Robyn, Jolly Robyn,' see Percy's Reliques, Vol. I. p. 148. 13. 'Whoop, do me no harm, good man,' p. 72. Winter's Tale IV, iii, 198. The rest of the words unknown,[Pg 191] but several ballads printed in latter part of 16th century go to this tune—

[Listen]

14. Stephano's 'scurvey tunes,' Tempest II, ii, 41, see p. 73. "As sung by Mr Bannister" [1667].

[Listen]

APPENDIX

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The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor.

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[Pg 192] 15. 'Jog On,' p. 72, Winter's Tale IV, ii, 125. Two more stanzas were first printed 1661, see Chappell, Vol. I. 160. The tune is from the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book), where it has the name

Hanskin.

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APPENDIX

91

iii. The tune is at least as old as 1537. by Edward W. and Jul. to which 'Chevy Chase' also was sung. 100.' p. Naylor. 'Heart's Ease. Rom. APPENDIX 92 . 73.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. where a verse is given which will easily fit to the music.' see p. IV. v. 34.' but altered to four in a bar. v. 73. 'The Hunt is up. Words not known. [Listen] Grove [see under Ballad] gives quite another tune. See As You III. Tune before 1560. leave me not behind the. III. and Rom. when John Hogon was proceeded against for singing it with certain political words. 95. 16.[Pg 193] The tune here printed was also sung (1584) to 'O sweete Olyver. 17.

'Where Griping Grief. by Rich.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Rom. v. 1577. Naylor. Edwards. APPENDIX 93 . 125. by Edward W. poet and composer. IV. [Listen] 18. 73.' p.

APPENDIX 94 . by Edward W. Naylor.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.

etc. and Wiv. The tune is probably of Henry VIII. [Listen] [Pg 194] 19.' see p. APPENDIX 95 . II. 60. Naylor.'s time. i. by Edward W. 'Green Sleeves.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 74.

B. 4.' p. APPENDIX 96 . 320. 'Carman's Whistle. ii. by Edward W. H. Naylor. 76. III. Tune as given by Byrd.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [Listen] [Pg 195] 20. who wrote variations on it before 1591.

This old tune is. at latest.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. iii. 76. 'Fortune my Foe. APPENDIX 97 . and most likely much older. of Elizabeth's day. Naylor.' p. by Edward W. and the harmony is by Byrd. [Listen] 21. Merry Wiv. The words here set are given in Burney. who wrote variations on it for Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. 62. III.

[Listen] [Pg 196] APPENDIX 98 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. by Edward W. Naylor.

' which is the first piece in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. by Edward W. Naylor. 75. The tune has a striking likeness to 'Walsingham. p. 180. Hamlet IV. The above words are the first verse of 'Titus Andronicus's Complaint. [Listen] [Pg 197] APPENDIX 99 . v. 22. Vol.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 76. though probably it is of Shakespeare's time. p. See Percy's Reliques. II. I. The ballad is given in full in Percy's Reliques. [Listen] This is certainly old. Vol. early 16th century. p.' which Burney says was originally written to this tune. But the date of the next is not so certain. Ophelia's Songs.

and the title. but the following tune. which is of some date before 1597. The next two are of the same period as I.' With the exception of this one line. 'Bonny sweet Robin. [Listen] [Listen] L.' nothing remains of this song. Naylor. 184. by Edward W.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 'My Robin is to the greenwood gone.[Pg 198] APPENDIX 100 .

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. and Feste the clown. iii. Nt. II. [Listen] 23. by Edward W. The second man follows when the first has arrived at .' see p. 90. Catches. Sir Toby. 77.[Pg 199] APPENDIX 101 . Sir Andrew. 'Hold thy peace. Tw. For three voices. Naylor. long anterior to Shakespeare. [Listen] 'Thou knave' will be heard nine times for every once the whole tune is sung by one of the voices. I. of 16th century. prob. For the explanation see p. who begins the catch.

' see p. ii. 285-327. APPENDIX 102 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Transposed down a 4th. 92. as before. II. news. published in 1609. etc. The second man comes in at . but probably much older than that. Here is a Threeman song.' see p.e. and IV. prob. i. and Shrew IV. 42. Naylor.g. by Edward W. For four voices. 'Jack boy. A Threeman song is merely (as a rule) a song with three parts. This is very old. 41. quite early 16th century (see Introduction). two trebles and a tenor. [Listen] 24. Threeman songs (corrupted into 'Freeman. ho boy. These were entirely different from Catches. Winter's Tale IV..&#8212. 83). iii.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [Listen] [Pg 200] There are two more verses of the same sort. APPENDIX 103 . Naylor. by Edward W.

'Canst thou not hit it. Tw. Pavan [if played quick became Passamezzo.L.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Dances. from Parthenia.) Pavan and Galliard.) See p. [Also see Note on Arbeau's Orchésographie.' L. APPENDIX 104 .L.' [Listen] [Pg 201] 26. 'St Thomas Wake.' by Dr Bull. No more words known. 25. The tune is mentioned as a dance in an Elizabethan play.] (a. 114. (Bull was born 1563. Naylor. 200]. by Edward W. IV. except this one verse. and is alluded to in an old ballad 'Arthur a Bradley. printed 1611. i. 125. i. V.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Naylor. by Edward W. APPENDIX 105 .

by Edward W. Naylor. I. APPENDIX 106 . 252. [Listen] [Pg 202] Galliard St Thomas Wake. ii.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. the same music but in triple time. H. 5. viii. Tw. I. 127.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. or Cinquepace. Galliard. [Listen] [Pg 203] APPENDIX 107 . by Edward W. Naylor.

