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Objective: A digital watermark is a digital signal or pattern inserted into a digital image. Since this signal or pattern is present in each unaltered copy of the original image, the digital watermark may also serve as a digital signature for the copies. A given watermark may be unique to each copy (e.g., to identify the intended recipient), or be common to multiple copies (e.g., to identify the document source). In either case, the watermarking of the document involves the transformation of the original into another form. This distinguishes digital watermarking from digital fingerprinting where the original file remains intact, but another file is created that "describes" the original file's content. As a simple example, the checksum field for a disk sector would be a fingerprint of the preceding block of data. Similarly, hash algorithms produce fingerprint files. Description: Digital watermarking is also to be contrasted with public-key encryption, which also transform original files into another form. It is a common practice nowadays to encrypt digital documents so that they become un-viewable without the decryption key. Unlike encryption, however, digital watermarking leaves the original digital data (image or file) basically intact and recognizable. In addition, digital watermarks, as signatures, may not be validated without special software. Digital watermarks are designed to be persistent in viewing, printing, or subsequent re-transmission or dissemination. Thus, watermarking does not prevent copying, but it deters illegal copying by providing a means for establishing the original ownership of a redistributed copy. Digital Watermarking Watermarking is not a new technique. It is descendent of a technique known as Steganography which had been in existence for at least a few hundred years. Steganography is a technique for concealed communication. In contrast to cryptography where the content of a communicated message is secret, in Steganography the very existence of the message that is communicated is a secret and its presence is known only by parties involved in the communication. Steganography is technique where a secret message is hidden within another unrelated message and then communicated to the other party. Some of the techniques of Steganography like use of invisible ink, word spacing patterns in printed documents, coding messages in music compositions, etc., have been used by military intelligence since the times of ancient Greek civilization
Watermarking can be considered as a special technique of Steganography where one message is embedded in another and the two messages are related to each other in some way. The most common examples of watermarking are the presence of specific patterns in currency notes which are visible only when the note is held to light and logos in the background of printed text documents. The watermarking techniques prevent forgery and unauthorized replication of physical objects.
Digital watermarking is similar to watermarking physical objects except that the watermarking technique is used for digital content instead of physical objects. In digital watermarking a low-energy signal is imperceptibly embedded in another signal. The low-energy signal is called watermark and it depicts some metadata, like security or rights information about the main signal. The main signal in which the watermark is embedded is referred to as cover signal since it covers the watermark. The cover signal is generally a still image, audio clip, video sequence or a text document in digital format.
HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS Processors Hard Disk Key Board Mouse : Pentium, Celeron, Athol on etc. : Minimum 10 GB & maximum 40GB : Logitech (Multimedia – compatible) : Logitech (Scroll or Optical)
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Operating System Language Memory Data Base : Windows 95 / 98 / 2000 XP : Java 2 Standard edition 1.5 : Virtual Memory : ORACLE 8i or later versions
Secure Data Transmission
Objective: Objective: The system deals with security during transmission of data. Commonly used technology is cryptography. This system deals with implementing security-using Steganography. Description: Description: In this technology, the end user identifies an image which is going to act as the carrier of data. The data file is also selected and then to achieve greater speed of transmission the data file and image file are compressed and sent. Prior to this the data is embedded into the image and then sent. The image if hacked or interpreted by a third party user will open up in any image previewer but not displaying the data. This protects the data from being invisible and hence be secure during transmission. The user in the receiving end uses another piece of code to retrieve the data from the image.
Steganography is the art and science of hiding that communication is happening. Classical Steganography systems depend on keeping the encoding system secret, but modern steganography is detectable only if secret information is known, e.g. a secret key. Because of their invasive nature, steganography systems leave detectable traces within a medium's characteristics. This allows an eavesdropper to detect media that has been modified, revealing that secret communication is taking place. Although the secrecy of the information is not degraded, its hidden nature is revealed, defeating the main purpose of Steganography.
For JPEG images, Outguess preserves statistics based on frequency counts. As a result, statistical tests based on frequency counts are unable to detect the presence of steganographic content. Before embedding data into an image, Outguess can determine the maximum message size that can be hidden while still being able to maintain statistics based on frequency counts.
Outguess uses generic iterators object to select which bits in the data should be modified. A seed can be used to modify the behavior of the iterator. It is embedded in the data along with the rest of the message. By altering the seed, Outguess tries to find a sequence of bits that minimizes the number of changes in the data that have to be made.
Compression reduces the average code length used to represent the symbols of an alphabet. Symbols of the source alphabet which occur frequently are assigned with short length codes. The general strategy is to allow the code length to vary from character to character and to ensure that the frequently occurring
character have shorter codes. In Radix64 compression technique, maps arbitrary input into printable character output. The form of encoding has the following relevant characteristics. The range of the function is a character set that is universally re-presentable at all sites, not a specific binary encoding of that character set. Thus, the characters themselves can be encoded into whatever form is needed by a specific system. For instance, the character 'E' is represented in ASCII system as a hexadecimal 45 and in EDCDIC- based system as hexadecimal- c5.
The character set consists of 65 printable characters, one of which is used for padding. With 2^6 = 64 available characters, each character can be used to represent 6 bits of input. No control characters are included in the set. Thus, the message encoded in Radix-64 can traverse mail-handling system. That scans the data stream for control characters. The hyphen character "-” is not included.
CRCSET is an anti-virus utility.
Its purpose is to protect programs from third parties
manipulation .CRC set is the most effective weapons against computer viruses. This the Cyclic Redundancy Check, or CRC, is an error-checking algorithm used in many types of computer operations, especially in data transfer.
Before transmitting the data, the utility want to calculate the CRC value and attach with data. In receiving end, the CRC recalculated and based on that calculated value, it will specify the acceptation or rejection. Description: Module Description: This project contains five modules. They are Graphical User Interface Data Embed and Retrieve Compression and Decompression CRC generation. CRC Verification Software Software Requirements: Operating System Software : window 2000 or XP : jdk 1.4 or above
Intrusion Detection System
Objective: The project titled Intrusion Detection System in Networking Using Genetic Algorithm (IDS) is for Global Techno Solutions. The main objective of this system shows how real time network connection behavior can be modeled as chromosomes and how the parameters in genetic algorithm can be defined in this respect. Description: The project titled Intrusion Detection System in Networking Using Genetic Algorithm (IDS) is to identify the intruder and block the data from the intruder to avoid the system attack by the virus. This new system is a replacement of the existing system. In existing system, at run time it will not create a set of rules. The major components of the system are creating new set of rules during run time. Interest and knowledge about computer and network security is growing along with the need for it. This interest is, no doubt, due to the continued expansion of the Internet and the increase in the number of businesses that are migrating their sales and information channels to the Internet. The growth in the use of networked computers in business, especially for e-mail, has also fueled this interest. Many people are also presented with the post-mortems of security breaches in high-profile companies in the nightly news and are given the impression that some bastion of defense had failed to prevent some intrusion. One result of these influences is that that many people feel that Internet security and Internet firewalls are synonymous. Although we should know that no single mechanism or method will provide for the entire computer and network security needs of an enterprise, many still put all their network security eggs in one firewall basket. Modules: Modules here designed are Server Client New Entry Anomaly User Normal User
4 or above .Hardware: Processor Memory • • : Intel Pentium II or above : 128 MB or above : 10 GB or above : 108 Keys Hard Disk Drive Keyboard Software: • OS Platform Software : Windows 2000 or More : Java1.
