MYSTERIA OTTO KHYN
HISTORY OF THE
SECRET DOCTRINES and MYSTIC RITES of ANCIENT RELIGIONS
Medieval and Modern Secret Orders
OTTO HENNE AM RHYN
State Archivist of St. Gall
STOCKHAM PUBLISHING COMPANY,
of the Ancient Grecian religions; the
cryptic teachings and occult interpretations of the popular religious beliefs communicated to disciples by the
the temples of ancient Egypt, Assyria, and
India: the interesting, half fabulous, half historical epi-
sode of Pythagoras and the Pythagorean League in
Graecia; the mystic, ascetic, and semi-monastic
communities of the Therapeutae and the Essenes
estine a century before the birth of Jesus
Empire, as seen
in the history of
in Isis worship,
Mithras worship, worship of
the Great Mother, etc.; the secret creed
Knights Templar and the usages of the lodges .of the Stonemasons in the Middle Age; the constitution and
procedure of the Femgerichte of Westphalia in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; the origin and history and
the aims of Freemasonry,
and a swarm of honest and fraudulent secret organizations in modern' times: all these topics have before been
tractates or of
popular compends; but hitherto these doctrines,
have not beea studied
in their unity,
thus enabling the reader to get a clear understanding of
the whole subject.
a history of the ancient Mysteries and of their counter-
in later times.
scholar and an
But the author does very much more than
ordinate the facts of mystic associations.
Having amassed whatever
accessible in universal literature.iv
relation. as authentic as the
most painstaking research could make it. yet possessing all the charm and grace of a literary masterpiece.
which the author of
to the student of this particular phase
longing for mystery
that he develops this relationship. he handles
his materials with the skill of a
and of the
Hellenic Divine Worship The Hellenic Mysteries
1. Zoroaster and the Persians 10. 9.
Egypt The Higher Development of Egyptian Religion
The Egyptian Realm The Secret Teaching
of the Priests of Nile-
The Dionysia The Roman Bacchanalia
Debased Mysteries from the East
Babylon and Ninive 9.
6. B'rahmans andl Buddhists 11.
The Mysteries The Mysteries
MYSTERIES OF THE EAST AND OF BARBAROUS NATIONS. THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES AND THE ROMAN BACCHANALIA.
5. Secret Leagues of Barbarous Peoples
3. SON OF GOD. THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR.
2. the False Prophet
The Early Christians The New Testament The Elements of the Church
Courts of Justice
Apollonius of Tyana
2. A LYING
PART THIRD. .
1. THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE AND OTHER SECRET ASSOCIATIONS.
Pythagoras * The Pythagoreans. The Orphici Mysterious Personages of Ancient Times.
The Middle Age The Templars The Secrets of the Templars The Downfall of the Knights Templar
72 79 84 86
. A PSEUDO-MESSIAH.
Hellenism and Judaism The Essenes
4. THE FEMGERICHTE. SON OF MAN.
The Secret Tribunal The End of the Feme
TWELFTH. THE ILLUMINATI.
1. RISE AND CONSTITUTION OF FREEMASONRY.
Medieval Architecture The Stonemasons' Lodges of Germany French Craftsmen
The ''High Degrees" Swindle
Apostles of Nonsense
SECRET SOCIETIES OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
Imitations of Illuminism
Rise of Freemasonry Constitution of the Order
i^ART TENTH. STONEMASONS' LODGES OF THE MIDDLE AGE.
2. The New Rosicrusians
The English Stonemasons
ASTROLOGERS AND ALCHEMISTS 174 PART NINTH.
Imitations of Ancient Mystic Leagues Imitations of Freemasonry
5. SECRET SOCIETIES VARIOUS KINDS.
The Swedish Rite.
Miscellaneous Secret Societies
where stands the boundary-stone
of creation. what is it for.
Nations. The grown man know what is to be found behind every curtain. He would with the Titans storm heaven. sees that "we can know nothing.MYSTERIA. The child asks Curiosity is innate in us. in every sealed letter. into the infinite." And so we must ever be worried by the reflection
. about everything. often so undifficult. must lift the veil that hides the wondrous
image at Sais."
At last when Faust. never wearies of raising new ones." the thought "consumes the heart within him. too. why is it made so. or so? The child fairly harries its parents with
expected and so
In all ages mystery has had a special attraction for mankind.
INTRODUCTION. that it would puzzle the wisest
philosopher to answer them. What is this.
And when every locked door. and ascend to heights "where stirs no breath of air. sated with such trifles he must push inquiry further. after manifold crosses and disappointments. must pluck from the forbidden tree of knowledge the tempting golden fruit.
this instinct of in-
dominant in the adult.
after it all. comprehensible created worlds that
no mortal eye can
man with the help of glasses sees them. The thinker must by force refrain himself from such inference. longs for nirvana. Mankind. then.MTSTERIA
that the great riddle of existence will not be solved. But man is too preud to endure the thought that anything is beyond his powers: man must in all things do what
the primordial creative power does. while the listless disciple of Buddha. Why. is encompassed by a vast mystery
which never has been discovered. and though we know it exists and are conscious that it attends us at every step we take. though it presses upon us with force all around. the soul's state of everlasting rest and freedom from cares.
it. The Eternal worlds circling around worlds in such wise that for long we mortals were led into error. and discovered that their giant sphere was but a grain of sand among colossal
. without beginning or end. we should not know.
oceans of ink were
on worlds of paper to define the relation between Here and Beyond.
the lot of the thought-endowed tenant of the narrowest human brain-case after its term of living is reached. despairing of ever comshall
prehending existence. lest his brain should be seized by delirium. why does anything
exist at all?
and what does
exist. and the progressive man of action turns to what is sure and clear and understandable. but neither shall we ever understand ning how. we ask. and took the
earth to be the centre of the universe but
and measurements. nay. Never
able to comprehend Being as having a beginand an end. it may endure for ever. and extend limitless ever farther and farther into the shoreless ocean of the All. never can be solved.
Thus are mysteries of man's invention propagated from generation to generation. he harnesses to his car.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
the Eternal himself
clouds.scooped out seas. Steam. swear fearful oaths never to betray to anyone what others know
employ emblems which they interpret in one sense or another. issuing from the never seen before.
to each other mysterious words. He takes the sun's rays and makes of them a
limner's pencil. the one who hears of mysteries will himself invent more. and the rest. and employs the elec-
current for sending messages across continents and
oceans. And lest he should in any point fail of acting like the Unsearchable. a form. and requires his fellow men to acknowledge and reverence these things as mysteries. and for illumination. and with them impose upon others. vapor of water. Redemption. the Resurrection. or employs it to propel ships across the seas. speak in language peculiar to themselves. admit persons to their
. river-beds and
up mountains and . the Trinity. Immense oceans separated the continents: man navigated the oceans and discovered shores The lightning.
to flow. which he cannot
comprehend. man sets over against the grand everlasting mystery of creation and eternity. rends asunder great trees that have stood for cenman imitates the lightning. The love of mystery is
contagious. exchange special signs with one another. tributes. and to worship as truth what man's own self-conceit has
devised in rivalry with the Eternal. other mysteries of his own invention the mystery of the Incarnation. piled
The Eternal caused mountains
too. and gives to him a name and ata throne and a court. and even a son. And
the Initiates shut themselves up in secret chambers. whisper
and that their end is to win and hold power and But they have also had secondary aims such
influence. among all races
find these mysteries existing under the most various forms. even of humor and of Such is the origin of mystic teachings and secret folly. anon
to repress these. but they all have this in common that they shut out the profane (outsiders). or the aim may be nothing short of the destruction of all human society and a return to Chaos. Now the purpose may be to promote social freedom and religious or
on the other hand. and will create works object of art to glorify the Eternal. In all ages. societies. the sacred image of Isis or chantbegarlanded. in
white cloaks. the teachings designed to hold the societies
intellect. again. A variegated picture and full of life! At the head
stalk priests in long robes.
. and in sharp contrast to these.
spise whatever is ideal. and then the English and German gilds
. of art or of science.
be to enrich the members. looking down on the populace with a smile pf mild scorn after these the unpretending Essenes. who
. the Roman brotherhoods of (collegia). but another society will deto stimulate
to self-sacrificing charity. or of benevolence.4
and form aristocracies of
secret associations with direful or with harmless tests
or a society the Beautiful. professing contempt for the world and themselves.
shoulder the cross of suffering.
of creed. and the societies to propagate the teachings: one hand washes the other. carrying Then come the ing hymns to the Eleusinian Demeter.
wild-eyed troops of the Bacchantes.
or. philosophers of the Pythagorean League. and for ends the most diverse.
be attained without secret doctrines or secret association and these aims have been of all kinds.
an indistinguishable multitude of variously-clad Let us contemplate the several groups of this
for. and his. the priests of the so-called
Here we have men using
and how can
THE GODS. in white cloaks blazoned with the red
cross. with hammer. to scrutinize the Unsearchable. the Fathers of the
To the people they gave out a teachfrom that communicated to the Initiates of
their mysteries. when
the cave-dweller. children were in safety for the night.
last of all
figures. eyes sanctimoniously downcast. and which. in white aprons and blue ribbons.
stilled. therefore. every man of them a corpse in the hands of his superiors then come seigneurs and scholars and men of every condition. and square.
then. In the dim ages before the dawn of civilization.
their secret associations. anfl would contemplate his surroundings with greater attention than would be possible amid his hard labors as bread-
of duty discharged. or the lake-dweller. he
related to the vain attempts to fathom the Eternal. their
haughty mien betraying contempt of
thority. in the glad Consciousness
rise above mere sense.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
ligions of antiquity.
2. the Knights Templar. had completed his day's work.
that about. in black
and four-cornered Jiat. is
necessarily connected with the earliest expression of man's love of the mysterious.
To answer these questions we must study the origin of religious ideas and the forms they assumed in different Here we meet a phase of thought which stands periods.
he must needs think of them shiping
as a personality. the clouds. the
. and at night the mild-faced moon. the dread phenomena of the thunder clap and the lightning flash. and lightning. source of light and warmth. viz.6
Then. these were hard to compass. thunder. Beneath the arch lay extended the surrounding country. trees. But in worthe forces of nature. headlong sweep of the river that has overflowed the plain. winds. impressed the man. fire. the crash of mountains rent by internal forces. and the process of personification necessarily began with the phenomena which possess the most
These manifestations of the forces of nature. rocks. animals. and in this wise. finally.
mounsun. Or he contemplated the tossing billows of the sea. and the innumerable
twinkling stars glided in strange unalterable series. lakes. mirror-like lake. the production of which was the first step in human culture. and stars between earth and sky..
worship of na-
blazing and scorching heat. and
the roan gazed on the diversified panorama of snowdecked alp. The further observation of nature led man from particular to general concepts: those were formed more easily. rivers. what most profoundly impressed was the blue vault of the sky across which by day the sun.
Mythology had its origin ture. and to understand
import required a greater power of
in the simple
reflection. in the sky. the ravages of the hurricane. diffusing her witching beams. surely. whether winsome or fearsome. and verdant daisy-gemmed prairie. roaring cataract. or of
winner. and acknowledging his nothingness and impotence he prostrated himself before them and worshiped them.
and Stars were reputed their children. both in its grateful and in its terrible aspects. male. and by degrees formed out of them distinct personalities. again Heaven. god of day. lofty. and the insinking
however. and Sun. their rising
in these myths. controlling the lightning
and mother of all things" and the Teutons the first divine beings As men further (Uranos and Gaea. Moon. anon the Earth.
Heaven and Earth
ning of all mythologies and cosmogonies. and so
. Heaven and Earth are for the Israelite the first works of the Eternal. conceptive. And phantasy discovered in Sun and Moon so diverse properties that it separated these from one many another. Pluto. the
their obscuration are the source of endless fanciful
same and the same heroine being now the Moon. considered the question how this whole scene of nature. their shining
heavens. East by magic power compels his brother and sister deities to obey him he reigns alone in a sea of light and splendor. Earth as prolific. noble. Heaven and Earth were regarded as sexed beings.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
In the mind of the
man who knows
nothing of the
true relations oi the heavenly bodies. became Poseidon (Neptune).
for the Hellenes
as fructifying. came to be. female. heaven overhead. Sister and consort of the
at his rising in the
earth underfoot. there are frequent transformahero being now the Sun. who. Among the heavenly
held by the Sun. rising out of the ocean and again into it. Heaven and Earth formed a union. and
the course of these! two across the
their setting. Heaven
for the Chinese they are "father
. The Sun. Wodan and Ertha). passive.
visible Sun that through the night tarries in the underworld became god of the world of shades. all existence must be divided into two principal categories.
and soon rein the
gained the real meanings. complaisant. Bootes. and to many other forms of goddesses. becomes mother of gods and heroes.8
of the sun. the forces of nature were personified. afforded inexhaustible material for story and myth. chaste.
too. there a chase conducted by bold hunters. gives rise to groups of three or rising four sisters (Graces.
as Aristotle. Such is the light in which mythology appeared when. whose fortunes and god-descended wars are the subject of epics. Hence races and dynasties. austere. Furies). Capricornus. transmitted from father to son. tragedies. and the innumerable host of the stars. Here was seen a
her different forms of waxing. and the whole was taken to be actual fact. in
and waning moon. But the master minds discerned the true state of the case.
full. or the thousand eyes of the watchful Argus. On the mantle of the goddess of night phantasy
saw pictured Aries. and romances. was lost. but not so the wily Their secret docpriests within the walls of the temples.
The Moon. or the golden apples
of the Hesperides. and these are sad. As centuries passed the true sense of these myths. Capella. or the Moon assumes the form of some fair daughter of man. Hercules. Plu-
and others often told
in their writings
thought regarding the traditions. Draco. Fates. or alluring. being loved by some god.
herd faithfully guarded by the herdsman.
conveyed a more or
less rationalistic in-
. in the fanciful shapes in which imagination grouped them. winsome. and setting moon. Taurus.
beginnings of scientific inquiry. or a company of daring mariners going to win the golden fleece. and all the other figures of the endless web of poesy in which are told the wondrous deeds of gods and heroes. Ursus Major. Orion.
the manners and usages of the
inhabitants. the seasons. show that it was of negro origin.
as the inhabitants of
was always the
Nile. symbolism and allegory and above all that
. Chaldaea. It consisted of an aboriginal stock.
. called in
Nile was the essential factor. and 'in time mingled with the aboThe great moving cause of Egyptian civiliza^ rigines.
the sources of the Nile were undiscovered
very recent date.
Hence in Egypt was called Kemt..
Egypt was made up.
and Greece. the dark land.
3." i. secret associations under priestly guidance. because of the the floods of the Nile. e. consequently. and to save the priesthood from becoming superfluous.
was accompanied by certain dramatic representations and certain moralizing. this teaching was tricked out in mysticism. and. are Egypt. whose physical characters. and of a conquering people belonging to the same race
Europe in high antiquity: this race invaded the Nile land probably from Asia.
valley. in order to guard the mysteries of the secret associations.
countries of antiquity whereof
we know with
certainty that they possessed "mysteries. in deterits fertilizing waters
mining the conformation of the land.MYSTERIES OF THE
terpretation of the
myths and a purer theology. the climate. made themselves masters of it. by the annual overflow of in Summer and Autmn.
rich deposits of
the language of the natives. so do the sources of Egyptian civilizaknow fairly well how the tion remain hidden still. ceremonies. though must be admitted that. as given in writings or in sculptures.
planted so close together? those strange characters. and
prescribed to the people what they must believe. six. and as a
rule supplied the occupants of the throne. though the accounts we have are
mutually contradictory. the hieroglyphs?
Why do the wear heads of animals. and why. who controlled the minds. Whence comes its river? Why does it overflow the country in Summer and Autumn? Why those mighty pyramids? What were the doings in
Egypt (on what grounds we know
those temples. this Nileland.
the subject race there were several classes. then to the region. because of the unclean animal which they
tended. in the latter class of the swineherds. They formed two' herediPriests. It has ever been a land of enigmas. on the other hand. gods have the sphinxes a human head on a lion's body?
In order to exercise undisputed mastery over the country the conquerors divided among themselves all
the land and all the authority. the priests possessed the legal lore and the scientific knowledge.
bounded on the East and West by stony
the Egyptians did not reckon as belonging to their counThe Semites called the land Misr. The Egyptian religion has
foundation in astron-
to the river. who controlled the bodies of the conquered
classes are: Artists. the try. tary classes or estates and Warriors. while
of military affairs
the warrior class had the
and the executive government. and finally to the river the name Neilos. herdsmen.10
chanics. agriculturists. while themselves and in the company of Initiates they
thought very differently. most despised of all Egyptians. mariners. traders.
Now. or Misraim.
Egypt the several attributes of the sun were assigned
the sun. favored The Egyptians conthe study of astronomic science.
. the rising sun. and the gods Besides these of the several stars and constellations. But even as among the Hellenes. so in named Re.
the tetichism of the black aboriginal
people got entry into the more cultured religion of the light-complexioned conquerors. where hardly a single constellation is out of sight through the whole year.
must have been for the Egyptians the most anTheir sun-god was and the mightiest of gods. without grace or charm. spirit of darkness. particular places and regions had gods their own gods thus Ptah was lord and god of Memphis.
of Thebes. were developed into local
deities. Hathor. near the tropics. Set. must at an of the early period have led to a diligent observation course of the stars. had Isis. as trees and animals inhabited by spirits.
certain worshipful objects.'
for the floods
templated the glories of the heavens. nor yet with the idealist imagination of Europeans. not with the stolidity of the Chinese. in order to make timely preparation
and the splendor of the starry sky in that region. and Neit. was early distinguished from youthful warrior-god Re. which-involved a precise division of the year into seasons.
to different personalities. and had a very powerful
. who therein see only objects to be counted and measured. The heavenly body that for us is mightiest of all. goddesses of heaven. Hence their personifications of the world
of stars are uncouth.
and so on. confused. over against Horos stood his opposite and his twinFor mothers the sunbrother.
The regular overflow of the Nile. To god these deities were added Aah. the moon-god.
Thus.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
omy. as the Horos. of the whole land.
were not worshiped in one place or in many as the wrappages of deities. Hathor of the head of a cow.
when menaces were
Any harm done to these upon them. is best seen from the way in which the gods are portrayed. Re and Kcros. for the most part with a human body and the head of the animal sacred to them. This honor
belonged to the entire
Amon. Apis) at Memphis. while the light-gods. but
beast. they killed the sacred people must not know of it. Sechet of a lioness. the goat at Mendes. certain individual animals were maintained in the temples by the contributions of the faithful.
dwelt in them. became moj-e prominent. and had ser-
vitors to wait
death. the local deities and
were less regarded. with their associate deities. the ox Hapi (Gr. the sungods.
As Egypt advanced in civilization and the government became more concentrated.
RELIGION. The lives and fortunes of these light-
. they threatened the ani-
mal. has the head of a ram. the
vain. of Thebes. and so forth.12
Few were the indigenous animals that influence on it. and as representing the species. e.
and so on. for example. for rain: in that case the priests made the fetich pay the penalty. First. was sternly punished: to kill one of them was Not so when a god did not grant the prayers of
the faithful.. That worship was paid to animals not for their own sake. Bast
that of a cat. god
Thus cases entirely in human form. Anubis that of a jackal. namely. such animals were themselves
jects of worship.
Sebak of a was believed
who through all transformations remained still the same deity. nay. the secret teachings or mysteries of the priests.
by the Greeks Heliopolis
(city of the sun). what the gods stood For a while this development halted at the sun-god. Unlike the beliefs of the commonalty.
stage in the city
lower Egypt). became the subject of myths. in the sunThis took plaice under the fourth dynasty.
. sun-god of the coming day. was so truly the supreme god. On the other hand.
they incorporated the
god Re. Turn. but the youthful Horos. the sparrowhawk. This ever-rejuvenescent sun-god. that his hieroglyph. In the battle with dark Set he falls and drops into the netherworld in the
West. above all. as gradually developed. and in particular their wars with the powers of darkness. The inhabitants
of the Nile valley imagined to themselves the sun's course
not as the progress of a chariot like that in which the Mithra of the Persians and the Helios of the Greeks
were bcrne. the religion of the priests
existence of the gods. the sole god of Egypt. whose monarchs built the great pyramids of Ghizeh at Memphis. but. so that the self-
same goddess was now his mother. the names of the mothers and consorts of the sun-gods had appended to them the sign
for a cow. But one of the greatest of these transforma-
of the place.MYSTERIES OP THE EAST
gods. for. takes his place and begins his career across the sky.
seen that the religion of Nileland
was slowly progressing toward monotheism. sign of the idea "god. but as the voyage of a Nile bark on which Re navigates the ocean of the heavens. came to be the." and in writing that sign was attached to the names of gods to indicate that they were such. regarded not simply the
to say. anon his consort.
but as he cannot destroy him utterly.
i. This story of gods
the Initiated. Apis (Hapi). while Horos himself holds the Nile valley. and also became the moon-god.
on public holidays. god
also his avenger
gives Set battle. knew the meaning of the represcenically
of Osiris. he did not
escape the fate of becoming a sun-god. symbol
of the sun
and also of the fructifying "Nile. inventor of writing. leaves to him the desert as a kingdom. held her god Ptah too exalted a being to share in the transformation of the rest. there were
Even the name of Osiris and his abode in the realm of the dead were kept secret.
alone. whose sacred animal was the bird Ibis. takes his place after sunset. The most celebrated object of Egyptian zoolatry was sacred to Ptah.1. for Ptah was regarded
his worshipers as father of all gods. creator of the world and of men. to the god of the sunset. ruler of the netherworld and of the kingdom of death. he was the god of the royal court.
of the city
Thus Thot. namely. and more ancient than Re. and with
. and so the sun mythos was further developed. and outsiders heard only of the "great god" dwelling in "the West. Isis became his sister and consort. but only the priests and their followers who had into the secret.
Set. the sacred bull of Memphis.
other mysteries of local Egyptian gods transformed into sun-gods. revealer of
the sacred books. capital of the ancient
who. became Horos's auxiliary in the war with Set. This bull must be black with a white spot on the forehead. Set at once
his slayer. Abydos) in upper Egypt. as a new
sun." Besides the mysteries of Osiris.. besides. the most famous of all. the god of chronometry and of order. Nevertheless.
sphinx was introduced in Asia and Greece. nor did
usurpation. god of air.
the local deities of
Egypt were reduced
the temple at
body was then mummified. Regular avenues flanked by sphinxes formed the approaches of the great In Egypt the sphinx was thought of as male. and the whole figure the sun-god Harmachis. succeeded
Hathor. The number of gods and of daemons subordinate to them was enormous. Anubis. a name compounded represented In later times the of Re and Horos (Ra-Harmchuti). etc. quite alien to the popular mind. after Set's
Horos the avenger and the goddess second class comprises the inferior gods.
the head was that of
some king. The behavior of Apis in various conjunctures and circumstances was reputed to be oracular. Shu was followed by the god
Keb and the goddess Nut. repeated a thousand times in the Nile valley. and in a third class are the local deities. Nunu.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
a growth under the tongue having the form of the sacred
Re was the first divine ruler of the earth.
is seen at the great pyramids of Ghizeh. as Thot. He was succeeded by his son Shu
(represented with a lion's head). who made the props that sustain the sky. a halfhuman. To them.
and honored with inscriptions as a god. god of Chaos. who then became the earth's rulers. The most famous sphinx of all
laid out in state. But in their gods the Egyptians looked not at all for the perfection of goodness.
always female. parents of Osiris and Isis. source of all being clearly a product of priestly meditation. half-brute figure in stone. The stars were his companions. temples. Another form of the sun-god was the Sphinx. but now Re had a father.
praised the local god as supreme over all. and at the same time made him identical with Re.16
they regard right behavior as essential for gaining heavenly favor. the evil deity Set came to pass for a form of Re. Amon-Re. following the exdifference
A REFORMATION IN THE LAND OF NILE. whose name was appended to the When Thebes original name. they rather looked on the practices of religion frankly as a means of advancing their individual interests
number of gods the less was the between ithem. Turn-Re.
secret doctrine of the priests
But now the
was to be
published to the people. dynasty (about 1460 B. prayed in identical words in every place to the local deity
as lord of heaven
earth. The king. the greater the
ample of those of Heliopolis.. to the moon-god. saw in the power
the priesthood a menace to the dignity of the crown. and while Thebes flourished. it was known to all Initiates that the sun-god was the one true god.
5. not by the people. thus.
capital of the
rally took the foremost place. creator of the universe and this was due to the fact that the priests of the foremost cities. as lord of the whole country. in the beginning of the so-called new empire. C).
with the gods.
The pharao Amenhotep IV. Nay. self-created. Now. sole object of the worship paid to the innumerable host of other gods. Re became for the priests the one god. and the easier became the transition to the belief in the sun-god as supreme and only true deity a belief entertained by the priesthood. and was allowed a
Self-creation was also attributed place in the Sun's bark.
images. they were held to be heretics
. a new royal seat.
the confiscation of the estates of priestly corporations reversed. but in its own proper shape of a disk (in Egyptian. and the temples. as had been the custom."
priests of the
Thebes and in certain other cities (not in all) lost their places. and sank even deeper into daemonism and sorcery.
reinstated in their ancient power. who succeeded him. To draw them away from the true god the priests taught them to worship deceased kings and queens. when his reform was undone.
priests. assumed for himself the name Chuenaten. and built in middle Egypt.
forth paralyzed. aten). His sons-in-law. the half-completed
sun was obliterated. and priesthood of Amon
intellectual life of Egypt was thenceand the ancient mystic teachings of the priests were never again disturbed by any wave of movement or progress. at the same time amusing them with gorgeous sacrifices processions. returned step by
step to the religion of Amon.
Hardly was Chuenaten gathered to his fathers after a reign of twelve years.MYSTERIES OP THE EAST
therefore proclaimed as the sole god the sun. The people went back to stupid formalism." quit Thebes. Amenhotep ordered all images of other gods associated with the sun to be destroyed. as had been the usage at Heliopolis. Chutaten. "Splendor of the Sundisk. ''abode of the
reinstated. not under any human form.
city of the
erected to the Sundisk were leveled with the
ground. and again fixed the royal seat at Thebes nevertheless. east of the Nile.
. Of course the court officers and civil functionaries loyally followed the example
of their master. and the great estates of the priestly corporations were confiscated. but only a very small fraction of the priesthood gave up their convictions for the sake of livelihood.
which at death quitted the body in the form of a bird. though not of the priestly class.500 chambers above ground and as many under the surface. fit quarters were found for the mysteries. and that the underground chambers were not shown to the profane. Herodotus tells that there were 1. The labyrinth was an underground maze of chambers. at Crocodilopolis.
THE EGYPTIAN REALM OF THE DEAD
Finally. in whose hidden compartments. were guarded the mysteries of the priests. the up soul (ba). besides the body.
life. which held to the man the same relation a god held to the animal in which he dwelt:
departed from the body like the image
of a dream.18
and festivals. no doubt.
gods. and the immaterial spirit (ka). In all probability the famed Labyrinth near Lake Moeris. conceived to be of purely material essence. had their ka and their ba. viz. existence of both soul and spirit was conif
tingent on the care the corpse received. Strabo. reckoned as compeers of the priests was signalized by the temples with their various compartments in the inmost of which.. The distance separating the priesthood from the people and the Pharaos were. was designed for priestly ends. too. the holy of holies (adyton). and Pliny celebrate the glory of this vast palace.
the ka and the
. Not Herodotus only. man is made of three constituent parts. but Diodorus. the secret teaching of the priests played a part in the people's ideas regarding death and the other
According to the Egyptian teaching.
6. while the people were admitted only to the temple proper and its forecourt. for they contained the remains of Pharaos and ot sacred crocodiles.
The route of the dead toward
the other world
the sun's track from East to
. we see that these representations had a more spiritual import in the "middle" than in the "old" empire. only pleasanter
fuller. But from the texts of the ''Book of the Dead. lord of the other world a luxuriant plain (Aaru) in the West. but is even made one only with Osiris.
or in a sepulchral edifice
(of such buildings the pyramids were the most notable).jw spontaneous.
Therefore. The spirit of the deceased went to Osiris. music. identifying himself with some
Arrived there." the
addressed as Osiris with addition of his
name. and walk amid the The pictures on the walls of the stars like other gods.
magic formula with
which Horos recalled to
the slain Osiris. The deceased is portrayed surrounded by such enjoyments as were attainable in Nileland banquets. no longer with Osiris
only. property. In these texts the deceased himself speaks. the dead
manner revivified. voyaging.
his journey he needs the help of the sorcerer's art against the host of daemons and monsters that threaten
the sun-bark. for according to the developed teaching of that time all the gods are one god. where the earth's products required no toil. the chase.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
ba were to
live on. the
body must be embalmed and
in a rock. and hence in the formulas of funeral service
which constitute the so-called "Book of the Dead." which used
be laid with the dead in the sepulchre. and the relatives must supply to the dead meat and drink and clothing. he acquires the power of revisiting
sepulchral chambers show that the Egyptians conceived the other life to be much like the present. and the like. and lead a glorious life in the other world. Sut
gr. or with one god after another.
for example: "Never have I done never have I stolen. in a picture of the
in the Judgment Dead" the deceased is brought by the goddess of truth and righteousness (Ma) into the palace of Osiris.20
the earth at will in the form of god. and not." an representations event belonging to the life beyond. Here. man. never have I craftily injustice. we find of the famous "judgment of the dead. were laid in the grave with the dead
for their service.
was rather a magic
formula for attaining blessedness according to Egyptian notions than a truthful protestation of guiltlessness in
order to establish the postulant's moral purity. thus.
THE SECRET TEACHING OF THE PRIESTS OF
NILELAND. in his own former body. in whose presence the newcomer has to prove himself guiltless of any one of
sins. as the Greeks mistakenly supposed. or animal. Osiris presides over the tribunal with two-and-forty assessors."
etc. compassed the death of any man. to the present state and to the time
immediately before burial.
01 the relation
the foregoing we get a general notion between the priests and the people. and his sins and his good deeds are weighed in a The hippopotamus is present as accuser and the balance. and sundry utensils. Thot as defender. god
are not clear as to the nature of the secret teaching
. or even. should he so choose. too. At
puppets made of wood or of clay. never have I killed any
sentations of the other
"new empire" the repreand of the way thither are
and more fanciful.
and which comprised subIt is stated posidivisions only loosely held together. therefore they often willingly admitted to initiation men of distinction
from abroad. Among the fabulous personages who were believed to have been impelled by thirst for knowledge to visit Egypt. and Homer. and very But it was not always easy for these to
that hid the mysteries. and especially Greeks. But as the priests trayal had less to fear in this regard from foreigners. Pythagoras. applied in vain to the priests of Heliopolis and Memphis.MYSTERIES OP THE EAST
and the mode of
writers. Pythagoras. Plato. and only after
he had submitted to the circumcision prescribed for postulants did he receive from the priests of Diospolis instruction in their recondite sciences. Musaeus. the historian Herodotus. on the accounts given by Greek pend almost entirely
always trustworthy. though recon. there to learn the secret wisdom of the priests. were the bards Orpheus.
the mathematician Archimedes. for example.