135. by Edward W.) [Listen] [Pg 204] (b.' date 1581.) 1. APPENDIX 108 .) 2. See p. V.) Tw. etc. i. The first 'strain' of a German Pavan for the Lute. Part of a 'Passamezzo. (b.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 178. Passe mezzo. iv. (See Note on Arbeau's Orchésographie. Naylor. dating 1562. or Measure (As You V. 200.

Naylor. Tune only given [see Stainer and Barrett's Dict. by Edward W. V.) An English 'Haye. [Listen] (c.' or 'Raye. of Musical Terms]. L. See p.L. For a French 'Haye.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' date 1678. i. 148.L. 131.' see Note on Arbeau's Orchésographie.' or 'Round. APPENDIX 109 .

125. 1622. The Cobbler's Jig.' can be adapted to this tune. as given in 'Orchésographie. Hamlet II. APPENDIX 110 . 117. Naylor. ii.) 2. by Dr Bull (1563-1628). See p.) 1. See p. (d. [Listen] [Pg 205] It will be noticed that the steps of the Haye. etc. by Edward W. The dotted minim value of this corresponds with the semibreve value of the other. The King's Hunting Jigg.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [Listen] (d. 504.

ii. An English Morris. 132. 20.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [Listen] (e. see p. Naylor. etc. [Listen] APPENDIX 111 . 1650.) 1. All's Well II. by Edward W.

' 1608.') This dance is certainly in triple rhythm. from his opera 'Orfeo. Naylor. Italian Moresca. APPENDIX 112 .) 2. by Edward W.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. so the common-time sign probably indicates it should be played fast enough to give the effect of two beats to the bar. (See Note on the 'Orchésographie. This at all events must have had a different step to the Morisque of Arbeau. by Claudio Monteverde. [Pg 206] (e.

ii.) Part of 'My Ladye Carey's Dumpe. APPENDIX 113 . III. See p. [Listen] [Pg 207] (f. etc. by Edward W. 83.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Naylor. 127.' circa 1600. Two Gent.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. by Edward W. [Listen] [Pg 208] APPENDIX 114 . Naylor.

and with extraordinary harmony. Musical Stage Directions.&#8212.[Pg 209] THE VOLUNTARY. H. 167. [Listen] THE MARCH.For Cinquepace. Courante. (a. A.) The Ancient English Drum March. III. Canaries. Naylor. iii. 165.B. but in four parts. See p. by Edward W. See p. See p.) Flourish. Morisque. The last strain of all is the first here printed. revived in 1610. and ff. Brawl.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 172. see the Note on 'Orchésographie. 30.'s time. the E's being carefully marked &#9838. [Listen] (b. 6. APPENDIX 115 .. Haye.' 27. Lavolt. N. believed to be of Charles II. This is about one third of it. Then return to .

33.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. by Edward W. APPENDIX 116 . 1670. 172. Cf. A. See p.' written by Lully. [Listen] (c. For Hautboys in four parts.) Military March of the French 'Gardes de la Marine. III. Batterie de Tambour. Naylor. 6. H. iii.

I connect this with 'sennet. 1636 (Louis XIII.) A 'sonnerie' of French Cavalry. See p.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.).' APPENDIX 117 . [Listen] Air des Hautbois. by Edward W. [Listen] [Pg 210] (d. 178. Naylor.

Naylor. by Edward W. 5. IV. French Tucket. p. 180. [Listen] APPENDIX 118 . 35. 'to horse'). Boute-selle (i. [Listen] [Pg 211] 2. H..The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. An Italian Tucket. 1. date 1638. 1643. [Listen] (e. ii.e.) Tucket.

29. Actors preceded by drums. a musician. 164.) 2.) 1. Old French hunting fanfare. by trumpets. [Listen] [Pg 213] INDEX. 163.' Titus II. Aguecheek. Naylor. 10. by Edward W. See p. Four Horns. 183. Actor's Remonstrance. The imitation (by violins) of a hunting call in Purcell's 'Dido and Æneas. [Listen] (f. See p. 3. 2. 168. Accurate knowledge of Shakespeare. 167. Sir Andrew.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Perhaps may be connected with 'Horns wind a Peal. The. INDEX. 19. (f. 119 .' 1675. 183. ii.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. 'Alas, my love,' 194. Alarum, 165, 166. All's Well, 120, 133, 163, 205. Alman, a dance, 115, 170. Amateurs, 17th cent., 13, 14, 47. 'And will he not come again,' 77, 197. Anthems, practised by Falstaff, 85. 'Anthoinette,' galliard tune, 143. Antony and Cleopatra, 152, 159, 162, 166, 175. Arbeau, see 'Orchésographie.' Arch-Lute, 56, and frontispiece. Arena, Anthoine, 139. As you like it, 72, 73, 77, 93, 94, 126, 155, 157, 193, 203. Autolycus's songs, 72, 191, 192. 'Ayres' for lute, 55, 187.

Bacon, Masque and Triumph, 31. Bacon, Sylva Sylvarum, 31. on the Recorder, 31, 50. Bagpipe, 78, 81, 96, 98, 102. Ballads, 20, 70 ff, 86, 97, 98, 200. Ballad of Constant Susanna, 189. Ballete, combined dance and song, 113. Ball-room etiquette (1588), 138, 139, 140, 144. Bannister, Mr, 191. Bandore, sort of lute, 170.

INDEX.