easy to use. user-friendly. Member can interact with each other by sending massages. Member can post news. Unlimited Forums & Categories Unlimited forums can be organized into as many categories as you like Private forums and those only for specified user groups Powerful search facility 3. Support of standard and extended Code tags and controlled HTML tags Polls can be simply added to posts Topic editing . image posting. secure and flexible JSP FORUM application solution.SNOWBOARDS Objective: Now a days company lunching there products and there are giving information is not sufficient to the costumer. Powerful and extensive authorization system. Description: A cost-effective. Controlled forum interface with CSS styling template easy and quick. categories. Key Features: 1. Posting Messages Message formatting with various font styles and sizes as well as allowing quoting. forums. Costumer facing the problems and company cant able to give aver problems solution to ever bid. stable. Unlimited members Personal profile creation Post counting and administrator-definable ranks for users Email-like private messaging system 2. Unlimited members. Security Designed with security as a priority Powerful and extensive authorization system Strong encryption to keep passwords safe in the database 4. code display. efficient. posts etc. By forums they well get solution. strong encryption to keep user information safe and designed with security as a priority. Support thousands of online with database pool.
Note that the users who do not have this right as well as user 'root' will not see these interfaces at all.TANROX WORK FORCE TANROX WORK FORCE Objectives: Tanrox work force is time collection software that is streamlined for billing and invoicing purposes. Tanrox work force allows time tracking for customer and project related tasks. Description: This guide describes how to execute these activities using Tanrox work force interfaces. Users shall have the 'Submit Time-Track' access right to access interfaces for submission and browsing of time-track. In addition. After being collected the data can then be exported for invoice generation. Section contents: • • • • • • Overview Submit time-track for the current week Submit and modify time-track for the selected date/week View time-track for a selected month Delete reported time-track Remove tasks from the Submit Time-Track interface Overview Registration of time expenses consists of the following activities related to registering and managing your personal time expenses: • • • • Submitting time-track Viewing personal time-track Modifying personal time-track Deleting personal time-track Time-track is Tanrox work force's term used to refer to working time submitted and stored in the system. . section Getting started describes initial data setup up to the point when you are ready to start registering working time with Tanrox work force. To access the interfaces for browsing the submitted time-track use the top-level menu option 'My Timetrack'. To access the interfaces for submission of time-track use the top-level menu option 'Submit Time-track'.
M-banking Objective: The improvement in technologies. lot of traditional works are been done using internet. Now the things had changed.XML. The main draw back of this was. Which provides much better mobility than PCs.e. the scenario is changing i. The main advantage of this was person need not be present at the place and was done quickly which saved the time. usebean. servlet &java script My SQL 4. Here we just are trying to be with the scenario.0 web logic server 7.0 Nokia tool kit J2SDK 1.4 Hardware Specification: Processor Processor Speed RAM Hard Disk : : : : Intel P-III based system 250 MHz to 833MHz 64MB to 256MB 2GB to 30GB . wml. using of simple and cheaper hardware such as mobiles and handheld devices. Technology is moving towards mobiles which has wide spread usage and acceptability. Lot of protocols and software’s are been developed to server the concept. Software Requirements: Platform Languages Database Software Windows (NT/XP) JSP. The systems like reservations. banking and other things wear done using internet. it compulsorily required the costly pc. We are connecting the mobile to bank database using wml scripts and java technology.
stop payment. the mobile phone. Request Cheque Book: user may request the cheque books according to his requirements (10 leaves. including balance checking. Stop Payment: user is allowed to stop payment of cheques based on his request. there is a new communications infrastructure on offer to transform the way business is done. 4. One report also suggested that this trend might grow as the number of mobile device users continues to grow. 50 leaves. etc. and it will drive new levels of intense competition in the finance industry. Etc. 6. mini statement. 5. Configuration: User configures the functions concerning account payment and code. This opportunity is mobile commerce. 3. request check book. 100 leaves). 1. amount transfer. We are providing a wise range of mobile banking for individual clients. Mobile commerce achieves this by removing the traditional restrictions of geographical location and high entry costs. 2. and also those users show more wiling to consider using new applications such as mobile cash and payments. This time the assult on the finance industry will be led by a new weapon. Mini statement: user is also allowed to view the transactions made. Check Balance: users may check the balance of account and the latest transactions. Transfer Funds: User may transfer the amount to the required customer of his choice.Description: In today’s age of new opportunism and emerging technologies. .
0 XML Java / Java servlets / Java Server Pages Windows NT/200X Scope & Limitations: The proposed software targets resource constrained and more specifically wireless computing devices.1 MIDP 2. and NTT DoCoMo. Ericsson.Mobile Gadgeteer Objectives: This application is designed to provide the user Access a PC from his mobile device.0. MIDP is based on the CLDC and is currently supported by major device manufacturers such as Motorola. Deployment requires formatting the display in a generic way so that it works for all different types of devices.4. power supply and network support. . This project is to enable the mobile users to control his PC information at their finger tips. Environment: • • • • • • J2ME 2. and by carriers like SprintPCS. Nokia. Special attention is needed regarding complexities of network limitations. Table summarizes the target devices for MIDP 2. Many independent software vendors also support MIDP. The application must work properly without problems on all targeted devices. The application must consider the limitations of mobile devices.0 TOOL KIT J2SDK 1. Introduction: The Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) is the first and most mature J2ME profile. and RIM. Nextel. This project involves flow of data on the Wireless Application Protocol.
UDP datagrams. push-initiated. .. user interfaces. with limited bandwidth. Power Limited power. and APIs for sound and even gaming.0 enhanced version 1.Table Device Requirements for Mobile Information Device Profile 2. 128 kilobytes of volatile memory for the Java runtime. and then by JSR 118.0 specification). In addition to the MIDP 1.0 adds APIs for networking.0 (or 1. Pixel shape (aspect ratio): approximately 1:1. two-handed keyboard.0 Requirement Description Display Input Screen. MIDP 2. Networking Two-way. nothing would preclude MIDP 2.0. possibly intermittent. and MIDlet life-cycle. was initially defined by JSR 37. Memory 256 kilobytes of non-volatile memory for the MIDP implementation. local persistence. and secure connections. which produced the MIDP 1. 8 kilobytes of non-volatile memory for application-created persistent data.0 and MIDP 2.0 also formally includes in the profile specification an update of the MIDP 1.1 as its base. which describes how applications are to be discovered and downloaded over wireless networks. Even though the MIDP specification indicates the use of CLDC 1. MIDP2. One or more of the following user-input mechanisms: one-handed keyboard.0 specification.size: 96x54. wireless. including socket (TCP) streams. MIDP. Display depth: 1. serial. as well as a robust security API and policy. led by Motorola.0 specification. Table summarizes the packages available in MIDP 1. or touch screen.0 APIs for networking.0 quite a bit. typically battery-operated.0 Over the Air (OTA) User Initiated Provisioning recommendation (originally defined as an addendum to the MIDP 1.0) using CLDC 1. MIDP 2. which defined the MIDP 2.0.bit. beyond what’s required for CLDC.