Here we have to deorganization. and as in the indoctrination of foreigners the priests saw an opportunity for cultivating their
own reputation for erudition. not
ference. Hence the king was the only
with the secret doctrine. among the historic characters were the lawgivers Lycurgus and Solon. and on conjecture or
Unquestionably the secret doctrine necessitated a species of secret society which presumably consisted of the higher orders of priests. mended by King Aahmes (Amasis).
ritus. that the pharao for the time being was always tively admitted to membership. and thus was
Egyptian outside of the priestly order that was acquainted all danger of beat home most effectually averted. because foreigners went away again. the philosophers Thales.
Now. and the Initiates had at certain intervals to ascend a number of degrees. But with regard to the mode of this progression and the difference between the degrees we have unfortunately no reliable
secret teaching. and if with regard to this knowledge nothing fundamental was taught to the people. Pythagoras and Plato for their philosophical systems. and Pythagoras furthermore for his mathematical knowledge. owed the Grecian mysteries to the priests of Egypt. Of the contents of the Egyptian secret teaching we know little more than we do of its forms. or stages of knowledge.
astronomic knowledge not relating to the calculation of time. and to the same source were Lycurgus and Solon beholden for their legislation. and who had himself been initiated in Egypt.
for legislation. till they mastered the
sum of the wisdom taught by the priests.
as for the exact sciences
In the form of admission to this secret doctrine were long and tedious but significant ceremonies. or rather the Orphic mystae named after him. for all Initiates
were pledged to
regarding the subject mat-
Yet we are not without scattered hints from competent authorities. the Egyptian secret teaching could not have comprised anything thereanent which was not attainable
by anybody with the
scientific helps of the time. respectively. Orpheus. then that was a base huckstering of mysteries and not a
lived in the time of Julius Caesar
and Augustus. According to the Greek
instruction. and in the light of these we cannot go seriously astray.
so pronouncedly Spartan and Athenian. and Democritus for his
astronomical doctrine. the systems of
curgus and Solon
much from each
but for good reasons then withheld from the
in the exact sciences.
assumed that be-
cause the Egyptian priests were also judges. This. therefore.
and prudence and diplomatics. are out of the queswhich has no practical application as in juris-
unimpeachable conclusions such
may be had
tion. From the hieroglyphic remains. writing (demotic) derived from the hieroglyphs and resembling an earlier abbreviated form of hieroglyphic
.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
spirit. however. and for the rest adapted their ideas to the needs of their
mysteries. to mysticism and symbolism.. because here the very existence of the priestly
. It is different with philosophical and religious specular
tion. which assuredly they must have
board. a species of Egyptian which consisted of figures of actual objects.
what the teaching
probability is that the two Grecian lawgivers merely used the Egyptian laws as a basis. was the subject matter
of the teaching conveyed to Initiates in the Egyptian mysteries. which. were writing known only to the priests but in early times that was so only because the rest of the people could not read and Afterward there was a special popular form of write. in feet.*-
. gives play rather to hypothesis and arbitrary opinion.
from them we cannot
department. it appears that there existed in Egypt high-grade schools conducted
priests. therefore their ideas on legislation.
and hence we may infer that in these inGreek searchers after knowledge obtained lawgiving and in the exact sciences of the
Egyptianstrue that the hieroglyphs. the hieratic or writing of the priests.
and it was sharply distinguished from the popular belief.
sophic religion of the Egyptian priests? Putting aside arbitrary and fine-drawn theories. the sun's disk. Thus we find in the "Book of
in later writings mention of a "demiurge of the universe. says:
not any mindless or soulless creature subject to man. Plutarch. Hence there is no doubt that the secret doctrine of the Egyptian priests was at once philosophic and religious that
. e." to whom no special divine (or architect) name is given. that it postulated one personal god. and that it rejected polytheism and zoolatry.
is. called by them Nunu.
67. we infer from various
was of a monotheistic character.. as well as the materialistic conceptions of the popular creed with regard to what
clear indications that
i. we hold it not improbable that the secret doctrine was often more radical than
the views of the royal reformer Amenhotep IV. in his ingenious work. unlike him.
takes place after death..
tested the traditional belief. were the principles underlying the philoit. analyzed
and accepted what it found to be reasonable and rejected what appeared irrational. and that. and again: "There is only one rational being that orders all things.24
was at stake: the priesthood would lose all its importance once the people were aware that the priests had
no regard for the received religion. the priests believed the true
to be. which took tradition for absolute and indubitable truth. but one ruling providence. too. then." an allusion to zoolatry. Indeed.
(cc. father of Re. but the un-
seen creator himself. What. and subordinate powers which are set over the several things
in different nations receive
. 68). and source of all things. not a material thing. or Chuenaten.
regarded also as the image of
the All that was. And hence Initiates employ now symbols obscure.MYSTERIES OF THE
traditional usage. distinctive worship and distinctive appellations. 1 1 "When
myths of the gods. who investigates judiciously.
anon more obvious.."
c. 3) writes: "Not the white vesture and the shaven beard make the servant of Isis: he alone is truly that. in order to have a true understanding of all the teachings and all the rites. take philosophy for his mystagogue (guide fore must one
to the mysteries).
tional. g. Plutarch ("Isis and Osiris. erroneous."
belief in one personal creator having been acthe Egyptian mythology was naturally declared cepted.
irrationality we find principles and precepts of morality.
Neit at Sais. so as to
understand that the stories told are not to be taken
"The image of the goddess
Isis. we must recall the remarks already made. who receives due instruction upon the rites and ceremonies used in that divine service. their dismemberment and sundry other like incidents. authentic history and
facts of nature. c.of the mysteries.' Finally." c. e. their wandering about. " veil no mortal has ever raised."
(c. and meditates
truth therein contained. and its true signification was expounded by
That this interpretation of the priests to the initiated. that is to be. instead of fable and superstition. that is. the myths as allegorical accounts of personified natural phenomena was the essential part of the mysteries appears
from the testimonies of learned Greeks. whereby they guide the understanding to the divine being. some of them Initiates. yet not without danger of falling into
Therethe mire of superstition or the abyss of unbelief.
in the rites of the
Egyptian priests nothing
nothing fabulous or superstitious.
" All the traditions and rites of the Egyptian popular religion then were explained in a rationalist sense to the initiated. Recent research has brought up the
origin in the
. thousands of them. Many particulars of this explanation have been lost. and is little to be regretted. question which civilization was the earlier. The most ancient religious writings of this people (among whom cuneiform writing originated)
empire on the lower Tigris and Assyria. of
was only a colony.
he expresses himself more enigmatically
of Isis in the city of Bubastis.. called Sumerians. that of the Nileland or that of Western Asia. or Akkadians: its root was Shamanism. 61) agrees with Plutarch.26
The more as recounting actual occurrences. after the sacrifice all. the enlightened
Euphrates. beat themselves.
religion even less information than with regard to the Egyptian.
In the traditions of classic antiquity the secret wisof the Egyptian priests was not held in greater esteem than that of their fellow-priests in Chaldaea or Baby-
lonia. we must be content with a brief account of it. land of the upper Tigris. a form of religion peculiar to the Turkic races. both men and women. in the region of the twin But as we possess with regard to the Babylonian rivers." (II. but what has been lost can hardly have been of any real value for us.. But
to name the one for whose sake they beat themwere impiety.
BABYLON AND NINIVE. religion beyond a doubt had its around the lower Tigris and Euphracountry tes among a people of Turanian or Ural-Altaic stock (akin to the Turks).
after Anu greatest reverence was paid to the spirit of the earth (In-kia or Ea). e. Ninclar with Saturn. The scene of the life after death was laid in the realm of This religion was shades (shualu. and afterward Istar. a name signifying "primordial water. and Ea. who was afterward spirit of the
. From the higher spirits were evolved gods and goddesses innumerable.
daemons presided the
of the heavens (In-lilla.. Similarly. the Babylonians and Assyrians proper. that of the Sumerians. (Baal). Ramnian (god of storms). save that god Assur held the first place
the gods.. The most ancient goddess was Ba-u. later Ninni or Ninna.
consist in formulas for exorcising evil spirits these spirits are usually represented as coming from the desert in
groups of seven.
the planets worshiped by the Semites: Marduk with Jupiter. Nabu with
Mercury. and Istar became Other Sumerian gods were associated with Bel's wife. while Istar was specially related to Venus.
B. sky). afterward called Anu. Sin
(moon)." or chaos.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
. After Ba-u came the ''daughter of the heavens. Anu. traces of whom are found nearly 4000 years B. were placed side by This system was completed about 1." named at first Anun. The Sumerian groundwork of Chaldaean civilization and religion was built upon bv a Semitic people.900 side with Bel. i. Bel. in Hebrew Sheol). There was a sort of trinity made up of Samas (sun). or "Lord" Sun and moon were worshiped as his images. spirit of the earth. The highest god of this race was called simply "God" (in their language Ilu). 2500. C. C. and
there the autochthonous
remained unchanged in Assyria. Nirgal with Mars. and whose domination seems established B. spirit of the sky. The gods Anu and blended with Ilu became one god of the sky.
probably they at least they knew enough about the stars. were astrologers rather than astronomers.
easy to infer the nature of this secret
all antiquity And though as observers of the heavenly bodies.
doctrine. Turn thy countenance him ward. entreats the goddess
Lady. in the psalm. probably From the meanings of the Babylonian deities' names. hands are tied.
. for thy servant the cup is full. thou art angry with him.
The Chaldees were throughout
and the facts of meteorology to regard them for what they were instead of holding them to be gods. the heavens.
given above. We therefore believe that the Chaldaean priests among themselves looked on the objects which before the people
they held to be gods as simply sky.
kingdom they occupied a more independent and
Like the priests of Egypt. In Assyria they stood next were after the king.
1 cling to
Consider his entreaty.28
the Babylonians and Assyrians the priests held in great reverence. "Let thy heart be tranquil. and the king was high priest in the Baby-
. deciphered name of a penitent sinner. in the cuneiform characters.
Lady. they had a secret doctrine withheld from the vulgar. Speak the word to him.
Besides the early cuneiform writings already mentioned (forms of exorcism). as
influential station." Thy servantevil have I doneGive him assurance of mercy. there have been found amid the ruins of Babylon great "libraries" of writings on tiles. Thy servant. lightning. Among these are "penitential
In the following psalms" and hymns to gods. sun. a priest. moon. thunder. from the tile tablets. planets.
his kinsmen. Then the gods let a great loose.
was their producer.
life). most of them. and the priests held
the key. repented of
and with the
. threatened even the lower gods. he built a great into it brought all his
possessions.. and as our Bible (Gen. As of the gods none had yet gone forth. are so obscure and unintelligible that for their
understanding a "key" was necessary.
mankind on account
ship at the god's
command. and great part of the less sacred literature of the tablets. and the watery deep. Earth beneath had yet no name. then the great gods. xi. The darkness was not yet done away. therefore. his servants. tells
called Samas-Napishtim (sun of the story of the deluge in this form: The god having made known to him the punishment decreed
The Chaldee Noah. his descendants would inherit from him (supposing him to have been an historical personage) some portions of the ancient traditions and folklore of the Chaldaeans. not a plant had yet budded. for her waters united together in one.
entered the combat to destroy all But the flood rose up to the sky and living things.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
Many of the mythological poems. too.
etc. the never-beginning. 31) tells that Abraham was of Ur
Chaldaea. also domestic and wild animals. The gods. were created.
and they yet had no name. who had to take refuge with the higher gods. and
of their sins. genderess of them all. Here is a fragment of the Babylonian
story of the Creation:
the sky above was not yet named.
special interest are the frasrments
ing portions of the Babylonian cosmogony. the chaos of the sea. indeed.
in the opening verses
tion of a great
This Chaldaic history of the deluge is but one secpoem.
origin in ant of Samas-Napishtim.
rassit. and effectively tells of how Istar poem graphically
world. It was now possible for^ SamasNapishtim to let the animals out. who had ordered the flood. perhaps. Gishdubarra is a descend-
he seeks out in his
treat to obtain a cure of his disease. whereto the gods gathered "like masses of flies.
and who takes that
occasion to narrate to him the history of the flood. but the dove found no resting place. an epos contained in twelve earthen wherein are recounted the fortunes and exploits of tablets. forcibly recall the story of the
in her distress over this repulse sought help in the nether"Istar's Descent into Hell" impresses one like
Dante's "Inferno". B. C. his disease was a visitation of the goddess Anatu. became reconciled with the other gods. indeed. and the waters were abated. Gishdubarra. Then a swallow. he erected an altar and offered sacrifice. But after seven days the storm was quieted. which preyed on the bodies of the drowned. Now." Then the god Bel. had its the Chaldaean epos. then a raven.
a hero. because
A had spurned the love of the goddess Istar. Samas-Napishtim opened the window of his ship. as
reputed to date from the twenty-third cenThe deeds of this hero. apparently the
Bible. which did in like manner. and after other seven days freed a dove. he led Samas-Napishtim forth with his wife. who were angry with him on that account. people. now resting on the mountain Nizir.30
what they had done.
and the Heraclean myth. and made a covenant with them and the But the pair were taken afar to live for evermore. or Namis
we have here a symbolic allusion to the Chaldaean mystic teaching.
Istar goes. The so is Allatu the setting moon. that path that allows advance. we have an intimation of a
deeper ethical interpretation. at the first the crown. or the morning-star. but. but regress never. crusted with precious stones. heaps bodily injuries upon Istar being the goddess of love. according to the secret docThe hell of the Chaldaean thetrine of the Chaldaeans.
At each gate
divided into seven compartments separated by Istar must surrender to its keeper
of her paraphernalia. She is Istar's counterpart: as Istar (daughter of the moon-god) is the rising moon. that place where dust is 'their victual and ordure their meat. and her.
. at the sixth the armlets and anklets. second the earrings. etc. which may have had seven degrees of initiation into as The many orders of mysteries. whether among men or animals.
queen of the nether world not only renders to Istar no an enemy. and at last the
assistance. till all were disclosed. Meanwhile on earth. at the third the necklace. that house whose inmates light shall see nevermore. ceases. or the evening-star. and here. at the fifth the girdle.
gates. says the poet. at
the fourth the mantle. all union of the sexes. and
Possibly.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
as the great
at the seventh the last vesture.
'house whence none comes forth that enters.
two are the mutually conflicting opposite sides of one being.
In the nethenvorld the goddess Allatu reigns as queen. treats her as
gods request of Allatu the liberation of Istar. Istar is made whole and tantly she consents. perhaps.
and no believers. had the name of being unThe priests alone held rule in Ragha. i. secular power had right to give orders. The poem was intended to be recited by the
priest at the obsequies of the dead. to give assurance to
that the gates of the netherworld
are not unconquerable.
9. but gave religious instruction only to those of their class. and had his
Ragha (now Rai). e.
ZOROASTER AND THE PERSIANS. modern Rome. the one nearest to Zarathustra. Sprung originally
from a Median
stock. whose culture foir the rest was an
offshoot of that of Chaldaea. but that there is still a possibility for the shades to reach the land of the blest.
we go from
they quite disappear the furthe centres of ancient culture in North-
ern Africa and Western Asia.32
and at each gate gets back again what had been taken from her. religion were the highest of the
three classes of the population. the priests (athravan) of Zarathustra's. the priests married only
race. though analogies are found everywhere.'
. Even elsewhere
see in the holy city
like those of
throughout the kingdom the priests regarded themselves as subject only to the commands of the Zarathustrotema. or Zoroaster's. the King was adopted into high the priestly class. and the priestly class was considered further removed from the other two (warriors and farmers) than they from each other. whose inhabitants. the
Istar. The priests went about the country
Chaldaea the traces of actual secret teaching
indistinct. and alone of the population possessed culture. The chief priest was styled Zarathustrotema. In Persia.. As in Egypt.
and immortality. judges. and can take nothing from any one not belonging to their own caste.
pupils. namely. scribes.
was much the same
in India. Summer and Winter. interof dreams. give life to both worlds. officers of state.
Bramatsharin. which withheld the real teach-
ings of their religion from the uninitiated. astrologers. were separated from the people by even a deeper gulf than in
They can have no communication with people any other caste. and perform no end of ceremonies of purification on account of their sins against the precepts
of their religion. preters The duties they sought to impress upon the minds of
Further. and have laws of their own.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
were physicians. the alternation of night and day. All this points to the existence of a mystic gild of the priests.
then as now.
. listen to the reading of passages from
the sacred books. that produced the world. they
the people were these exclusively: That they should reverence the holy fire. as is said in the "Atharvaof ceremonial laws). that introduced religion. They stand outside of the state and its laws. the gods.
BRAHMANS AND BUDDHISTS. that brought the
into subjection. the highest caste (Brahmans). By the people they are regarded as gods: they and their
made sky and
foundations. Thus they indoctrinated the but as they themselves of course knew that things people
. and the members of which alone understood what was the original of
the strife betwen the
good world of Ormuzd and the Ahriman. in all probability. etc.
were not so. They imagined enormous aeons of time. with all that it contains. as their own peculiar spethey concocted the idea of a sort of a soul of the universe. the Atman-Brahman (the All-Me. According to this doctrine. or
unspeakable torments of
hell. the former pantheists. to die.
the people could understand only what was said about the hell torments. not perfect enough for them. all gods and the whole creation are sprung from Eternity (Aditi). even above gods. Therefore. whose members alone knew how the matter really stood. and that no man can instruct another in Thus.
This dogma was originated by the Brahman Yadshnavalkva: but Brahmans themselves say that no man can
it. and the fourth caste. and either to awaken to suffering in the soul's migration. and as a that the earth. the Brahmans contrived for
. and that the people were hoodwinked.
it. The latter were idolaters. a
of the Soul of the Universe. and so they instituted a mystic society. a secret doctrine naturally sprung up among them. durst not read them at all. the servile (which was also the most numerous). in the lapse of which the world grew ever worse and creatures were born only to suffer. despairing of a solution of life's enigma. the basis of religion was totally different for the Brahmans from what it was for the rest of the people. the
the idea that the universe
phantasm. Penitents and solitaries were esteemed by the Brahmans above kings and But the life of a hermit was heroes. This pantheism is taught in all their sacred books. for that was attained by the next two castes. or Me-All). Accordingly. but these books the second and third castes (warriors and farmers) did not understand. is consequence
nothing: this is pessimism.
and the religion of the Hindus reached at last the state of debasement in which we find it to-day.
and refining in their theological speculations.
It grew out of a monastic society founded by Siddhartha. or. then several other Buddhas believed to have lived before him. which had neither temple nor by Thus the Brahmans went on refining sacrificial worship. Buddha himself was rather strict with postulants for admission to the society. and its profoundest principle was that only complete renunciation of all things can man find safety and peace. and for Brahma they
Brahma they made the provided a wife. Long afterward
resplendent the three gods
in a sort of trinity. Sarasvati. were represented a three-headed figure. Though it failed to strike root
India. form of Brahmanism. so that in his time the
But teaching was in many respects a secret doctrine. Before degeneration had gone so far Buddha. rather. in the sixth century. Brahma. only a religion. not content with such a do-nothing. but the part played by the people. afterward BudHis doctrine was dha. Tibet. Vishnuites and Sivaites. him was only passive and creator. endeavored to save the Hindu reBuddhism was not a new religion. and Japan: it has since assumed a peculiar composite character by fusion with the
soil. and expected to
raised to the rank of
. B.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
also a supreme deity under the same name as their Soul of the Universe.
westerly countries of a great following in farther India. specially Vishnu and dread Siva.
on the other hand
ancient religions of those countries. C. surnamed the Perfect One. when first himself. China. after the death of Buddha. paid
more attention to other gods. while the people became divided into parties.
they also wear fantastic togs.
aboriginals. or thought. Among the Zulu Kaffirs the one who desires to become a sorcerer (usually a descendant of a sorcerer) gives up the customary mode of life. though formal organization to that end. hand down their pretended arts of
weather-making. or a Blest State. counteracting spells. opinions differing on the question whether the Nirvana (literally.
likeness to a secret doctrine.
shows great elevation of of savage races wherever they still remain.
SECRET LEAGUES OF BARBAROUS PEOPLES. nearform close castes.. as well as the sor-
their tricks. The priests of Hawaii. of African and other races. which withhold from the peo-
highest among savage own regarding creation which The sorcerers.
had a theory
Even among Savages so-called are found secret docand secret societies of priests analogous to those more cultured peoples. has strange dreams. again in another. are banded in secret societies. discovering thieves.
Eskimos. extinguishment) preached by Buddha meant Death and Nothingness. to their successors.36
cerers. Thus the Buddhism of the priests assumed a strong
of Siberia. etc. of healing disease. who
gods and when to these had been added the Hindu gods and the gods of other peoples the religion of the founder having thus degenerated into a polytheism.
we know not
II. and prepare themselves for their office by undergoing strange tests and
performing outlanishl rites. the learned began to interpret the original doctrine now in one sense. seeks
and out' are denied admission to their festivals under pain
without marriage. utters cries. live
ties. at last receives pents
from some aged sorcerer.
among savages other species of In the Society Islands the chiefs. Thus even savages secret police and their privy tribunals.
the isle of
New Britain (now named New Pomerania) there
possession. called Klobbergoll. kill their own children.
exists a secret society
In each locality these associations possess houses for their special use.
secret societies. each class distinguished by a peculiar tattoo.MYSTERIES OF THE EAST
handles sersolitude. to each other by secret signs. hops and jumps about. They are divided into twelve classes under as many grandmasters. god of war. the members are united
by the firmest
another. There are similar societies in Micronesia.
-. care for the execution of the laws. called
Areoi or Erih. with which they are marked at their initiation. that other Kaffirs will not touch. whose members. or sorceresses. and their members are bound
to the strictest secrecy. and to collect the
tribute. form an association. the origin of which they trace to Oros. and is formally admitted by the assembly of those charlatans. who go through a like form
of consecration. wearing frightful masks. Their office is to pursue and punish criminals.
their chiefs in
as bodyguard. and refrain from all work.
. collect fines.
In West Africa there are
whose members are distinguished by a chalk line. There are also witches. which assemble in
punishment on incendiaries and homicides.
worship of the beautiful.
origin was as that of the other polytheistic religions: its basis was a personification of nature's forces and of the
heavenly bodies. or unnatural.PART SECOND. or hideous.
grees to express
an early period. the Hellenes. worship the forces of nature under the form of animals. but in
tially from the religions of the Oriental peoples. True. especially ot
their neighbors oversea
at least for the
of the peo-
simply fetiches existing only in they were made objects of dumb reverence or of mad terror. like the Easterns. and the figures of gods came by dethe highest physical perfection with
which they were acquainted
the human form. but.
In time the
human and animal forms were
united. In the dawn of
their history the Hellenes did. undoubtedly.
and there were
heads of animals or
the bodies of horses (centaurs) or the hoofs of goats But the native genius of Greece asserted itself (satyrs).
The Grecian Mysteries and
Bacchanalia. and who ascribed to their gods forms quaint. for the man of Hellas they became changed into 38
gods were the matter out of which
. who had no sense for the beautiful. forgot the astronomic and cosmic signification of their myths. whereas.
even to the Hellenes. forgive much. the when. In two points. but beings with whom he might converse as with fellowmen. Of course. truthfulness) and chastity.TTTE
. We must not apply our mod-
ern ethical yardstick to the principles of morality for
which the gods stood sponsor. candor. Nevertheless. that the several divisions of the Hellenic race were by no means agreed as to the number of the
their respective ranks. Of so little obligation was the Grecian belief regard-
ing the gods.'V. with regard to ir. if a man did but honor the gods as representing the groundwork of morality. and nobody else judged him concerning them. creeds7
chising. not at all scruple-ridden.
The Hellenes knew nothing
dogma. they left much to be desired. seeing that in
their gods. but what else was to be expected. into ideas
Grecian religious worship. The Greeks were. specially straightforwardness (honesty. because they loved much. they had by no means edifying exemplars
of the moral principles to which those deities were supposed to give sanction.
tne twelve gods of
. history will. were matters left to the discretion of each one. after the origin of the gods had been forgotten. the how often. as in course of time they
came to conceive of them mistakenly. In their eyes. and of whom his poets sang as though of mortal heroes. and in truth we need to bear in mind their great services on behalf of the beautiful if we would look with some measure of allowance on their shortcomings with regard to virtue. or revelation. the where. he
satisfied all the requirements of religion: the how.atters that we nowadays hold to be within the sphere of ethics.l
which he represented to himself forms that were to him not objects df fear at all. Here we have the distinguishing charforces.
exactly that of the saints
Nay. and "ruling". local
deities. Their gods were neither faultless nor virtueless. when the known gods did not suffice.40
Olympus. who in all things studied the beautiful. "unknown" gods.. The Greeks knew no Yahve: but then neither did they know any Devil.
. mighty beings with human feelings. one would be disowned here.
far as to multiply
worship of the beautiful went even so
etc. e. In one place greater honor would be paid to this god. the Minotaur. as we learn from the "Acts of the Apostles". the Chimaera. the case in Catholic countries to-day.
another place to that. they made gods that had no name: thus we find a "greatest" god. nor incorporeal spirits like the gods of the Persians and the Israelites.
the Centaurs. and there they enacted parts ranging from terror to farce:
divine honors. inand passions. and
Phoenicia. and to divide them among the different localities that possessed renowned statues of them: these statues
then came to be regarded as distinct individuals. This we see in
clinations. often received more homage than Zeus. another there. but human existences that
g. India.' and "reconciling". just like the Greeks themselves. Of course there are to be found in Hellenic religion survivals from that period of mythology in which human and beast forms were mingled. also "pure".
And now as regards the character of all these deities: for the Greeks. they were neither monsters like the gods of Egypt.
Athens. the Satyrs. so that even a Socrates could be in doubt whether the Aphrodite
Urania (Aphrodite in the sky) and Aphrodite Pandemos (the popular Aphrodite) were or were not one person.
but such beings were become merely figures in folk-tales. The father of the gods and lord of the thunderclouds.
however much opposed the same might be on one side or the other to the official theology: nay. and the people to divine aid.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
to be said of
spirits. whose festivals were commanded. religion came to be a cloak for the designs of polilical parties. Heresy trials. for example. therefore. Its adogmatism. a sort of legal
and the two
were held to make
exchange. comedy. it is true. of superstition and
daemons and malign
2. in miracles wrought by images of gods: but one must
leave the images alone. had no Philosophers and Initiates of place among the Greeks. the mysteries fearlessly expressed their convictions. except as stirred up by politicians.
of negative beliefs. ship of the gods. on the other
officially recognized as vested with rights before the
. abated the apprehension this fact might inspire for freedom of thought: but. Socrates was put out
the party opposed to him on the pretext had apostatized from the religion of the state. and
whose sacrifices were prescribed by public authority.
Violation of temples and profanation of sacred things One need not believe were. went on for the state what individuals thought was of no con:
sequence: the state cared neither for the upholding of
positive nor for the putting
public worship was transaction between the gods and the people: the gods were entitled to sacrifices.
HELLENIC DIVINE WORSHIP.
And. and even the
comedies of the tory Aristophanes introduced the gods in most ridiculous and most disgraceful situations on It was enough for the state if the public worthe stage.
Grecian religion was a function of state. Thus. relegated to the the realm of poesy. grievous crimes.
upon complaint made
and then only and blasphemy were
denial of their existence, scoffing, punished with banishment as the worst sort of crimes.
there in this any fanaticism or any intolerance, an idea of right and wrong. That this is so is simply proved by the fact that there was no prohibition of the bringing in of alien gods or of the worship of such, provided only the customs of the land were not infringed nay, alien gods, if their religion gained vogue, might be adopted into the religion of the state. Such freedom of religion could, of course, exist only where no priestly caste existed, nor, in fact, any special It was competent for persons in various priestly class. walks of life to perform religious ceremonies. In the name of the state, the king (or other head of the gov;
ernment) "transacted business" with the gods, for exOnly in temples and ample, conducted the sacrifices. other localities consecrated to divine worship were priests as such employed: but outside the walls of these they had
nothing to do; for instance, they had nothing to do with In Hellas the priest had no privmen's consciences. ileges, no influence such as he had in Egypt, and priestly
doctrine were out of the
The service ducted by women, and
of the gods was conworship of certain deities only unmarried priests could engage; there were also
certain other restrictions put on the priest's mode of the Greeks religious ministration was
no more restricted to certain places than to certain persons. The gods were everywhere, the highest inhabiting Olym-
pus, others the sea, the netherworld, certain groves, trees, streams, mountains, grottoes, etc. Not in temples alone,
but everywhere stood altars: in houses, in the
THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
All consecrated places, whether temples or
sacred groves, etc., were Asyla, places of refuge for offenders against law. The honor, done to the gods consisted in:
1. Invocation, addressed, Prayers comprising whether to the images of the gods or to their supposed abode, and pronounced low or loud or in song; Oaths, summoning the gods as witnesses of truth this at times degenerated into a species of Ordeal; Imprecations, call-
ing on the gods to punish evildoers. 2. Votive Offerings (anathemata), objects of
laid at the feet of the gods'
images the offering might be an animal, fattened specially for the god, or it might be a person dedicated for life to the service of the god by
himself, his father, or his master.
3. Sacrifices, mostly meat and drink offerings, but sometimes, living animals immolated to the gods, in. atonement for sin, or to ratify treaties, or to obtain an in-
timation of the divine will or foreknowledge. earliest times human victims were immolated.
a belief in superterrestrial
worship of them, so, on the other hand, the belief in miracle has its root in the conviction that
answered by action of the heavenly powers
on the physical world.
instance of this action of the
Revelation. Here the supersensual Grecian religion was distinguished from other forms of
belief in that
which every one was required
to believe, while
standing revelation it main-
tained the possibility of a revelation from the gods for This belief was firmly held even by the emergencies.
most eminent Grecian philosophers, in particular by Socrates and the Stoics. And if the granting of prayers
and the decision of questions by ordeals was a first feeble step toward revelation, the same mistaken belief led to
forms of Seership, Oracles, and Conjuration. Seership (in Greek, mantike, seer's art) was unintentional or intentional.
dreams, and in trance.
Intentional seership was pracinterpretation of signs or omens (sign-reading).
(mantis) was one who practiced sign-reading, whether self-deluded or simply pretending to be under divine inspiration. Folklore and history tell of famous seers who foretold the future from observation of the
flight of birds,
atmospheric phenomena, the position of and the entrails of animals; or who inconstellations, terpreted dreams and on occasion had ecstasies and
Then there were unprofessional practicers of who divined the future by other means; thus one
would write the letters of the alphabet in a circle on the ground, lay on each letter a grain of corn, then let a cock pick up the grains, the operator meanwhile carefully noting the order in which the grains were picked up: this was known as alectromancy (Gr., alektor, cock;
manteia, seership, divination). Oracles are properly divinations obtainable only in particular places (as temples and other sanctuaries), and
practiced only by duly qualified persons. several kinds of oracles, viz.:
Oracles from Signs.
ancient oracle of
in Epirus, mentioned by Homer. The priests of the sanctuary at Dodona divined by observation of the rustling of the leaves
of the sacred oak; they also cast lots tioned a sacred bronze basin.
THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
2. Sententious Oracles. These were all sanctuaries sacred to Apollo, and were numerous in Hellas and Asia Minor. The most notable of them was one at Delphi.