120

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. 'Banket,' 16th cent., 5. Barber's shop, music in, 7, 18, 19. Bars, invention of, 34. Base (bass), quibbles on, 27, 60. Bass descant, 185. Basse dance, 137-141. Beaumont, Gray's Inn Masque, 36, 171. Beaumont and Fletcher, Coxcomb, 16. Beaumont and Fletcher, Valentinian, 171. [Pg 214]Beak-flute, 50, 52. 'Bear his part', 16, 22, 79, 80. Play his part, 12. Sing his part, 14. 'Bene's,' the three, 8. Bergamasca, 114. Blacke Saunctus, 10. Boleyn, Anne, 10. Bonduca, catch in, 17. 'Bonny sweet Robin,' 77, 196, 197, 198. 'Boute-selle', 210. Bow, viol, 48, and frontispiece. Branle, Le, dance step, 139. Bransle, dance (brawl), 115, 147-148 (tune and steps), 149. Brant, 'Ship of Fools,' 96. Brawl, dance, 115, 118, 119, (derivation), 123, 208. Breast, i.e. voice, 88. Bridge, Dr J.F., Shakespeare Songs, 87, 93, 171. INDEX. 121

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music, by Edward W. Naylor. Broken music, 30-32, 103, 104, 125, 187. Broken time, 32, 33. Bull, Dr John, 54, 114, 117, 124, 125, 136, 201, 205. Burden, 22, 23, 24, 26, 69, 78, 82. Burden, 'Light o' love' without a, 24, 26, 71. Burney, 36, 195, 196. Bussing base, 16, 24. 'But shall I go mourn,' 72. Byrd, William, 54, 76, 124, 171, 195. 'By a bank,' 26.

Canary, dance, 118, 119, 120, 146 (tune and steps), 208. Canaries, see Canary. Cannon, on stage, 165, 168. Canon, 10, 20. 'Canst thou not hit it,' 200. Caper, to, in a galliard, 121, 124, 138, 143. Carey's Dump, My Lady, 128, 207. 'Carman's whistle,' 76, 195. Catch, 16, 17, 18, 20, 65, 69, 77, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 198, 199. Caulfield, Collection of Shakespeare music, 77. Censorinus, on music of Spheres, 153, 154. Cerreto, Scipione, see Lute, 55. Chamber music, 12-14, 15, 47. Chappell, 9, 31, 36, 74, 111, 192. Charles I., 11, 12. INDEX. 122

129. see Sympson. 15. 121. The. of heavenly bodies. 116. 18. 2. in barber's shop. 171. of viols. 30. Comedies. 149-150 (tune and steps). 126. Coranto. 125. Cittern. Christopher Sympson.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' 101. Coperario (J. Concord. 117. 'Come live with me. 8. or Congedium. 98. by Edward W. 67. 'Cliff' (clef). Clergy and Music. 205. 116. 169. 123 . Cinquepace. 115. carved head of. Compendium. Consorts. 40. 32. 4.' 31. 125. 68. 29. 'broken' and 'whole. Sympson's. 154-6. 65. 48.' 188. 70. 13. 55. 47. 122. 124. Consort. 122 (derivation). 123. 19. Naylor. 45-49. Chaucer.. 118. Chelys Minuritionum. INDEX. 202. Congee. [Pg 215]Cobbler's Jig. 9. Cooper). 19. 171. dance. 142 (tune and steps). 36. Chorus. 117. 170. or dance. 118. 9. 136. Compositions by Henry VIII. 31. Cittern. Music in the. Comus. 12. 'Conceits. Milton's. 121. 27. 139. music in time of. 208. 'Chest' of viols. Clavichord. Concolinel.

208. to tabor and pipe. 118. 200. 179. 190. 145. 78. 179. 113. 68. 123. 17.' to. Naylor. Dances of 16th cent. 167. 124 . 118.. 126. and Charles I. Cymbeline.. sung. time of Elizabeth. 113. Cotgrave. Damon and Pithias. 176. 116. English. 16. 115. 122. Courante. 170. 126. 123. Davenant. 137-151. Corydon's Farewell to Phillis. Dancing. Dances.' 83. 97. Sir John. Country Dance. 100. 166. 136. The Wits. and x.. Cornet playing. 180. 'Counter. 144. Coriolanus. by Edward W. 16th cent. 17. 139. 7.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 98. 118. Declaration of Egregious Impostures. coranto). Cornet. Davies. 66. Cushion dance. 73.. 176. 17th cent. 110. 120. on dances. 115. 66. 113 ff. Curranta (courante. Cymbals. James I. Dancing Schools. Dances in Shakespeare. Cornyshe. W. Dancing. Dances. 119.. INDEX. 145. and frontispiece. 124. on 'freeman's songs. 109. origin of Sonata form. 201 ff. Dance music.

160-162. Diminution. Drums. 36. see Division. contention of. 29. Dekker. music during. Drayton. 30. Dinner party. 83. 'harsh. 185. 154. Division. 23. 172-175. 23. 186. 22. Descant. see Tucket. 23." 29. 125 . 41. 153. 6. 164. 28. Descant on a "ground. Descanters.' 37. 28-30. Dirge. 176. 35. Satiromastix.' 22. 119. after supper. 16. 67. Delaborde. Division viol. 110. 8. 176. 6. Naylor.' 28. Drone. 42. quibbles on. Diapason. 16th cent. 57.. Dinner. 139. 5. 186. 'restless. 23. 163. Dulcimer. 29. 35.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 25. Discord. in theatre band. 162. 36. 145. 22. 105. Deuteromelia. in dancing. [Pg 216]Division. 30. Ravencroft's. 'Diabolus est. at taverns. and fife. Battle of Agincourt. military. Drum. 68. 177. 172-175. Doquet. 27. 185. INDEX. by Edward W. 208. 109. 111. 20. 186. Drum March.