2 J2ME 2. J2ME Multimedia Messaging Service (JMMS) is an application designed to provide Multimedia Messages from handheld devices. To demonstrate the functioning of MMS Gateway we need some more modules. 2. power supply and network support. MMSC is useful for buffering the message if the receiver is not available. The prevalent of system of handling MMS content is proprietary and non interoperable and hence implementation of MMS solution is cumbersome in real time environment. 3. Reception of MMS messages from mobile phones for forwarding to MMSC (Multimedia Messaging Service Center). display capabilities. Encoding of received MMS messages in MM7 protocol. Forwarding the encoded message to MMSC for delivery to respective end User device.VAS for Hand Held Device Objectives: This specification proposes an implementation of MMS Gateway. Receiver. which is full of devices of multimedia manufactures .0 J2METK MMS API MMSTK MM7 API MM7 Gateway .The scenario being as such. an MMS Gateway provides a perfect solution.4. Environment: • • • • • • • Sun Java 1. The application has also considered the limitations of the wireless network connections. It has been designed in such a way that it can resolve the possible data loss during transmission and can cope up with the limitations/constraints of all proposed target devices irrespective of differences in their sizes. They are Sender. This Gateway handles the following tasks: 1. MMSC and content server.
3. 2. Scope & Limitations: 1. Deployment requires formatting the display in an generic way so that it work for all different types of devices. The proposed software targets resource constrained and more specifically wireless computing devices.• • • WEB Server MMSC Windows 98 and above. . Special attention is needed regarding complexities of network limitations.
EB bill. Description: Java™ Platform. PDAs . flexible environment for applications running on a broad range of other embedded devices. Deployment requires formatting the display in a generic way so that it works for all different types of devices. and printers.J2me Scope & Limitations: The proposed software targets resource constrained and more specifically wireless computing devices. supported by leading tool vendors.J2ee. An added benefit is time consumption. In short. it is the platform of choice for today's consumer and embedded devices. The Java ME platform is deployed on millions of devices. It provides a robust. It provides the features of paying the bill for Telephone. TV set-top boxes. Special attention is needed regarding complexities of network limitations . Water bill through the mobile this project uses J2ME and J2EE technology. Modules: Authentication Module Communication Module Service Module Billing Module Checking Module Language Used: Java. such as mobile phones.Mobile Invoice Objective: This project deals with paying the bill through the mobile. and used by companies worldwide. Micro Edition (Java ME) is the most ubiquitous application platform for mobile devices across the globe.
modern fax equipment.4 standard.0 fax modem. Description: The use of fax service in a wireless CDMA network comprises of two different types. The Data Circuit Terminating Equipment (DCE).DTE INTERFACE IN CDMA Objective: The WAVE DM is an interface between the wireless CDMA mobile and the PC. Digital PC Fax and Analog Fax. In a Class 1 fax modem. A fax modem with such responsibilities in a DTE – DCE fax setup is known as a Class 2. which comprises the CDMA mobile and the IWF fax modem. a Data Terminal Equipment (DTE).DCE . For this application development we are using Java Swings and USB Based communication to the mobile. is connected via an USB to a CDMA mobile. . The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standard T4 specifies the Group 3 digital image encoding. is responsible for the digital-to-analog modem interface to the PSTN and fax protocol communication and negotiation with the remote fax machine using the ITU T. By using this interface the use will get all the information regarding CDMA mobile to his PC. For Digital PC Fax. The user can get the information about the mobile settings and service information and network information. By using this application we can make a call from the system and we can send messages and even fax. the modem has minimal responsibilities except for Vseries modem functions. known as Group 3 Fax. normally a laptop or PC running fax application software. Both categories of services employ digital fax technology for encoding/decoding the fax image. Group1 and Group2 Fax services employ analog image encoding and are rarely used in. The WAVE DM is used to extract the information from the mobile by using the USB cable.30 standard. The DTE’s Fax software is responsible for the encoding/decoding the fax images using the T.
Hardware Requirements: Processor Processor Speed RAM Hard Disk CDMA Mobile USB CABLE Software Requirements: Language : Java Swings Compatible CDMA Mobile Driver Software Comm. and Finger Graph generation. 3. jar and win32com. Signal Graph. 2. PN Graph. Location Map generation.dll : : : : : : Intel P-III based system 250 MHz to 833MHz 64MB to 256MB 2GB to 30GB Any CDMA Mobile CDMA Mobile Supported USB Cable Mobile USB Driver Software: Additional Plug in : Future Enhancements: 1. . Mobile Call processing.
Dual – Antennas handsets have a primary antenna that is used for both transmit and receive. . Finally. Second. Interference Rejection. Future Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chips for dual – antenna receivers should 1) implement an Optimum Combining (OC) algorithm and 2) Provide a 6-finger RAKE receiver. The forward – link capacity is increased incrementally in proportion to the penetration of dual – antenna phones into the system. and Diversity Gain. the other is probably not. Capacity increase comes about because the average signal sensitivity of the phone receiver is effectively doubled through adaptively combining the two antenna-receiver chains. The primary mechanisms by which the sensitivity is improved are Aperture Gain. Diversity Gain arises from the fact that when one antenna is in a fade.FINGER GRAPH GENERATION (COMMUNICATING 6 BTS AND BRINGING SIGNAL STRENGTH) Description: The capacity of a CDMA forward – link sector can be doubled if all the handsets in that sector use dual – antenna receivers. This configuration will increase forward –link system capacity by more than 100%. With twice the sensitivity. dual – antenna phones free up capacity for new forward – link intensive data services. used for receive only. dual – antenna phones will raise total network capacity. Aperture Gain results from the fact that two antennas absorb more signal power than one. allowing the deferral of expensive system – wide upgrades. Thus twice as many forward – link calls can be served. These phones could be pushed only into areas where forward – link capacity is tight. because the internal antenna suffers more blockages by the head and the hand of the user. The secondary antenna’s small volume allows it to be put inside the plastics of even very small phones. These phones could be selectively subsidized to customers who are identified as high – volume users in crowded sectors in the network. occupies much less volume than the primary antenna. The capacity increase can be used in three ways. The lower MEG of the secondary antenna does not have a serious impact on capacity increase from antenna combining. A secondary antenna. Interference Rejection results from combining the antennas with weights chosen so that interfering signals picked up on both antennas tend to cancel each other. where capacity is limited by the forward link. the forward link capacity increase can be matched by a reverse link capacity increase. Qualcomm may soon have available MSM chips in which two antennas can be combined using the Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) algorithm in a 4-finger RAKE receiver. The secondary antenna will typically have a lower Mean Effective Gain (MEG) than the primary antenna. First. This configuration should produce forward –link capacity increases of about 50% over a single – antenna handset. average base station transmit power per phone can be cut in half.