The! minister of the oracle of
Delphi, a virgin priestess
called the Pythia, while questioning the oracle sat on a tripod which stood over a crevice in the ground; thence
issued a gas, and, intoxicated by inhaling this, the Pythia uttered words which the priests dressed up in verse or
in sententious form.
these there were
sanctuaries dedicated to Ajklepios (Aesculapius, god of leechcraft) to which the sick were taken in order that
through interpretation of the dreams they had on the spot they might obtain from the priests of Asklepios counsel upon the healing of their complaints. The most renowned of this class of oracles was at Epidaurus, in
Conjuration, which developed into magic, was much used in ancient Greece, especially after the Greeks had come in contact with the Oriental world; but the gods
and daemons concerned in this practice were all taken from foreign mythologies. People believed in conjuration of the weather, in transformation of men into animals, in love potions, etc., and employed magic formulas
expressed in words that no one understood and that be-
longed to no earthly language.
THE HELLENIC MYSTERIES.
Such was the theology, and such the thaumatology* The two image and reflection of Grecian religion.
*The orlgnal has Goetterglaube, belief in gods, and Wunderglaube, belief in miracles, in allusion to the preceding sec-
elements constitute the popular religion, the religion of feeling, worship of the gods, as far as sensibility is concerned.
most ancient times there stood over
against the popular religion (in Greece as in Egypt) a re^ligion of priests, their Initiates, and Elect; over against the religion of feeling a religion of reflection; over
against the naif, sensorial view, the sentimental, romantic, mystical one, the one which aims to acquire for belief
to subordinate that to faith.
phase of religion results from the mystic consideration that the individual is essentially different from the divine
nature, subject thereto, and dependent on it; in short, it results from the idea of "alienation from God," toward
which the superstitions of seership, oracles and magic were It was the impulse, given by already showing the way. to "seek the lost god" that led to the reflection, of mysteries in Greece: institution men were no man's but that were satisfied with longer gods
art dependence feeling, they deny ligion and the beautiful; they ponder and brood over the lost god, and are ever seeking him. They would subordinate life and all its interests to his service; they would regulate all man's acts, and hence morality, according to faith; they hold in contempt either man's power or his knowlThe Grecian mysteries, indeed, borrowed from edge. the popular religion its art, and turned it to account, but in them art was not cultivated for itself, and science was completely ignored. As science was free in Hellas and not tied to any priestly order, the mysteries could
Goetterglaube is of coure equivalent to "theology," then Wunderglaube is equivalent -to "thaumatol-
ogy" from Greek thaumata, miracles, and logos, discourse.
an endeavor for union with God.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
do. and search after the same. bold. they were the propaedeutic of a future age when one should come upon
. They had no place on Hellenic soil. and a representation of all these ideas in dramatic forms and ceremonies the main effect of which is to make an illusive and blinding impression on the senses. joyousness. the Grecian mysteries were the exact opposite of genuine Hellenism.
many philosophers of Greece. with every shallow trick of strained interpretation. On the one side day on the other night. and abnormal. were then what they had ever been. symbolry. a morbid. to wit. on revelation. and all the smugnesses of pharisaic piety are the earmarks of your mystic. mysticism. were the notes of your true Hellene: his statues of gods with their grand. gloom. a sensible delight in the thought of a god suffering
and dying. and his superstition even took things just as they looked to him.
the other hand. full. not one the doctrines of the mysteries In his system:
things. owlish phantastry. overweening. outlandish. Cheerfulness. and
self-introspection. for grace and salvation.
Thus. there a hearty meal off what is at
hand here a hungering and
can be attained. there action here
quest and longing. ruefulness.
thirsting after truth that never mysteries were therefore in every
employed not one showed any regard for them.
mourning over the lost god.
are. rounded contours to this day demonstrate this. incarnation. there fact here makebelieve. nor in that age. absence of all mists
and vapors. and resurrection. clearness of perception and of thought. there alertness here moping. in meditation on the soul's state after death.
and have learned not only to homonyms) live joyously.. and
mystical characters. undistorted. clear-sighted. Were in Rome.
famous wretch (Clodius) done. living in a time when their respective nations had begun to decline. being of right living.
makes Marcus say I fain would think. must find uncommon delight in mysteries.
we. Let us then listen to the testimony of two celebrated mystae." Then. while practical.
in the nocturnal rites. a Grecian and a Roman. but also to die with better hope. and as
the divine elements imported by thy life. Sentimental.
Athens into human
tions. what had not that inpermitted
light. both. fanciful. too. finds at the last in his very brooding the satisfaction of his need. it is true. as
words. Okeanos. even as the Mysteries are called Initia (beginnings) so in them have found the principles (a play
"initia" and "principia. who brought lewdness
Olympos. there is nought better than those
Mysteries whereby we have been developed out of rudeness and savagery and trained to the human manner of
Cicero (De Legibus
life. romantic." principles. in these mystic exercitaThe man who nurses the feeling of a want for some-
thing other than what his times and his surroundings
afford. And yet from the difference between the
mysteries and the ordinary life of the people it by no means follows that the Initiates did not find satisfaction.
at least a partial satisfaction. is told in the
he adds: "The thing I do mislike comic poets.
and strictly logical minds are unmoved by them. and Hades
into the everlasting night of oblivion.
tragic poet Euripides sings: "O blest is he it is to have learned the divine initiations. therefore.
rites of Purification
origin of these mysteries is found in the and Atonement. especially for bloodguiltiness. to that end. Whatever has been handed down with regard to these mysteries is found in the sections following. of knowing a deity free from all sin.
and expiations played a great part. and hence totally unlike man.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
into the presence of certain sacred rites sin even to glance unwittingly. These consisted of certain ceremonies in which the blood
dividuals such rites
and incense were employed. most celebrated. in Attica. mysticism begins and develops. in honor of the goddess Demeter
by the Latins Ceres) and her daughter Persephone (Proserpina).
ancient. in the case of inmight lessen the punishment under
mitigating circumstances. as the sense of
4.but bodily cleansings prescribed to those who took part in religious ceremonies: later they took on a moral significance.
With the con-
with the need of obtaining forgiveness. in the case of cities and states. they might.
God gained ground. efface the stains of murderous crimes committed during revolts or
civil strifes. known
THE ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES. and later of a male deity also.
Expiations came into vogue little by little."
mysteries were no monoply of the or of any other class: no man was excluded expriests cept such as by their life proved themselves unworthy of
initiation. and were used in the popular religion. and most venerthe Grecian mysteries were those instituted among at Eleusis. In the earliest times
the purifications were nothing.
the same festivals and the same secret cult. pater.
under the name of lacchos and though affinity between the letters I and B.50
in the mysteries
. a road flanked by temples and sanctuaries: in Athens itself was an Eleusinian building (Eleusinion)
Jaos was the harvest-god tended stronghim with Bacchus. but Eleusis always held the supremacy. in
the pure Doric style. Demeter be-
stowed on the people of Eleusis the bread-grain and the
mysteries. personification of the sun which ripens the grape. and it commemorates the stay of Demeter there in the course of her wandering
. The name of the city.
ly to identify
in search of her daughter: a like story is told of Isis in Egypt. Jupiter) and to the Hebrew Yahve. Eleusis. The buildings at Eleusis.
Eleusis the cult of the two deities
spread all over Greece and part of Asia Minor. Bacchus was allied to Demeter (originally Gemeter Earthmother) who was the patroness of husbandry.
They were connected with Athens by the "Sacred Way". and once more Jaos in Fall. means in Greek "advent". The original lacchos would seem to have been a god in the people's religion. the name Jao to the God of the Hebrews. and in Winter Aides. consisted of the temple of Demeter and the Mystic House.
. in which the secret festivals were
held.. and in a modified form passed into Italy: in several places arose
resembling that at Eleusis. and. besides. In gratitude for their hospitality. and 94) gives an oracular utterance of the Apollo of Claros says:
thou that the highest of all the gods is named Jao. and Zeus in opening" Spring then Helios in Summer. lacchos came in time to stand for Bacchus. and this name is probably related to Jao (found in JovisDiodorus (I.
Council (Boule) of Athens. of
whom two were chosen from among the Athenand other two from the two Eleusinian gentes. who. Next to
dignity were the torchbearer (daduchus). and Kerytae. bore the
Basileus (king) because the mos-t important duties of the King had been concerned with Eleusis and its Mysteries. as protector of the Eleusinia.
function of priest in the institutions at Eleusis was
always the exclusive privilege of the Eumolpidae and The chief of the priests was the hierophant. Eumolpidae. The report on the celebration of the Mysteries was always rendered to the Grand
ians." These officials constituted the Sacred Council.
therefore. at the instigation of
fanatics. not less faithful to the ancient traditions than the popular religion
itself. the sacred herald (hierokeryx).
Eleusinia were always under the direction of the
Athenian Government. Kerytae.
Athens became a democ-
racy the functions till then performed by the King. that the latter contented
. The buildings at Eleusis stood till the fourth century of our era: they were then destroyed by the Goths under Alaric. and with him was associated a hierophantess. front o! the city gate toward the Piraeus was also a sanctuary dedicated to this cult. devolved on the head of the
executive. It would be a great mistake to regard the Eleusinian Mysteries as a result of illuminism or rationalism.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
In which a portion of the mysteries was celebrated. The Basileus was assisted by four councilors (epimeletae). which had the
immediate direction of the mysteries. assembled in the Eleusinion. Rather were they an institution not less religious.
with this difference only. and furthermore an
Eleusinion at Agrae. and the "altar-priest.
that the one saw the Divine in all earthly things. C.et Diagoras of Melos. Hence
the mystic leligicri was guarded by the state authorities with the same zeal as the anthropomorphic religion of the
to put the hero to his thirteenth
and who had betrayed the mysteries. i. while the mysteries emphasized the infinite preeminence of the divine nature over the human.
initiation. nor of an angry and revengeful Yahve. as
in their decrees forbidding
and Jovian. was banished
irreligion. the other sought for it there and strove for union with it. quite incomprehensible to the Grecian mind: no ancient Greek writer ever dreamed of a creative demiurgus.
Eleusis. Monotheism. who threw a figure 411
of Herakles into
liberty the Roman emperors took an interest. and unbidden witnesses of the rites. E.
fire. The two forms of religion were branches of one tree.52
with honoring the gods contemplated in the
No one saw in the one any danger to the other. betrayers of the secret doctrine.
were suspended between opposing armies. like the Hebrews. the po. nay. and herein only differed. So great was the veneration for the Eleusinia among
of the early Christian emperors.
.in mainHadrian sought and taining the Eleusinian sanctuaries. It is equally vain to look in the Eleusinia for either Rationalism or Monotheism. e. in the Egyptian sense. absolute severance of the earthly from the divine without hope of union.
and despisers of the mysteries. was a purely Oriental idea. were pun'
In the year ished capitally or with lifelong banishment.
mysteries was the rape. lord of the abode of the damned.
e. analogue of the return of the bloom to plants
the festivals at Eleusis have reference to this
to the netherworld for
permitted to live in the uppenvorld Winter here
signified the fecundity of the soil. Hence in all probability the central teaching of the mysteries was Personal Immortality. as goddess of the earth.
of Persephone with
with the sun-god whose work is to promote fruitfulness.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
made an exception
of the Eleusinia. and means the union of humanjty with godhead. the seem to have been still practiced.
aimed at in the mystic rites. as she is plucking flowers (for as the cold season ccmes on the flowers wither and die).. wanders about lamenting. or of the Wintertime. and also the resurrection of man after his body has been dropped like a grain
of corn in the earth. in other terms. and takes her with
where she occupies the throne But her mother Demeter. of Persephone. But at last the gods take pity on the hapless wanderer and bring about an agreement between her and Pluto. by Pluto.
with him. the mother of the plant-world. daughter Pluto. god of the netherworld in the popu-
lar belief. and so too protectress of husbandry. for indeed the earth loses its adornments.
of all that is as
known of the doctrine taught The myth underlying these
of Demeter. being.
to the realm of shades.
Persephone (personification of the world of
plants). in Winter.
Summer. hence of the sun of the nighttime. is an idea special to the mysteries. its loveliest features.
and after the destruction of the sacred buildings.
i. the consummation
Bacchus. the personification of the sun that goes down in the west.
the Lesser EleuSpring (the month Anthesterion. March).
observance of the
in performsolemnity. and making the customary solemn processions. and in their hands carried ears of corn. these.
days. and at Eleusis the
high celebration. They wore crowns of parsley and myrtle. the prescribed sacrifices. On the second day the mystae were summoned to go down to the seashore and to perform in the sacred brine the act of
Of these festivals there were two. brink of the sea over the same flowery fields and grassy
. wended along the Sacred Road to Eleusis.
The remaining days were spent
came the grand lacchus Procession. they were observed at Athens and Eleusis. There was a preliminary celebration at Athens. after his aides had
first in a loud voice bidden the bloodguilty to depart. and the
myth. issunumbering ing from the Sacred Gate. assembled in the Poecile at Athens and there heard the order of the exercises proclaimed by the Hierophant. and reached the destination late.
October). thousands of mystae. these festivals were observed at Agrae. for though the procession set out betimes it moved slowly. which was headed by his image in the form of a babe with
the sixth day
The line of march lay along the costly toys and cradle.
preliminary solemnity lasted six On the first day Initiates
from every region wherever the Greek language was heard and Grecian hearts beat for the gods. lacchus himself was believed to be the leader of the procession. to celebrate the festival in the hallowed night. when the ravished one came up out of the netherworld into the sunlight. of both sexes. implements of husbandry and torches.
when she must
follow her sullen spouse again to
Hades. sharing in the sacrificial baning quets.
viz.." In the evening of the first day at Eleusis the mystae in common drank of the sacred potion Kykeon.
was transformed into a and gymnastic competition. with intervals of animated dances and fluteBut as playing. hail!
from the "Frogs" of Aristophanes. certain herbs.
during her wan-
and grated cheese to these afterward were added. and making love to the women and girls. lacchus.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
meadows of the Thriasian
plains. Probably scene of merriment the mystae returned to Athens processionally.
which had been the scene
The route was fourteen miles of the rape of Persephone. During the three
was a decoction
of barley. whose non-initiated members had first to retire. honey. and frequent shouts of lo. that of the Lesser.
and besides they made frequent halts at the various on the way.
sacrifices. the principal feature being the
torch-processions representing Demeter's search for Persephone: during the day the Initiates seem to have fasted. by
which Demeter was comforted
daring. was in two degrees.
Initiation into the Lesser
. one by one. practicing mystic rites and offering
wild chorus of the
resounded. salt. the procesmeanwhile indulged freely in merriment. chaffing It their fellows.
succeeding nights the performing of the mystic rites and the initiations took place. milk. wine. and onions. and that of
After the initiations the festival
the Greater mysteries. and there the report on the festival was made to the Boule. was customary for women to make the journey in wains till a demagogue in the time of Demosthenes procured the
abolition of this "privilege of the rich. but to the participants! in their festive mood it was
short. long. It was at these festivals that the rites of initiation Initiation into the Eleusinian mysteries were performed.
Roman citizens There was no disBut no one stained
with bloodguiltiness could be admitted. The Initiates of the Lesser mvsteries were called Mystae. for example. Those who came up for admission to the degree of Epoptes. crimination on the ground of sex. After
the conquest of Greece
stood on equality with Hellenes. or inducted into the occult mean-
ing of the
exceedingly large number of the mvstae. had never entered the "Mvstic House. meeting toils and hindrances and dangers.
probable that at both of the annual
the mystae took part only in the external ceremonies. Foreigners were admitted only when they were men of distinction. and who. and that only the Epoptae (or adepts) were admitted into the Sacred House at Eleusis.56
took place during the preliminary
festival. as the Scythian philosopher Anacharsis."
very probable that the terrors of the test were borrowed from the Grecian ideas of the netherworld. who by appointment of the authorities served as mediator between
him and the
hence he was called Mystagogos. The one who wished to be admitted to the mysteries had to applv to an initiated citizen of Athens. in profound darkness. such.or at the greater festival of a subsequent year. after Tartarus Ely-
. Then followed rites in which the courage
of the candidates
was subjected to the severest tests.
guide or sponsor of the postulant. as we suppose.
into the Greater mysteries either at the greater festival
next ensuing. Epoptae (those who have
seen). As a rule the postulant was required to be a Hellene. But after the darkness came brightness. so them with "fear and trembling and dread amaze." were left to wander through its mazes. those of the Greater mysteries.
by the Romans.
whence we must
that the Mystic
furnished forth with most
terns. eye and ear were flattered by a display of the uttermost resources of Grecian art. bade the epoptae enter in. The epoptes was suddenly gladdened by a miraculous light.
Next after the Eleusinia. withdrew the veils from the images of the gods (whose true meaning was thus made known). thrice blest the mortals who have witnessed these solemn rites. the mystae as in myrtle groves they revel amid fluting and dancing. and last came the most impressive scene of all. as trapdoors.
divme. when the hierophant threw open' the door oi the inmost shrine of Demeter.
THE MYSTERIES OF SAMOTHRACE. magic lanand other optical contrivances. the Field of the Blest. while the profane wander in darkness and mire. Celestial voices
and harmonies were heard.
in the "Frogs" scores. or intermediate beings
human. lapping water like dogs.
ingenious scenic mechanisms."
men.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
others bootless affliction and misery. charming dances were executed. the most ancient and nowned of the Grecian mysteries were thosfc of
Cabiri in the island of Samothrace. That the Initiates of the mysteries regarded their
chances in the netherworld as better than those of the prowe learn not only from the sarcastic Aristophanes. when they
but the serious-minded Sophocles tells us the same thing in a fragment quoted by Plutarch: "O. smiling plains and
footsteps. no satisfactory con-
. and showed godhead in its most radiant splendor.
though in time
their astral significations
(II. But they date from very high antiquity. like their father. god of Memphis). for here "great" is not used in the sense of bodily largeness.58
elusion has yet been reached on these points. according to Herodwere "worshiped as sons of Heph(III. before the evolution of the
of a Spartan
his initiation inquired of the priest whether he should confess his sins to him or to the gods .. and on the
. In early Egyptian mythology and religion the Cabiri were
personifications of the stars. and the mysteries of Samothrace were originally an astromythology. the Samothracian mysteries the novice was required to submit to a purification by fire and to fumigation." That in the language of Phoenicia Kabirim means "the great.
as beings subordinate to the gods: for the earlier gods ever do take second place when new gods get footing. Neither is it any objection that in Greece the Kabeiroi are regarded
several Grecian deities. the Phallus." is of no consequence. figured in the shrine as Pygmies. and to
make a who at
sort of confession. The same inference is suggested by Juvenal's remark that in love affairs it was For initiation into the fashion to swear by the Cabiri.. From a remark 51) that the Athenians got from the
Pelasgians inhabiting the island of Samothrace their cus-
tom of figuring Hermes with the Phallus (and everyone who has acquaintance with the secret cult of the Cabiri knows what that means). who originally had no leaning toward such obscene imaginings. and were. the mighty ones. we are led to infer that in the
Cabiric mysteries the reproductive forces of nature played
an important part: the symbol of those forces. 37). they aestus (he means Ptah.
were forgotten. was employed by the nations of the East and from them passed to the Greeks.
that they were Initiates of these mysteries.. There were Cabirian mysteries also in several other Grecian islands.
"To the gods. Odysseus. parents of Alexander the Great. and Philip II. According to the myth.
the world. which they wore around the body.
THE MYSTERIES OF CRETE.
In the island of Crete were celebrated the mysterZeus." "Then. and in several places on the continent.
the Cretan mysteries we know this only. with dance and sons: and with loud beating of cymbals and drums. Ida and nourished with milk and honey by the people. that in the Springtime the birth of the god was commemorated at the grotto
his death at the sepulchre. while yet a child. who meanwhile."
women. both in Greece and in Asia Minor.
I will tell it to
the grodhead alone. in armor.
and that the while the
young people (who represented the
"give way. the father of
the gods and lord of
his father Cronos.
the designs of
his other chil-
who had devoured
bv his mother Rhea to and there guarded in a grotto of Mt. kept up such a din as drowned the wailing of the babe. Agamemnon. enacted the story of the childhood of Zeus."
said the penitent. etc. In Crete was also shown a sepulchre of Zeus.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
priest replying. was. The Greeks used to tell of their fabled heroes.
6. in the assurance that by this means they would be safe against perils bv sea. Orpheus. of Macedon and his queen Olympias. and the professed received a purple band. underwent this initiation. by dealing blows on each other's shields. taken
that island for refuge. even
children were initiated.
borne aloft with great pomp. as dancing on one leg. occurring. So little did the Greeks possess of our peculiar sense of shame that they looked on this symbol as some1
. At the head of a procession composed of men and women of all ranks and degrees were borne the sacrificial implements.
An ancient national cult among.in different months of the year. leaping on a leathern bag blown up with air and greased with oil outside. it cannot be denied that for many elements of our intellectual and spiritual
are indebted to this cult.
e. and soon came the imag'e of the Phallus.60
7. inasmuch as viticulture.
the Bacchus cult
materialistic. and as the Drama had
its origin in these Dionysiac festivals. others in the city. but others were connected with mysteries. was
the worship of
Dionysos or Bacchus. like agriculture. then followed the victim. On such occasions gymnastic sports of a ludicrous sort were carried on.
the festivals of
Dionysos some belonged exclusively to the popular reThose ligion. the appetite for food and the sexual
of the sun as
promoting the growth of the vine its end was plainly to glorify the physical world.the Hellenes..
. into which a mystic element was imported from without.
these non-mystic festivals of Dionysos in
Attica there were seven. from the season of the vintage in Autumn till
toward Spring or while the new wine was in fermentation and some of these festivals were held in the country. addressed to the sense
of bodily pleasure.
and yet. the others
elsewhere. a he-goat. of the former class had their chief seat in Attica. one of the factors of civilization. etc. the material world. in all its
force. and trying to maintain equilibrium.
enacted the history of the god. the former because after the death of Eurydice he never more would hear of wom-
(wife of the
accompanied by fourteen other
women. not scrupling: even to sing satirical After the sacrifice came iesting. who. and hence a people of Pelasgian stock. or rather
these transports of moral frenzy.
vals. to pass into the persons of The mad the lighthearted and selfcontrolled Hellenes. It was at this festival that the Basilissa
Basileus). seemed in these festivals. The stage had its rise in such festivals
travesty.or humanity: they were called maenades (madwomen) or Bacchae. knew no restraints of reason . and there made a secret offering with mystic rites and vows. or triennial festival of Dionysos. verses about it. which was naturally of a
gloomy cast. The spirit of the
to have originated in Thrace. which tells ways of the great singer Orpheus and Pentheus.
and the latter because he had spied on the festiFor these festivals were observed by women exclusively. The orgies
. but awakened became when their slumbering passions were wildly enthusiastic. drunken with wine. and their festivals Orgia (orgies). being torn limb from limb by the furious Maenades at
festival.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
thing entirely proper. including" of course his fabled adventures.
held in the
was kept with special solemnity.
and with travesty pantomime. (month It marked the time when the wine was racked off into the earthen pots.
in the history of
seen in the Grecian hero-myth. But we have the genuine "mysterium" in the Dionysia
Trietera. banter. king of Thebes. entered
the holy of holies of the ancient temple of Dionysos (at all other times women were forbidden to
made noise with the double-pipe and the brazen tymbal. as prac-
ticed in Greece. and hope was centered
were conducted on mountain sides or in mountain gorges at night under the light of torches. and.
disorders of Bacchus-worship. the time of shortest days and longest nights. as the story goes. armed with the thyrsus wreathed with ivy and vine leaves. symbol of the god. which occurred in the mild midwinter of Hellas. one of the forms under which Dionysos appeared. But all the anxious searching was vain. heedless of the mantle snow on the summit.
THE ROMAN] BACCHANALIA. nay.
association with the male Sex.
But Athenian women would attend the secret on Parnassus near Delphi. snakes tangled with its locks. This feat was to show forth the death of Zagreus. chae invented a fable about the death of their god.
in the finding again of the all-quickening Springtide. with their own hands tore
bull. jubilated. as the (manifestly improbable) story runs.
8. The observance of the Dionysia was not marked with these extravagances everywhere: in Attica such excesses were
been equaled. continued over several days. and in which he was torn asunder by the Titans because he had been chosen by Zeus for his successor as ruler of the universe. shunning
sacrificed. or held in the
This festival. the fair participants. and how he was lost and how he must be found again. with hair disheveled. or even
. danced. during which
bacchantes' hands. and destined to the and gloated over the victim's bellowing for pain. The flesh of the bull was torn in shreds with the teeth by Then the raving Bacthe maenads and devoured raw.
clothed in fawnskins.
Livy (xxxix. resolved to
the resources of the state for
suppression. or perhaps
has ever since contrived. under the thinnest possible cloak of religion. in every way that the depraved instincts of man or woman had ever before. Postumius Albinus. 8-20) compares the introduction of the cult into the city and its rapid spread to a visitation of plague.. instituted five festivals for each month. C.
of Bacchus. and instead of three Bacchic festivals a year.
. with forgery of last testaments. introduced the innovation of admitting men. considerations of prudence the abominations of the Bacchanalia were guarded from public view by a hedge of ceremonial. The festivals or orgies were at first observed by women. the Consul most revolting rapes. but a certain priestess
by command of the god. form the worEtruria. and the postulant admitted to the company of the Bacchanals.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
In the year 186 B. with poisonings and assassinations. According to Livy the cult was brought to Rome from In its Etruscan and Roman. they now began to be held at night. and postulants for admission were required But to practice for several days the strictest continence. ship of Bacchus was simply debauchery.
According to Livy the
of these mysteries numbered several thousand persons in the city.
and whereas in Etruria the rites had been practiced in From the day time.
the term of probation being over. having privately made inSpurius
quiries into the doings of the sect. with the
tinguished families. in the
Roman Commonwealth. many of them belonging to the most dis-
In addition to the abominations of meetings the Initiates were charged with conspiring against the commonwealth. he or she found themselves surrounded by all conceivable incitements to
the gratification of lust.
was the ward of his stepfather. pretended to the son that during his illness she had made vow to the gods to consecrate him to Bacchus in the event
of recovery. or to get him under his power. who gave to him and his colleague. and from her. not without difficulty. a damsel of questionable reputation. Aebutius's mother. Rewards were offered for trustworthy testimony. and was by them turned out of their house. but she entreated him for all the gods' sake not to have anything to do with the Bacchanalia: that she herself. Titus Sempronius Rutilus. for she feared the vengeanee of the sect. he made his resolution known to his parents. full powers for the suppression of the evil. told of this to one Hispala. learned what she knew of the proceedings at the secret assemblies. with whom he had for some time been very intimate. Now Sempronius had mismanaged the estate of Aebutius. as maid. Publius Aebutius.64
stances which led to this resolution were as follows: A youth of noble birth. and all Italy awaited the outcome of the prosecution intently and with
. thousand persons in all were implicated. measures were taken to prevent the escape Seven of guilty ones. Having promised her that he would not seek initiation. and there were numerous arrests. The Consul summoned Hispala to his presence. nothing suspecting. devoted to her husband. whose father was dead. and knew what shocking deeds were done in those assemblies. Aebutius made complaint to his aunt Aebutia. Then he brought the matter before the Senate. Aebutius. The easiest way was by debauching him in the Bacchanalia. and by her advice to the Consul Postumius. and was unable to give an account of his guardianship. and therefore wished either rb have the youth put out of the way. Quintus Marcius Philippus. had been initiated with her mistress.
The abuses of the Bacchus cult went on unchecked outside of Italy. provided that not more than five persons were present at them. without prejudice from her previous
decree of the Senate forbade fordisreputable career. surreptitiously intro-
.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
Near akin to the Dionysos cult. "except there be here
But the prohibition
or there an ancient altar or consecrated image" of the god. he must lay the case before the Praetor Urbanus. of the Bacchanalia could not be kept
in fcrce perpetually. as when the notorious Messalina. or should think that he could not omit them without incurring the guilt of irreligion. Aebutius and Hispala received a large money reward. and other imperial strumpets.
and the Praetor must consult the Senate. in many points coinciding with it. till they reached the pitch
of absolute shamelessness in imperial times. or priest. others were condemned to implices prisonment or were exiled. celebrated the most shocking orgies in the very palace. and also. All places sacred to Bacchus worship were ordered to be destroyed.
The decree provided
any one should consider such
obligatory and necessary. like the depraved forms of that cult. and Hispala furthermore was admitted to all the rights and privileges of a Romanborn freewoman.
DEBASED MYSTERIES FROM THE EAST. and that there was no common fund. ever the holding of the Bacchanalia in Rome or in Italy. and by degrees sprung up again even on Italian ground.r>
The ringleaders and a multitude of their accomwere put to death.
granted in a senate having not less than one hundred members present. he (the person desiring to practice the
worship of the god) might perform the rites. as well as with one another. nor any master of the ceremonies.
like her mother Gaea. Zeus.
for the sake of
a lovely nymph. the mysteries of the mother of the gods Rhea or Cybele. to savd him from his father's violence. and rode in a wain drawn by lions. but they nearly
agree in telling
and that Cybele. and is therefore often confounded with other goddesses answer-
ing to the same element. In Phrygia Cybele was worshiped under the form of a simple stone.