master. Dump. Edward VI. 207. 8. music in. 'Evening music. by Edward W. 169. 2. Fiddle. Erasmus. Fidlers. 59. 76.' 165.' 99.' Caliban's Song. 114 (dances) ff. quibble on.' for viols. 59. Fidles. 85. 126 . 100. 73. 47. 171. 73. 'Excursions. 'Farewell.. 113. 124. Dupla.' 13. musicians. 15. musical. 22. 130. 98.' 'rascal. musical qualification for. 97. 20. 101. Faustus. 9. 7. 67. 16. Ear. 190. 32. Falstaff and his crew. 171. dear heart. 130. 89. 61. Edwards. 'Fancies. Elizabethan times. 41-43. 33. INDEX. Marlowe's. 22. 69. 170. 170. 110. 34. 53. 193. 49. Ferrabosco. 101. 23. 17. 178.' 72. 'Fear no more the heat of the sun. 117. 'Fayned' music. 4-8. Elizabeth. 10. 127. Fellowships at Cambridge. dance. 128 (derivation). Naylor. 11.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Richard. Elizabethan public-house song.' 73. 9. 128. Queen. 'Farewell. 76. 'common. 10. 98. Fidler.

Freemen. INDEX. 27. 58. 114 (follows Pavan). on viol. Naylor. 'Flout 'em and scout 'em. 170.' ballad of a. 209. 'Fish. 91. on lute. 72. 178. Fife. 58. Galliard. 60. 170. 'Flemish Drunkards. 69. comedy. 201. 'Fortune my Foe. 98. 123. 123. 124.' 76. 134. 195. 196. Florio. 202. Flourish. 'Fools had ne'er less grace. 40. Flageolet. 54. see Recorder. 39. Gam-ut. Fret. French dancing. 46. 25.' 77. Gallimaufry. Elizabeth's) 11. 167-8. 148. 101. 208. 142 (tune and steps). 122. 171. 176. 179 (of cornets). 51. 160-162. 56. 170. 44. 19. 58. 83. 60. 192. Fingering.' 72. 165. Flats. French march. 145. 199.' 49. 116 (derivation). 80. Gammer Gurton's Needle. 78. 84. on threemen's songs. Frescobaldi. [Pg 217]'French fiddles. 195. Frets. 31. see Threemen. 96. 123. quibbles on. 169.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 176.' 66. 138 (par terre). Flute. 79. 115. 121. 136-151. 126. by Edward W. 127 . 45. Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (known as Qu.

Schoole of Abuse. 10. 128 . 77. 144. 75. Hamlet. 29. 76. Naylor. 29. master. 192. 5-8. 192.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 167. 'Green Sleeves. 47. on catches. 'Harmonious Blacksmith. 50-52. 20. 98. Harp. 65. 151. Irish. 83. Harpsichord.' 74. 20. 113. by Edward W. 97. 17. 30. 'Good morrow. 176. Orlando. 110. Hanskin. 5. 13-15. INDEX. 34. 30. 50. 54. Harpsicon. 172. 6.' 28. 196. Le. Gaufurius.' 72.' 7. Gower. Giraldus Cambrensis. Gosson. 31. 65. 145. 12. 194. 108. 37. 29. 96. 101. Ground Bass. Goodnights (dirges). 109. 13. Harsnet. 'Gregory Walker. 76.' 77. Grand Bal. 185. 125. 49. Grove's Dictionary of Music. Harp. 'tis St Valentine's day. morisque bad for the. 124. 98. 205. 'Get you hence. 185. 196-198. Gout. Gnorimus. Guido d'Arezzo. Gentlemen and music. Gibbons.

stage direction. 70. Henry VI. 8. 10. 182. 9. 73. 198. 183. 175. 'Hold thy peace. 2. Harrington. 172. 166. 114. 139. 177. 165. 172.' 77. 136. 181. 205.. Naylor. 177.. 195. case of a treble... Holofernes' head. 183. 'Heart's Ease. 129. Part II. 8. 208. Hay. 167. 31. INDEX. Henry VI. 109. jolly Robin. John. stage direction. 144. Hautboys. 159. 19. 150 (tune and steps). 131. 169. Henry. Horn. 37.. 166. 209. 14. 26. Hautboys. Henry IV. Hautboy. brother of Charles I. 172. Henry VIII. Singing in time of.' 196. 182. Part I. Henry VIII. 169. 129 . Part II. 202. 105. 10. 129. 145. 204. 65-69. 182. 182. 41. dance. 'Hey. 172. 81. Horns. 180. 209. 123. 117. 176. 166. Hexachord. Henry VI. Henry V. Part I. 210. 211. Hilton. 126. 193.. 12.' 190. 165. Robin. [Pg 218]Henry VII. 187. 107. 110. 183. 176. 49... 133. 76. Prince. 178. 32. 63. Herbert.. History of music in Shakespeare.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 182. 'He is dead and gone. George. Henry IV.. 109. 173. 77. a musician. 76.' 73. Part III. 56. 171. 175. 208. by Edward W. 209. Sir John. 3. 182. 177.