field testing. lab testing. Mobile Call processing.Fading correlation between the two antennas does not degrade the performance of any of the handsets we have tested. more than twice the number of voice channels can be supported if two-antenna phones replace all single-antenna phones. Alternatively. These handsets can receive more that twice the data rate as single-antenna handsets for a given load on the CDMA system. one for Cellular (~800 MHz) and the other for PCS (~1900 MHz). Location Map generation. one for Cellular frequencies and the other for PCS frequencies. Hardware Requirements: Processor Processor Speed RAM Hard Disk GPRS Mobile USB CABLE Software Requirements: Language : : : : : : Intel P-III based system 250 MHz to 833MHz 64MB to 256MB 2GB to 30GB Any GPRS Mobile GPRS Mobile Supported USB Cable : Java Swings Compatible GPRS Mobile Driver Software Comm. the extra capacity can be used to provide data services without reducing voice capacity of the system. We present performance improvement for various receiver architectures. The field tests have been done using two commercial CDMA networks in San Diego as signal sources. jar and win32com. realization. considering the combining of from 4 to 8 fingers in a RAKE receiver. For this application development we are using Java Swings and USB Based communication to the mobile. The highest correlations we have measured for all handsets considered is about 40%. : . and considering 4 different combining algorithms. even when we put the two antennas as close together as we could physically manage. We discuss the effect of differences in the Mean Effective Gain (MEG) of the handset antennas. analysis and performance of two – antenna – receiver handsets in CDMA system. This excess capacity can be used in conjunction with 4-antenna-receivers at the base-station to nearly double the capacity of CDMA systems.dll Mobile USB Driver Software: Additional Plug in Future Enhancements: 1. Alternatively. By using our WAVE DM application we are going to generate Finger Graph which will extract near by 6 BTS signal strengths. 2. We report on the design. We present antenna range tests as well as field tests from which capacity increases are derived. We present two different two antenna handsets. This is well bellow the 70% correlation required to degrade performance.
4. o r a combination of these.SIP – Session Initiation Protocol Objectives: • SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a protocol developed to assist in providing advanced telephony services across the Internet. SIP is designed to be independent of the lower-layer transport protocol and can be extended with additional capabilities. These sessions include Internet multimedia conferences.0 J2METK SIP API SIP TK WEB Server Windows 98 and above.2 J2ME 2. Environment: • • • • • • • Sun Java 1. Introduction: “The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control protocol for creating. Internet telephone calls and multimedia distribution. Special attention is needed regarding complexities of network limitations. SIP invitations used top create sessions carry session descriptions which allow participants to agree on a set of compatible media types. modifying and terminating sessions with one or more participants. • Internet telephony is evolving from its use as a “cheap” (but low quality) way to make international phone calls to a serious business telephony capability. Users can register their current location. Deployment requires formatting the display in a generic way so that it works for all different types of devices. Members in a session can communicate via multicast or via a mesh of unicast relations.” [RFC 2543] . • SIP is one of a group of protocols required to ensure that this evolution can occur. Scope & Limitations: The proposed software targets resource constrained and more specifically wireless computing devices. SIP supports user mobility by proxying and redirecting requests to the user’s current location. SIP is not tied to any particular conference control protocol.
Java 2 Platform Micro Edition (J2ME) supports layered software for the development of applications. The Project claims to be one of the very few of its kind which is fully functional. modify and terminate multimedia sessions or calls. The SIP stack can be used to building applications such as: • • • SIP user agents SIP proxies SIP redirect servers The User Agent can be used to make • • • • Basic SIP call between two User Agents Conferencing Call return Call transfer . Its development tool makes it backward compatible with J2SE and is platform independent.Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control protocol that can establish. targeted to run on small devices such as mobile phones. The J2ME Wireless toolkit provides development environment for the same specifically targeting MIDP devices. pagers etc. Objective and Scope The application called “JMSIP” Java Micro Edition SIP Stack for the J2ME phone completely compliant with the RFC 2543.
and detection packet loss on unidirectional links. This paper first presents a simulation study quantifying the impact of asymmetric links on network connectivity and routing performance. This abstraction enables routing protocols to send control packets (such as notifications about discovered routes and detected errors) in the reverse direction as it would on symmetric networks. It then presents a framework called BRA that provides a bidirectional abstraction of the asymmetric network to routing protocols. Hardware Requirements: Hard disk RAM Processor : 40 GB : 512MB : Pentium IV Software Requirements: JDK1. Existing System: AODV avoids any unidirectional links in its paths. non-uniform environmental noise. a unidirectional link is retained in the black list. and other signal propagation phenomenon.A Bidirectional Routing Abstraction for Asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Abstract: Wireless links are often asymmetric due to heterogeneity in the transmission power of devices.5 Swing Builder SQL Server . Nodes do not forward RREPs to any node in their black list. Nodes discover unidirectional links and add them to the black list. routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks typically work well only in bidirectional networks. It achieves this by tracking the unidirectional links in a black list. Once added. • It provides reverse-route forwarding for unidirectional links. Unfortunately. Extensive simulations of AODV layered on BRA show that packet delivery increases substantially (two-fold in some instances) in asymmetric networks compared to regular AODV. Proposed System: • It improves connectivity between nodes by finding new or better routes through unidirectional links. which makes them appear as bidirectional links. reverse route forwarding of control packets to enable off-the-shelf routing protocols. BRA works by maintaining multi-hop reverse routes for unidirectional links and provides three new abilities: improved connectivity by taking advantage of the unidirectional links. While the black-list mechanism enables AODV to approximately identify unidirectional links. which only routes on bidirectional links.
its primitive operations. All the messages take one communication round to reach their destination. The algorithm takes time. a set of communication primitives. where n is the number of processors and q is the total number of messages that the processors receive. where d is the total length of the messages that each processor may send. regardless of the source or destination processor.Continuous Delivery Message Dissemination Problems under the Multicasting Communication Mode Abstract: Parallel and distributed systems were introduced to accelerate the execution of programs by a factor proportional to the number of processing elements. The communication network is the n-processor complete static (all links are present and are bidirectional) network N. The communication primitive is called multicasting. and a set of messages that need to be exchanged. To achieve high performance. and the communication model. a message dissemination problem consists of a network with a communication model. In general terms. which is a function of the underlying communication network. To accomplish this goal. one must assign each task to a processing unit (statically or dynamically) and develop communication programs to efficiently perform all the intertask communications. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Hardware Requirements Processor Hard Disk Ram Monitor Mouse : : : : : Pentium III / IV 40 GB 256 MB 15VGA Color Ball / Optical . We present an efficient approximation algorithm to construct a message-routing schedule with a total communication time of at most 3:5d. and the communications that must take place between these tasks must be identified to ensure correct execution of the program. which means that the message a processor sends at time t may be concurrently sent to a set of processors. and a set of messages that need to be exchanged. a set of communication primitives. The communication model is the single-port model where every processor sends at most one message and receives at most one message during each communication round. a program must be partitioned into tasks. Proposed System We consider the CDMD problem. A message dissemination problem consists of a network with a communication model. The objective is to find a schedule to transmit all the messages in the least total number of communication rounds. Efficiency depends on the algorithms used to route messages to their destinations.