. those of Mithras. a mural crown circling her veiled head. specially with the earth-goddess Kybele (Cybele). was suckled by panposed by thers and brought up by herdsmen. She is the Earth deified. There are countless other stories told
and Cybele. according to Phrygian myth.GO
duced from the Orient into Greece and then into Rome. King Maeon. she was always followed by despairing. whom she took to Crete. and those of Sabazios cults and deities that were finally grouped together by the Orphic sect. while Attis was always represented as an ecstatically sentimental youth beneath a tree. Kybelos or Kybela
who. and afterward fell in
in Phrygia. thereafter roamed about disconsolate and Like Dionysos. The scene of her feats and
that Attis with
lost life also. the goddess in her wrath deprived him of
reason. with the Phrygian cap on his head and wearing white bag trousers. Rhea was sister and spouse of Cronos and mother of the king of the gods. named after Mt. frenzied by grief. a long human and animal retinue (the moon with the starry host!). and in his frenzy he castrated himself. of whom she exacted a vow of chastity as
priest. when exher father. both meaning "father"). The goddess thereupon ordained that in future all her priests should be eunuchs. as we have already seen. of which anon.
love with the youth Attis (afterward Papas.
its sickening. and death in the Fall. All this was accompanied by a hubbub of wild music. that is. mutilating themselves.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
gorgeous wildernesses. even emasculating themselves (as the myth required). decline. That is the theme of all the ancient mysteries. The
cult of Cybele was for the first time formally organized as a mystic society in Rome.
but the Initiates ran in confused troops. and
In the ecstasy of joy the particiWith shouts and pants were seized by a wild frenzy. armed with
curved blades. the emperors purifications in the blood of bulls and rams
were introduced. instead of the figure of the Phallus. and a pine tree was felled. in fragrant the hillsides and glades known to the groves. the priests danced and capered* like madmen. The processions did not move with meas-
ured steps and in orderly ranks. and bearing about. shouting their religious songs. and the vegetable powers of nature reappear. At Rome the priests In the time of of Cybele were called Galli. the proofs of their compliance with the precept of the goddess. As in Dionysos we see the wild
abandon of a jovial spirit. tokens of castration. and in their hands bear-
the winding of horns resurrection of Attis. through hamlets and towns. its new-birth and resurrection in the
. roaming over hill and dale. hence at her festivals all
centred in the loss of Attis. and indeed of all mysticism from the earliest times to this day. cries. cocks. because his catastrophe took place under a tree of that species. so in Cybele we have the recklessness of a soul weary of life. but the orgiast frenzy clung to it at all times. In all of them
the vicissitudes of the vegetal world. when the sun enters the constellations Taurus and Aries. as those of other
cults. apparently in honor of the Springtide. their long locks disheveled. among shepherd and the hunter.
on the second day announced the
with the result of strengthening the assurance of the soul's immortality. and. as this suffering godhead which was the prime
all these sensualists and adventurers was an importation from Thrace in the form of ZagreusDionysos.
in a female deity called Mithra: but
Of the existence of secret cults among the Persians we know nothing whatever. and' from Phrygia as Attis. and the extreme renunciation of delights by the castrate ministers of Cybele. therefore is the purest cult that heathendom
could imagine. formation of the Babylonian Mylitta. and
Mithras. so was Mithras an importation from Persia. the death and the resurrection of a god. conceived as a personality. The excess of sensual delight found in the Bacchanalia. the moon-goddess. but in the latter days of the Roman empire. found a place in the religion of European peoples. These monuments all
. known. In those later times also came belief
Mithra was unknown and the name was a transprimitive Persians. in the later times of the Persian empire Mithras-worship was combined with sun-worship. the finding of him. the quest for the god. and hence was the highest manifestation of the good god
the consequent reunion. among many mysteries those of Mithras made their appearance
and even gained great pre-eminence. Now.68
Spring. the god. hence nothing about any mysTo the Greeks Mithras was unteries sacred to Mithras. Among the ancient Persians Mithras was the light.
are only variations of one same theory of human life. as sun-god. as is proved by numerous monuments still extant. Hence the worship of Mithras is worship of the light. Out of this nature-cult arc
by little developed the feeling of alienation of man from God. are allegorized into the sufferances. while the darkness represented Ahriman.
hand immolated a man
to Mithras.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
consist of representations in stone of a young man in a cave. but the most probable view is that the youth stands for
the sun-god. with Mithraism from the
and had for their original end worship of light and of the sun. wearing the Phrygian cap. each At having its special ritual and its special doctrines. in the act of slaying with
a dagger a bull
all around are figures of men and animals. and those of the highest degree were vowed to celibacy.
some very ugly
developments. and. The mysteries of Mithras.
such as were
were more elaborate than in the The postulants were subjected to a
long series of probationary tests eighty in all.
way. symbolical of constellations. begins
to develop his highest power.
probability. on subduing Taurus (in May). sacrifices were offered in the Mithras cult. it is supposed which grew more and more severe till they became actually dangerous to life. dog. ser. Among the initiatory rites the ones were a baptism and the drinking of a poprincipal tion of meal and water. like their symbolic representation in the monuments. Admission to the highest secrets was reached through several degrees. pent. to vain reveries and the corrupt age of the Roman
subtilities. and the glorifying of the sun's victory over
darkness. were celebrated in grottoes.
The groups have been variously interpreted. on the other hand human sacrifices came in. times the Initiates were required to fast. who. probably seven.
rites of initiation
Grecian mysteries. despite the decrees of the Emperor Hadrian. as the scorpion. Such abstinences were all unknown to the ancient Persians. etc.
a festival also was instituted in his honor. a combination of Zagreus Attis. and made of gabalus." supposed by some to be a mixture of Sanskrit and
Persian. Julian the apostate consecrated in Constantinople a sanctuary to Mithras. and the result was dubbed Sabazius. uproarious singing. The name Sabazius is given by sundry writers to various gods and sons of gods. but in these words we have an allusion to a new god and his cult. Coins were struck in honor of Mith-
and he was honored with public inscriptions in the words. are seen inscribed the neck of the bull the words "Nama Sebealongside sio.
the worship of Mithras. as discoverer of the There existed in Greece a public vine.
. was an enthusiastic Sabazist. In the monuments already mentioned. the pure god of light a bloodthirsty Moloch. in particular the monster Heliocarried the abomination farther.. Soli Invicto (to the unconquered sun).
In the latter Graeco-Roman time.
Diodorus gives indicating the wild disorder of this cult. break to pieces). after
the empire had been christianized. and
Mithras was made. and the word comes probably
from the Greek verb Sabazein
with ludicrous dances. when the mystery craze possessed all minds.
other authors confound Sabazius. this name to the inventor of the use of oxen in ploughing. and a secret cult of Sabazius. 378) and the grotto of Mithras at Rome destroyed.
and to signify Worship to the Pure. Nay. with Bacchus. which
ras. and loud of cymbals and drums.70
successors. both resembling the Bacchic
cult. The orator Aeschines. But after the death of Julian the cult was forbidden in
the empire (A. called the Natal Day of the Unconquered Sun: it fell on December 25th and was publicly observed: the same day was in Persia New Year's.
the resources of his caustic sarcasm.THE GRECIAN MYSTERIES
initiation into the
Sabazian mysteries the postulant had snakes dropped into his bosom.
From. but as time went on.
heathendom as a whole had passed out of the bloody.
thus in time. were the most impudent of mendiAristophanes exhausted on Sabazius. then washed in token of a
. as Grecian philosophy began to undermine the thrones of the Olympian gods.
hideous night of the gods. and the educated people to look on the fair forms of the world of gods as
escaped and have found the better. but the real ob-
to give opportunity to Initiates of both sexes
to indulge in the
priests of this cult
cants. was robed in fawnskin. the "trumpall
ery god. and to
banish the phantoms of the netherworld. and it was seen that their rites were not only of the earth earthy. lost to all shame and all moral
sense. There was much hocuspocus and absurd jugglery withal. that they were become mischievous: yet the Initiates. his face daubed with clay.
most shameless gluttony and lewdness. persisted nevertheless in their sacred hypocrisy.
began to be stript of the glory of a heavenly origin.
any thought to be embodied in action. do we discern in the mysteries any "end" aimed at
idea to be realized. They were accessible
only to the initiated. but candidates for admission were not carefully selected. their object was either simply to illustrate or interpret certain ideas (such as we have already charin their acterized) by means of elaborate ceremonies.
I." for the distinctive note of such societies is that they make a special selection of their members. or
earliest historic instance of
such a secret society
afforded by the Pythagorean League.
The great philosopher Pythagoras was a sort of Grecian Moses or Jesus.
The Pythagorean League and Other
Associations. From all that we can learn with certainty regarding the
The mysteries so far considered had for their foundation the worship of the gods. a Messiah to whom were ascribed
. and in Athens anyone of fair
repute was eligible for initiation into the Eleusinia.
PYTHAGORAS. and have a specific
decay and degeneration For this reason
to minister to unbridled
we cannot regard
mysteries we have been studying as true "secret societies.
quite unknown in the previous history of his nation. to
how far it conforms to the truth. where the veiled image at Sais sat enthroned. became deeply incrusted with and fiction. and whose history. direct his steps if not to the land of wonders on the Nile.
. which gives the glamour to everything. He is repre580.
That he possessed uncommon intellectual power is shown by his scientific discoveries and by his wonderfully organized discipleship. or. according to some authorities. C. tyrannos of Samos. and martyred for his principles. who gathered around him
swore in his words and pursued peculiar ends disconnected from the interests of this world. in fact. whether Polycrates. who
that account was. prisoned. likes to bring renowned
he busied himself with his favorite sciences. far-reaching plans. it is certainly difficult. the mutual relations of which and their mutual His influence he is. first of Grecian philosophers to seek the land of Nile tradition.
supreme wisdom. 569. athirst for
wisdom. and preached a new system of nature and of life.
in his youthful years.
related. because of its
extraordinary character.THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE
reform. believed' to have discovered. mathematics and music. years of study ended of them we have no definite knowl-
his years of travel followed. with his disciples.
in his day. sented as of distinguished presence and imposing stature. Pythagoras was born in the island of Samos B. and where the mystic silence of the priests suggested to the visitant treasures of knowledge hidden
Whether the counsel to in their temples? Egypt came from Thales. by a world which deemed itself outraged. if not quite impossible. till at last there was left only a figure in which. ideas of worldwide
who proclaimed new ideas. persecuted.
the doctrine of
necessarily have impressed the
. on the part of the
serious difficulties he
Heliopolis. By hook or by crook he' obtained. though the thing
priests of Osiris. and
be to him?
ideas of the divine nature. But of what avail could
His countrymen had already fashioned They based their on nature and spiritualized nature: the Greeks theology knew nothing of an impassable gulf yawning between god and world. we know not.
voyaged to Egypt. as his countrymen would not have understood even a monotheism specially designed for
For the Greeks the intimate association between god and universe was not only an idea. bone of their bones: it was gloriously immorthem.
not go to school in horns and hawks' heads. fain would communicate to the Greeks of the Egyptian wisdom whatever seemed adapted to their use.
talized in the imperishable
sculpture. then not so comas they afterward became. we have described plaisant already when giving account of the Egyptian mysteries. for them these two were bound together and pervaded each other: to such a people one could not preach an "architect of the universe.
masterworks of their archiand surely Grecian sculptors must Egypt to learn how to carve cows'
Nevertheless. for the chronology is consistent. it was flesh of their flesh. whether at Thebes. especially when \ve bear in mind the discrepancies between authors as to the year of Pythagoras's birth: at all events.
he the more willingly complied with the Initiate's oath to observe lifelong silence regarding what he had seen and
heard in the temples. therefore." Pythagoras. or elsewhere. indoctrination in the theology of the One God.74
to his friend the
commended him we have no
THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE.
Pythagoras deeply: he must have recognized therein a profound philosophy, though it may not have satisfied him completely; and hence it was his task, as it was the task of Plato and of all other Greeks initiated in the Egyptian mysteries', to expound the doctrine of the one
to Grecian ideas
to couple Oriental wis-
with Grecian fancy.
traditional story represents
Pythagoras as tarry-
the Persian king Cambyses conquered the country, and tells how that tyrant had the Grecian philosopher deported, with other captives, to Babylon,
where Pythagoras became acquainted with Zoroaster, and to his knowledge of the Egyptian wisdom now added a mastery of the wisdom of the Persians. Pythagoras was with Cambyses; but the time undoubtedly contemporary of Zoroaster is so undecided that the story must be regarded as
he returned to his native Samos, purposing to
up as a master, he found to his chagrin that independent science is a plant that does not thrive under
tyranny, and, compelled
force of circumstances to
what became afterward Italy. were two Achaean cities, Sybaris and Crotona. Calabria,
the eastern coast, in
Pythagoras intended at first to make his home in Sybaris, but Sybaris could be no congenial home for such a philCrotona afforded a more promising field for osopher.
his work, and there the labors of Pythagoras before long were abundantly rewarded. The Greeks ever were eager for novelties (novarum rerum cupidi), and whoever
brought anything new was welcome.
was a thing unknown among the Crotoniats; therefore they received its apostle with gladness and enthusiasm.
Pythagoras commenced by giving publid lectures
council hall; as these awakened more and more interest every day, the philosopher was employed by the authorities
to give counsel to the citizens; he then established a
school, thus adding to his public functions the duties of a private instructor. Pythagoras used three agencies in his
his Doctrine, his School,
and the League
by him. The Doctrine of Pythagoras holds a distinct place among the philosophic systems of the Greeks. With restituted
gard to the opposition existing between the
the physical, and the uncertainty and obscurity that reigns as to the relations between them and the true constitution
of each, the doctrine solves all difficulties by the theory that Number is at once the form and the substance of all All things consist of Numbers, corporeal elements as well as spiritual (mental, or intellectual) forces, and henceforth Pythagoras's philosophy became mathematics. But the silly tricks with numbers that occupied the ingenuity of later Pythagoreans possess no interest for us. It is probable that the master contented himself with the undeniable fact that the matter and essence of things a view of great prorest on mathematical relations the age in which the philosopher fundity, considering To Pythagoras and his school are credited the dislived. tinction of numbers into even and odd, the decimal numeration, square and cubic numbers, as also the famous
Pythagorean theorem, the triumph of geometry. Pythagoras brought music into closest relation with As in numbers he recognized the most mathematics. perfect "harmony," so he must needs regard harmony of sounds as a necessary part of the harmony of numbers. By this association he became the discoverer of our pres-
THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE
ent scale of seven musical notes
idea of harmony found most perfect embodiment in the universal creation, and in astronomy he was the first to surmise that the earth does not stand still, but has a revolution around a centre hence, that it is not the principal existence in the universal frame of things, that all things 'do not exist for its sake, that Earth is not twin sister of the Heavens. True, Pythagoras had no idea,
in the then existing lack of astronomical instruments, how the heavenly bodies were related: that
was the discover}
for the mid-point of the universe a "central fire" out of which were formed all the heavenly bodies this- the seat
that sustains the world, the centre of gravity Around this central fire revolve the ''ten" of all things. bodies farthest off the heaven of the fixed stars, heavenly
to antiquity, then the sun,
moon, earth, and lastly the "counter-earth", which revolves between the earth and the central fire. Revolving
along with the earth, the counter-earth posed between the earth and the central
to ihe earth only indirectly,
by reflection from the sun. on the same side of the central fire as the sun we have day; when it is on the other side, night.
his theory did. not contemplate the actual
have surmised a central sun
as that centre.
situdes of the seasons
to the ecliptic.
first to explain the vicisthe obliquity of the earth's axis by Further, he discovered the identity of the
morning and evening
His school held the moon to and larger plants, animals, and hustar.
creatures, than those Of earth.
In accordance with
to express the bold
his doctrine of
harmony he ventured
idea that the heavenly bodies by their movement produce tones which together constitute a perfectly harmonious
the music of the spheres. harmony, being so wonted to it.
do not hear
to apply to the soul of
trine of harmony. By harmony the opposition between reason and passion was to be reconciled. But as this
consummation is never to be achieved as long as soul and body are tied together, the sage of Samos regarded this union as a measure of probation, destined to endure
have made himself worthy of liberation from the same; and when he fails of this during, his span
then his soul must migrate through the bodies of other men and animals till it shall become worthy of
leading, in a higher region of light, an incorporeal
His disciples, furthermore, cherpurity and perfection. ished the fantastic idea that the master was able to recognize in another body the man whose soul had transmiThat Pythagoras himself ever pretended himself was in his fifth metempsychosis, or that he was son of Apollo, or that he had a golden hip, or a golden thigh, are either ridiculous exgrated into or believed
travaganzas of imaginative disciples or the sarcastic stories of his enemies. But noble and beautiful are the
conclusions which he draws from his doctrine regarding
namely, the moral precepts which he
supreme end. They required an absolutely stainless life. Pythagoras enforced the duty of reverence toward parents and the aged, fidelity
for the attainment of the
in friendship, strict self-examination, circumspection in all our acts, patriotism, etc. Further, his disciples were
required to be cleanly of body and cleanly in attire; they were to abstain from all "unclean" food, especially flesh-
THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE
to live on meat, and from intoxicating liquors, and hence but beans were an exception to bread and fruits only, this rule for some not fully explained reason beans were
to the Pythagoreans.
was unfit as food was God: for the god our philosopher reverenced was a god of light and purity. His clear intellect rejected polytheism, though what his view of the unity of godhead was we know nothing save that his faith was an eminently pure and exalted one.
unfit also as matter for offerings to
of Pythagoras was devoted entirely to his School and his League. The School was the seedfield or seminary of the League, and the League was the prac-
School's teaching. School was preparatory to the League, whose were educated in the School.
application of the
Thus the members
Pythagoras enjoyed the boundless reverence of his disciples: when they wished to assert any proposition as
indisputably true, they would say, (Gr., autos ephe, Lat, ipse dixit).
Master increased as in time the School was For changed from an open institution to a secret one. at first everybody, even the most learned and most eminent of the
attended the lectures of the Philoso-
Those who were simply hearers of the lectures But those who were called Acusmatics (akusmatikoi). were of proper age for receiving a further education, and who had leisure to devote themselves to learning, were afforded opportunity for pursuing higher studies under the personal direction of Pythagoras, and were known,
etc. but as Students. place where people live in community) was a world in itself. or Acustici. exoterikoi To gain admission to the esoteric (exoterici. and were preparing themselves
for the higher studies. music.
student failed to answer the tests he was rejected: but
he passed successfully.. in which he and his disciples might live secluded from
the influences of the outerworld.
Acusmatici. class a pupil was required to spend from two to five years
in study. or Mathematici. or. he was no longer required to observe silence and to be content with listening only: he might now see the Master face to face. and embraced all the
conveniences of plain living
(esoterici. who received instruction in the elements of the sciences. outsiders). mathematics. were no longer persons of all classes and degrees. helped
by the contributions that flowed in.
having grown considerably in numbers became possible for Pythagoras. They had to observe strict silence and to yield blind obedience. This These were the nucleus of the Pythagorean sect.
class of disciples
influence. and under his
might pursue a study chosen by himself. promenades. as
not as simple Hearers.
philosophy. to erect for his academy a special building.
and was made
the Koinobion (coenobium. so that the student did not regret Henceforth the the hurlyburly of the world without. halls. baths. insiders):
those before the curtain.
institution. admitted to attend the lectures. groves. and were not permitted to
see the Master's face: at the lectures a curtain screened
and then had to undergo severe
students were admitted
the screen. astronomy. group of buildings. but
the newly admitted pupils.
resolutions had been kept. the Esoterici They lived in the Coenobium.
lodestar of their lives.
washed and bathed abstained from the meats and drinks forbidden by the Master. an Exoteric member of the League. and evenings question-
. how they might employ the hours most profitably. to keep their plighted word. The Esoteric members of the League no doubt. The League
have comprised several sections. at their
the contrary. to the law submissive.
temperate in their
. comprised Exoterics
and Esoterics. that foundation-idea of the Pythagorean doctheir
They studied to be toward the erring strict and kindly. in conformity with the division of the pupils in the School.
trine. to friends and yokemates. or whether they were co-ordinate branches. but whether
the sections were "degrees" rising one above another. meditating.
classes. as well as the
graduates of the school
But to become of these never exceeded 300. mornings. which for the rest was a science of dietetic. anyone was qualified
a follower of the Philosopher.
toward the unfortunate
charitable. and put in
linen. and in their behavior to set a good example to all men.
to their discretion. while.
These approved and
formed the core
of the celebrated League.THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE
the cornerstone of the Pythagorean therapeutic.
and who was
ready to live according to his teaching and to spread the knowledge of the doctrine abroad: of these there may
have been several thousand. which. the students admitted to the higher were. always wore clothes of white
daily in cold water.
were bound by strict rules.
practice his doctrine.
various duties. is not clear.
hear of Mathematici,
to the sciences,
ethics, of Politici,
devoted themselves specially who were professors of
concerned with government, of Sebasreligion.
whose province was
religion of the
have been compounded of doctrines of the ancient popular religion of the Greeks, of the
and of the monotheism of the Egyptian priests had a secret cult, with elaborate ceremonial of in;
purpose of which, however, was to enforce
the teaching of the Master.
The political principles of the Pythagoreans favored a transformation of the Dorian oligarchism into an aristocratism of culture. Democracy they hated. Their aim
was to acquire for themselves powerful influence in the the state, to fill the public offices with their own members,
they appear to have
or approximately in Crotona, Locri, Metapontum, Tarentum, and other cities of Mag-
There is no doubt that the secrets that the Pythagoreans were sworn to keep had reference to these
bar out the uninitiated the
bers are said to have had a badge, a five-pointed star (pentagrammon, pentalpha) and to have employed a sym-
form of speech, by means of which they concealed their secrets under cover of apparently trivial words, or words not to be understood by outsiders. But the League of the Sage of Crotona, after a gloriThe ous, though brief, ascendency, had a tragic end. cities of Magna Graecia had grown rich by commerce, and with wealth and ease had come great corruption of manners. In Sybaris the lower classes of citizens artisans and shopkeepers rose in revolt, and five hundred
THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE
patricians were banished, their property seized by the people, and the popular leader Telys administered the
The exiles took refuge in government in their stead. and there, according to Grecian custom, sitCrotona, ting around the altar in the agora, or market place, imThus
plored the aid of that city, then ruled by the Pythagoreans. for two reasons the rulers of Crotona were objects
of hate to the tyrannos of Sybaris they were the enemies of democracy, and they were protectors of the exiled oli:
He, therefore, demanded of Crotona surrender garchs. of the fugitives. The demand having been refused (at the urgent instance of Pythagoras it is said), war followed. desperate battle was fought, and the Croton-
number, were victorious (510 and was looted Sybaris without mercy, and the town leveled with the ground: in fact, a stream was made to flow through the once magiats,
into their hands,
This atrocious deed, which though no consequence
of Pythagorean teaching, was nevertheless a consequence of Pythagorean exclusiveness and Pythagorean contempt
for the people,
so mortally offended, took an equally atrocious revenge. In Crotona, too, as before in Sybaris, the democracy took
and demanded a division of the conquered Sybarterritory among all the citizens of Crotona, and equal suffrage for all in the election of the rulers. At the head
of the democracy stood Cylon, an
enemy of the PythaThe aged Master, because of the hostility manigoreans. fested toward him personally, was obliged to flee from
the scene of his great labors.
at It is supposed that he died hard on a hundred years old. In CroMetapontum, tona the strife of parties went on. The government un-
wisely rejected the demands of the democrats, and thereupon, about the middle of the fifth century B. C, the
The rage of the oppressed and despised people was vented first upon the Pythagoreans, a great number of whom were assembled in the house of Milo. The house was taken by storm, the assemblage butchered
on the spot or
and their property disAristocracy was also over-
in Tarentum, Metapontum, and Locri. The Pythagorean League was annihilated, and its religious and political labors disappeared, leaving no trace.
scattered fragments of the Pythagorean
attached themselves to another association, that of the Orphici, named after the fabled singer Orpheus. This
curious association, a fantastic
of the mysteries
and Pythagorism, is rightly credited to Onomacritus, apostle and reformer of the Eleusinian andDionysian mysteries, who lived in the time of the Athenian tyrannos Pisistratus: he was high ini the favor of Pisistratus, and enjoyed
celebrity. By some of his contemporaries, men of sense and not easily imposed on, he was suspected of
existed); but probably he did this without intent to deceive, but simply because of his irresistible
palming off (who never
passion for the mummery of secret societies and mysteries, This adventurer and mystic, who understood very well the meaning of the mysteries and the uses to which they
could be turned, was one of the first to speak out the thought hidden in them: that man was born in sin and fallen away from God, and that he cannot be saved till
THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE
grace shall be afforded him. His doctrine was just Pietism, with this exception, that instead of "the lord Jesus" we have here the god Dionysos, or the lacchos of the
Such inane babblement as this, mysteries, or Orpheus. and such doctrines as that the soul of man is confined
body as in a prison, that the world is for it a vale of tears and a place of banishment, that it is pining and longing to return to its true home, Heaven, are an offense to the joyous spirit of Greece, an outrage against her religion of beauty, truth, and virtue, the last blow The outcome of them dealt at Grecian art and science.
literature" consisting of mysticism and sentimen-
like the mysteries,
great assemblages of people in temples, but, after the Pythagorean pattern, secret schools or clubs; and they followed, at least ostensibly, the Pythagorean rule of life,
abstaining from fleshmeat, beans, and wine; but with coupled two cults in themselves incompatible,
that of the ideal
god Apollo, and that of the sensual deity But being stript of the semi-public and official chraracter attaching to the mysteries, and of the philoDionysos.
sophic dignity of the Pythagorean sect, the Orphic societies became simply nests of swindlers and mendicants; and vagabond priests, Orpheotelestae, admitted to their
ridiculous degrees, for a consideration, every credulous
and marvel-gobbeting postulant; there were even victims who had themselves with wife and children initiated every month. Other tricksters combined the Orphic cult with the Phrygian cult of Cybele, mother of the gods, and with that of Sabazios: these were known as Metragyrtae
These and their like were regular mountebanks, giving out had the power of curing the insane, their method to dance and caper around the patient to the sound being
that they of timbrels, the while
they took up a
flagellating themselves: for this One of these metragyrtae
century questioned the oracle, and got response that in atonement they should build a temple to the Great Mother: thereupon
punished at Athens in the middle of the B. C. but the judges, seized by remorse,
followers of the dead juggler were set free. priestess of Sabazios, Ninus by name, was also put to
death for brewing philters she was the one sole victim of
witchcraft trials in
Thus did the Orphic same low estate as the mysteries, despised by all honest and enlightened men. But both! the mysteries and the Orphic as well as Pythagorean societies were links in a chain of phenomena
antiquity. sect in Greece degenerate to the
all through Grecian antiquity, indicating a reaction against the popular religion, and an efplainly fort to introduce essentially different religious views views which in aftertimes, in an improved form, were to
triumph definitely over the Olympian gods.
MYSTERIOUS PERSONAGES OF ANCIENT TIMES.
In antiquity we are able to distinguish three religious
deification of nature:
polytheism, monotheism, mysticism. The and as nature manifests
herself in various forces, the religion, too,
a multitude of
had to postuthe system of the
Graeco-Roman popular religion; and in two branches it is again differentiated by the fact that on the one side it assumed a gloomy, awe-inspiring
one-sided character of abstruseness.THE PYTHAGOREAN LEAGUE
character. but it
was not a
definitive separation. in the Orphic rites there is allusion to the natural sinfulness of man.
Even in the myths underlying the Eleusinian we have a conversion of the gods. without any feeling for form and beauty it was the system of the Egyptian priests and of the Israelites.
consisted. and to grace and redemp-
tion . therefore. and others appear as suffering and dying demigods. and
purposes. even as in Christianity. in a sense of aliena-
tion from God. in that it contemplated many gods embraced under one form. the bodily is regarded as an evil. by the purifications in observed in the Bacchic mysteries
inviting to mirth
on the other side it wore a joyous aspect. The second system rested separation of God from nature. etc.
and in an incessant longing for reunion This system found embodiment in the Grecian
mysteries and the Pythagoreo-Orphic societies. an incorporeal immortality
oi the soul as true bliss.
Orpheus. and later in ''positive" Christianity: it was neither absolutely poly-
nor absolutely monotheistic. especially
. for there
. in the mysteries
the Pythagorean sect. and thus it ac:
quired a monotonous. but compact of these two systems. and pleasure. and in
passed over into
Mohammedanism and some
Christian sects as Unitarianism. or one god manifested in sundry
Demeter and Dionysos. into human form and a resurrecand ascension of Persephone an important part was played in the same mysteries by the bread and wine employed for religious
with him. Zagreus. The third system also postulated the separation of God and nature. in the mysteries of Cybele sexual continence as highly meritorious.
laws. subduer of the winds. he was represented as inventor of sheep-husbandry.
tions of polytheism. being of a more general nature. as man's helper in drought and aridity.. the production of oil from the olive. have not yet been mentioned in these pages. This
Aristaios passed for a son of Apollo the god of light. In the island Ceos he was the most highly reverenced of
the gods. beekeeping. Now plainly Aristeas and Aristaios are one same
. and many are the other points of contact between those systems and Christianism.
and there ofttimes was joined with the father of the gods. Held apart from the "scandalous chronicles" and naughty gossip that was in circulation around the rest of the gods. which. he was less honored on the Grecian terra firma than in the Hellenic islands and
colonies. transcending all the concepall the gods in human form wor-
shiped by ancient Greece.
god. with the god of light as Aristaios-
Apollon. practicer of leech-
craft (like his
brother Aesculapius). and perhaps the gods of sea and netherworld. just because one knows not what to make of him.
and on the punishment of the wicked. but the "Best God.88
delights.Aristaios (particularly in his role of protector of the bees).
and enigmatical personages
hitherto quite unnoticed. is passed over in silence. with the god of fertility as Aristaios-Dionysos.
originator of rites. vogue of his name
sciences. as Zeus. for
polytheism the soul after death
who have remained
the learned." in Greek Aristaios. whereas. in is but a shadow.
see in Aristaios a conception of
cne almighty. except
only about the
schools and the books give information
recognized Olympian gods.
13-15) Aristeas was of Proconnesus. But not only occurrences which call to mind the Christian Son of God. which they
did. without leaving any vestige of bodily presence. and Hesiod
. otus (IV.
was Apollo's priest. as far as it goes. in lower Italy.
(Odyssey. But 340 years later he was seen at Metapontum. son of Castrpbius in the
. an isle in the Propontis (sea of Marmora). there composed poems on his journey to Scythia (which Herodotus read). a citizen of the neighboring town
who happened to be passing.
paronymus was Apollo's son. is no doubt evidence of a pre-Christian need of a
son of god rising from the dead and ascending into heaven. where he ordered the citizens to erect to Apollo -a statue with his name. in a fulling-mill. 125). but even his very name appears in Grecian antiquity. The place having been closed after his death. and disappeared a second time. the burghers of Metapontum were
counseled to obey the precept of Aristeas. Seven years afterward he appeared again in Proconnesus. and died in his
trees. V. then he disof Cyzicus
appeared for good. and anon
disappearing. as According to Herod-
sacred trance received the inspiration of Apollo.THE PYTHAGOREAN
name. it is also an argument for the reality of resurrection from the dead and for the union
of the divine
Herodotus saw the statue surrounded by laurel This "Best of Men. but no trace of Aristeas was there..
LEAGlfE?." ever reappearing. journeyed into Scythia (north of the Black Sea). declared that he had just before met Aristeas in that town and spoken with him. The mill door was then opened. On questioning the oracle at Delphi what they should do.
the ancient Greeks there
was a mythical
personage named Aristeas. and indeed the name antedates
a son of Zeus. cure). and who with the goddess Demeter (the earth. more upright. became the indefatigable herald of the mystic
Says Diodorus (V." Thus does Jasion figure as son of the highest god. As beloved of the Eleusinian
goddess." "healer. and Plutos). and as the source of
fortune. and in every respect better.. But in punishment of his sacrilegious love of a goddess Zeus struck him dead with a thunderbolt.
lacchos. Jasios. 49): "Wealth is a gift imparted through the intermediation of Jasios. who had a sister Harmonia.. and the verb being iaomai (to heal. etc. Compare lao.
His name is equivalent to "savior. It is known of all that these gods (Demeter.
and Jason (i. when invoked amid dangers by the initiated straightway offered them help and whoso hath part in the mysteries.
. e. the Greek form of
name Yahve or Jehova. as himself raised to divine honors. the same will be more devout. Thus in mystic Hellenism we
. and there can be no doubt that tion.
dering apostle of religion.
. lason). after initiation into the mysteries by Zeus himself. as a wandoctrines.90
(Theogony 969) mention Jasion or Jasios (names closely resembling the Hebrew Joshua and Jesus). yet at the same time assigned him a place among the gods. or fertility) produced out of a thriceplowed field Plutus (wealth) meaning that the discoverer of husbandry became discoverer of thrift.
find the basic ideas of
system of divine incarnation and human deificaof redemption. . Jasios." from the same root as iatros (healer). we must seek in the Grecian mysteries for one of the
sources of Christianism..
finest sense of art-form:
Son of Man. buti took Judaism for the
basis of his teaching.
HELLENISM AND JUDAISM. Sharper contrast can hardly be than that between the
Grecian and the Jewish character. the Greeks maintaining an active commerce with all the world.