' 190. a burden. 22.' 73. Hum. The. 116. Introduction. Instrumental music. England supreme in. 31. 123. 19. Lord. 'I shall no more to sea. 'How should I your true love know. 'Hunt is up. Hunts-up. 29. John. 20. and anon. Parson. James I. 11. 'Hundredth Psalm. John.' 77. 23. Simon. 185. 171.' 73. 187. 23. 'It was a lover and his lass. 'Jack boy. Ives. 18. 125. 11. music in time of. ho boy. Naylor. 117. 24. Jaques. 117. Instrumental music. descended from Vocal Dances. 18-20. Irish Harp. Jacks. 68. 94.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 93. 124. Instrumental Music. Hunsdean. 9-15. 'I'm gone. Hugh. 54.' 77. 2. amongst lower classes. 73. Inglesant. 19. Jenkins. a hater of music. Morley's. by Edward W. in taverns. 116-118. 191. Mr Shorthouse's. 199. 121. 130 . 192.' 75. 196. dance. 8. 113.' 93. 4-7. Sir.. 72. 92. Sir. amongst higher classes. INDEX. 18. in barber's shop. 47. Jig. to.

Naylor. 'L'homme armé. by Edward W. out of tune. 112. 171. Julius Cæsar. 181. INDEX. The King's Hunting. 95. 136. 70. Masques by. 'Jog on.. William. 208. 124. as white as. 18. Lark. Lavolta. Jigg. 171. 170. 13. Bishop.' 85. 171.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 125.. Jane Shore. 35. Johnson. Master of. Silent Woman. 205. The. Lawes.. Lavolt. 192. 28. died 1521).' 72. Henry. John. 205.' Qu. King's Coll. 176. 171. Lawes. Camb. 'Lawn. Alchemist. Jusquin (Josquin des Prés. King's Hunting Jig. dance. Jonson. 9.' Ballad of the. 205. King. 36. Ken. in 1463. The Cobbler's. 148. 186. 163. 'King and the Beggar. Jocasta. 149 (tune and steps). Katherine's. 117. Lacy. 110-112. 47. 182. by Gascoyne. 166.' 72. 108. 171. 183. 131 . 115. Jig. Kircher. [Pg 219]'Knell. 10. 72. Henry. Robt. Lear.

70. 64. 108. 5. 20. Matt. 41. 187 Mad Songs. 13. 31. 70. 127. Locke. 119. 96. 55. Thomas. Lollards. Macbeth. 45. 55-61. 76. Lyly. Lower classes. 204.' 24. by Edward W. 118. 19.. Le Roy. music amongst. Lute. Lutenist. 129. 166. 187. 188. on music at feasts. 6. 'Lesson' for the Lute. 200. 60.. 209. 58-60. Love song.e. 55. military and national. 82. 55. 'Light o' love. 42. 30. March. 69. 98. 185. Lute-case. 109. 86. 73. 'Love. 81. 15-20. 78. 187. love. 10. Naylor. Lessons in music. 115. 166. objections to. see Lute. 67. 36. 56. Marlowe. 125. 61. 119. 62. 88. tuning of. 131. Pavan for. 46. 31. 60. 22-26. INDEX. 9. 172-175. in 17th cent. 56. Adrian.' 72. 209. 208. Lully. 12.' i. 62-64. 132 . Love's Labour's Lost. Mace. 107. 32. Madness and Music. Lute. 26. 55. 171.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. a piece of music. Lucrece. 204. 54. 35. 61. 96. 'Lesson. 71. nothing but love. 68.

80. 171. Mary. 31. Guido's.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Memoria Technica for step dance. 133. Merry Devill of Edmonton. 155. 114. Micrologus. 160. 10. 43. 194. 123. 67. 141. 52. Masque and Triumph. Measure. 186. 203. 157. 161. music in. Melvil's Memoirs. 162. 160. 43. 17. Masque. 119. 37. Military music. 179. 81. 159-161. stately dance. Mean. Melancholy of musicians. 145. 208. 195. Mascaradoes.' 183. Measure for Measure. 157. Milton. 174. Merry Wives of Windsor. 115. Micrologus. 38. 145. 155. 84. 188. Minim rest. Mi. see Quibbles. Méhul. 162. Naylor. 'Le Jeune Henri. 102. 133 . 161. 180. 119. Mi Contra Fa. Bacon's Essay on. 132. Merchant of Venice. May day customs. 71. 211. to place the. 167. 120. 168. Queen. 157. 11. Midsummer Night's Dream. in Shakespeare. INDEX. 115. 125-127. Metaphors. 121. 74. 177. 171. 209. Ornithoparcus's. musical. 156. 105. 27. 76. The. 52. 69. [Pg 220]Mersennus. 34. by Edward W.

59. 205. Music at home. 185. 66-68. Musica Ficta.. and disease. 81. Music. Thomas. 'Morning Music. 'Music of men's lives. 206. lesson. 5. 33. 169. Music. 47. Music. 10. 121. 25. middle 16th cent. 24.' stage direction. 55. 133. 169-171. dance. 'Introduction. 41. Musical England. 6. 7-9. 134 . 125. Morley. 107-109. Music and madness. 107. 124. two views of in Shakespeare. 136. 68. 151 (tune and steps). 32.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Much Ado.' 4-8. 19. 67. 58-60. dances. 47. 93. 113-116. 66. 62-64.' 100. 40. Music-masters. Music in taverns. Moresca. 70. 34. 18. 98. 102. 68. 187. 19. 18. INDEX. 208. 2. 107. decay of.' 32. 53. 2. 106. by Edward W. 'Music. Naylor. 64. 208. song. 132. 47. Music in barber's shop. 1512. 161. 20. 35. 5-8. 49. descant. 23. in time of Charles I. Miracle Play. 175. 122. 69. 6. and Manners. 14. Lessons in the fields. 54. 101. 71. music in. Morris. see Morris. 206. Monochord. Morisque. of an hour. 133. 20. Music. Mouton. Music at University. Monteverde. 162. 12-14.