Net SQL Server 2000 .Keyboard : 102 Keys Software Requirements Operating System Front End Language Back End : : : : Windows XP professional Microsoft Visual Studio .Net 2005 Visual C#.
transmission. based on elementary linear algebra. It is suggested that the insertion of multiple watermarks can be exploited to convey multiple sets of information. Specific applications such as the already mentioned medical image management may even require the insertion of two different types of watermark. That will not give that much security to image. and format conversion. The general problem of multiple digital watermarking has been the object of several investigations since the pioneering contribution. only done by a single water marking. namely. This paradigm is often referred to as multipurpose watermarking. In this paper. the development of specific techniques can provide much more effective results. . data usage monitoring. a multiple watermark-embedding procedure was proposed. More recently. secure under projection attack and robust against distortion due to basic operations such as storage.Digital Image Tracing by Sequential Multiple Watermarking Abstract The possibility of adding several watermarks to the same image would enable many interesting applications such as multimedia document tracing. is asymmetric. Proposed system The proposed method. and a fragile one for data integrity control. involving a private key for embedding and a public key for detection. Existing System The existing method. we present a novel watermarking scheme. Its robustness against standard image degradation operations has been extensively tested and its security under projection attack has also been proven even though the envisaged applications refer to a collaborative environment. Although some researchers focused on the viability of existing watermarking approaches for the insertion of multiple signatures. a robust one for authentication purposes. based on elementary linear algebra. in which malicious attacks are not a critical aspect. is asymmetric. which allows inserting and reliably detecting multiple watermarks sequentially embedded into a digital image. The proposed method. which allows simultaneous insertions without requiring the key sets to be orthogonal to each other. multiple property management.
Visual C# .Hardware Requirements • • • • • • • SYSTEM : Pentium IV 2.44 MB : 15 VGA colour : Logitech.Net .Windows XP Professional :.Net 2003 :.Microsoft Visual Studio . : 256 MB KEYBOARD : 110 keys enhanced.4 GHz HARD DISK : 40 GB FLOPPY DRIVE MONITOR MOUSE RAM : 1. Software Requirements • • • Operating system Front End Coding Language :.
to another. Generation of session keys and unique private keys of users. which has advantages over the existing schemes. Encoding and decoding of text message Secure transmission of session key by using encryption algorithm data encryption standard (DES). our scheme provides group member authenticity without imposing extra mechanism. Design the multi group with multiple data stream in such a way that reduced overhead of key server. GSI connect between the subgroups and share the subgroup key with each of their subgroup members. Furthermore. a large communication group is divided into smaller subgroups. we propose a scalable. When a group member join or leave only affect subgroup only while the other subgroup will not be affected. authenticated group key agreement scheme for large and dynamic multicast systems.Efficient key Agreement for Large and Dynamic Multicast Groups Secure multicast represents the core component of many web and multimedia applications such as pay-TV. Project Objective: The objectives of the project are as follows: Design the single multicast group. and thereby one key. The main challenges for secure multicast is scalability. Implementing and testing the techniques in a simulation environment. In this method. Existing System: In the Existing system we use Iolus approach proposed the notion of hierarchy subgroup for scalable and secure multicast. decrypting them and then re multicasting them to the next subgroup after encrypting them by the subgroup key of the next subgroup. This becomes even more problematic when it takes into account that the GSI has to manage the subgroup and perform the translation needed. teleconferencing. efficiency and authenticity. we give a scalability solution based on the subgroups. Compared with the previously published schemes. It has the drawback of affecting data path. efficient. The GSI may thus becomes the bottleneck. Security analysis shows that our scheme satisfies both forward secrecy and backward secrecy. The GSIs are also grouped in a top-level group that is managed by a group security controller (GSC). Proposed System : . GSIs act as message relays and key translators between the subgroups by receiving the multicast messages from one subgroup. The proposed key agreement scheme is identity-based which uses the bilinear map over the elliptic curves. In this project. This occurs in the sense that there is a need for translating the data that goes from one subgroup. Each subgroup is treated almost like a separate multicast group and is managed by a trusted group security intermediary (GSI). real-time distribution of stock market price and etc.
Each subgroup is treated almost like a separate multicast group with its own subgroup key.The advantages over the existing system are. Compared with the Existing system. The keys used in each subgroup can be generated by a group of key generation centers (KGCs) in parallel. trees and tables. The leaf node’s identity is corresponding to the user’s identity and the intermediate node’s identity is generated by its children’s identity. Further. All the keys used in each subgroup can be generated by a group of KGC’s in parallel. All the members in the same subgroup can compute the same subgroup key though the keys for them are generated by different KGCs. which is based on the bilinear map. swing supplies several exciting additions. it does not affect its subgroup. even though a subgroup controller fails. scroll panes. in an identity tree. Each node in the identity tree is associated with an identity. because it minimizes the the problem of concentrating the workload on a single entity. Hence. This is a desirable feature especially for the large-scale network systems. Hardware Interface Hard disk RAM : 40 GB : 512 MB Processor Speed : 3. System Requirement Specification 1. Since a large group is divided into many small groups. including tabbed panes. scalable key agreement for large and dynamic multicast systems. In our scheme. it solve the scalability problem in multicast communications. Because every user in the subgroup can act as the subgroup group controller. an intermediate node represents a set users in the sub tree rooted at this node. Applet . authenticated. The intuitively surprising aspect of this scheme is that.00GHz Processor Software Interface JDK 1. we use an identity tree instead of key tree in our scheme. User Interface Java Swing Swing is a set of classes that provides more powerful and flexible components that are possible with AWT.Applet is a dynamic and interactive program that can run inside a web page displayed by a java capable browser such as hot java.5 Java Swing SQL Server Conclusion : The Proposed system is an efficient. we use an identity tree to achieve the authentication of the group member. such as button checkboxes and labels. In addition to the familiar components. even the : Pentium IV Processor .
it does not affect the users in this subgroup. This is a significant feature especially for the mobile and ad hoc networks.subgroup controller aborts. Because every user in the subgroup can act as a subgroup controller. . From the security analysis we can see that our scheme satisfies both forward and backward secrecy.
in general. The basic assumption is that if a peer p0 has a particular file required by another peer p. Both theoretical and experimental analyses are conducted and demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. Despite its simplicity and robustness. do not scale. Disadvantages: • • • Blind Search. and then p0 is likely to have other files to be requested by p in the future. They can be roughly classified as either structured or unstructured networks. Without stringent constraints over the network topology. In this paper. In purely unstructured P2P networks such as blind search through flooding mechanisms is usually explored for resource discovery. To find a file. the random search strategies adopted by these networks usually perform poorly with a large network Size. The key problem is what information is actually eligible to guide the search. Proposed System: In order to improve search performance. until the query has traveled a certain radius. the probability of a successful search may decrease dramatically without significantly enlarging the flooding radius.Enhancing Search Performance in Unstructured P2P Networks Based on Users’ Common Interest Abstract: Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks establish loosely coupled application-level overlays on top of the Internet to facilitate efficient sharing of resources. A search protocol and a routing table updating protocol are further proposed in order to expedite the search process through self organizing the P2P network into a small world. Advantages: . unstructured P2P networks can be constructed very efficiently and are therefore considered suitable to the Internet environment. Delay due to absence of Routing Updating table. Existing System: Peers in unstructured P2P networks to choose their neighbors and locally shared files. a peer sends out a query to its neighbors on the overlay. we seek to enhance the search performance in unstructured P2P networks through exploiting users’ common interest patterns captured within a probability-theoretic framework termed the user interest model (UIM). shortcuts from peer p to several peers p0 are established in order to expedite subsequent search processes. using Flooding techniques. flooding techniques. In large networks. According to previous successful queries. However. guided search. Used interest-based locality as the general search guidance. Future reference is not present in routing table.