If one attends solely to the fact that the founder of th e Christian religion was a Jew.
But the apparent contradiction disappears at once when we reflect that long before Christ's day Judaism was thoroughly yeasted with Grecian elements. their ships traversing
most untiring research and the on the other only theology and religious poetry. We will not only prove that this was so.
Son of God. but also will show that the Christianism of Christians is at root and in substance a totally different thing from the
Christianism of Jesus.: that the sources of Christianism are to be
Grecian mysteries. on the one side a priesthood that makes no pretension. and has little or no influence on the other a nation ruled by priests. and that after his death the work of propagating his system was done far more largely by Greeks and men of Grecian education than by Jews. and that not only he executed his mission in Judea. viz.PART FOURTH. On one side closest union between God and world: on the other. the assertion made in the preceding section.
diaspora). seat of Grecian art. their undiminished reverence for Temple of Jerusalem.
old and mistrust
These fundamentally different elements were fated to in mutual contact. thanks to their laws regarding foods and the Sabbath. against every ship that touched at Joppa. they
became a shopkeeping or mercantile race. on the edge of the Asian and African deserts.
scattered still more in consequence of the wars between Alexander's successors: soon they were to be found in every port and every isle of the Mediter-
The Jews were
ranean as far as Spain. against
every caravan from the desert. But nowhere outside Palestine were they so numerous as in Egypt and its splendid new capital. both those who remained in the region of Euphrates and Tigris and the small number of them who returned to the
native land. and after this dispersion (in Greek. and the obligation laid on
to pilgrim thither once at least. and
therefore after the conquest of Persia by Alexander.92
the seas. their posses.
under the Persian sceptre. remained
firmly attached to the religion of their fathers. from the Strait of Gibraltar to the remotest angle of the Etixine: Judea sealed against all access from without. in Greece eager seizing new and readiness to reject what is anti-
quated in Judea holding
of all change. Ever since their liberation from
Babylonian captivity by the decree of Cyrus. after the model of the temple at Jerusalem. nevertheless in many places they adopted the language (usually
. literature and learning. were exposed to the powerful influence of Grecian culture.
sion of the Scriptures. Alexandria. They enjoyed large privileges in Egypt and they erected at Leontopolis a temple. the Jews. But though the Jews of the Diaspora.
from their acquaintance with the literature
became conversant with Grecian philosophy. founder of
this school of thought. 280 and 220 the
developing a new mysticism.SON OF MAN.
. C. Greek. and on the other side to the
Greek philosophers. literatim." the
several versions agreed verbatim.
by means of an
pretation of the Old Testament.
. traced to that source all the wisdom of the Greeks. but now suddenly taken up by these enthusiasts. Septuaginta.
In this mysticism of
was that the idea of Divine Revelation
its origin an idea before unknown. C. In later times the remainder of the Hebrew Bible was
translated (about 125 B. punctatim. In Alexandria scholars who were not
the Septuagint an introduction to Jewish theology. the Hellenist Jews. and applied. greatest of the
Jewish philosophers. so that a special "Hellenist" synagogue had to be erected at Jerusalem for the sake of visiting Jews who understood only But nowhere did Jews adopt the Grecian customs and language so unreservedly as at Alexandria. and Philo. on the one side to the Old Testament. contemporary with Jesus.
Heptekonta. and it was there that between the years B.
Pentateuch was translated into Greek.
styled the Septuagint (Latin. both meaning seventy). Jews to study Plato and Aristotle and the enlightened polytheism of the one concurred with the monotheism of the others. being six from each of the twelve
the old fable that in the
Israelitish tribes. SON OF GOD
Greek) of the locality in which they lived. Greeks began to admire the wisdom of Moses. in accordance with work were employed seventytwo translators.
and that while each of the seventy-two whole of the five "books of Moses.
should despise sense and live entirely in the thought of God. in the trees of Paradise the other virtues.!' etc.
THE ESSENES. that so he might obtain release. so spiritualized the tradition of his race as to see in the four rivers of Eden the
four cardinal virtues.
2. God made a world of ideas. before he created
first work. the world his second: this passed afterward into the gospel called of John: "In the beginning was the word.
Grecizing Jew Josephus makes them a
was the order or
traced their origin back to high antiquity. but whose doctrines really were first put forth about the year 100
B. but that by the creation of woman Philo took the idea of he was made sinful. perfect. in the patriarchs and heroes of Israel only personifications of various moral conceptions: all in the
Grecian manner. ideal. and with Pythagoras he regards the soul's union with the body as a punishment. from the Grecian philosophy rather than immortality from the ancient Jewish doctrines.
sect of the Essenes. but nevertheless in Philo's day there existed a society that aimed to fashion their life in accordance with these opinions. One should think such views are inconsistent with the laws of man's nature. He therefore taught that man should free himself as much as possible from this burdensome association.
to Philo. and so in truth they are. that is. The logos
. He understood the history of
man's creation to mean that the first human creature was immortal. which found its centre of unity in his Word (logos) the corporeal world was made after the model of this ideal world. C.94
he knew nothing of his
life or doctrine. imperfect.
Pliny the elder plants them on the western shore of the Dead Sea. in settlements apart.
seafaring. Their food was such as necessity required. Essenii. whether for anointing or for use with victuals." standing between the Pharisees and the Sadducees. we must infer that they abstained totally from fleshmeat and intoxicating liquors. had nothing to do with the
parties. Their number is stated at 4. and was prepared strictly
according to the rules of the order. Sexual love also they condemned.
whatever served the uses of warfare.
had no private property. that they lived in the hamlets. as the manufacture of arms.
Josephus says that they lived in special settlements in the country parts. but they sternly refused to have anything to do with
(healers. however. innkeeping. abstained from marriage and maintained its numerical strength by
adopting outside children another faction. But as they practiced the healing art they got the name of
The name. and a party among them (the leading party). retained the in. They repudiated not alone servitude. but mastery in general.SON OF MAN. they also declined all trades engaged in for individual profit. On this point we know with certainty only that they held oil in abominaBut tion.000.
questions at issue between the two principal The Essenes constituted a secret society. but community of goods among themselves they neither bought nor sold. avoiding the cities. but each to each gave according to the need.
. as traffic. But the Essenes.
from the circumstance that they condemned bloody offerings and always practiced great abstemiousness in food. and whatever in anywise annuls the natural equality of mankind. deeming this strictness to be fatal to the sect. physicians). SON OF GOD
party. Their occupations were husbandry and handicraft. is of unknown derivation. as such.
fered prayer in unison. studied to control the passions. If the result of probation was satisfactory. but with regard to the society itself. a loincloth for the bath. During that time the postulant conformed to the Essenian rule of life: he received a small hatchet (borne by all
The members observed
stitution of marriage. to be faithful to all obligations.
and a white gown. coming thence back to the common meal. Their daily tasks were minutely prescribed. the most scrupulous cleanliness. There was a twelve-month term of probation prior to admission into the order. as an
of labor). and wearing white garments. in which they paid honor to the sun as symbol of God. to observe secrecy regarding"
the doings of the order and the names of members: this with reference to the world without. The meal concluded. practiced moderation in all things. and to be helpful to the poor. They did nothing without orders from the superiors. the postulant was admitted to memberThe rite of admission consisted of a meal in comship. laid off their clean garments. to keep nothing secret from the brethren. first washing themselves and putNo one tasted anything till the ting on clean garments. Before rise of sun they spoke no word. Then they went about their work. and went back to work.
though under severe restrictions. preceded by the pronouncing
brother. taking the bath daily in cold water. a second term of probation (two years) followed if found worthy.
tenor of the
that he obli-
gated himself to be ever faithful to the rules of the order to lead a virtuous life. only the prayers.
. to be at peace among themselves and with all the world. At the last meal of the day the same customs were observed at meat only one person spoke at a time.
. they ofpriest had made prayer.
etc. for they held tenuous aether. but by reason of their condemnation of bloody sacrifices
they were self-excluded from the temple. or snow. indeed. days of Christianism it then died out. the views of the Pythagoreans. to conjure
disease away. for the outcasts were not released from their
reminded by the Essenian nomenclature of the angels. is attracted and
appropriated by a body.
formed of most
nature. where it lives for evermore in a blest land. SON OF GOD
After admission. and yet could not in the world comply with so were doomed to perish.SON OF MAN. Unworthy members were expelled a terrible punishment. while the wicked are tortured
This recalls in a remote region of cold and darkness. or heat. the Essenes were classed in four degrees. within which it lives as a prisoner.
Their religious views have been already stated in With Judaism their only bond of union was in part. Less honorable to the Essenes are 'the frauds practiced by many of them in pretending to read the future. but that after liberation through death it soars to
heaven. the Christian
one of those phenomena which make
but a small figure in general history. to interpret dreams.
CHRISTIANISM. but which have
and which reconcile contrarieties in human Essenism we have the middle term be-
their belief in immortality of
that soul. and the obligation imposed on new members to keep the
The Essenian order survived till the early secret.
their practice of sending to the temple at Jerusalem offerings. without rain.
science existed only for the higher orders. as before. and in Judea the belief in One God. to call forth that great power which transformed the world Christianism. a certain indifference for religious opinions. the Essenian society was a Judaic imitation of the Pythagorean league.
of all these elements could have but one result. As appears from what has gone before. as also between the Grecian philosophy and Judaism. in Greece. again. a Plato. The result was twofold first. an Aristotle.
associated. to reconcile
contraries that confronted each other in that time. namely. But secondly. in
and. Those religious and philosophical systems were ro longer. brought them daily into contact. that
man by showing him
that there exist higher powers
that far transcend humanity. to wit. the diversity of which gave men occasion to judge that in supersensual things no direct knowledge is possible. and then the elevation of man by inculcation of the thought of immortality and of
future union with the Creator.98
tween the Grecian mysteries and Christianism. implanted by the Grecian philosophers. This now power was bound to arise. Roman Empire had brought under its universal
sway the lands that had cradled all the diverse religions and philosophies. the result also was that people began to be conscious of the feeling. separated: brisk inter-communicatioi* favored by the commerce and the wars of the vast empire. the lofty morality of a Socrates. represented in philosophy what the Grecian mysteries represented in religion.
and the people found no substitute for their ancient belief. and that
league. and particularly by the Stoics. and the mischief of it all was that nothing was done for the education or enlightenment of the people.
Concordia. citia. but if they were frivolous. That form of religion had outlived its usefulness. to the
various national religions
Egyptian. they were men. e.SON OP MAN. Roman had completely exhausted themselves in the production of deities: polytheism could give forth
no more new shoots. Syrian. Cybele. Pax. Grecian. ridiculed worship and sacrifice and oracles and priests.
. above all. missing bond of spiritual union could not be other than a religious one. for so long as the sciences were so undeveloped no other spiritual guidance but that Godward could lead all hearts. ever beautiful and noble this idea. had no recourse but to admit to their Pantheon all the gods of the conquered nations. The
tion. it had to lie
in spite of national
men are Howdormant
so long as
of spiritual kinship save that of pounity held together the peoples who within the
This empire jointly obeyed one law and one will.
fallen in the estimation of all educated men. Chaldaean. who if they were persons of serious character despised such gods. Pudi-. Mithras. And if it be asked what sort of a religion that must be which shall satisfy all nations at once. however educated. all brothers. had gone and made goddesses of the virtues. and the rest. first of all it is very clear that it could be no polytheistic religion. and paid now to Isis. and Baal the same worship as before they had paid to Into such disrepute had polytheism Jupiter and Juno.. of whatever na-
one end toward which men were being forced by the consciousness that. g. Victoria. all the forces of nature having been worked up. as was shown by the fact that the Romans. The priests themselves smiled when they met. and by their irregular lives and their superstitious practices forfeited all respect. and that mankind is one great whole. SON OF GOD
and religious differences.
by insisting on the oneness of Godhead.
again. the new religion for which mankind sought. alleged have existed somewhere. and at the same time. sentiments. Nowhere was a monotheism to be found save in Judaism.
make an end
Thus. of godmaking. and passions.100
transported with indignation the emperors in the paroxysms of their despotic frenzy had themselves worshiped as gods and a race of
man must have been
human form burned
the incense of adulation
before them. and there it was plain and open to view. what was wanted was a god who should have vanquished all other gods.
Hence. And this god must stand
: . itjiad to of polytheism. with human wrath and human lovingness.
this doctrine of immortality. to find
a personality that
would be the middle term between the two. then. this god must be no abstract entity. and he a god of definite outline and fixed character no nebulous. and whom man should have "made after his own likeness" one with human feelings. and of Olym-
pian wantoning. could not be any of the heathen systems. lackadaisical. but a personality associated with definite localities.
so the problem was to find this one
god. of scorn and
derision of the gods. inert deity such as the Grecian philosophers preached no abstract "world-soul/"' signifying nothing to the uneducated people but a god like unto man himself. somewhen. and possessing: very
definite traits. We have al-
. to give true expression to the sentiment of a common humanity.
for a doctrine of personal immortality to the end the precious Ego of every man might have infallible and
trustworthy assurance that his title to a Mansion in the Skies will stand unchallengeable for ever and for ever.
the idea of monotheism was the only feature that could be borrowed what was demanded
was the mystic element. very many turned away from Judaism because of the indefiniteness of the Jewish notions of immortality.SON OF MAN. in the early years of the Roman the belief was widespread that a new Empire kingdom was
. Their synagogues were everywhere. especially in In this we see the first steps in the dissemination of monotheism: but it could not be propagated on the Few were the persons who took a large scale by Jews. men wanted a system of religious conceptions that would reflect back upon them their own sentiments as the inBut the material best fitted for that end fallible truth. because of the intermingling of Grecian and
Jewhad to be established by some personage of imposing figure on the stage of history. The diverse ideas of the several
secret leagues with regard to the separation of the divine from the human and their reconciliation. and the God of the Jews was too spiritual a being to be grasped . then. Now.
From Judaism. at that time there
was both among the heathen and the Jews an expectation of some such divine intervention as
this. or the strange rites and the peculiar usages of the Jewish
people. besides. was to be found in the mysteries and in the Pythagorean and Essenian doctrines.
liking to the strictness of the Mosaic religion.
Rome. SON OF GOD
ready seen how the Jews were scattered all over the world. that is to say. and (noteworthy
they had proselytes in every large city. who should impress his seal upon it and surround it with the
prestige of deity. Thus. must find their unity in the Jewish God a thing not difficult to accomplish in the times immediately preceding the advent of Christ.
. born of a virgin. and that a new Golden
of a circumcised son of a Jewish carpenter. truth The element of truth is whatever is conand fiction. who rose. indeed. and the worship of Jehova.
have in the life of the founder of the ChrisChurch.
JESUS. for it left those who were longing wrought
religion free to make of him whatever they best for their cause that is to say.
was the expectation
entertained by the Jews of a Messiah to come. above the bigotry of his people. as handed down to us. and who suffered death for his revolt against the rule of priests and scribes. Graecomystical shoots till the branch was no longer recogniz. and then ascended into heaven: in a word.
This longing of the Jews coincided with the desire of
heathendom for a new religion to take the place of a dying and degenerate polytheism. his death was formally and intentionally a sacrifice for the "redemption" of mankind after death he rose again. they made of thought him a personality very different from what he really was. a thaumaturge. sistent with historical research and psychological fact and
. ly no detriment. his career not one
He lived and died word of mention is
in contemporary Greek and Roman writers.
able. but the Son of God. eagerBut this obscurity as they investigated everything.
appeared Jesus. Jesus the man had become a god.
in obscurity. who would kingdom of Israel. longer merely human.102
founded in the East. And thus on the Jewish branch were grafted quite un Jewish. two elements.
He was no was developed the longed-for Messiah.
He was no dogmatist. Hence the rational interpre-
. and as such occupied' common ground with the Essenes and with John the Baptist. indeed. namely. To names of God he added that of "Father" father many all mankind.
Jesus himself never prethan a man. because the truths which Jesus preached could not be made more
by miracles. and his "mission" magnified till the world saw in him. the reconciler of the divine and the human." the Messiah longed for by Israel. Jesus sought to save men living in the world
itself. acts and occurrences that contradict the laws of nature.SON OP MAN. are not actual events.
and the element of
with these. so
they are held to be quite needless juggleries altogether unworthy of Jesus. but a moral re-
former. "the desired of
the nations. enforcing his doctrine of virtuous living by the use of similes that no
fail to understand. though he differed
tended to be more
of his teaching. and particularly from the Essenes. but yet as in accordance with the natural law. Those who afterward essayed to write the history of his life and work. as the rationalists of the
8th century explained them as actual occurrences indeed. Virtue was the burden
and he never propounded a creed. with regard to methods and measures: the Essenes would save men's souls by withdrawing them from human soto ciety. and the
personality of Jesus was glorified.
Jesus taught the people in parables. in like manner made a free use of figurative language. toward whom all the mysteries had pointed.
for as they are recorded in the New Testament they show a needless abrogation of natural law needless. The miracles of Jesus. SON OP GOD
be transformed into the Son of God. and Romulus. according to the genealogy found in Matthew and Luke
birth. with the shepherds and Simeon and Anna. born again of a woman. and progenitors of nations. son of Mars and of a virgin.
that they represent the effort of the evangelists to portray the life and person of the Master in such colors as their notions of his supereminent
divide these miracles into three dignity required. and when Herod. but they were acquainted with Grecian and Roman mythApollo.
gospel story. were founders of states and cities. in order to
end orders the slaughter of the innocents.
. as narrated in the
a miracle. is son of Joseph. of Jesus.
. then why should not the founder of a religion and of a church be also son of God and of a virgin? Nay. if his doctrine was to appear as of divine Of types of such transformation there was no origin. walked on earth as a ology. the carlegitimate penter of Nazareth. and of Mary for such he was. son of Zeus. shepherd.104 tation of the miracles
is. and the death
of Jesus. knew nothing of the sun-god Buddha. classes the miracles of the birth. Herakles. The first Christians. purposing to take the
of the predestined Messiah. made himself. it is true. accompanied by the heavenly hosts. pay him homage. why might not God himself walk on earth in human form? That such was the actual origin of the story of the Divine Birth is not doubtful: all the rest is mere embellishment as when the angel announces to the virgin the coming birth of the Son of God. the life. nay.
angel. the shepherds of his actual birth when a star cornducts the "wise men of the East" to the wondrous babe. lack in heathendom. himself a god.
-The Devil is a personification of evil.SON OF MAN. or cures of diseases. the finding of the penny in the fish's mouth. The walking on the waters of the lake of Gennesareth. the blind. the air. had to be made lord and giver of these two sacred viands: hence the change of water into wine. Jesus. and how at Eleusis divine honors were paid to Demeter and Dionysos as givers of bread and wine. have how in the Grecian mysteries bread and wine
were employed as consecrated viands for the gods. his
power over bodily
real for the
understanding by such stories as
the healing of paralytics. The "Holy Spirit" is an idea distinct from God only in thought. SON OF GOD
miracles of the
10. and later. or apparitions.
too. and of Moses and Elias at the transfiguration: this
all allegory. the dove is the symbol of purity and gentleness. the blasting of the fig tree. All these different
kinds of miracles are fictions with a purpose. As for the transfiguration. the stilling of the winds. or resuscitations from the dead. that typifies the vast superiority of the new law over the old the old must
do. the deaf and dumb over mental diseases by the freeing of the possessed. of Satan at Jesus' temptation. and
Peters draught of fishes are pictures of the imagination designed to show the power of the Son of God over the waters. So. bread and wine were made the object of the Christian Mysteries. and the failure of his attempt was the triumph of
the apparitions we reckon those of the Holy Spirit as a dove at the baptism of Jesus. and the multiplication of the loaves.">
of Jesus are either abrogations of natural laws. in \he~last supper. over death itself by the raising of the dead: Among
.homage to the new.
. too. lepers. the world of plants and of animals.
speaking to the heart of man and mastering it. the same thoughts having been often expressed by religious teach-
and sages of other times and in other lands. the resurrection and the ascension. nor the miracles ascribed to him his contemporaries in every land
had had experience of miracles
forcefulness. and yet they possess a charm all their own. supreme and irresistible. have called themselves not only Chrising
. and in particular his fine discourse on But his utthe mountain. were imagined purely
an everlasting redeemer and in the of each individual one of the faithpersonal immortality
confirm the belief
ful. the rending of the veil of the Holy of Holies in the Temple.. nor was it his call to a higher life than that of sense the Grecian philosophers preceded
him in that respect. is the most emphatic. It was not the doctrine of the unity of God and of love for the neighbor that wrought
the propagation of his teachings the Jews possessed that doctrine already. its unrest. also his beautiful parables. for the last nineteen hundred years. and calm-
Here he was self-based and individual. the darkening of the sun. blistering condemnation of those who.
terances contain nothing that is essentially new. the simplicity of his discourse. nor his alleged divinity.
Of far greater importance than the miracles of Jesus are his teachings. together with the apparitions of the Crucified
The miracles of Jesus' death. by reason of their unassuming simplicity. the grandeur. and in particular the sermon on the mount. But the
miracles that followed his death. viz. they betoken the mourning of nature and of religion. His teaching. were occurrences quite inomissible at the death of a god. the resurrection of the dead.
their prayers aloud at the street crossings. in open contempt of their supposed Master. do not unto others as they would that others should do unto them: who not only do all this. yet world-transforming
doctrine of God. highpriesthood: in short. is a simple and unpretending. fast ostentatiously. not only take oaths.
But the Christianism
. would anathematize them in the noble
I know you not. serve
two masters or
more. and require an eye for an eye.
trumpet their almsgiving abroad. when one asks them for a loaf give him a stone. but
purified of ceremonialism. then.
THE EARLY CHRISTIANS
What. Depart from me.
words. and Love of Man a monotheism borrowed from the Jews for the behoof of all men.
they never have understood. throw the holy thing to the dogs. and not like the scribes and pharisees.
P but the only Christians.
enact laws which oblige
Master. the Christianism of Jesus meant the coming "Kingdom of God.
this. for he spake with power. as seen in the discourses of the New Testament.SON OF MAN. were he to appear among them. sabbatism. ye doers of Such language was unheard before his day therefore wondered the people.
5. sacrifices. though blind to the beam. is the difference between the Christianism of Jesus and the Christianism of Christians? The former. Virtue. which
by the moth and the
rust. see the mote. lay up for themselves treasures on earth." in which the virtuous man
would enjoy happiness and peace. nevertheless. SON OF GOD
tians. cherish mortal hate for
their enemies. and above all in the ever beautiful sermon on the mount.
thus becoming by adoption a Jew. therefore. but he paid the
. school. and Second Coming. but among them were no men of education or of commanding ability. Christianism
would never have grown to
be even a church. to say nothing of its prospects of becoming a power in the world. the adherents of which were called Jewish Chris. too unadorned. unable to comprehend the lofty views of the Crucified.
Let us see how this dogmatic Christianism succeeded in erecting itself upon the simple ethic-religious system of Jesus. only a devout heart: that system was too simple. was the head of this Apostle James.
not for the grafting on
of the Graeco-mysti-
cal elements. zealous. but swadded it in a thick wrappage of mystic
tering to sense in the world. its father (without whose personality and name it never could have lived at all).
is a Mysticism ingrafted on this monotheism.
repudiation of Judaism was
Stephen. took their stand on a narrow ground not essentially different from that of Judaism for example. they held that no one was worthy to be baptized who would not first undergo cirThe cumcision. which had for its mother the Grecian mysteries. Its adherents in the beginning were good. and in making itself a power in the world
of Grecian education. borrowed from Jesus. what little was known concerning him.
by evolving new mysteries. Redemption. Atonement. a devout ascetic. and the
Miracles invented to buttress these dogmas. too little flat-
and to man's vainglory to cut any figure But the Christianism of Christians. The first congregation in Jerusalem.
tianism of Jesus
when he and
his first disciples died
they had no hair-splitting theology. comprising the dogmas of the Incarnation. believing folk.
Being a victim of epilepsy. sin. and he spoke of them often.
works. The intellectual leader
of the Gentile-Christian school
in force of character. he added.
Adam.By this union. a man who.SON OF MAN.
for a great theological
rise. away. even to become one with him. carries with it good grace.. according to which the "Gentile Christians" and the "Jewish Christians" stood on an equality. he was at the first a philosophy fanatical persecutor of the Christians.
Paul thus stood. stood high above all
the original apostles of the Nazarene. Paul had frequent fits and visions. and the true believer cannot be otherwise
righteous. grace. Of course. and death." and to be born anew in Christ. Furthermore. the law of Moses is done. and life.
representing the sensuous life. the way was thus made ready for
the introduction of the legends of a resurrection. he said. and thenceforth was a zealous apostle of the new religion. being superseded by "faith/' whereby alone 'the sinner is justified and made worthy of God's For true faith. SON OF GOD
The penalty of his ambitious plans by a martyr's death. both in Grecian and Jewish theology. freedom.
soon was seen to
mystical. an ascension. congregation at Antioch adopted Stephen's view.
on the Protestant
. so was the Over against the first man. representing the spirit. which very the foundation. Through Paul's exertions Christianism overstepped the narrow limits of
Well schooled. a foundation was in this way
Palestine and Syria.
in a certain sense. but had a sudden conversion while journeying to Damascus on a persecuting raid. etc. Paul set up the God-man Christ.
was Paul. thus implanting in the minds of the Christians a firm belief in such occurrences. servitude. man was to crucify the
victorious. who were all uneducated men. with whom the tie of blood was stronger than the spiritual bond which united them with the school
This party did not regard Jesus as God.
THE NEW TESTAMENT. of Pythagoras. and received into the Church only circumcised! converts. of
related in the Acts of the
Apostles. It may now be affirmed without hesitation that not one piece of this literature was composed by any of the disciples of Jesus. and not that of Jesus. being a Jew among Jews. the New< Testament literature arose. which. that of the Alexandrine Their leader was Apollos (properly Christian Jews. Judaeo-Christian and GentileChristian. but classed him with the angels.
would never consent that Gentile converts should be obliged to conform to the Jewish rites: hence Paul was the real founder of the Christian Church. at first no
. that he recognized only the baptism of John. The Church was split into two parties.
Between the two parties. who upheld the Mosaic law. but often forgetting the Mosaic
law in the company of Gentile Christians.
With such a distribution of parties. and John. would have remained a Jewish sect. Peter wavered.
6. James. but that he was converted to belief
in the lattter
certain of Paul's disciples at Ephesus. The early Christians had. had his opponents been.110
ground as contradistinguished from the Judaeo-Christian (which is partly also the Catholic) ground of Peter.
that imported into Christianism the Alexandrine doctrine of the Logos or Word. To the Jewish-Christian party adhered the numerous converts from Essenism. arose a third party.
John. together with the
entire heathen world.
blood. of course. dubious among them are the epistles to Timothy. it contains the prediction that not Jerusalem. As every one knows.
of the other
apostles. Peter. the most Romans. A. To the
to be referred the epistle to the Hebrews. 70. are those to the the Corinthians. but that there will be let
down from Heaven a new
opposites. according to the party stand of their writers."
After the destruction of Jerusalem the Apocalypse was written anew by an unknown hand. and are hardly to be credited to the apostles whose names are prefixed to them. the Hellenistic (or literary dialect of the
is proof that it was the work of men of Greek education. in the Christian sense. and the Galatians. and Jude. Titus. distinguished from the Pauline writings by the fact that it holds the Old and New Testaments to be. As far as can be determined now the earliest New Testament writer was Paul. the prophecies
. seat of the
and glorious Jerusalem. but
complements of each other. Even the language in which the New Testa-
written. as James. but the whore of Babylon (Rome). abode of the
"bride of the lamb. SON OF GOD
Sacred Scripture other than the Old Testament. rep-
resent views opposed to those of Paul. will perish
ruin. The Pauline
are his indisputably. and these. ten in the spirit of an Old Testament prophet.
are of later
date than Paul's epistles.SON OF MAN.
and Philemon. from the Epistles the Revelation of John (ApoApart
calypse) is the oldest book of the New Testament. D.
presses the indignation of a Jew against the Romans during the siege and shortly before the destruction of Jerusa-
lem. with regard to the doctrine of Jesus they depended on oral instruction.
knows nothing of any supernatural birth of Jesus. but Mark gives little of
the discourses of Jesus. those in which he claims to be Messiah. called existing Gospels. that
. both add the discourses. The new criticism regards Mark's Gospel as the
it contains almost exclusively narratives of written down from memory. the third Gospel. The Gospel according to Mat-
thew gives the discourses a Judaeo-Christian
tinge. "synoptics" (i. with an admirable simplicity and admirable clearness. must have
been handed down in far more authentic form than the history of his deeds and that among his discourses. bellishments and modifications. and regards him simply as man. e. and many a its pages has lost what modicum of sense
they ever had in working out its meaning. are based on one older origi-
nal gospel or account. The other historical writings of the New Testament
and the Acts of the Apostles. It evident that. with the accruing emfacts.
are lost to us forever. when in the course of time the oral traditions \vere committed to writing. a sister tongue of Hebrew. The oldest written' accounts of his life and
. Mark's Gospel is the basis of the other two
while they synoptics. Jesus' discourses. John's. agreeing). stands by itself. written in Greek. the first three. those which contained truths of general application were more faithfully remembered than those which expressed per^ sonal views as. writ-
ten in the
language which was used by Jesus and his Of the disciples.
imaginings have ever since been interpreted by enthusiasts
as infallible forewarnings of things to come. for example. he says nothing.112
book did not come
true. 'expressed a good deal in a few words..
consist of four Gospels
its fantastic. without doubt. Aramaic. they were. which draw on him for narrative.
of Jesus is the result of Grecian influence. as we have seen. some in Latin. The Alexandrines. and that he is only But the Gospel literature was lifted out of this man. as a mere passing incident.
erroneously. whether real or fictitious. into mental
concepts. but was
himself. SON OF GOD
according to Luke (who also wrote the Acts) a GentileChristian coloring: but they both waver between the opinions that Jesus is God and man. and
. which Philo Judaeus discovered which Logos not only was "in the beginning"
him God. some in Greek. in one place or another. since tfteir uncanonical character was decided. Whereas. the Joannine Gospel makes
represents his existence on earth in palHence form. therefore. it proclaims him the "Word" (logos). the cursing of the 'fig-
. at one time or another. the first apostles regarded the Nazarene merely
as man. are mostly and tasteless vein of those trivial accounts of
miracles which we find in the canonical Gospels. and while for Paul and the evangelists Matthew and Luke he was a god-man. were wont to resolve all accounts of facts. Besides these four generally received Gospels several others.
school. such as the changing of water into wine. and. They are written.
state of hesitation
by the fourth Gospel. serving only as a setting Thus the doctrine of the for his own peculiar doctrines. Their contents. have been classed as Apocrypha.
For the author
fourth Gospel the narrative of occurrences in the life of Jesus is a secondary matter. some in Aramaic. 160 to 170. and. but for it had its origin in the Alexandrine
and was written probably A.
of the Judaeo-Christian apostle John. lived in a cloudworld of ideas.
have passed for revealed writings.
with God. barring a few
in the jejune
passages that show some elevation of thought. D.SON OF MAN.
separated the apocryphal from the canonical Scriptures.
being the present collection of New Testament books. and apocryphal Epistles. about the end of the second century.
