ACCORDING TO AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF WINE ECONOISTS STUDY, The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity,(January 2009):
ABSTRACT: This Study investigate the health consequences of changes in the supply of fast food using the exact geographical location of fast food restaurants. They ask how the supply of fast food affects the obesity rates of 3 million school children and the weight gain of over 1 million pregnant women. On the other side, the presence of non-fast food restaurants is uncorrelated with obesity and weight gain. Moreover, proximity to future fast food restaurants is uncorrelated with current obesity and weight gain, conditional on current proximity to fast food. The implied effects of fast-food on caloric intake are at least one order of magnitude smaller for mothers, which suggests that they are less constrained by travel costs than school children. The study shows that policies restricting access to fast food near schools could have significant effects on obesity among school children, but similar policies restricting the availability of fast food in residential areas are unlikely to have large effects on adults. Conclusions: This study investigates the health consequences of proximity to fast food for two vulnerable groups: young teens and pregnant women. The focus on very close distances and the presence of a large array of controls alleviates issues of endogenous fast-food placement. The results point to a significant effect of proximity to fast food restaurant on the risk of obesity. Specifically, They show that the presence of a fast food restaurant within a tenth of a mile of a school is associated with at least a 5.2 percent increase in the obesity rate in that school (relative to the presence at .25 miles). Consistent with highly non-linear transportation costs, they do not find evidence of an effect at .25 miles and at .5 miles. The effect for pregnant women is quantitatively smaller and more linear in distance. They find that a fast food restaurant within a tenth of a mile of a residence results in a 4.4 percent increase in the probability of gaining over 20 kilos. This effect is reduced to a 2.5 percent increase when a fast-food is within a .5 miles from the residence of the mother.

Causes and Consequences of Fast Food Sales Growth, Mark D. Jekanowski, January-April 1999. With today¶s hectic lifestyles, timesaving products are increasingly in demand. Perhaps one of the most obvious examples is fast food. Today the demand for the, hectic lifestyles, timesaving products are increasingly. Obliviously one of the example is Fast Food Industry. The rate of growth in consumer expenditures on fast food has led most other segments of the food-awayfrom home market for much of the last two decades. Since 1982, there is growth rate in consumer spending at fast food. The consumers spent at fast food outlets grew at an annually he proportion of away-from-home food expenditures on fast food also increased. Everyone eats Fast Food even knowing that it is not healthy for them. Reasons are because of speed, convenience and price. However, fast food has many hidden costs, including the high price of bad health. Not to mention the fact that for such cheap food, you're actually being overcharged by a big amount. So the real reason is not price, but convenience. You can get much cheaper food by cooking for yourself, but you are not always at home to do the cooking, or you do not always feel like cooking.

Consumer perception about fast food in India: an exploratory study by Anita Goyal, (Management Development Institute, Sukhrali, India), N.P. Singh, (Management Development Institute, Sukhrali, India). Abstract: Purpose ± This paper seeks to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. Design/methodology/approach ± The study applies multivariate statistical tools to estimate importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers. In addition, the authors analysed the consumption patterns, impact of hygiene and nutritional values, and rating of various attributes of McDonald's and Nirula's. Findings ± Results indicate that the young Indian consumer has passion for visiting fast food outlets for fun and change but home food is their

first choice. They feel homemade food is much better than food served at fast food outlets. They have the highest value for taste and quality (nutritional values) followed by ambience and hygiene. Three dimensions (service and delivery dimension, product dimension, and quality dimension) of fast food outlets' attributes are identified based on factor analysis results. The two fast food outlets' rating differs significantly on the seven attributes. McDonald's scores are higher on all attributes except ³variety´. Further, consumers feel that fast food outlets must provide additional information on nutritional values and hygiene conditions inside kitchen. Practical implications ± Fast food providers need to focus on quality and variety of food besides other service parameters. There is need to communicate the information about hygiene and nutrition value of fast food which will help in building trust in the food provided by fast food players. Originality/value ± Estimates importance of various factors affecting the choice of fast food outlets by Indian young consumers.

As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, 2(03), 412-433, Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, ISSN 1906-3040, Food safety research in India by R.V. Sudershan , Pratima Rao and Kalpagam Polasa: Abstract: With growing international trade, food safety has emerged as an important global issue. The present research was an attempt to study the food safety research in India in the past ten years during 1995-2005. Many studies were focused on detection of pathogenic microorganisms, adulterants and contaminants in food. However, there is a striking paucity of reliable data on important issues like evaluation of risks through adulterants, additives and contaminants. Consequently, the protection of

diets from these hazards must be considered one of the essential public health functions of any country, which emphasizes the need for total diet studies.

Methodology The status of food safety research in India was reviewed by assessing data published in journals, websites and published data from universities in the form of doctoral theses and dissertations at the post-graduate level. For this, literature for the years 1995-2005 was reviewed. The studies that were included for this review were those with a representative sample size and carried out by scholars studying in well-reputed universities, doctoral theses, original research articles in peer reviewed journals, annual reports of research organizations and institutions. Qualitative reviews were reviewed in similar topics and the results were tabulated and compared to get a better understanding of the research carried out in these issues. The findings of the selected studies have been discussed under the following topics: Health Risk: probability of an adverse event of diarrhea. Hazard Identification: pathogens, adulterants, contaminants and their health effects. Industrial food safety: existing laws, standards, sanitation and hygiene practices, specific hazards. Hazard Exposure Assessment: how much people eat, what food they consume and where they consume.

Consumer Behaviour: hand washing, hygiene.


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