System Requirement SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:- Java1. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:- Hard disk RAM Processor : : : 40 GB 128mb Pentium .3 or More Java Swing – front end SQL-back end Windows 98 or more.• • • Guided Search. Fast Search Technique based on UIM. Routing updating table.
Such techniques. when applied to industrial problems such as customer relationship management (CRM). Empirical tests are conducted on both a realistic insurance application domain and UCI benchmark data. In this paper. but they do not directly suggest actions that would lead to an increase in the objective function such as profit. producing distribution information on customer profiles. we also present an ensemble of decision trees which is shown to be more robust when the training data changes. are useful in pointing out customers who are likely attritors and customers who are loyal. but they require human experts to postprocess the discovered knowledge manually. To improve the effectiveness of the approach.44MB : 700MB : 20GB : Logitech Mouse : HTML : Java Servlets. Struts : SQL Server . The approach we take integrates data mining and decision making tightly by formulating the decision making problems directly on top of the data mining results in a postprocessing step. we present novel algorithms that suggest actions to change customers from an undesired status (such as attritors) to a desired one (such as loyal) while maximizing an objective function: the expected net profit. System Requirements Software Specification Operating System : Windows Front End Middle Ware Back End Hardware Specification: Processor Clock Speed RAM Monitor Keyboard Floppy Drive Compact Disk Drive Hard Disk Mouse : Intel Pentium IV : 700 MHZ : 128 MB : 14” SVGA Digital Color Monitor : 107 Keys Keyboard : 1. Jsp. Most of the postprocessing techniques have been limited to producing visualization results and interestingness ranking. These algorithms can discover costeffective actions to transform customers from undesirable classes to desirable ones.Extracting Actionable Knowledge from Decision Trees Most data mining algorithms and tools stop at discovered customer models.
Admin a.View Customer Feedback b.Existing System : When data mining techniques are applied to customer relationship management it resulted in finding out customer models and behaviors as graphical representations Problem Findings Using graphical representations the exact optimal knowledge could not be found PROPOSED SYSTEM: Enhanced Decision Tree Algorithm implementation provides the easy way to find out exact optimal actions that can change the customer from undesired status to desired status while maximizing the net profit.Selecting Action Set e. Apply feedback 2. Admin Sub Modules: 1. Supporting Team a.Profit Calculation e. Supporting Team 3. Customer Login c. View Customer Details b.Customer: a. Purchasing products e.View Support team Suggestions c. Customer Registration b.Listing Action Sets 3. View products d.Apply Actions Data Flow Diagram . Customer 2. Modules: Main modules: 1.View Feedback Information c.View Action Set d.Build Customer Profile d.
CUSTOMER FEED BACK CUSTOMER INFORMATION CUSTOMERS SUPPORTING TEAM BUILD CUS TOMER PROFILE BUILD DECISION TREE NET PROFIT CALCULATION FOR CUSTOMER GROUP NET PROFIT FOR SINGLE CUSTOMER Customer Input SELECT BEST ACTIONS ACTION SET Loyal Probability of Customer Decision Tree Implementation Post Processing Steps Exact Actions Conclusion .
we present a novel technique to take these results as input and produce a set of actions that can be applied to transform customers from undesirable classes to desirable ones. In this project. .Most data mining algorithms and tools produce only the segments and ranked lists of customers or products in the outputs.
We show results for a variety of scenes. but it rarely conveys the scene’s true dynamic nature. Our system also provides a simple-to-use interface to help the user to fine-tune the motion of the animated scene. . Our system has two unique features. First. whose resolution can be as high as 16 MPixels. Furthermore. Second.’s system is capable of generating compelling-looking animated scenes. it might not reflect the true scene dynamics. The output sequence is subsequently extracted using a second-order Markov Chain model. Implementation single picture conveys a lot of information about the scene. We use a different tack that bridges video textures and Chuang et al. Using our system. What if we wish to produce a high resolution animated scene that reasonably reflects the true dynamic nature of the scene? Video textures is the perfect solution for producing arbitrarily long video sequences—if only very high resolution camcorders exist. Chuang et al. This is to ensure motion smoothness throughout the original region. We are also motivated by a need for a more practical solution that allows the user to easily generate the animated scene. Off-the-shelf camcorders can capture videos with a resolution of 720 _ 480 at 30 fps. but there is a major drawback: Their system requires a considerable amount of manual input. This collection has both the benefit of the high resolution and some indication of the dynamic nature of the scene (assuming that the scene has some degree of regularity in motion). an animated scene can be generated in minutes. we describe a system that allows the user to quickly and easily produce a compelling-looking animation from a small collection of high resolution stills.’s system: We use as input a small collection of high resolution stills that (under-)samples the dynamic scene. since the animation is specified completely manually. The final animation is obtained by frame interpolation and feathering. A video effectively does both but is limited in resolution.High Resolution Animated Scenes from Stills Abstract Current techniques for generating animated scenes involve either videos (whose resolution is limited) or a single image (which requires a significant amount of user interaction). but this resolution pales in comparison to those for consumer digital cameras. In this project. a region with large motion variation can be automatically decomposed into semiautonomous regions such that their temporal orderings are softly constrained. it applies an automatic partial temporal order recovery algorithm to the stills in order to approximate the original scene dynamics.
Our system is designed to allow the user to easily fine-tune the animation. It then recovers partial temporal orders among the input images and uses a second-order Markov Chain model to generate an image sequence of the video or video texture (Fig. 1). The user also has the option to modify the dynamics (e. IAR decomposition can greatly reduce the dependence among the temporal orderings of local samples if the IAR has significant motion variation that results in unsatisfactory animation.g. speed up or slow down the motion. In our work. Our system first builds a graph that links similar images. user specified operations (A). Finally. One is the automatic partial temporal order recovery. all regions are frame interpolated and feathered at their boundaries to produce the final animation. and (C) may be added to improve the visual quality of the video. . For example. we limit our scope to quasi-periodic motion.In this paper. 10 to 20 stills are captured within 1 to 2 minutes. the input images would typically have to be sorted. Outline of our system. The other feature is its ability to automatically decompose an IAR into SIARs when the user requests and treat the interdependence among the SIARs.. we describe a scene animation system that can easily generate a video or video texture from a small collection of stills (typically. (B). Our system then finds the optimal processing order among the SIARs and imposes soft constraints to maintain motion smoothness among the SIARs. i.. The user needs only a few minutes of interaction to finish the whole process. This recovery algorithm is critical because the original capture order typically does not reflect the true dynamics due to temporal undersampling. An IAR with large motion variation can further be automatically decomposed into semi-independent animated regions (SIARs) in order to make the motion appear more natural. dynamic textures. depending on the complexity of the scene motion). All these steps are automatic. These recovered partial orders provide reference dynamics to the animation. As a result. The recovery algorithm automatically suggests orders for subsets of stills.e. or choose different motion parameters) through a simple interface. Fig. 1. the user has the option to manually specify regions where animation occurs independently (which we term independent animated regions (IAR)) so that different time instances of each IAR can be used independently. There are two key features of our system.