To the decrees of councils and popes alone owing that there exists to-day a canonical collection of Scriptures. etc. therefore.114
tree. while the
fractions of the Jewish-Christian body held out as sects union of the ever-multiplying Gentile
Christians. apocryphal Apocalypses.
or they are of a
There are also apocryphal Acts of Apostles. unchurched the "heretics. as its own inviolable foundation." together with several of the Epistles.
and John's "Rev-
elation. The influences that had brought thousands of Gentiles into the Church were all too strong for the resistance of the Judaeo-Christian party to overcome. But the "Word" of the Joannine Gospel became the
password for the reunion of all parties.
In this wise was Christianism developed out of the
. But still for a long time the character of individual
in dispute. Only small
apart. The little Judaeo-Christian fold had no choice. and that the books of the Canon are held to
THE ELEMENTS OP THE CHURCH. but either to go back to Judaism or to become Gentile Christians unless.
number of miracles wrought
composed in the interest of parties in the church.
fishes. was till recent times regarded by different persons or parties as
apocryphal." and set up the "new law" in opposition to Thus came the old. in his childhood.. the "Church Catholic" having. all of them what we should now call "pamphlets"
paltry sort. they were ready to suffer excommunication by the latter. now styled the "Catholic" church.
SON OF MAN. fell into the background..
usual in Eastern lands
musical harmony. We have already seen how the mysteries of the Incarnation and Resurrection
arose. though it was men that contrived it. arose among them prophets whose inspired words were the principal feature of the religious service. by degrees. beessentially mystic character. speaker about the end of the world. Baptism was associated as a sacrament with the supper. men then "spake defy tongues.
tians themselves were. impressive melodies of the Middle Age." or at least uttered "heaven-storming words"
in the heat of enthusiasm. Psalms
were sung. and men or hearer. and at last was developed into a sacrament possessing the character of a "mystery. not yet in the grand." especially
too slow oncoming of which caused much wonderment in those days. gave way
Paul. but in "the long-drawn. and the mysteries were multiplied. e. out of the necessity of giving to Jesus the
. namely. a performance that must remain inscrutable to men." i. in a cerTheir worship possessed an tain sense ai secret society. which no one.
divine service or cults
meeting" and the Lord's Supper (or Love Feast). SON OF GOD
secret associations of the ancient world. It was not so from the is not one word about In Jesus' teachings there ginning." Besides. could well understand. All these stupidities. and the supper came to be simply a souvenir of the Saviour's death. the "prophesied. partly nasal
his surviving disciples
other cult than the Jewish. and they assembled for "breaking bread" in their houses without any parade. Not until the Christians had been excluded from the synagogues There were distinctive rites developed among them.
or Western and Eastern churches.
because of the impossibility of coming to agreement re-
this. for without that Christianism never would have attained a commanding place ini the world.
by the purely human decrees of the Nicaean Synod.116
. how in the Western Church the bishops of Rome achieved
supremacy. not to the history of the mysteries. the supreme and most incomprehensible mystery of all was added. but to the history of the Church. the mystery of the Trinity how. all this belongs.
the Church Catholic
Roman and Greek.
.stamp of deity.
to these mysteries.
a Socrates. a Plato. And still populations
were passing day
day over to the crucified
Jew. had but lately been crucified. of the Grecian gods were falling Ought the Beautiful to fall in order
Might not both stand
a son of God and a thamaturge by was required. Jasios.
Great must have been the amazement of the Greeks when of a sudden.PART FIFTH.
APOLDONIUS OF TYANA. in consequence of his teaching. who went up to heaven. communities arose which announced the suffering and dying God Jasios as the savior of a new age a Jasios who. the Son of God. though. Sinai?
found. all unknown outside his own country. under the form of a Jew.
whereas. might not one be found without making of Zeus the Thunderer a victim to that fearful Jewish Yahve of Mt. was ages and ages before slain by the thunderbolt of Zeus. who rose from the grave. in different localities within the broad
Empire. as all Initiates of the Eleusinia and of the mysteries of Samothrace well knew.
such a son of
God and wonderworker
The heathen prophet Apollonius
. the wonderworker. that did but comple-
ment the teaching
their bases. after all. And.
of a Pythagoras.
When the child was grown up he became a strict observer of the Pythagorean rule of life. Flavius Phi-
wrote 'a heathen gospel of the life of this not as one hostile toward the Christians. and was deeply venerated. and wearing linen garments. nor as one who would prove their doctrine false. and healed such of the
of gifts to
sick as re-
. she had fallen asleep. abstaining from fleshmeat and wine.
sacred leagues. and from the venerated Grecian
Pythagorean. by order of Julia Domna. Philostratus composed his work.
part of his
notes. attain this end there must be no mention of Christianism
god of healing. but with
lostratus. And. Unworthy offerers god he drove out. says Philostratus. one Damis.
consisted of matter
drawn from Damis's
and what he added out of his own fancy.118
a contemporary of Jesus. out of the notes
of a disciple of Apollonius. wife of the Emperor Septimius
Apollonius was born in Tyana. a town in CappaPrevious to his birth. a certain learned Greek. as it chanced. the god
child soon to see the light
Proteus appeared to his mother and told her that the was the God himself. as he states. This
happened in :a meadow. so that Olympus might tower again in all its ancient glory and triumph over Sinai and Tabor. But he showed true insight in making out his hero to have been a
He therefore represents Apollonius as deriving his wisdom indirectly from the most ancient mysteries. His abode was a temple sacred to Aesculapius.
docia. after gathering flowers.
to the aid of decaying
heathendom. while swans gathered round her and intoned) their song.
saint. we can never determine. and
To prevent for a time its overthrow by Christianism. where. native of Ninive. those of Egypt.
according to the highly
rejected the Grecian
mythology as fabulous. On entering that country the publican asked him whether he had with him anything subject to toll.
From Babylon Apollonius bent toward India. who had no mind for anything that lay outside his own duties. and his only prayer was addressed to the sun. In spite of his frankness of speech he was treated with great distinction by the king of that counHe told the king that he would best strengthen his try. not only with regard to his kingdom. having been comforted by the prophet. your maids are all down in the book. who was ill. couched his teachings in brief sentences.
a." nor paid he impost oni his ideal goods. saying: "There. The answer of Apollonius was that he carried about righteousness. and even guages
read the thoughts of men but the language of the beasts he learned from the Arabs of Mesopotamia. preferring far to it the fables of Esop.
traitor. took the names
. but high-born dames . During his extensive travels he always lodged
in temples.A PSEUDO-MESSIAH
pented of their transgressions. The sullen taxman. and there.
names of women. royal power by honoring many and putting trust in but a few. He refused to take possession of an estate inherited from his father. Everywhere he understood the lanof the natives without learning them. The king. a manly soul and a patient spirit and many another virtue named he.r
. confessed that he had been freed from anxiety. with the brief remark: "They are not maids. and imposed on himself a silence of several years' duration. sided with the persecuted and righted the wrongs
of the oppressed. corrected abuses in the conduct of the divine service. gathered
disciples. temperance." But Apollonius calmly went his way. but also
of virtues for
with regard to death.
so-called. the Sage Apollonius imposed on his shipmates with the story that Achilles had appeared unto him five ells in height. under the storm of
was changed into a dog. the culprit. Apollonius banished from Ephesus an epidemic which was there raging.
of various size^he saw. and
in difficult labor. saw men four or five men who were half white and half black
in height. e. that
Damis.. dazzled by the splendor of the prophet's genius. the lame.
Apollonius swapped wisdoms. in
the opinion of
wisdom of the Brahmans was derived from Pythagoras. and
as. dragons. of course. it was from Pythagoras also.
of hands. constantly carried on with
who accompanied him. flitting through the air. also entertained that curious idea.120
embellished story. the one disciple
. and phase of his
life. the blind.nd the people conversations) whom they met. Apollonius returned to Babylon and Ninive. the
learn that they got their doctrine of metempsychosis. At Athens.
practices resembling those used
our day by sympathists. passing through fabulous lands. would not wear the crown in his
With the Brahmans. many of whose conjurpresence. instrucabout the animals a.
incidents of that
. Voyaging by sea to Greece. and then journeyed to the lonians of Asia Minor. g. by requiring the citizens to stone a beggar in whom he discerned the daemon who was the cause of the disease. where he arrived during the Eleusinian
stones. or at touch of their wands causing the earth to spring aloft. and that Apollonius
he imagined himself to have been once an Indian taxgatherer. Damis. and before his eyes had grown to twelve ells. feats are recorded.
the possessed. too. An Indian king.
but in public discourses let his light shine before the Athea. and who in Rome had ventured to condemn publicly the conduct of Nero
. so he deferred to another time his initiation. but it was Apollonius's turn now to refuse them. e.
also this apostle
of the Pythagorean philosophy preached. But the youth. and to these lectures was great concourse. At Corinth the Sage detected in the bride of a comely youth a lamia or empusa." With them he went to Rome. who
Apollonius having de-
which no one else had any suspicion.A PSEUDO-MESSIAH
was a conjurer. and in token of his passage overturned a statue that no one had touched.. and they wished to recall their refusal. But one who was in the service of the tyrant.
lowed him to lecture in the temples. these he called his "congregation. because he of Tyana told them
knew more about the mysteries than the This alarmed them. But one of his disciples who had accompanied him from Corinth.
mysteries. was increased by the accession of several
members with their slaves. one of a class of spectral beings that used to haunt people. alreigned. where the infamous Nero then
who had prohibited philosophy. and the spectre was unmasked and confessed
tected the true nature of the ailment.
In Athens. the presence of Apollonius all her arts and all her imps disappeared. with stern looks and words of menace confronted the daemon. impressed by the wisdom of the traveler. who thereupon fled away.
nians. and under pretense of being in In love with them. the priests refused to initiate him. seen to be cured. whereupon the Sage
that already he
youth possessed. rubbing his eyes as though waking from sleep. was. i. would eat the flesh off their bones. which he classed with soothsaying. there was laughed and cried without cause. too. of
but after Vespasian's elevation to the throne." Whereupon Tigellinus: "Go wherever youl please." bridle in Rome having died. you
. when the Emperor anas an unjust privilege. Philostratus himself is in The doubt whether the death was not apparent only. in Alexandria. and then revisited Egypt. was expelled the
and Tigellinus. after a long interval. a just ruler. interceded for him and had the man's execution put off till the last moment. nus why he had no fear of Nero. Sicily and Greece.
"made him Caesar.
touched the damsel. The story is also told that Apollonius.
are stronger* than (any power 'of mine. while Apollonius himself was kept under surveillance." be replied "ye think him gifted for singing.
frankly spoke the truth to him. uttering some secret words. At Alexandria he recognized the in-
nocence of one among eight criminals. But not only could nothing be
proved against him his wisdom filled even the sanguinary minions with admiration. trusty tool of the tyrant. on paying a visit to Vespasian. the body was on the way to the place of interment. the philosopher
nulled. the liberties of Greece. whence he traversed Spain. I for silence. Apollonius bade the bearersi to halt. being asked by Tigellithe stern truth.
: ." Asked what he thought of Nero." thus giving
pire once again. which Nero had in a capricious humor granted on the
philosopher then journeyed to the Strait of Gibraltar. though he spoke to them only For example. he answered "The God who makes him an object of fear made me fearless. captain of the emperor's bodyguard. he had confessed only under torture.
Leaving Egypt. then arrived the order to spare his life. and back from death.
and the prevailing immorality. "Better than you do.
but he defended himself
where he had
ecstasy. Straightway he took ship for Rome. that region Apollonius exorcised a satyr that was said to
have killed two women. the latter as resembling animals. and treated with much harshness."
and thereafter employed Apollo-
nius as his adviser. in he saw the assassination of Domitian. went naked.
Probably because they were less conceited. there. Titus answered: "I have made conquest of Solyma. and performed no magical feats. the former representing the gods
In as resembling man.
in the vicinity of Naples.
At Tarsus he not only cured a young hydrophobia.
him. but the dog also that had bitten
Having boldly denounced the Emperor Domitian Ephesus. and conducted a famous school. Apollonius was betrayed by his disciple Euphrates. you have
of me. at that
vanished miraculously from the judgment
friends. and praised the Roman general for his "moderation" (though it was a curious sort of moderation which leveled a great city with the ground). and a plot was laid against him. About the time of the taking of Jerusalem by Titus. Apollonius happened to be in the neighborhood of that city.
and was acquitted. who dwelt in a sort of little republic of their own. In Rome he was thrown into prison.
From Naples he went to Ephesus. on a mountain. and had resultless controversies with them about the relative superiority of Grecian and Egyptian art.
against the charges brought by his acThereupon he uttered a tirade
of reproaches against Domitian's satellites. to confront the tyrant in
his palace.A PSEUDO-MESSIAH
Apollonius journeyed to Ethiopia to visit the Gymnosophists. our Sage deemed them less wise than the Brahmans.
and one of them. prized his miracles more than his teachings. and though the emperors of the third century. and invoked Apollonius to explain the matter. in his private chapel. According to Philostratus he appeared after his death to a young man of his native town.
attained. placed his bust. then he
died. who lived in the
to ply their trade. began The satirist Lucian. and the clumsy miracles of Apollonius neither built up a school for him nor kept the heathen religion on its feet. heathen and Christians has immortalized the tomfooleries of these
pseudoprophets. who. from Caracalla to Diocletian. the charlatanry he practiced became more and more the order of the day.
a question that cannot be decided. who doubted the immortality of the soul.
ALEXANDER THE FALSE PROPHET. gods and men. Alexander Severus. Tyana. and with
him. On the other hand. nor the manner of his death. consecrated temples to him. but he was invisible to the other
persons present. alas! the memory of his noble courage in the presence of tyrants. like the disciples of anchargeable other master. till
Whether this result is off all disguise. to his disciples.
second century. whether 80 years or 100. nevertheless the Sage of Tyana was soon forgotten. with those of Moses. the rather hollow religion. and who made sport of everything religion and philosophy. wearing the cloak of religion. but the fact is that after his death (the close of the first century) a
no matter of surprise that the cold. Socrates and Jesus. nor the time. austere and wisdom.124
moment taking place knew what age he had
Rome. nor the place.
perjury. says Lucian.A PSEUDO-MESSIAH
these the best
known was Alexander
chus. by the way.
compound of mendacity. his hair. believed him when he claimed descent from Perseus. and armed with a sabre. wearing a
purple robe with white
stripes. His stupid fellow townsmen. and there announced 'to the people that Aesculapius had just been born at the
. enhanced the
advantage nature had given him. a large. though they knew his parents. in heroism. in Asia Minor. and his beard. curling locks falling over his shoulders. the son of Philip." as Lucian calls it. with
his father. handsome man. the
Meanfinding of this tablet caused great excitement. After his master's death Alexander
went into business on his own account. Lucian. and when they heard of the tablet set about erecting a temple to Aesculapius. in his native place. calls a "comedy"). and low tricks of every kind. fraud. At Chalcedon he secretly placed on a roadside a tablet
bearing the inscription that the god Aesculapius.
to be at Abonotichus. and by him was instructed in all the artifices whereby one can outwit and defraud his fellows." In his boyhood he was apprenticed to a quack of Tyana. a
He than his namesake. went about with his
long. Between the foundation stones of the temple Alexander secretly placed
a goose-egg shell containing a newly-hatched snake then with the wild gesticulations of a god-inspired enthusiast.
greater in fraud. who lived nearer to him than Philostratus. and by scrupulous care of was his complexion.
-hastened to the market-place.
. while Alexander. a renegade disciple of Apollonius
(whose life. who were poor. In Macedonia he procured one of the large harmless serpents found in that province and went back to his native town Abonotichus there to set up an "oracle factory. Apollo.
and gave them back (with the answers) the seals apparThe tariff for oracles was a drachma and ently intact. and the annual receipts eight amounted to seventy or eighty thousand drachmas (say $15. drew over its head a linen mask. denounced by him as atheists and Chris-
wrote the answers. and was now ready to give oracles.126
temple in the form of a serpent. he laid it on his breast.
erected. painted to resemble a human face.000). who detested all trickery. which was then to be sealed with wax and handed to the prophet. When the people had retired he melted the seals. but he had out of this sum to pay a host of assistants and confederates. and were. On the
publication of this
to the market-place. in turn. To prove his oracle true he held up before them the egg with the snake. manifested their hostility to the prophet. The Epicureans. read the questions. which he had kept out of sight. pleted But his title to public regard did not pass unchallenged. then sealed the tablets again. and gave out to the people that the newborn god had already grown to that great size. and who believed that enjoyment was the only end in life worth thinking of.
to receive an oracle of the
write his question on a tablet. oboli (about 25 cents). From all Asia Minor and Thrace the people came in thousands to witness the miracle. The mystic semi-obscurity of the hut and the
effects of artificial light
that the charlatan
magnified the impression made on the people. the mouth of which would open and shut on pulling a string. When the temple was comAlexander carried on his business there. then taking up the large snake already mentioned. the populace flocked Alexander had a hut of boards within which he seated himself in a reclining
his bride's mother.
Alexander be caught at his tricks.
First. The oracle named the daughter of Alexander.
make 'response to questions submitted in writing on sealed tablets. In gilded leather. and they were elicited only for the behoof of persons of eminence. Alexander's fame spread even to Rome. all irrelevant He missed no opportunity of unmasking the rogue." that is.
these festivals the birth of Aesculapius and the nuptials of Alexander and the Moon-Goddess were represented
perhaps a trifle too realistically. and dupes from
came to consult
pent-god." written on eight he got eight different answers.
safeguard his reputation he added to his he began to give oracles viva voce. and offered hecatombs to his motherin-law.
repertoire. and in proof showed his thigh encased in His life was a continuous debauch. the prophet instituted many mystic festivals. he would sit in absolute darkness and
so he married her.
But the charge for such oracles was higher. Encouraged by many successes not inferior to this. "When
all. powers by submitting to him the one question. as Epicureans and Christians. and of
. One of these addle-pate pilgrims from Rome asked the oracle what manner of woman he should take to wife. for
unbelievers in God. As he could not read the questions at
his answers (the oracles) were expressed for the most Lucian once tested his part in unintelligible language. in her capacity of moon-god-
such Alexander gave her out to be.
confederate behind a screen speaking the responses into a tube terminating at the mouth of the snake's mask. from which he excluded
dess. time he began to hold what we should now call "dark seances.A PSEUDO-MESSIAH
tians. claimed to be a reincarnation of Pythagoras.
and numbers. and an incalculable number of sects an evil that was not to be corrected even by the artificial unity of the Church under the Apostolical See.128
teaching the people by the evidence of their own senses that the man was a vulgar impostor.
. a renegade Christian devotes himself to a death by fire to win fame. Judaism
whose doctrines were a mixture of Judaism. Alexander being too high in favor with the officials and the public. who gave a Christian
varnish to the Persian fire worship. for example. and the pseudoprophet attained the age of
seventy years. Lucian wished to have the impostor put on trial for this crime. heathenism and Christianism the Manichees.
and people came in crowds for initiation.
the impostors that sprang up after Alexand wherever there was any lack of real ones. words. but the proconsul advised him not to invoke
helmsman of a him overboard. The knave affected a mild friendship for his adversary. got out of the Hebrew Bible by juggling with its sentences. The city of Abono-
had coins struck bearing the effigy of the Aesculapius serpent.
Lucian's Peregrinus. It was a mad world then. ficander. but he bribed the
on which Lucian sailed to throw man had not the courage to do. titious pseudoprophets were imagined by satiric writers.
the help of the law.
this tangle of doctrines the
lost its native land.
Gnostics'. New mysteries were invented in
plenty. the Kabbalists. enjoying to the endi the undiminished respect of the people.
heathen religions sank. who heaped a vast amount of rubbish together. The "Golden Ass" of Apuleius is a striking satire on this
with the Pope as supreme head on one side. and the Christian myste-
With the spread came everywhere
took their place. Monophysites and Monothelites. All the available knowledge was in the Middle Age employed in the service of the Church. i.
THE MIDDLE AOE. Adoptionists. over Christ's nature. and hence science slept from the migration of the barbarians till the inven129
longer constituted a secret society.
true. e. Nestorians.. and so on interminably. to name
The Knights Templar. the struggle for creed. were the occupations of the Middle Age.
1. This wrangling so occupied the minds of all that there was no longer need of secret societies.
of Christianism the heathen mysteto an end. and incessant strife of parties and sects. Priscillianists.. after their faith had become the creed of the state. but there was plenty of mystic doctrine. whether the soul is saved by good works or by grace of God. Arians and Athanasians. nevertheless. and the Emperor on the other. and Donatists. on the question whether the Holy Ghost proceeds only from the Father or equally from him and the Son. the struggle for power.
Christians. and war. Pelagians and Semipelagians. Theology. e. Monks and knights were the two great classes of that time.PART SIXTH. i.
In this undertaking the two most powerful estates of the Middle Age took part the monks and the knights. Arabian and Jewish physicians alone labored to save the intellectual wealth inherited from the ancient Greeks. in
which the Christian mystics
going forth to seek the lost sepulchre of their God. till at last its and strictly monotheistic groundwork was forgotten.
During that period of a thousand years no addition was made to the sum of human knowledge.
. joined the
armies of the cross the knights. whereas its purely human origin might easily have been traced.
self-same idea underlay the Christian mysticism. aided by the Papacy. borrowed from Egyptian and Grecian mythology. to be unified with him. and Ascension. its widest
influence. it was involved in profound intellectual darkness.
of the mystical idea
joined. Possession of the sepulchre would be the surest guarantee for the unification of godhead and humanity. that this mysticism won its highest triumph. and it calling that idea into play and by giving it ex-
pression in brilliant achievement. Resurrection.
there remained visible only the superstructure of ethnic mysticism and of doctrines.
this ethnico-mystic structure acquired
dor and a power never before equaled. The root
idea of the ethnic mysticism was to seek the supposedly And the "lost deity. and the Doctrine of Light that had been published by the Carpenter's Son. Incarnation." to find him.
tion of printing. as the Trinity. so that the system was credited to divine intervention. The monks. was lost amid petty controversies and inane interpretations.
in the Crusades. As for Christendom. and to obtain control of it. and. under orders from the Pope.
marched to the Holy Land and conquered it. founded a monastery and a church at Jerusalem. There the monks cared for pilgrims whoi were poor or ailing.
their habit consisted of a black
A few years
later (1119) the
Hugo of Payns. the union of monkery and chivalry. all French.
pledging themselves to keep the highways of the Holy Land safe for pilgrims. when there was a kingdom of Jerusalem after the model of the kingdoms of the West. oldest commercial emporium of Italy. chastity. and in conjunction with these a hospital in honor of John the Baptist.
These organizations had their origin in the gradual assumption of knightly elements by the monastic orders. Johannites. Some merchants of Amalfi.
a monastic rule. associated themselves and six other knights. They took the title of Brothers Hospitalers of Saint
. Pope Paschal II. in the monkish orders of knights. under the style "Poor Knights of Christ. Synod of Troyes in 1128 recognition as a regular order. granted them a monastic constitution in 1113. After the conquest. and Godfrey of Bouillon. a monastic habit.
endowed them with considerable properties. a special banner. and
obedience. had. as early as 1048. ini a military league. and came to be called
Templars. etc. whose members wore the sword of the knight and took the monastic vows of poverty. because their convent stood on the
The Templars received from the Solomonic Temple. there
arose. and Godfrey of Saint Omers.THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR
peror. soon after the capture of Jerusalem.
John of Jerusalem
with a white cross.
The members were favored by King Baldwin and the Patriarch of Jerusalem. and to observe the rule of Saint
Benedict. About the same date the Hospitalers. as the necessary summit of mediaeval aspiration. or
performed the duties Plain of their religion. and the brother who tried to get the The hair and beard were finest habit got the shabbiest. the extermination of beasts of prey. fed the poor. or of "the Poor Companions of the Temple of Jerusalem.
and unadorned was their attire. except for close cropped. and
better. As an order and as individuals they followed
inclinations. Women were not
allowed to live in the houses of the order.
knightly orders were those of Calatrava.
THE TEMPLARS. in color either black. were diligent in attendance on divine worship. After the Hospitalers came the German Knights.
the knights were no longer called
themselves "Poor Companions." as it was styled ini its rule.
In those days the time came
of the spirit of lowliness. The chase was not permitted. fasted. whose theatre of action was principally the region of the Baltic Sea. while the specific
pilgrims to the
vow Land became a Holy
of chastity fared not of the order protection of
. in England the order of the
Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. white or brown.132
Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem." but "Knights Templar.
2. of Santiago de Compostella. but they also saw Other service in Spain in the war against the Saracens.
of these orders rose to higher distinction than
the order of the Templars. the brethren But might not so much as kiss their female relations.
time very different
rich in worldly goods. became invested with the knightly character. of Alcantara. cared for the sick.
and thus was
made nought." At first the brethren begged their bread. and so broke the vow of poverty.
or even of posts to the Saracens. but this rule was circumvented by taking married candidates as "affiliate" members. they also admitted minors and even small boys. duplicity. The members called each other Brother. and indeed they stood by each other like brothers. No other order of knights was in such disrepute for lewdness. Thus was formed a second rank or degree. with brown mantle (the mantle of the higher clerics was white).
for the benefit of the order. labor-
comprised persons of all. Servientes. They were not bound by all the vows of the order. Knights wore a white mantle with an eight-pointed red cross over the left breast. but they did not live in the houses of the order.THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR
their negligence. Furthermore. in
battle their personal
bravery was irreproachable. who were the personal attendants of the knights. Lucre was the impelling motive of this dis-
be of noble
regard of their rule. and these ecclesiastics were made independent of the ordinary jurisdiction of diocesans. Clerics wore the cassock.
etc. subordinate to the knights.
their treasonable surrender
candidate for admission to the order
birth. though sometimes illegitimate sons of knights were received. Servientes wore
distinguished by their
a brown garb. money was their god. or were otherwise
ers. as mechanics. the candidate must be unmarried and unbetrothed.
attire. and mere dummies. they were required to make the order heir of their property. These several classes were
and of both sexes.on festival and ceremonial occasions. Then was added still another class. But in time ecclesiastics were admitted to attend to the spiritual affairs.
even treason. Originally all Templars were of one rank and degree that of knights.
four serThe Grandmaster was only vientes and one cleric. but in
war he had supreme command. and by the Pope's favor had the right to harbor excommunicated knights. as the Pope's deputy he had jurisdiction over the clerics.000 houses of the order. their grandmasters ranking
next after Popes and monarchs. which privileges brought down upon them the enmity of the clergy. In fact they recognized no emperor or king as their lord. who loaded them with praise and privileges. In possession of such resources. and he had a treasury at his disposal. with their The grandmaster of the Tem-
plars was elected by a college of eight knights. but
grandmaster at the head. to found churches and churchyards. and to set up a
sort of military aristocratic
by the Pope. And specially were they beholden to the Templars in this regard. If
the Popes had now the arm of the flesh and not of tht spirit only to defend them against the secular power. As the order was exempt from all episcopal jurisdiction and subject only to the Roman See. they
owed that. to conduct divine service in churches that were under interdict.
. with 15. though they feared them. The orders were favored by the Pontiffs. time of their suppression the Templars possessed an empire of five provinces in the East and' sixteen in the West.134
All these religious orders of knights possessed great power in the Middle Age. governed osby themselves.
president of the Council and
representative. they aimed at nothing short of making all Christendom dependent on their order. A splendid retinue attended him. the bishops endeavored to have that and other like priviAt the leges abated by the Lateran Council in 1179. but only the Pope. The Templars were free from all Church tribute. ad vantage to the knightly orders.
which prompted them to care rather for their numerous possessions in the West than for the few they
alike. by the second.
. God. The order took its first steps in this direction in the thirteenth century. By addition of all eminent Templars the Council became The the General Chapter..
held in lands occupied by the Moslem.e. because they suspected that the Church's dogmas were but inventions of Popes and councils. but of whom many were very worldly indeed. showed his favor to the Mohammedans in the Crusades. The C9imcil (Conventus) consisted of the
Grandmaster. found the enlightened new opinions to coincide well with their interest.seSuch views cret by many of the most enlightened men. the Treasurer. But the Templars. moved thereto by desire to safeguard
Its secret doctrines or tenets were riches and power. and by the third. borrowed from the heretical sects of the time Albigenses and Waldenses or were such beliefs as were held in . scholars. Provincial Masters who might be present. who were neither pious nor learned.THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR
him stood the Seneschal. said they. and the Marshal for military. they fancied! that they were freed from the obligations of morality. this was the legislative body. What interests us most at present is those features of the Templar order which marked it as
some respects a secret society. his' deputy for civil affairs. were shared by religious men. on a plan not esother knightly orders were organized sentially different. the grand officers justmentioned). because in rejecting the Church's authority and accepting the heretical doctrines. and worldlings
by the first class out of indignation against the moral degeneration of the rulers of the Church.
and such knights as the Grandmaster might summon. the Drapier. his assistants (i.
So by adopting the more enlightened views. to spitting on the
when new members were
doctrine. who worshiped a superior god of heaven and an inferior god of earth.136
and evidently willed the defeat of the Christian arms. the Trinity a human invention. seems to have been akin to the doctrine of certain sects.
Templars consisted of a secret
doctrine and of a cult based
the same. in fact. and a return with bag and baggage to Europe. the transubstantiation of the bread in the mass garding was for them crass superstition.
THE SECRETS OF THE TEMP LIARS.
like Fairyland. to overt acts of contempt for the cross. or pass the time in the splendid houses of their
amid Oriental luxury. and devote themselves to the service of
princes. had worked no miracles. dead nor ascended into heaven. and surrounded by gardens beguiling the hours with gaming and the chase.
order. where they could rest from their glorious but hard and thankless martial labors. had neither risen from the God.
rapidly nearing their downfall. they prepared the way for a withdrawal from the useless Crusades.
which had no ground in scientific research. veneration of the That the opposition of the order cross an act of idolatry. the eucharist only a comspoken of
the sacrament of penance a priestly imposture. often
The Church's doctrine reas. he was.
to the last-mentioned
custom led on
festival occasions. specially the Albigenses. the while not neglectBut the Templars were ing their political interests. and ascribed to the latter the For the Templars. with songs and Iqvemaking. a false prophet.
rite. Christ was no Son of origin of evil.
before break of day. for they may have been part of a test of the postulants' willingness to obey superiors: and besides. This confession they regarded on the one hand as an act of brotherly trust.
secret rites. introduced in the middle
of the thirteenth century. because John
did not pretend to miraculous powers nor declare himself The clerics of the order must have apthe Messiah. were at that time many enlightened churchmen. the objectionable ceremony was not practiced everywhere.
There proved these heretical opinions and practices. or chapel.THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR
That postulants were means to compelled by force of arms and other violent not to be disperform such highly reprehensible acts is credited entirely. the initial letter of the name of their society. They were said also to have substituted John the Baptist in the place of Jesus as the order's patron. as understood
by Templars. but as a
double T. the initiated performed a: cult of their wn in the chapter house. and on the other of
brotherly counsel: hence. not as the sign of redemption. they confessed only to the chaplains of the order. and it is to be presumed that the Templars would adopt such of them as were at variance with the hierarchy and took
refuge in the order. for
accusations like that are grave not but even of only from the point of view of the Church. were practiced as part of their peculiar religious service. and at the admission of new
members: for though the Catholic liturgy was used in their chapels. in the latter times of the order
. More excusable was the offense of the Templars in looking on the cross broidered on their mantle. This consisted of confession and communion. but only in France. an important part in common propriety. and they played
the prosecution of the Templairfe.