heavy heart. Nativity Hymn. 56.' 73. [Pg 221]'O Death. 26. 196-198. 46. 16. Nightingale. 'Orchésographie. Ominous music. 86. 23. 189.' 111. Milton's. 'My heart is full of woe. Oldcastle. Peele's. Musicians.' 73. Ophelia's songs. 'Note-splitting. 22. see Psaltery. 'O! the twelfth day of December. 120. 130. 22. 187. 'O heart.' Arbeau's. Nimble notes. Note.' 87. rock me to sleep. Royal. 113. Lady.' 28. 155. Nebel. 122.. 106. concerted music. Sir John. Old Wives' Tale. 'O mistress mine. 27.e. 193. 159. INDEX. 9-12. 45. 5. 205.' 16th cent. i.' for Lute. 112. 22. 105. by Edward W. to give a.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Noise.' 72.' 72. 89. 187. Musical 'at home. 'My Mistress. 77. Musick's Monument. 124. 137-151. Virginal Book. descants. Naylor. 'My Robin is to the greenwood gone. 206. 76. kept awake with thorn. 135 . 26.' 198. 23. Nevell's. 'O sweete Olyver. 119. 54.

144. Pavan. 201. Pandarus. letter of. 13. Pageant of the Nine Worthies. 72. 7. 9. 123. Naylor..The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 34. Organ. Passionate Pilgrim. 166. 144. Pavan. 23.' 7. 114. Pandarus's songs. 136 . 17. 135. 114. Orchestra. 126. 18. 48. 116 (with Galliard). vocal. 103. 108. Pavan. 188. music at. 72.' 73. 134-136. in chamber music. 'Orpheus with his lute. 146. 'strains' of a. 114. 31. Oxford. 113 (for voices). 203. 30. Parley. Parts. 71. 74. Pavane d'Espagne. INDEX. instrumental. 123. Paradise Lost. 73. 80. 182. 134. 65. 161. mode of dancing. 185. Pammelia. Paradyse of daynty Devises. 104. Ornithoparcus. Part-songs by Henry VIII. 136. see Canaries. 103. 201. Pasqualigo. 'quadrant. Othello. 54. poem by Sir John Davies. Pavan. 155. 102. 131. Ravenscroft's. 145. Passamezzo. 134. dance. 24. 201-204. 144-146. 170 (on stage). 9. 114. Passamezzo Pavan (Passy-measures). see Pavan. 182. 12-15. 25. 79. a musician and singer. by Edward W. 5. 108. Parthenia.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 64. 32.' 12. Plays of Shakespeare with references to music.' see 'Bear. Prick-song. 164. introduced by trumpets. 45. Praetorius. 81. 137 . Popular Music. Plain and Easy Introduction to Practical Music. 33. 9. of cornstalk. 211. 188. John. 152. 67. by Edward W. 67. 6. Plays. 42. Philomel. 189. 69. 1586 to 1642. 24. 83. 130. 80. Old English. 185. 107. 44. 89. Pipe. 14. 'Peg-a-Ramsey. 196. Percy's Reliques. 78. 16. unprofitable. 161. Naylor. or burden. 69. 7. Playford. 41. 22. Plain song book. 17th cent. to wind a. [Pg 222]'Play his part. Peele. 50. 98. Peal of horns. et passim. 101. John. Old Wives' Tale. 34. 15. Professional musicians. Pizzicato. 41. 12. 113-116. 6. 189.. 162. Proportion. Chappell's. Pes. 25. 97. Pericles.' 71. 4-8. 134. Price. 13. see frontispiece. 30. 4. 171. 23. 122. Pipers and fiddlers. INDEX. Pipes. 185. 80. 169. 8. with tabor. 190. 6. see Horns. 129. Plain song. 162. Plays with music. 20.

85. Rehearsal. sings psalms to hornpipes. 50-53. 44. 130. 152-156. 'Record. 28. Purcell. 170. 17. Pyramus and Thisbe. by Edward W. 36. Quibbles. see Hay. on stage. Puns. Puritan. canaries. see Prick-song. 5. 53. metrical. 99. Recorder. 160. 152-158. 103. 27. 84. 2. 32. a small organ. on music of spheres. Pythagoras on musical. 138 . Quadrant Pavan. Purcell. 153. 43. 87. 167. 26. Elizabethan. Quadrupla. Raye. verbal. 170. 176. 183. Psaltery. a masque. 20. 33. 62-64. 171. and frontispiece. Psychology of music in Shakespeare. 7. on musical terms. 211. 121. 17. (comedy). 129. 58-60. 22. 93. to. 6. 50.' use of the word. 122. Pupil and master. Psalmody. Regals. INDEX. operas. The. 127. 36.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 4. Public-house song. 76. 60. 7. Rebeck. 104. 89. 120. Quiddle. 120. 77. 182. 34. Naylor. 183. 23. 86. 128. 51. see Quibbles. catch. 39. 135. Pythagoras. 131. 129. Bonduca. 88. Punctus. 126. 16. 24. 31. 176. 163. 40.