NET 2003 :.Microsoft Visual Studio . .Windows XP Professional :.Visual C# .Technologies Used : • • • Operating system Front End Coding Language :.NET with GDI+ Components.
the more the queries answered by peers. this is achieved with minimal caching at the peers. which have excellent scalability but often exhibit high latency database access. We present a novel query processing technique that. it may not scale to very large user populations. a significant challenge is presented by wireless broadcasting environments. Significantly. Our approach is based on peer-to-peer sharing. manages to reduce the latency considerably in answering LBSQs. our scheme allows a mobile client to locally verify whether candidate objects received from peers are indeed part of its own spatial query result set.Location-Based Spatial Query Processing in Wireless Broadcast Environments Abstract Location-based spatial queries refer to spatial queries whose answers rely on the location of the inquirer. the query access latency can be markedly decreased with the increase in clients. Therefore. The database resides in a centralized server. EXISTING SYSTEM In this Existing System spatial query processing is becoming an integral part of many new mobile applications. The Experiment results indicate that our method can reduce the access to the wireless broadcast channel by a significant amount. this approach suffers from several drawbacks. and we illustrate the appeal of our technique through extensive simulation results. So this process cause to single-point-of-failure and high workload. In this system a user establishes a point-to-point communication with the server so that queries can be answered on demand. which typically serves a large mobile user community through wireless communication. which enables us to process queries without delay at a mobile host by using query results cached in its neighboring mobile peers. We show that LBSQs have certain unique characteristics that the traditional spatial query processing in centralized databases does not address. Efficient processing of LBSQs is of critical importance with the ever-increasing deployment and use of mobile technologies. For example. However. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach through a probabilistic analysis. PROPOSED SYSTEM In this proposed system paper presented a novel approach for reducing the spatial query access latency by leveraging results from nearby peers in wireless broadcast environments. First. though maintaining high scalability and accuracy. the method exhibits great scalability: the higher the mobile peer density. By virtue of its P2P architecture. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Hardware Requirements .
Processor Hard Disk Ram Monitor Mouse Keyboard : : : : : : Pentium III / IV 40 GB 256 MB 15VGA Color Ball / Optical 102 Keys Software Requirements Operating System Front End Language Back End : : : : Windows XP professional Microsoft Visual Studio .Net 2005 Visual C#.Net SQL Server 2000 .
and this information is very limited The system cannot output the retrieval results to a given query based on a sufficiently large set of training data • The system has no knowledge about which database images are relevant and which are no relevant to a set of known labels. depending on the estimate of the semantic relevance derived from the virtual features. Relevance feedback is an interactive process. In addition. The dissimilarity measure can dynamically be adapted. the proposed system can automatically adapt the concepts according to the new subject concepts. PROPOSED SYSTEM: CBIR(Content Based Image retrieval) System modern image databases are queried by image content. • The user initializes a query session by submitting an image. The feedback history with all the users is digested by the system and is represented in a very efficient form as a virtual feature of the images. which fulfills the requirements of the query formulation. RF framework. The results manifest that the proposed framework outperforms the traditional withinsession and log-based long-term RF techniques. which facilitates the combination of short term and long-term learning processes by integrating the traditional methods with a new technique called the virtual feature. with a dynamic database. . The experiments are conducted on a real image database. since we do not know the user’s intention until the user starts the feedback iteration. • • • • There are no virtual features for session modification and maintenance They are using short term cross session Relevant information is collected online via the users’ feedback. Traditional RF techniques solely use the short-term learning experience and do not exploit the knowledge created during cross sessions with multiple users. the user’s subject concepts may transit from one to another. By monitoring the changes in retrieval performance.Long-Term Cross-Session Relevance Feedback Using Virtual Features ABSTRACT Relevance feedback is an iterative process. EXISTING SYSTEM: The existing RF techniques deal with a single query in a single retrieval session only. which refines the retrievals by utilizing the user’s feedback on previously retrieved results.
the user can activate an RF process by identifying which retrieved images are relevant and which are non relevant.• The system then compares the query image to each image in the database and returns the r images that are the nearest neighbors to the query.Net 2005 Visual C#. If the user is not satisfied with the retrieved result.Net SQL Server 2000 . Based on the retrieved result users can give notification to the system which is relevant and which is non relevant this will store in virtual feature Virtual feature can adapt that reference with that image category for future effective retrievals • • • SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Hardware Requirements Processor Hard Disk Ram Monitor Mouse Keyboard : : : : : : Pentium III / IV 40 GB 256 MB 15VGA Color Ball / Optical 102 Keys Software Requirements Operating System Front End Language Back End : : : : Windows XP professional Microsoft Visual Studio .
Provably Secure Three-Party Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution Protocols Abstract This work presents quantum key distribution protocols (QKDPs) to safeguard security in large networks. public discussions require additional communication rounds between a sender and receiver and cost precious qubits. and the timestamp approach needs the assumption of clock synchronization which is not practical in distributed systems (due to the unpredictable nature of network delays and potential hostile attacks) . 2) Efficiency is improved as the proposed protocols contain the fewest number of communication rounds among existing QKDPs. To prove the security of the proposed schemes. ushering in new directions in classical cryptography and quantum cryptography. Existing system In classical cryptography. classical cryptography provides convenient techniques that enable efficient key verification and user authentication. classical cryptography cannot detect the existence of passive attacks such as eavesdropping. challenge response mechanisms require at least two communication rounds between the TC and participants. eavesdropping and replay. one with implicit user authentication and the other with explicit mutual authentication. are proposed to demonstrate the merits of the new combination. : 256 MB KEYBOARD : 110 keys enhanced. Two three-party QKDPs. Furthermore. three-party key distribution protocols utilize challenge response mechanisms or timestamps to prevent replay attacks. which include the following: 1) Security against such attacks as man-in-the-middle. However. Hardware Requirements • • • • • • • SYSTEM : Pentium IV 2. 3) Two parties can share and use a long-term secret (repeatedly). . quantum key distribution protocols (QKDPs) employ quantum mechanisms to distribute session keys and public discussions to check for eavesdroppers and verify the crrectness of a session key. By contrast.4 GHz HARD DISK : 40 GB FLOPPY DRIVE MONITOR MOUSE RAM : 1. However. Proposed system In quantum cryptography. this work also presents a new primitive called the Unbiased-Chosen Basis (UCB) assumption.44 MB : 15 VGA colour : Logitech.
Windows XP Professional :.Microsoft Visual Studio .Software Requirements • • • Operating system Front End Coding Language :.Net 2003 :.Net .Visual C# .