" but why. whether he owed debts that he could not pay. again two or three. The image of John the Baptist typified the rder's opposition
to the Church's creed. that it was set up for veneration as rival to the cross. in chapter. heads. again a very small face (mikroprosopos).
guarded from the eyes of outsiders.
Scribe. whether h'e knew of any impediment on his
part. with bright shining eyes of carbuncles. then of a woman. it would have now one. If none objected the postulant was led into an adjoining room as to his purpose in seeking entrance to the order.
the statements of
of the order
would seem that this idol was a kind of talisman that brought all manner of good fortune. acting as Receptor. gilt. which would be now the face of a man. whether he was married or engaged to be married. first
asked the brethren. and in token of brotherly love. anon the countenance of an old man heavily bearded (makroprosopos).
Two images played a part in the Templar rites.138
to confess to priests that
members were forbidden were not Templars. does not appear. and that they called
"the savior of the order.
The other image."
There were two forms of admission. has been called an "idol." It was made chiefly of copper. and
. if they had any objection to make the admission of the postulant. and represented now a human skull. the general and the special (or secret) form: the latter was used only at the admission of postulants that could be trusted with the
secrets of the order. By them
communion was :aken
in the natural species and substance of bread and wine. anon male and female at once. not as commemorative of
sacrifice. The idol was by some Templars called "Bassomet.
put your trust in this. an order instituted for the purpose of guarding the Church's interests. though they had apostatized from the creeds of the Church. and the most powerful
. and the candidate was threatened with dungeons and death should he communicate to an outsider any information about the ceremony of initiation. or even on occcasion made sport of them. Next.
Such was the
opposition between the avowed and the 'secret convictions of the Templars. and adopt principles that
tended inevitably to the overthrow.
unarmed heretics did and foiled. and such was the hypocrisy of the order: for. instead' of publishing them. showed to the candidate the Idol." Then he girded the candidate with a cord of white wool fibres. Those who betrayed any of the secrets of the order were cast into prison. as it was called.
The questions having been satisfactorily anand the minutes of the replies reported to the swered. the candidate was brought before the chapter. and though they regarded as true many points
of anti-Christian doctrine. the Baptist's girdle. as so
poor. took the vows and was formally adIn the secret rite of admission the Receptor mitted. and all will be well with you. the matter was again put to vote.THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR
. Thus did the Templars. The obligation of secrecy was very sternly enforced. they veiled these with mystery. after more questioning. not only of the Papacy. and. with these words: "Believe in this. they would not formally quit her communion. brethren. which he was to wear over the shirt. in the end reject the Church's doctrines.
association of that time perished. not in glorious but in ignominious dungeons and at the stake.
but of Christianism
(the Fair) of
a serious obstacle to his ambition. on Nov." and
the occupation of the knightly orders having gone. and the Knights of Saint John (Hospitalers) later found a place for themselves by occupying Rhodes. Many different explanations have been offered to account for another change of policy on the part of Philip.140
4. with other orders. but both Templars and Hospitalers rejected the
advice. William Imbert. prior of the Dominicans in Paris. if possible.
and the Spanish
orders by waging continual wlars against the Moors. but failing in that design. tried to win them by
loading them with favors. and that circumstance was the occasion of their downfall. and.
The Crusades having failed utterly. the Popes cast about for a remedy for this undesirable state
of things. the Holy Land having again come under the power of the "infidels. Philip IV. The King.
Inquisitor-General of France. begged the King to call the Templars to account. proposed a union of the Templars with the Hospitalers. doubtless rumors of heresy in the Templar order had come to the omnipresent ear of the
THE DOWNFALL OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR. but none of them is historically sound* Probably the change noticeable in the king's attitude toward the order in 1305 was in some way connected with the outrageous doings of the Inquisition in the South of France. The order of German Knights hlad already forestalled the problem by choosing as their theatre of
action the countries
. and in the early years of
sought to compel them by force to aid him in his schemes. About the
year 1305 Pope Clement V. But the Templars were without any fit employment.
discussed thoroughly the question of the Templars: about the same time the Templars informed the Pope of the
dangers that threatened them. informed
Clement V. or against his wishes. 13.
1305. but also the head of the Templars. and indulgence of unnatural lusts. were assembled before the royal palace. to turn them against
. being busied with the siege of Rhodes. 1307. had all the Templars in France arrested and their goods seized. James Molay (who resided in his palace in Cyprus). he counseled him to come without
news of his departure should give occasion to enemies (of the order) to make a sudden onslaught. "lest the
contrary to the Pope's advice. came to France escorted
his entire council.e. indecent rites of initiation. profanation of the cross. notwithstanding
Grandmaster of the Hospitalers. of the accusation. 1307. and.
(i. it is supposed.THE KNIGHTS TEMPDAR
14. Two days after the arrests the people of Paris. but
this. that Philip on Oct.
and bringing the In May.
Clement. and there were labored with by monks and royal officials.
the words of consecration or of transubstan-
est corpus meum) in masses performed by belonging to the order.. the
Pope and the King met at Poictiers..
Five heads of complaint were alleged against the viz. treasure and the archives of his order." The Master of the Hospitalers was unable to
escort. whose partiality for the Templars was feared. omission of the sacramental
order. to meet with himself in conference about the project of a new Crusade. and Molay.
come. sixty knights.
tiation. Yet in his letter to the
Templars' Grandmaster. It cannot be determined whether
it was with the Pope's approval. and asked for an investigation of the charges brought against them: such investigation the Pope decided to institute. worship of an idol.
pleased with this turn of affairs. claimed for himself the right to proceed against the
The Pope was not
Templars. Confessions were obtained by use of the torture." the Paris house of the order.
ple. and demanded that the arrested Templars and their property should be surrendered to him as judge of the questions at issue. in which was hid the treasure of the Grandmaster (150. and It was not quite twelve horseloads of silver pence). and attributed the action
taken against the Templars to a desire to get possession of the order's treasury and to annihilate a society whose
was a cause of anxiety to the King. and it is
impossible at this day to
of that peculiar
of eliciting truth. protested against the whole proceeding.
.000 gold florins. The King refused. He. but he came to an understanding with the Pope in the matter of the prosecution. in presence of the masters and bachelors of the university."
ordered the arrest of
the Christian world. Edward II. 22 the Pope.142
The King took up
his residence in the
Philip's son-in-law. and how miich. therefore. by the bull "Pastoralis Praeeminenexistence
this precept. and proceeded under the direction of Imbert. The procedure was the same as in the ordinary trials for heresy and witchcraft in the court of the Inquisition. declared that the King was infringing the privileges of the See of Rome. if any part.
500 years later when the Temple became the prison of a descendant of the King. and Nov. was prompted by the desire to atone for past offenses by truthful
forced) admission of guilt. In that same building. the
the Grandmaster and his brethren was commenced.
the Templars throughout of England.
Molay made. the bull "Faciens Misericordiam" ordered a prosecution of the Templars in every country of Christendom and on the I2th of the same month. without compulsion. the Pope was
firmly of the opinion that only individual Templars trial. to determine the question of the Templars. but the Papal jurisdiction. In Cyprus the Templars attempted resistance.
had need of the Pope's assistance
the election of his brother as successor to the assassinated
German King. But the Pope became convinced of the guilt of the accused. but the Pope would not consent to this till their guilt was fully proven. and then take revenge on the King.
in Coelis. while for the King the anni-
hilation of the order
was the main
thing. Templars. not the order. many very important admissions. Under the Papal jurisdiction the trials were conducted with more lenity torture was not employed.
1308. King of Portugal. the case of the Templars belonged Even Philip admitted this. he mistrusted the Pope. and again he demanded the surrender to him of their persons and their
possessions. by the bull
a council was summoned for the year 1310. Denis. and feared that the Templars
might be acquitted. The King demanded the Negotiations were opened.THE KNIOHTS TBMPDAR
he had previously expressed disbelief of the guilt of the like change of mind was seen in Aragon. but subto institute a mitted. as did sev:
of the order.
8. death of the Templars. Albert.
acceded to the demand. prosecution against
as the measure
was one that
of right to countries. till then he had been in doubt. but
contradicted one another. Further ordi-
on sundry points they Nevertheless. refused them.
1310. numbering 546. and the other members for the most part acted in like manner: but their excuse is the hard usage they endured.
the contrary. Molay's behavior on his trial was neither firm nor dignified. were on the 28th of May. The tension between the Pope and the French King was increasing. nevertheless. mustered in the garden
of the Bishop's palace. sought to retard procedure.
Meanwhile the Pope had forgotten
to aid the
his pretentions to the
French crown of the
Empire. and Molay was not permitted to
and demanded the
against the treatment release of all
. Six of the accused three knights and three
protested in the
Henry VII. in
places gave loose rein to their ancient enmity toward the Templars. to whom the Pope had committed the prosecu-
tion of the individual
of the order.
All the Templars arrested in Paris. he favored the elecLuxemburg. and was glad to find
in him a prince who would strenuously oppose the overweening ambition of Philip IV. very
of the accused maintained the innocence of their
and declared the prior confessions false. ever balancing between self-accusation and vindication. and there the accusation was read to them.144
nances of the Pope had to do with the surrender of the properties of the order to the Church. There was much arbitrary ill-usage of Templars. and continually protested his orthodoxy. and freely used the torture. He was never sure of his ground. and the trials of the Templars went on sluggishly for two years more. The bishops. used equivocal and obscure phrases. This can be explained only by supposing that the abuses in the order did not extend to all the houses.
1310. though weak in numbers. now made haste Templars from falling into secular hands. estates in Spain ex-
the investigation thirty-six
of the order died in
prison at Pans. who till then had favored delay in the pro-
He sharply receedings. to
were burned to these were afterward added eight more. though defeated. too. who had taken up arms to defend themselves. and it was the same in Castile.
confessions. by the bulls "Vox in Excelso" and
. and so. they were adjudged innocent. where the order. and he did his best to accomplish the deTemplars at Avignen. at the Council of
(1312). But throughout
struction of the
the greater part of Italy the Templars fared as in France. except that they were not condemned to the stake. the English authorities for refusing to employ proved the torture. whose
Grandmaster should be that French prince who happened be King of Jerusalem for he hoped thus to conciliate the good will of Philip.
12. the Pope offered no convincing proof of the charges and in England." published April 3 and 1312.
Christi Vicarii. nothing could be proved against the accused members. who had long been
to save the property of the
urged by the King to suppress the ofder. It is worthy of note that the Pope. and at
of 54. plead for the preservation of the order by a consolidation of all the military orders in one. made a resolute stand. was now for instant action.THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR
arrest of their accusers. The Pope.
Rheims nine met the same fate: they all protested their innocence at the supreme moment. In Germany. respectively. he made over to the Hospital-
ers all the estates of the
vain did the celebrated
cited the two murderers of his brethren Philip and
n. respectively. were slowly burnt to death on an island in the Seine. employed its wealth in promoting the high ends of civilization."
The order was
presed everywhere except
in Portugal. nevertheless. to appear before the judgment seat of God.
the death of Molay. the other in consequence of a fall from his horse. he
. one of colic. Prince
wandered about as
or entered the
order of Hospitalers. but March
and Godfrey de Charney. In other countries the TemGrandmaster. an official of the having retracted their confessions.
Clement. They both died. a small piece of property was made away with by
Templars from the grasp of the robbers. it is said. bore his imprisonment with great fortitude. without any judicial process. but Philip. eight and thirteen months. great lords.
The Hospitalers afterward succeeded to their rights. orders.
of Jesus Christ. The seizure of the order's estates in France was annulled by the bull of suppression. Molay. churches. by order of the King. but that did them hardly less harm than good.148
The unfortunate Grandmaster Molay. besides. The remainder of the property was plundered by the nobility
and the Church and the Pope surely was not
. maintained his hold on the house of
the order in Paris.
and monasteries. who
a pittance of four sous per diem to alleviate his misery.
Henry the navigator. a hundred years afterward. and on the treasure there stored. for it cost them a great sum to release the estates
The wild disorder attending the irruption of the Gothic nations having subsided. but if the murdered man left a family or kinsmen. on paying to them a certain sum.
but simply as harm
done to the people of the murdered one. in all other matters. The Pope and the Empolitical law peror represented the religious and the political ideas reAs long as one was true to Pope and Empespectively. no wrong act was punished as violating right. the utmost unrestraint prevailed in the several small aggregations of people. If one was without relatives. but always Even murder was not regarded as inas doing harm. and he might. had to organize itself anew.PART SEVENTH
The Femgerichte.. and the utmost diversity between
was the uniting of
these fractional parts under
one religious idea that of Christianism. his slayer went unpunished. which had lost its bearings.
I. do The principle of Justice was not regarded as he pleased.
life. each trying to do its own share of the work the next
. Thus. went forth free. The first step
end was taken when society's task was disamong innumerable fractional parts of itself.e. society.
COURTS OF JUSTICE IN THE -MIDDLE AGE. was a good Christian and a good subject all was well with him. the murderer. and under one that of feudalism.
Augustin. the Rule of St.. of St. Benedict. again to another.
Femgerichte to The Femgerichte resulted from
the confusion existing in judiciary affairs. the feebleness of the Empire. under the rule of the Church. on the contrary. a multitude of monastic rules (e. nor was government a function assigned to
any one. which unrestraint natu-
St. Of bureaucratic.
but. there could be no standard for dismany tinguishing right and wrong. another com-
the people in war.
for such juristic abnormities as the
existence. while. cast-iron government there was nc faintest foreshadow. The cause of this difference of development between State and Church was.g. never inquiring how these might consist with rights previously granted to In this way it became possible in the Middle others. that the Church had grown from
any organization of the adminand though there were codes of law. they both sprang out of the unrestraint of
Middle Age. etc. due to the jealousy of the Popes and the ambition and avarice of the
feudal lords. just as the religious abnormity of the monastic orders of knights resulted
from the veiy opposite condition of things in the Church the excess of regulation. like the administration of justice.
community and another. one was obeyed in peace.). Columba.148
. Jurisdictions were undefined and inextricably mixed up a consequence of the feudal system. centralized. For the confusion (absence of regulation) and the excessive regulation were
near akin. as favors. In a given province this one had acquired the government.
. under which the King granted rights now to one
man. that one the civil and a third the criminal judiciary.
but a great
. Rechtsschwoernke. for while the people increased in number
they did not become better educated. as
compared with the hard. the freemen themselves
were the court and chose
was no longer an equal. being transferred from
the people to favored feudal lords. perfectly free and independent: hence. Juristic Proverbs.
and later an hereditary order and lords proprietary.THE
downward. had grown from below upward. Juristic Drolleries. and withdrew behind dank and frowning walls. with heaven's breezes whispering heaven's blue dome overarching
the leaves. Juristic Myths (Weistuemer. their
the graf. the functions of government were by degrees entrusted to fewer and ever fewer hands. on the contrary. and therefore grew ever less fitted for self-government so. embowered courts amid the lindens. Rechtssagen). from the countenance of the whole people to a meeting of a small bench of stern
all. Originally. the popular.
Thus gradually were the rights of the freemen diThe freemen was less and less frequently
judgment. among the Germans.
abstruse. Not until the time of Karl the Great (Charlemagne) did the grafs become standing officials. judgment.
only a corpus juris Teutonic law has Wise Saws. During the process of migration and settlement. oftentimes even jovial and humorous cast of Teutonic
law. for the president of the court.
lord. and from them passing a quite finally into the hands of an individual sovereign natural process. each nation or horde was self-governed. the Graf
equals count). quitting the open. genial. from the hierarchy down to the people. pedantic. while the State. too. aus-
tere character of the Jus
(Whatever of tihe word "fern" in "femgeriohit. was still alive.
special courts for the half-free
and the unfree.it is equivalent to "-secret". yet
substance unimpaired. "Die Feimgerichte/' Miinslter and FaWave been the original meaning derborn. had to lean on the King's ban.* Westphalia was the original home of the Femgerichte. in modified form indeed. and they owed their rise to the fact that there the royal ban (Koenigsbann).
T(h'eodor Dimdmier's work.)
. that is to say. hence fem-g-ericht Judgmenlt. But often the free grafships died out. who sold and passed from hand to hand. indeed." it is eniou)g*h to kntaw thait
in udage. and who even cared nothing for the Emperor. there were special courts for freemen. in order to maintain their dignity. but in general it denoted the region between the Rhine and the Weser. the possession oi
a gaugrafship developed into sovereignly while the position of the free grafs became peculiar the office was often The free grafs. or warrant. of conferring the grafship on the grafs. as the majority of the population were under the gaugrafs.
. the former
courts being under the free grafs. or secret tribunal. 1888. obtainable from the King alone.
to the granting
of various privileges to ecclesiastical and secular magnates the jurisdiction of the grafs was in time divided Besides.
But nowhere did they
original character as in Westphalia a geographical expression of various meanings. or they were consolidated with gaugraf1
ships. and up. the right possessed by the King alone. and the other under the gaugrafafs (district grafs).
were often persons of little means. who made up the court as to him seemed best. Now.
Freigraf dates from the twelfth century.150
So. e." the free grafs. and to summon to
his own tribunal. as dukes of Westphalia and lieutenants of the Emperor. the "botding. even when he was no prince. Osnabrueck and Minden. but only a graf and often he assumed that the free graf gave judgment
. and so granted release from
the jurisdiction of the free courts. afterward known as femThese offices might fall to any freeman and gericht. every princely land proprietor within its territory was duke of Westphalia." i.
the free grafs held their investiture from the king. Probably the duke was entitled to preside over any free court.
only in his (the lord's) name. for example. too. a house of his own. In the latter half of the Hth and the first half of the 1 5th century the emperors bestowed on the archbishops of Cologne.
any one was reckoned a freeman who had "his own smoke. and even approved by the emperors
. but with more or less limitation. After the break-up of the ancient
duchy of Saxony. and little they by little went on extending their jurisdiction over the
a design favored by the confusion reigning everywhere. A chapter of free grafs was held yearly at Arnsberg. and hence the
Arnsberg tribunal obtained the
rank. and of the Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg dukes of Westphalia all. the schoeffen (a lower
grade of judges).. the stuhlherT (lord of the manor) possessed the right of
presiding. the right of investiture of all free grafs and supervision of them all over Westphalia. free graf and his assessors. to cities. this is specially true of the Archbishop of Cologne. and also of the bishops of Muenster.THE FEIMGEIRICHTE
Not only the King but the duke also had influence over the free grafships. constituted the freigericht (free court). looked on themselves as king's officers. afterward called freischoeffen.
set up free graf tribunals outside the limits of Westphalia but these never
. nor is red soil
confined to Westphalia: and the same criticism may be made if "red earth" be taken for "blood-stained earth. At last the free grafs began to think that they were higher than the emperor."
2. indeed. knowing ones). either three or seven feet higher than a thief. "on red earth. which.152
themselves. The penalty was exacted very rarely. inasmuch as they were not open to all like The the courts of the gaugrafs (or judges of districts).
. Frederic. or. and then he was to be hanged. Some of the emperors did.
. for neither is the soil of all Westphalia red. The Schoeffen were now required to bind themselves by oath to observe secrecy: the one who
proved false to his oath was first to have his tongue plucked out." a phrase that does not occur prior to 1490.
associate judges (Freischoeffen) were called "wissende" (wisemen. for
free grafs. such courts could exist only in Westphalia. and it was still to be seen under Frederic
VII. and the sense of which is not quite clear. as the free grafs became more conscious of their ambitious aims.
THE SECRET TRIBUNAL.
The early "free courts" were in a certaim sense "private" courts. and probably never the
it. as the say-
ing was. and had no need of his meddling: this arrogance was at its height in the reign of Sigmund. in old times^ meant
"private" tribunal of the
by degrees a "secret" tribunal about the middle of the I4th
In the I5th century it was an axiom that prospered.
having taken steps to punish was summoned by free
grafs to stand trial.
Franconia. a fad.
and summonses. Every manor lord and every free city needed the advice of wissende. and as the words were pronounced one laid his right hand on the others' left shoulder. at night. Princes and cities had their judges admitted as schoeffen. Poetry and romance have made the Feme courts sit in subterranean chambers. whoever willingly or unwillingly was present unbidden at the secret deliberations was straightway hanged from the
nearest tree.000 freischoeffen in the empire. in broad daylight Whether in certain cases they were also public. In 1387 the most distinguished people of Cologne were "wissende". Saxony. Gras. and of such places there were in Westphalia more than a hundred. The fact is that the tribunals of the Feme were set up at
the ancient seats of the free tribunals. is not known. were initiated: in the middle of the 1 5th century there must
have been more than 100. To be initiated became a craze. Grein.
Very remarkable was the universal recognition throughout Germany of the power of the Femgerichte. Switzerland.
But the most important secret was the countersign. the faces of the judges masked. and the trials were always held in the open air. about 1420 the Rhineland was full of wissende belonging to every grade in society and soon after the same might be said of Bavaria. Stock.THE FEMGERICHTE
obligation of secrecy extended over
ing's of the secret courts. by means of which the initiated recognized each other. Prussia. even the Emperor Sigmund.
. Stein. so that
In all cases any one might be present. the native Westphalians were amazed at the folly of their southern and
eastern countrymen. Tyrol. archbishops and princes. This was made up of four words (taken from the oath).
Suabia. where testimony was taken the proceedings were secret.
court consisted of a free
raf and! at least
seven schoeffen. and in the I5th w ere even formed leagues of cities for
against the encroachments of the Feme. Then the dukes of Bavaria
and of Saxony forbade
their subjects laying complaints in the Westphalian courts^ and some cities punished that offense with death. and
not of West-
phalian birth. As
time went on the examination of applicants became
and less strict. were admitted: such
. or banishment.
fitness. were freed from the
jurisdiction of the secret courts by the supreme ecclesiastical and civil authorities. especially in Southern Germany and in Holland.
toward the close
of that century other cities took more effective measures.
were required to present proofs of their There was a fee for admission to the Feme.154
And the long arm of the Femgericht jurisdiction reached as far as the host of wissende: the localities in which the activity of the secret tribunals was manifested
of these courts
over the empire in fact.
a very small fraction of the whole.th century.
when Bremen decided not
courts to reside within
jurisdiction. But with the spread of the Feme jurisdiction arose opposition to the same. for peasants were often chosen
schoeffen also had to be freemen born. whatever his station in The to* be grafs. life. and Hildesheim and Erfurt to the Council of Basel. the proceedings which affected Westphalia itself became
. and often very questionable characters. In the
middle of the I5th century several cities. even serfs and men accused of crimes.
graf was required
be a freeborn
Westphalian of stainless reputation. Brunswick appealed to the Pope and the Emperor. There were seen faint beginnings of opposition even in the early part of the i/|.
treachery. but to take part in proWhen the trial was one of special nouncing sentence. robbery and acts of
against ecclesiastics or churches. 2.THE FEIMOERICHTE
were. refusal to apsummons.
and the men chosen under such
circumstances were called notschoeffen (makeshift schoeffen). at least so far as the trials The crimes of which the Femgerichte took cognizance vemewrogige punkte (points for femic
\vere held in secret. on which lay a naked sword and a rope as symbols of avenging justice. 9. according tO' the list drawn up at in 1430.
5. For the person found guilty . Each free graf and each schoeffe of a given court was required not only to be present at a trial. betrayal of the Feme. or if he confessed
there were eyewitnesses of the crime. 8. death. the offender were taken in the act.
6.there was but one punishment. and only one manner of death. and in 1490 heresy and witchcraft were added. as follows: i. robbery on the im-
n. pear in court on
This penalty could be inflicted without sentence rcpe. 12. In these the competence of the courts was defined. rape. forgery of money or of title to property. robbery of a woman in childbed or of a dying person.
dead. 10. and this had to do
matters purely criminal.
The Femgerichte had their special codes and statutes. 7. and the schoeffen took oath on these instruments. Apostasy from the Christian faith was put at the head of the list in an assembly held at Arnsberg 1437. which were from time to time amended.
murder. perjury and perfidy. importance several hundred schoeffen would be in attendance. by the
The free graf sat at a judgment-board.
Accusations were not
That among the offenses punishable by the Feme heresy and witchcraft held almost the first place shows that
these tribunals were no object of apprehension to the ec-
power. too. in which the judge made investigation on his own account." It was not the inquisitorial court procedure of the 1 6th. he was Hable regarding to be hanged.
took up the complaint from what-
All schoeffen. and one that agreed well with the independent spirit of the Middle Age. The procedure of the Femgerichte was entirely in accord with the principle of ancient Teutonic law. and that their aim was to uphold and exaggerate antiquated judicial institutions. were under obto bring to the attention of the free courts.
cuser had to stand betwixt two fellow schoeffen. should open the same and betray its contents. but that their specialty was opposition to the law of the stronger and to the rule of petty states. as also from that of the Stonemasons (which will be next considered) especially in this. and the same fate befel the one who.
Hence were a schoeffe to give information such offenses to any other court. that the Feme was no league of Illuminati. therefore. his sponsors. and the view that then prevailed that law was a matter of perclesiastical
sonal rights. This secret association. that "where no complainant appears. neither is there any judge. and ligation to prosecute all doings coming under the animadversion
came. having been entrusted with a bill of accusation.1 Qth centuries.
when submitted by
wissende. in front of the tribunal in kneeling posture. but a procedure founded entirely in the practice of civil courts.
In every case the
thing done was to decide
. diffrom that of the Templars.
"We have stuck a king's brief in the notch and taken the proof with us: say you to him
. did not obey the summons. on receiving the summons. When the whiereabouts of an accused person was unknown. could appear at any time within the three delays before the free court and demand a statement of the charges and the names of the accusers. That decided. before the open court. the accused was summoned to appear. and obtain his freedom. then four schoeffen summoned
. The first summons to a wissender to appear before the secret tribunal was drawn up in writing by two schoeffen. which they kept. again. and cried out to the castellan or the burgomaster. put a penny of the realm in the notch. if not a wissender. six schoeffen
graf called the
if he was a wissender. four summonses were prepared.
accused was a
graf the number of schoeffen employed in each of the three processes of summoning was 7. but he was liable to be
schoeffe. If the accused was one who inspired fear. before the secret tribunal. 4 and 7. and these were posted in four places where he might possibly be found. affixed the summons. and allowed
If he the accused a delay of six weeks and three days."
and of free grafs 2. the summons might in the night time be
whether the crime was one meet for animadversion by the Feme. then he might on his sword swear to his innocence. 14 and
21. and usually by only one schoeffe.ineffectual.
Outsiders were summoned once only.
the gate of the castle or of the city In such cases the schoeffen walked or
rode up before the gate.
this proving. hacked off the crossbeam three chips.
the accusation was repeated and testimony taken." When the opposition to the Femgerichte began to gain force. his carcass to the birds and beasts to devour. maintained the truth If the verdict was against the accused. affirmed the guilt of the accused. The free graf then thrice called the accused by name.
mate. the free graf arose. and his fiefs and goods give up to the lords of whom the fiefs I make his wife a widow and his children are held. insecure. But if the accused failed to appear. outside the peace. in words like these: "The accused (name and surname) I except from the peace. banned." In making this demand. and I do outlaw him according to the sentence
of the secret tribunal. on behalf of highest law and the Emperor's ban. and outlawed the accused. if the accuser was not on hand the accused was discharged. dishonored.
The day of the trial having arrived. If there was no appearance of the accused. and I cast him down and place him in uttermost unquiet and disgrace. and over the the name of the outlaw was written in the book of the
. the accuser could demand judgment "after a se'ennight. and make him illegitiloveless. and devote his neck to the rope.158
in the castle that
he must on his appointed day
present himself before the free tribunal. the schoefTen spat out. and
his soul to the
out orphans. as his sponsors. he knelt. laid two fingers of the right hand on his naked sword. the summoners
in greater peril often than the
lost their lives. of what he swore. and asked if any one was there as his attorney." Then the free graf threw a twisted crd bounds of the court. and six schoeffen. and I
power of God in heaven. the laws and the freedom (of -the emand decreed by pire) as the same have been stablished popes and emperors.
If ever the condemned.
condemned. if a wissender. "so very small that one might readily allow the Feme's decree of outlawry to be pronounced upon him. and the court could outlaw its own ministers for carrying out its own decrees. bishop of Wurtzburg. pretended to be schoeffen. he was executed forthwith in the usual way.
having overstayed the se'ennight of grace. assassination) of innocent persons. Among the persons thus condemned were numbered some men of high station. or was convicted. too.
free graf. All free grafs and schoeffen were henceforth under obligation to arrest and to execute sentence upon the outlaw (but three members of the Feme were required)." Pope Nicolas V. brought before the court. and others. The ban of the Feme could never be lifted but the number of death sentences actually carried out was. bade him
rise. Many were the abuses that arose. but if he confessed his guilt. and attended by two schoeffen. appeared in court with six compurgators he was set free. falling on The knees before the free graf he pleaded for mercy.
taking him by the hand. as the dukes Henry and Louis of Bavaria (1429). in 1452 condemned the capital executions done by the Feme. carrying a
green cross. and highwaymen robbed under pretense of sequestering the property of persons condemned by judgment of the Feme. wearing white gloves. Often the relatives of executed
outlaws of the
the executioners in the free
courts as assassins. says Lindner. If a man under sentence of death should be proved innocent before he fell into the hands of the executioners. John. and executing sentence meant hanging the culprit from the nearest tree. he was. with a
rope around his neck. being a wissender and not
6 weeks and a day" that was all. but
was no amend.
fate that overtakes all
Red Earth league met the movements that lag behind the The Feme did by no means render in the days
Initiates of the
great services as
of "faustrecht" (fist-right.
Middle Age be
tried only in the
but in the I5th century the
regarded these provisions.
THE END OP THE FEME. and summoned) both' Jews
times. They regarded the con-
demned as dead." The Emperor Sigmund could think of no means of saving a man under condemnation. But one who was not a
wissender had no rights!
merely escaped death. and protested strongly to the Emperor against them. the Pope. Both processes were called the "entfemung" ("unfeming. except by taking him into his own service. and restored him to the grace and favor of the Feme. the rule of the stronger) so it has been credited with: never was
the rcpe from around his neck. as well as aged
children. in theory. or a Church Council. for the Femgerichte
Kaiser and the empire.
for they could in the
spiritual courts. But the Femgerichte never recognized such appeals. also. The Emperor gave him "a reprieve of 100 years.
did not care to take measures against officials of the Women." undoing of the Feme's judgment). also. femung. the camera. and said that no one had the right "to awaken the dead.160
of the condemned. for Jews were "''servants of the Emperor's bedchamber". ecclesiastics. he was forever ineligible to become a schoeffe.
3. were excepted from the cognizance of the Feme. Jews. unable to procure the entventured to appeal to the Emperor. too.
enriched themselves with feco for admission of new members.
supreme court of judicature (kammerleft no further excuse for protecting the
applications for admission to the Feme at last ceased.
and the respect
degree. that wrong became aggravated through the excessive
secrecy of the tribunals.
was held declined
free grafs forgot the fair
promise of their
that their function was to protect inoriginal institution nocence against the machinations of bad men.
their jurisdiction so as to
condemned innocent persons. They.