Scotch Jig. Sault majeur. 72. stage direction. 67. Romeo and Juliet. 94. 168. 182. [Pg 223]Sackbut. dance. 16. Scamps in Shakespeare. 48. 139 . 80. Soc.. 176. 19. 37-40. 'Scurvey tunes. 127. 32. 116.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 17. in galliard. 129. 86. notation of. 87. Rimbault. 68. 149. dance. Scale. 125. company of dancers. 24. 22. 124. 36. Satiromastix. 91. see Hay. by Dekker. Salary of musicians in taverns. Richard III. see Caper. by Edward W. Salary for a singer. Canons. 84. 84. Round. Antiq. 192. 164. Rimbault's 'Rounds. Rotybulle Joyse. 110.. Pandarus. 185. 104. 172. Autolycus. Royal musicians. 166. 171. Saltarello. 123. Naylor. 143. 73. 171. 193. 18. Ribible. 23. 69. 115. and Catches'. 72. 167. 92. 94. Round (catch). dance. 88. INDEX. 125. Saltiers. mostly musicians.. Saraband. 9-12. Rests. Toby. see Falstaff. in lavolte. Retreat. 23. Stephano. Richard II. 138. Mus. 69. Sault majeur. 17. 83.' 191. 43. 144. 129.

65. 27.H. 40. 84. 25. 199. 34.' 14. 2. 83. 7. Shakespeare. 9. 96. 210. 168. 140 . 66-69. Serpent. Shrew. 58-60. 2. Sharps.. 78-80. Sight-singing. Naylor. trustworthy in musical matters. 63. amongst lower classes. 1. 97. Triumphs of Peace. 33. 179. 15. 126. 'Sing his part. Shakespeare. Selden. 15th and 16th cent. 98. Silence's songs. Singing. Singing. 26. Sinkapace. Sennet. 93. 70. 187. 180. INDEX. 85.. 55. 92. amongst higher classes. Sesquitertia. 'Set. 178 (derivation). Shorthouse.. 183.' see 'Bear. 66-69. Shirley. 96 ff. 3. Sesquialtera. Singing-man of Windsor. 33. (of pitch).The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music.' to. Singers' excuses. on dances. by Edward W. see Cinquepace. Taming of the. passages on music classified. quibble on. 171. 34. 168. 7. 5-9. Singing. Ship of Fools. 39. Singing. 13th and 14th cent. 27. 26. 54. Mr J. 28. 13-15. 15-18. Sellenger's Round. Brant's. 118. 64. 21. 12. Serenades. 128. 27.

139.. and frontispiece. musical. 159. mentioned or quoted in Shakespeare. 122. Steps. Skelton. 165 ff. 67.. Thos. Hist. 145. 141 . Music of the.. 136. 186. INDEX. 115. Sol-Fa. French trumpet calls. 65. 124. Spinet. 108. to. 53. of strings. of dances. Sir Roger de Coverly. 23. etc. 24. 187. 67. music after. 'Sneak's noise. 31.' 105. 210. dance. 73. 114. 130. Sonneries. Sonnet CXXVIII. Naylor. 26. 95. 116. 35-40. 170. 25. 152-156. 52. 124. 22. 152. 54. 68. 69 ff. 191. by Edward W.' 23. Stage Directions. Pavan and Galliard. etc. [Pg 224]Stephano's songs. Sylva Sylvarum. 201-203. 23. 51. 4 ff.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Sonnet VIII. Stanley. 123. Stop. Swan-song. quibble on. Songs. 5. 106. Spheres. technical meaning of. music in. Social Life. Sophonisba. Supper. 135. 169-171. 136. Bacon's. Strain. 'Sumer is icumen in. Solmisation. Strain. of Philos. 105. 4. 22. 178. St Thomas Wake. 66. by Marston.

INDEX.' 70. by Edward W. 117. 133. 89. music in Shakespeare's. military drum. Theatres. 105. Tabourine. 132. 81.' 73. lute. Tarantism. 106. Taverns. Tabourot. 104. 37.' 77. closed. 'Thou knave. see Arbeau. 185.' 87. 189. 66. 89. the swabber. 92. 69. 175-177. Tempest. Naylor. 122. Jehan. 176. 91. 107. 89. 139. 29. 188. 198. 47. Sympson. Text. 83. Tangents. 'There dwelt a man in Babylon. 191. 88. Theatres.' 192. 19. 46. 81. 38. 199. 20. 191. 'The hunt is up. 68.' 71. 23. 56.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 116. 197. 21 ff. 85. 131. 73. 161. 30. 78. 82. 'The God of Love. 139. Tabor and Pipe. Technical terms. 'Three merry men. 79. Tereus. Threemen songs. Sir W. 84. 'They bore him barefaste. 162. 35. Christopher. Theorbo. musical. 35.. 171. 'The master. 137. 91. Temple. 142 . Tarantella. 133. Tabourin and Flutte. 209. Music in. 80. and frontispiece. 162. music at. 16. 77. 19.' 71. of clavichord. 4. 92.

162. on stage. Time. 118. Toby Belch's. 115. Statutes of. 152. 29. 71. to keep in. 22. 176. Twelfth Night. 22.' to. 4. Trenchmore. 131. 121. 76.' 71. ballad of. 23. 95. Trumpets. 94. Tordion.' 35. 62. 183. Thunder and lightning. 201. 166. Tune. Music in the. 62. 165. 62. 196. 32. 87. 168. a dance. 181. Naylor. 43. 211. stage direction. Toccata. 104. 114. 108. 72. see Proportion. 88. 203. 198. 34. 169. 71. 49. 181. 49. 180-182. Camb. 108. 124. INDEX. 63. 178. Sir. Tusch. to keep. 143 . Tucket. 211. Time. Tudway. 9. 33. Dr. 62. Tocsin. 62. 89.. 142. 81. 63. 44. by Edward W. 26. Titus Andronicus. [Pg 225]Troilus and Cressida. Tragedies. 36. 42. Timon of Athens. 72. 48. 72. or Frenchmore. 32. 175. an instrument.. 187. 188-190.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 8. 141. in the theatre band. 28. Tocco di campana. 'To shallow rivers. 135. 165. 138. 77. 190. 'Tom o' Bedlam. 198. 202. Trumpets. 100. 188. 103. 'Touch. dance. 169. Titus Andronicus. Tripla. songs. Trinity Coll. 210. 27.