Resource constraints. In the Existing System. performance scalability. in return. the network as a whole must provide mechanisms for eliminating replicas that are not accessed. gain access to data at other peers. Availability and performance scalability. Even if eplication at peers is controlled. and archival storage. and availability. In this paper. In such systems. Specifically. whereas resource constraints limit total storage in the network. EXISTING SYSTEM PEER-TO-PEER systems have emerged as cost-effective alternatives for scalable data sharing. Identification and elimination of redundant data pose fundamental problems for such systems. Effective storage management is an important issue in the deployment of such systems. as in systems such as Samsara. Performance results using both large-scale simulations and a prototype built on Planet Lab demonstrate that our protocols provide high probabilistic guarantees while incurring minimal administrative overheads. Data replication and caching are key enabling techniques for scalability. performance. Peers contribute data and storage and. We propose two randomized protocols to solve this problem in a scalable and decentralized fashion that does not compromise the availability requirements of the application. we present a novel and efficient solution that addresses availability and scalability with respect to management of redundant data. backup. and availability present diverse considerations. If the storage associated with replication is not monitored and provisioned. data is generally replicated for performance and availability. Attempts at aggressive replication may lead to significant overheads associated with thrashing in resource constrained environments.Randomized Protocols for Duplicate Elimination in Peer-to-Peer Storage Systems ABSTRACT Distributed peer-to-peer systems rely on voluntary participation of peers to effectively manage a storage pool. in terms of response time. the underlying benefits may not be realized. we address the problem of duplicate elimination in the context of systems connected over an unstructured peer-to-peer network in which there is no a priori binding between an object and its location. More Duplicates Administrative Overhead Need More Amount of Memory space Transaction Time is high PROPOSED SYSTEM . while leaving a minimum number of replicas in the network to satisfy availability constraints. an important problem relates to pruning unwanted copies of data efficiently and safely. are improved by aggressive replication.
When the number of different objects in the network is high (nodes have unique objects). The public space holds data from other peers and is subject to duplicate elimination. . The reason for this behavior is that the first phase of RE is not able to prune the number of contenders and. the issue of object location. The primary focus of this paper is on systems where peers are cooperative and non malicious. Reduced Duplicates Solve Administrative Overhead Less Memory is Needed Easy Transaction CONCLUSION This paper addresses the problem of duplicate elimination in storage systems in the context of unstructured peer-to-peer networks in which there is no a priori binding between an object and its location. We show analytically. becomes an extra overhead. Unfortunately. In networks with a high transient population. respectively. In contrast to structured peer-to-peer networks. which is central to the problem of identifying redundant copies. therefore. Unstructured networks differ from their structured counterparts in several important respects. The private space contains the peer’s data and is not subject to duplicate elimination. PQ performs better than RE. where peers do not have significant resources. unstructured networks are resilient to node failures and incur low overhead on node arrivals and departures. We examine this issue in the context of unstructured networks. our work is the first to address the duplicate elimination problem in unstructured networks. The associated lookup techniques provide bounds on the number of hops as a function of the number of peers. To the best of our knowledge. we investigate the problem of eliminating duplicate data items in peer-topeer systems. as well as using simulation and a prototype implementation in PlanetLab. We can view the public space as backup storage or a cache to facilitate availability and performance. The experimental results show that RE performs better than PQ when the number of duplicates in the network is high and the content is similar among the nodes. where no assumptions can be made about the relationship between an object and the peers at which it resides. that our protocols are scalable with respect to message complexity and to node resource utilization. Structured networks provide a simple primitive for locating an object which relies on a distributed hash table (DHT) abstraction. We abstract the problem of retaining a copy of a data item to one of electing leaders in a distributed system. These bounds are achieved by establishing and maintaining a well-defined overlay topology. Peers divide their storage into two spaces: a private and a public space. These characteristics make unstructured networks attractive for use in highly transient networks.In the proposed system. the overhead associated with this may be significant. is significantly more complex in this environment.
3 or More Java Swing – front end Windows 98 or more.System Requirements: SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:Java1. SQL Server – Back End HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:Hard disk RAM Processor :40 GB :128MB :Pentium IV .
this is the only drawback of this algorithm. called double-covered broadcast (DCB). which takes advantage of broadcast redundancy to improve the delivery ratio in an environment that has rather high transmission error rate The retransmissions of the forwarding nodes are received by the sender as the confirmation of their reception of the packet. 4). If the sender does not detect all its forwarding nodes’ retransmissions.it will not cover the full network .but we can send the packet by designating the neighboring node as the forwarding node. Existing System In the exiting system they were used so many types of algorithms to broadcast the packets to the destination.they are 1).so that the end-end delay time is more.Dynamic Neighbor-Designating broadcast algorithm(DNDBA) 2).it will forward the packets to the corresponding node to the destination. it will resend the packet . we propose a simple broadcast algorithm. as a fundamental service in mobile ad hoc networks (Mantes).Only drawback of this algorithm is that if the DP does not properly terminate .so the chances to miss the packet or to loss the packet is higher.as a result the proposed broadcast algorithm provides good performance under a high transmission error rate environment. is prone to the broadcast storm problem if forwarding nodes are not carefully designated.Forwarding Node Set Selection Process(FNSSP) 3).in which the total number of forwarding node to broadcast the message is less than the above mentioned algorithm. In this paper.Toward Broadcast Reliability in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Double Coverage Abstract: The broadcast operation. The objective of reducing broadcast redundancy while still providing high delivery ratio under high transmission error rate is a major challenge in MANETs.Forwarding Node Set SelectionProcess(FNSSP) Dominant pruning algorithm(DP) is used to select the forwarding node to relay the packets.Partial dominant Pruning algotithm(PDP) 1).but the 2hop neighbor coverage is higher.Dynamic Neighbor-Designating broadcast algorithm(DNDBA) In this algorithm we can send the packets to the destination through the neighboring node.Adhoc Broadcast algorithm(AHBP).MPR-Multi Point Relay is used for selecting the neighboring node to forward the packet 2).
But in all the exiting algorithm is till used is does not perform the reliable communication.in which a common neighbor is selected to relay the messages.in our proposed system also the packets are sent in 64-byte length in a constant packet rate.it does not get any acknowledgement from the receiver node.for that reason I go for DCB-Double Coverage Broadcast algorithm.so that we can achieve our ultimate aim.in which BRG acting intelligently if any of the node is not present in the covered node set.3 or More .so the chances for transmission collision.transmission error is very less System Requirements • SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:• Java1.its performance is better than the previous one.in the above mentioned all the algorithm the forwarded node is only waiting for some amount of time I mean the node is waiting for the timer’s predefined time for acknowledge.this algorithm is also prominently suppressing the number of 2-hop neighbors to relay the packet.we will retransmit the packet immediately without any delay.so that we can’t wait unnecessarily for the timers predefined time to be expired.Partial dominant Pruning algorithm(PDP): It is further reducing the coverage of 2-hop neighbors to be covered by 1-hop neighbor. 4).number of forwarding node also reduced.so that latency will be increased.unless otherwise it did not get any reply from the forwarding node it will resend the packets for the maximum number of retries.Adhoc Broadcast algorithm(AHBP).it will automatically select another node to relay the packet immediately without any delay.so that the performance will automatically reduce.as a result the performance as well as the delivery ratio also increased. Broadcast Relay Gateway(BRG) is used to select the number of forwarding nodes to relay the packets.forwarding nodes send the ACK to the forwared node in the error free transmission environment and also the nonforwarding node also send the NACK to the forwarded node in case of any packet loss. Proposed system: DCB-Double Covered Algorithm is used to select the minimum number of nodes to relay the maesages as well as the confirmation from the forwarding also.3).
Sql Server – Back End • HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:• • • Hard disk RAM Processor : : : 40 GB 128mb Pentium IV or more .• • • Java Swing – front end Windows 98 or more.
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