Two Gentlemen of Verona. 26. 31. 71. 59. 11. Virginal. Two Italian Gentlemen. 100. 170.' 72. 47. tuning of. 13. The. 7. Ventages. 46. 37-40. 10. 170. 186. Variations. Re. Mi. 53. and frontispiece. 19. 16th and 17th cent. Viol da Gamba. 65. 12-14. 13. 166. 128. 8. 48. 72. 117. Violin. 29. 45.' 196. 76. 47. thought vulgar. Volte. Viol. 98. 81. Viols. divisions on the. 61. 'Walsingham. 176. 44-49. 79. 12. treble. 54. 123. bass. tenor. 101. 62. Two Noble Kinsmen. Volta. 144 . 176. 71. double-bass. 51. 28. 68. 29. Elizabeth's. 195. Venus and Adonis. 11-14. 9. 12. 99. 171. 207. 187. 98. Naylor. 'Two maids wooing a man. 11. Virginal Book. 19. see Lavolta.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. Viols. INDEX. comedy by Munday. 145. 'Under the greenwood tree. see Fitzwilliam and Lady Nevell. 46. 19. 30. by Edward W. Viol da Gamba. Violone. 31. 46. 24. and frontispiece. 29. 13. 45. Virginal. 48.' 72. 48. 79. Qu. 45. 11. 47. Ut. 'Usurer's wife. Violin. 46. 49. music at. University.' ballad. 30. 53.

94. tuned thus&#8212. [4] The Cittern of the barber's shop had four double strings of wire. The instrument had a carved head. 72. [3] Drayton (James I.'s reign) in his "Battle of Agincourt. 78. 83. 78. 128. do me no harm. 195. in case of equality. 190.' 72. Mr Aldis Wright tells me that the statutes provided for an examination in singing for Candidates for Fellowships. by Edward W. Aldis. 'When daffodils. along with the essay and verse composition. 190. 'When Arthur first. and singing. Mr W." l.' 77. 'When griping grief. 53. St George's Chapel Choir. Ye noble minds. Winter's Tale. B on 3rd line. 1199. 31.' 72. 'Whoop.' 199. 12. but the subject was considered on the fourth day of the examination. D a tone lower. 85.of the French before the battle (freemen is a corruption of threemen). G on 2nd line. has&#8212. 13. See FOOTNOTES 145 .' 196. 80. 'Will you buy any tape.1st. 'White his shroud. [2] This statement of Hawkins' seems a little exaggerated. 86. 130. 'Wee be souldiers three."The common Souldiers free-mens catches sing"&#8212. 192. Wood. Weavers. 9. 199. Singing was not required of all candidates. 3rd.' 72. E in 4th space of treble staff. 193. 88. Naylor.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. 2nd.' 73. Windsor. PRINTED BY TURNBULL AND SPEARS EDINBURGH FOOTNOTES [1] See Appendix. 'What shall he have. 87. 4th. Wright.' 70. and that ability gave a candidate an advantage. Anthony.

. See Hen.e.. of Holofernes' head.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Shakespeare and Music. [6] Rimbault's preface to the Musical Antiquarian Society's reprint of Purcell's opera. See the Note on 'Orchésographie.. [17] The Bagpipe appears on a coin of Nero.. [18] What is a 'woollen bagpipe'? See Merchant IV. a lute with a double neck. and made it sound at the same time. [11] Plectra of leather were also in use.' meaning 'fussy.. in a crosier given by William of Wykeham to New Coll. of Philos. FOOTNOTES 146 . V. [14] See Frontispiece. [19] Selden's Table Talk. L. Fantastic heads. [8] Theorbo. "Bonduca. [12] See Frontispiece. 82. [15] 'Besy. but of different types. referring to the basin-shaped back of a lute. Arbeau thinks because the dancer appears about to take leave of his partner&#8212. [20] This hardly seems a necessary theory. 'Forth from my sad and darksome sell. [5] Appendix. ii. 1701. where the treble viol and viol-da-gamba have carved heads. 55. ii. IV. prendre congé. i. were often put on these instruments. stage direction.' a bad fault in descant. by Thomas Stanley. for the Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn. 'congee. in 1403. Ex. by Edward W. 'busy. These tangents cut off the proper length of the string. so called from Tiorba.' that is. Oxon.' [22] Hist. This was. both human.L. [13] See Frontispiece. edit. [21] The branle (not the dance. [16] It was the German clavichord that had 'tangents' of brass at the ends of the key levers. as of dragons or gargoyles.L. The Italians called an instrument with a 'jack' action like the virginal by the name clavichord. [10] See Frontispiece.' § 7. lines 600-603. article 'King of England.. a mortar for pounding perfumes. but as used here) is called Congedium by Anthoine Arena. VIII. Naylor. 1. [9] See Frontispiece. as well as those of quill. by Beaumont.' where the 'swinging' movement is fully accounted for." says that Mad Tom was written by Coperario in 1612. l.' [7] See Frontispiece. Also there is a figure of an angel playing it. as it is to this day in counterpoint.i. Also the frontispiece.

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