The Feme degenerated
steadily. overstepped the limits of condemn to death the entire
male population (over 18 years) of a town.
gericht). with costs of court. with fines and fees. and not till the decade
1880-90 did the
graf disappear. and the branches overjudgment head are still whispering the story of the redoubtable Wissende of the Red Earth country. If the extension of the Feme beyond the borders of Westphalia was a wrong.
free courts.THE PEMOERTCHTE
the insecurity of
and property so great as when the
Femgerichte were most flourishing. and even with moneys got by extortion and oppression. But
even when Westphalia was a Napoleonic kingdom there were still living some schoeffen. The princes changed
into ordinary tribunals. They delayed trials. "taking with
to the grave the secret of the countersign."
ence of the
commemorated by the stone
under the lindens.
and especially the presidents of courts.
. for not obeyThe opposition to the Femgerichte ing a summons. at the end of the i/th these courts had nearly all disappeared.
the end of the i6th century a capital execution by a Femgericht was a thing unknown. culri mated in the decree of the Emperor Maximilian I.
the agricultural laborer this is true without any reservation but the artisan was more favorably situated as soon
as the cities
had begun to develop. was left unrestricted and that individuals
formed social unions for the exercise of it. before it became conscious of a need not only of a union of
penmen. the Middle Age could not rise to such an intellectual height as would enable it to see that work is more to be honored than indolence.
so far as
of the Middle
have already noted as a prominent characteristic Age this. peace than war:
Of hence the worker had to take a subordinate place. that freedom of action. except
interfered with the interests of the clergy or nobles. True.
1. But the medieval world had
not followed the arts of peace very long after the stormy times of the barbarian invasions. But the progress made by the
The constitucorporations or gilds.
Stonemasons' Lodges of the Middle Ages.PART EIGHTH. tions of the trade gilds derive partly from the "collegia"
of artisans in ancient
and partly from the mo-
MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE. but also and still more of a union of handicraftsmen. Thus we have seen these two dominant classes uniting to form associations which finally were crowned by the institution of the military orders.
especially in the cities. As long as architecture or
the builder's art was thus under monastic guidance. and of the strength that comes of harmonious action between equals in the place of rounded arches. is the first to require new methods of facilitating operations. And the reason if this is obvious. The most elaborate of these mysteries was that of the Stonemasons. was seen in the development of a new Instead of the single columns rose clustered colstyle.THE STONEMASONS
nastic orders. rounded
arches. squat towers. After the great migrations the mason's trade had its home in the monasteries.
but of these
The "collegia" had secret rites. for of all trades that of the builder not only makes most demands on the thinking faculty. outside of the monasteries.
umns. to show that the forces
. involves most details." and these easily are made trade
secrets: besides. as builders of temples. in the nth and I2th centuries. and henceforth the monastic churches were inferior to the
why they should serve under the dimen who had no taste for anything but wine. but when the monks forsook art and science. we have no reliable information. it affected the Romanic style simple columns. pointed ones. and war. too.
that conspired to raise the structure did not sacrifice their
their mysteries. mysteries. the
quired a sacred and mystical character.
circumstances of the builders' unions. and it is
certain that the medieval gilds
this true. the crafts-
the chase. which were now self-controlled. some of them the
of passwords and consisted only which craftsmen recognized their felcountersigns by lows. symbol of free union. And so there arose unions of masons
and splendor. new "wrinkles.
These huts. in memory of their formerly having been inmates of monasteries.
all sides. which disturb prejudices.
places of the masons' unions were the board huts that stood on the
churches in process of construction. which
different design in each.
and the members of the leagues.
spires aspiring" to infinitude. so is and then the archi-
tecture of illuminism followed as the style of the Renaissance. and so is as adverse to obtrusive dogmatism as to reckless investigation.
but freely contributed each
share toward the attainment of the end. the triumph of the free Teutonic spirit. "Here we stand free and
open. or "lodges.
2. Hence the Gothic style has somewhat of gloom and melancholy in its vast arches and narrow windows.
close towers'. thus entering a protest
THE STONEMASONS' LODGES OP GERMANY." were at an early period leagued together. called one another Brother. innumerable spirelets striving heavenward to find the Divine. which favors the unhindered development and the unrestricted independence of individual It was also the expression of mysticism. with genius. This was the true Germanic or Gothic architecture. and ilHence as the luminsm." Then came decoration of the window arches.
style is the architecture of the
life. It invites the free spontaneous spirit of man to sound the depths of his own nature. acknowledging no laws but those of heaven. and their unions Brotherhoods.shelter to the masons or stone cutters while at work. they
the Gothic that of free church
individualities. and open as to say. in place of squat. affording.
though not as brethren. therefore the famous Cathedral of Cologne is to be regarded as the cradle of the great league of stonemasons'
lodges. and at Strasburg 1498.
of this league an assembly of from the lodges. At the head of a lodge stood the is. yet as dependents. Helpers." The date of the formation of this league
cannot be determined. To the judicial district of Strasburg belonged the left bank of the Rhine down to the Moselle. a celebrated
friar (b. the three lodges at Strasburg.THE STONEMASONS
their chief officers such tokens of re-
spect as are found in the clerical epithets "reverend" and "worshipful. and the
usually given to Albert the Great. d.
and other ancient documents relating
zation of the brotherhood
to the organithat the Brethren
were classed as
(meister. and 1280). The masters of Master of Works. and he of Strasburg held the foremost rank among these.
"Parleyers" and Comrades and to these were added. to the district of Cologne belonged the region on
of Bollstadt. Hesse. and on the right bank Suabia. Cologne and Vienna were the Chief Judges of the league. which came together "in chapdelegates ter" (another reminiscence of the monastic origin of these unions) at Ratisbon in 1459. drew up a trade con-
For the government
einen Bruderschaft des Steinwerks
"Ordnung und Vereinigung der gemund der Steinmetzen"
(Regulation and Combination of the general brotherhood of stonework and stonemasons): it was revised and From amended at Basel in 1497.
Albert lived nearly all his life in Cologne. or Master-Builder.
appears to have been in
the I3th century.
wherever he went.). Italy. With these he identified himself as a brother mason etc. for they ought to deal with each other as friends. were only nominally members of the league: as matter of fact they were subordinate to none of these lodges. Switzerland stood apart under a separate master. and so had the right to learn the trade On coming to a hut where stone-cutting was going on. In these regulaevidences of the sturdy good striking
For example. differences between masters should be settled by arbitrators chosen from memsense of the masons. grip. and
the business ended with a
feast. To the journeyman. Saxony.
Hungary. The masons
Austria. and to that of Vienna.166
the other side of the Moselle. as soon as he began to travel. but they adopted a special "or-
der" for themselves at
in 1462." were holidays for the league.
bers of the league. In the brotherhoods brotherly comradeship played an important part. also to teach others their art for money. they were forbidden to disparage deceased masters and their works. and the festivals of Saint John the Baptist. but also a majority of the: fellowcrafts must approve. he first shut the door. were communicated the secret signs of the brotherhood passwords. one master was not to expel a fellowcraft.
Each General lodge
yearly held as grand assembly. Zurich afterward succeeded to the place of Berne. Meetings were held monthly. Each meeting of a lodge was opened and closed with questions and answers of the master and the comrades. etc.
Northern Germany. who had his seat at B^rne. to do so he must not only take counsel with two other masters. and of the so-called "Four Crowned
. on the right bank of the Rhine
(Thuringia. so as to knock on it
cords. the square." "What is discipline and right behavior?" "The usages of the craft and its customs."
many. the visitor placed his' feet at right angles. etc.
the rites of
initiation in those times
nothing: what Fallou has on that head regarding the usages of the German stonemasons is simply borrowed from the Freemasons' ritual of the present time.THE STONEMASONS
fashion. also mystic figures.
ears of corn.
the worthy masons." to which
the answer was
on. the flaming star (which was the Pythagorean pentagram.
. and ranged them-
selves in a right angle.
other point of any consequence of which we have certainty is that the postulant swore to observe secrecy." and
among them honored mas"My you ter.
circle. stonemasons also employed as symbols of their craft the
hammer. he must not touch it save with the covered with a white glove or a white napright hand
that the drinking usages as
to us are authentic.. honored sureties. and the whole honored masons' lodge at X. then asked. the glass was never to be handed to the banqueter. but set on the table before him.
skins. saying. "God bless the worthy masons.
kin." "What for?" "For discipline and right behavior. g.
special toast is drunk.. the two pillars "of Solomon's temple. or the magic hexagram two triangles laid across each other).
handed For example. then.
"Are German comrades made shut the doors. It is
technical details of the craft
chief part in the
highly probable that in the medieval masons' lodges the and its secrets played the
The medieval ceremonies of initiation. the
e. Forthwith the
search through the hut.
at Brandenburg was shown a fox preaching
to a flock of geese. of
cannot be imagined than
they employed. but the foolish ones wear cardinals' hats.
they undermined the institutions to which they owed their existence. and in the vestibule the Wise and the Foolish Virgins are shown keeping vigil. for illuminism
privilege of birth or in so far as such bodies of rank or of vocation. a distinctly Chrismembers were required by the "Or-
tian institution: the
dinances" to comply with all the usages of the Church.
of the Stonemasons' brotherhood
causes even in the age before the Reformation. as the Templars and Stonemasons favored illuminism. contributed to bring about a chlange in the spirit of the masons which was noticeable
I5th centuries: many. and so were working for their own extinction. The Doberan Church in Mecklenburg shows a mill in which church dogmas are ground out. Illuminism is the foe of
a representation of the Last Judgment in the Berne minster a pope wearing a glittering tiara of gold is seen
tumbling headlong into Hell. etc. perhaps a mathem acquired a spirit of opposition to Roman ecclesiasf icism. bishops' mitres and priests' caps. This was a survival from the time when the lodges had
their origin in monasteries. and the illuminism spread abroad by them. in that
. and it was very plainly manifested in their
sects that arose
every side despite bloody persecutions.168
The masons' brotherhoods were. At Strasburg was seen a procession of all manner of beasts with blazing torches and an ass performing the mass. Hence. and what is most significant found expression in the churches themselves.
dealt a severe blow at the buildingcraft. Nevertheless. undirected effort. with the principal
lodge in Strasburg. 1707. and
cut the ground under their
3. briefmaurer). particularly the Thirty-Years' War. the lodges remained as secret societies until modern freedom of industrial trades stripped them of all meaning. and that hardly any new churches were erected. in Germany we find strenuous endeavor toward perfection in the craft. The
savageries of the i6th and I7th centuries. interdicted communication of their subjects with princes
feet. and a disposition no less elevated in a moral sense than devoutly religious in France we see only rude. and
the distinction between "salutation-masons" and "letter-
masons*' (grussmaurer. and forbade the oath of secrecy. And as the discords of the German -masons and their weakness prevented them from
those of France. but the deathblow to the Stonemasons' league was the treacherous seizure of the seat of the principal Naturally. nor any common property. the
lodges. the German lodge.THE STONEMASONS
was no lack now of churches. of course.
FRENCH CRAFTSMEN. What the relation was of the lodges to the Reformation we shall see later on. with here and there some encouraging features. and. the use of the "nonsensical
form of salutation" (so ran the text of the decree). principal and subordinate. In France there is sharp distinction between the gilds of the masters and the lodges of the journeymen. cultivation of the beautiful.
. The masters have neither a common) bond of union. by Louis XIV.
from the German
societies of crafts-
and these societies. but according to the supposed manner of their first institution and the branch of the craft which
they represent. first. into two great sections. founded socie-
the pattern of those instituted by Hiram. the other at Bordeaux. There are several
(compagnonnages). each claiming priority. instituted societies with special passwords and secret But that act was the occasion of his death. and landing. The former are again divided into the Eh-
fants de Maitre Jacques (Master James's children). with secret constitutions
and usages. but the latter commonly called themselves Enfants de
Salomon. According to the story of the Devoir comrades.
the Enfants de Maitre Soubise (Master Soubise's children). admitted craftsmen other than builders. at the building of Solomon's temple. masterbuilder. after James. Hiram.170
craftsmen form strong societies. but the two bodies lived in perpetual hatred of each other. returned home. stonemason. but they are not distinguished according to locality. to maintain discipline and order among the workmen. carpenter: these. the completion of the temple. for ritual. They are divided. as well as between the children of James and those of Soubise. some workmen slew him because he refused to give them
the countersign of the masters: those evildoers were the Now founders of the Compagnonnage de la Liberte! the faithful workmen were two Gaulish masters. one at Marseilles. and Soubise. the Compagnons du Devoir (companions of
duty). and the Compagnons de la Liberte (companions of liberty).
Between the Compagnons du Devoir and the Compagnons de la Liberte. little by little.
. there exists the bitterest enmity which is mirrored in their myths and tra ditions.
respectively. and 22 other
trades. The Liberte tradition is the same as that of the Devoir.
the hostile leagues often engaging in
'. whether Devoir or Liberte. With the other trades and in the provinces the
. hence in tfeeir eyes the other trades are quite destitute of art or skill. locksmiths. locksmiths. but
different leagues. to the children of James belong the stonemasons. in particular. and each possesses authentic documents in proof.
despise their juniors (trades of less ancient lineage). in the same league hostilities often break out. ters.
trade. the symbol of the art of building.
Even in the same trade fights and pitched battles. C. roofers and plasterers. and form separate societies of their own. joiners.
All other craftsmen
whose work is the production of clothing and foodstuffs are excluded from the compagnonnages. the compagnons du Devoir taking the left and those of La Liberte the right bank of the Seme. The carpenters of Paris have made an end of this strife by dividing the cosmopolitan city
between themselves. are held in contempt. and in their ignorance derive the word compagnon from
(a pair of compasses). oppose each other in every way. carpenThe Devoir includes 28 crafts.
and of these the children of Soubise comprise the carpenters. and 550 B.
housebuilding. introduced in later times. except hatmakers. C. while among James's children even the members of the building crafts
Liberte are gathered four crafts stonemasons. only the respective parts of In the bosom of La the chief actors are reversed. though none has ever seen them. The shoemakers and the
and persecuted in -every way by the compagnons.THE STONEMASONS
refers its own institution (on what grounds is unknown) to the years 558 B.
Athelstan. important edifices were erected by the clergy. and the French societies lived in obscurity. ever that may be. a society of bridge-builders.
THE ENOMSH STONEMASONS. The most ancient of them is the sociAdmission to* these ety of the Dyers.
While the German societies of handicraftsmen were oppressed by the imperial power. and to have given laws to their lodges. by
The earliest Pope Clement
III. especially the stonemasons.. The other compagnon-
1 4th century. those of the building trades. roads and inns. hence.
English (operative) masonry back to King Alfred the Great (871-901).
III. societies involves many ceremonies derived from the
of the Catholic Church. the English masons' lodges.
bridges. Edwin. the Tailors and Shoemakers were in 1645 denounced to the ecclesiastical tribunals. and his successor. as in Germany.
his third predecessor. was an ac-
. archbishop of Canterbury. who. and their meetings forbidden by the theological
facuJjty of Paris.
the breast a pointed nages can show no authentic records of earlier date than
As emblem they wore on hammer. it is certain that in England. probably
arose about the same time as the German masons' lodges at least there existed in the Middle Age in southern
France. attained high importance.. is said to have called meetings of
Howmasons. on the Tradition traces contrary. for the behoof of pilgrims to. and that Dunstan. charter was granted in 1189.
4.the Holy Land and wayfarers in general.172
the French corporations of craftsmen. whose younger son.
who. dating from 1330.
Out of these societies of operative
masons arose the modern
of "speculative" freemasonry. in the lodges no distinction was made of master and fellow. the holding of the lodge meetings in open air in fair weather. but after the rise of Gothic architecture the builders were laymen.THK STONEMASONS
complished architect. the station
of the master in the east. and in all probability many of them Germans. Among themselves all masons were equals. was afterward contracted to the form "freemason. the drenching of peepers with the drip from the roof "till the water ran out of their shoes." In an act of parliament of the year 1350 the word freemason is found for the first time. masonry showed some peculiar features. freestone mason. the actual master of a lodge presided over the meetings.
The English Freemasons may have got their name from the fact that the original founders of lodges were workers in freestone freestone masons. e. though. By that act congreBut gations and chapters of masons were forbidden. The members studied mutual improvement in technical knowledge.
In the reign of Edward III. the posting of guards
around the lodge. and aided one another in misfortune."
etc. of course. In the early English societies
masons we find rules and usages that clearly follow German precedent. the
laws prohibiting assemblage of masons was relaxed so as to permit meetings when held in presence of the sheriff of a county or the mayor of a city. it is supposed.
. and the lists of master masons contain Nevertheless. comrades or fellows. g. English many decidedly German names.. as distinguished from workers in rough stone. the masons survived this persecution.
such as were used by the pupils and followers of the famous Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus.
Astrologers and Alchemists. should give rise to
associations. reformer of the medical art. or the pretended of producing gold and silver. therefore.
especially as it employed sundry and kabbalistic means for attaining mystic. and one of the most zealous of astronomers and alchemists. theosophic. Long through the before the Thirty Years' War the zeal for religious creeds
had died out. shoemaker and philosopher. had its laboratories in dark cellars. was natural that Alchemy. who. though they had little taste for other serious matters and thus it came about that in the transition from the
. its -ends. people had grown weary of theological strifes.
its lost territory
of the Reformation closed with the re-
covery to the Catholic
of a large proportion of labors of the Jesuits. though he had none of the "accurst hunger" for the precious metals.
the beginning of the I7th century a multitude of writings about this mystic and superstitious business ap-
Hence. gave an impetus to fatuous investigations of divine things.
to the 1 7th century such pseudo-sciences as Alchemy and Astrology had great vogue. and made a
. That was the era of a Jacob Boehme. The study of Astrology had for its aim only fame and gflorv. was pursued openly while Alchemy being inspired mainly by avarice. and.
in which was given an account of an alleged secret society
designed to promote studies of that kind. was the alchemistic furore of that time that the tale great
passed for solemn' truth. which. John Valentine Andraea of Tuebingen (b. who sniffed heretical tenets in the "documents.ASTROLOGERS AND ALCHEMISTS
In this battle of goosequills the peared.
in the I4th and I5th centuries. "Fama FraRoseae Crucis" (Fame of the Brotherhood of the ternitatis Rosy Cross) and "Confessio Fraternitatis" (Confession of
Faith of the Brotherhood) traced the pretended society back to a monk named Christian Rosenkreuz. in accordance
with the rule of the order. span the story out to greater length. d. which appeared in
Now. Andreae in 1614 conceived the thought of playing a trick
on these mystics by publishing two satirical pieces. 1586. and a swarm of writings followed. visted the holy land. while the alchemists. was kept secret. so 1616. championing or battling against the Society of the
After years. to this society he gave a name suggested by the design of his own family seal (a Saint Andrew's cross. and
died at the age of 106
a lapse of 120 years. These writings. was instructed in the occult sciences in the East. with roses at the ends of its
Rosicrucians. took a very prominent part.
. in his tomb. was found resting on
body a parchment book containing the conand the secrets of the order. Lutheran theologian. but which was a magnificent structure in a vault. pro and contra. A later document "Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosenkreuz" (alchymic nuptials of Christian Rosenkreuz). 1654). who.
the opponents of the
longed the theologians." and the medical men who scented danger
to their close gild.
inquired diligently after the Rosicrucians. did he found a "Christian Brotherhood"
for the purpose of purging religion of abuses and planting true piety. "Mythologia Christiana. with a view to lead men's fancy in other directions. the thing: went so far that in the Rhineland. Andreae tried to undo the mischief by putting forth two pieces. propagated the singular order by publishing" a number of writings. but these societies had no general organization among themselves. Astounded by the war of no-wits against little-wits occasioned unintentionally by himself. and maintained the authenticity of their
Blood of Christ poured out on the cross.
the followers of Paracelsus. an ardent mystic and alchemist. Alchemy. But as he neglected to name himas author of the first two writings. in vain did he pour self out on the Rosicrucianistic partisans all the vitriol of his
fied the rose-colored
contempt." and "Turris Babel/ to prove that the whole thing was a joke. In vain. With
. became the subject
new books. of the Philosophers' Stone.
In England Dr. The insanity persisted. that is. Many a wight was choused out of There were branch sohis money by these schemers. whose authors gave out that were members of the alleged society. barely alluded to in Andreae's writings.
preting in a mystical sense the
there lack of attempts at intersymbol of the Rosy Cross:
signified Holiness joined with Silentiousness. and the Low Countries secret alchemistic societies were founded under the name of Rosicrucians. which also took the style Fraternitas Roris Cocti
of a multitude of
(Brotherhood of Boiled Dew). that the Brotherhood was a fiction and non-existent. The incident they was also turned to account by adventurers and by factions of every sort.
. wearing as a token a black silken cord in the top buttonhole. They observed strict secrecy as toward
They disappeared little by little in the i8th and there is no means of determining the relacentury.ASTROLOGERS AND ALCHEMISTS
regard to the usages of the societies.
together. when several went
are told that the
members roamed about meanly
with hair cropped close near the forehead. of
At their lodge meetings they wore ablue ribon which was a gold cross inscribed with a rose. their president (styled Imperator. a small green banner. John
(Hospitalers). carrying. and bon. They claimed that their society was an offshoot of the great knightly order of St. emperor) was dressed in priestly togs. tion between them and the masonic Rosicrucians.
in maltreating and persecuting their opponents. They derived the principles of tolerance from renascent literature and art. which made such impression that as in an earlier age the Romanic architecture. and to this consummation the English masons conof strife over creeds.
RISE OF FREEMASONRY. and they longed for tolerance. and in the common brotherhood of mankind to disregard all differences of creed.
the day with
who knew anything
.PART NINTH. took a more dignified shape.
Rise and Constitution of Freemasonry. and in a satiric
sense among the Stonemasons. But the intolerance shown by the authorities and by the members of both creeds. and the so-called Augustan or "Renaissance"
an imitation of the ancient Grecian and
art. which had been "good form" though in a frivolous sense among the Templars. Illtiminism. so now the Gothic.
as the expression of a definite phase of belief. not of incredulity but of earnest desire to build up.
In England people had had enough enough of persecution of Protestants under "Bloody Mary" and of Catholics under the inflexible Elizabeth.
The Reformation and the events connected with it had given people much matter of meditation.
1. lost its following. so alienated all humane minded men that secretly
people began to care neither for the interest of Protestant-
ism nor for that of Catholicism.
men of talent not belonging to the mason's trade. for intellectual aims were permitted to go back into the trade gilds. during the Thirty
by the partiEngland in 1641 writings that condemned all churchly bigotry and pleaded for cosmopolitanism. The rebuilding of London."
of countries existing. Amos
Comenius). the order suffered severely during ."
cumstances a new. whose lodges he reformed. then everywhere prevalent This disposition of minds was promoted in an incalculable
in his "Utopia. and at the same time president Instead of the Freemasons. irrespective of creeds. and it found support in the sentiment of brotherliness. but on the return of peace it more than recovered lost prestige."
degree by the pictures drawn by Sir Thomas and by Sir Francis Bacon in his
Atlantis. indeed. on the other hand. while.
learned his art in Italy. and in particular St. only in their imagination. and
expelled from his country
. political and religious. but which presented ideal conditions. Paul's Cathedral (1662). As men of the most diverse views. bold spirit awoke among the Freemasons. who. and
in 1607 superintendent gen-
eral of royal constructions. such as
enlightened minds might desire to realize upon this earth. of the yearly general meetings he instituted quarterly
craft meetings: such masons as adhered to the manual and cared nothing. but who were interested in architecture and in the aspiraname
tions of the time.the civil commotions of the first and second revolution. also by the writings of the Bohemian preacher. were taken into the lodges under the Under the altered cirof "accepted brethren. were in the lodges. added
sans of the Emperor. who.FREEMASONRY
England by the
painter Inigo Jones. under James L.
in the year 1717. and procured the election of a Grand Master and two Grand Wardens. in the building trades. thus instituting the Freemasons' Union as it exists at this day. therefore. and Rome
The members who were
connected with the operative craft of masonry were
steadily declining in number. Theophilus Desaguliers (who was both a naturalist and a mathematician) and James Anderson. as now.
together with George Payne. had come to be ai sort of clubs.
out of the
resultant of these different influences gained the in the clubs or lodges of the quondam masons. Though the lodges then. was of the brotherhood. made loud protestations of ortho-
doxy. What Jerusalem
Jews and Mecca
Mohammedans. were the foremost men of those who. Another influence that came in to affect the development of English freemasonry was the diffusion of deistical
opinions by Locke's school in philosophy. effected the
union of the four lodges of masons in London in one Grand Lodge. they could not. that
Henceforth the masons of England were no longer
But about the time
of the death of William III. But the necessity of a closer organization was recognized.t
a more thorough
betterment of morals on a conservatively deistical basis.
Two theologians.withdraw themselves deistical atmosphere of the period. The lodges.
They now aimed
to slackness of occupation. builder of Saint Paul's. (1702). antiquary.
now Freemasons. of a serious de-
owing Freemason lodges became conscious
fect in their organization.180i
greatly to the fame of English masonryT Sir Christopher Wren. and this transformation spread rapidly in London. and the "accepted" masons had become the majority.
perhaps. to wit. but to trace a ring of brother-love around mankind. who met together on the broad basis of humanity. as well as their mild and tolerant disposition and their brotherly regard for one another. he clothed in a
Grecian. and in the lodge of mourning in memory of a de-
ceased brother. but the spiritual temple of humanity they used the square no more to measure right angles erf
. kindliness and love of truth. their aversion to the rule of mere physical force. to compulsory religious belief. but an association of men of all orders and every vocation.
society. however. It was. a picture of the young league of the Freemasons that Toland drew in his "Socratic Society" (1720). this formula was used: "He has passed over into the eternal East" to that region whence light
. and the soul's immortality. as also of every creed. nor the compass any more to describe
symbolism of the operative masons.
brethren held religion
Accordingly every lodge was opened and
closed with prayer to the ''Almighty Architect of the universe". which. Though differences of creed played no part in the
new masonry. remind us strongly of the ways of the Freemasons. and to creed hatred. the existence of God. but for evening the inequalities of human character.FREEMASONRY
a society of handicraftsmen. their and their ritual. and
recognized no standard of human worth other than moThe new Freemasons rality.
blocks of stone.
questions and answers. but which are borne in on the mind and heart of every man. and were steadfast upholders of the only two articles of belief that never were invented by man. No longer did they build language houses and churches.
and at request of the Grand Lodge. respect for law and order. that of Masters. who had filled the post of Masters.
newly admitted members were no longer forthwith Fellows.182
proceeds. and is accessible to every one. one of thie first decrees of the Grand Lodge was one declaring illegitimate alf lodges created without its sanction. Despite
this restriction there
sprung up even
in the first
years after the institution of the Grand Lodge a multitude of new lodges. was comBrothers by the introduction of the Degrees. on retiring from of-
fice. Another foundation stone
by the Grand Lodge
1724. It has been printed repeatedly." thus to one of the most admirable features of the giving play order that of giving help to the needy and unfortunate. but only apprentices these degrees were instituted
. whether within the order or without. also. were not regarded Freemasons: one principle alone was common to among them all love of country.
did not return to the grade of Fellows. which received authorization from the
numerous accessions the
need of general laws became pressing. Stonemasons. Hence to this day no lodges are recognized as such which are not founded originally and mediately from London." which is still the groundwork of Freemasonry. and to compile them in one body of law.
Inasmuch as the league must prize unity.
inner organization of the order. The result was the "Book of Constitutions.
"committee for beneficence. finally. desire for the
welfare. Anderson. on the other hand. one of the founders. but constinew degree. undertook to compare the existing statutes of the order with the ancient records and usages of the.
etc. the Grand Mother Lodge of the Three World-spheres at Berlin in A lodge was instituted at Boston. Jesuits recognize only one creed. Thus in the space of thirty years from its origin freemasonry existed in all civilized lands.FREEMASONRY
probably in 1720. when sufficiently numerous.. in respect of rapidity of propagation. at that time no other higher degrees were known.
Soon Freemasonry spread abroad. Lodges arose founded by English masons or by foreigners who had received masonic initiation in England.
and in the same year a lodge at Vienna. a provincial lodge of England at Hamburg in 1740. united The Grand Lodge of Ireland under Grand Lodges. Mass. Freemasons hold in respect all honest convictions. and front Boston the order spread to Philadelphia. Jesuitism. for each possesses precisely those qualities which the
other lacks. and so did not lag
behind its opposite pole. these lodges. was created in 1730. Jesuits are controlled by one man's will. the
freemasons only confederated. Freemasons in mankind.
strongly centralized. Freemasons to build
up. in 1744.
in all civilized countries. 1733. The right to promote apprentices to the degree of Fellow. the Unity Lodge of Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1742. previously a function of the Grand Lodge. and Fellows to that of Master. Opposite poles these two societies are. Jesuits seek to break down personal indeJesuits
regard for the wellbeing of
pendence. those of Scotland and of France
. was accorded to
the subordinate lodges in 1725.
expediency. Freemasons are under majority rule.
no means mutually exclusive. Its sole unity consists in a common name and a common end. some on spiritual welfare.
wrought much good. the wellbeing of individuals as the
object of the society. in the common recognition signs. in
one another. forms no unitary organic whole. but.
lack of perfect definiteness.
this lack of definition in
by complementary the end of the
society cannot be any hindrance to the' society's benefiAnd as matter of fact the society has cent labors. and
these show But very different between one country and another are the methods employed for attaining the ends of Freemasonry different also is the organization of the lodge and the arrangement of the work. though
differences also. some on purely moral. Jesuitism.184
2. whether acknowledged or unacknowledged. Regarding the common end and aim of Freemasonry
in a general
uniformity of usages. and still others. It has no central or supreme authority.
The Society of Freemasons.
CONSTITUTION OP THE ORDER. that the end of Freeis neither religious nor political.
Not only does
. while again others will consider the wellbeing of the whole.
moral. in agreement as to the general internal polity. though
being. through sets from the English stock and
through further budding and branching of these. no common head. But so which has only too clear perception of its aim. but purely
of mankind": here
"Freemasonry labors to promote the wellbeing all Freemasons are at one.
But as these
several views are
fact. because of its historic propagation.
In this regard Free-
masonry presents a strong contrast to its rival.
need no worthy person in need ever appeals
to the order for relief in vain.
brief. and of
other occasions. etc..
. and of
other secret organizations.
impossible that in so widely diffused a
members should know one another personally. These tokens consist of a word uttered in a peculiar. provided he cares to
make use of these methods of intimating his masonry. with embellishments. The whole body of Freemasons. The ritual for the reception of an applicant into the first degree. and the ceremonies of the higher degrees are amplifications of the same
originals. -of promotion to higher degrees. of the lodge of sorrow. is modeled on the stonemasons' ritual. Besides these peculiarities common to all Freemasons there! are specialties shared only by particular
sections of the masonic body. because of its diffusion among diverse nationalities. or questions and answers with which the meetings are opened and closed: these forms are an imitation of the rituals of the ancient stonemason lodges.
divided into a
of "systems" differing
one from another in the ceremonies of initiation. a sign made by various
motions of the hand and a peculiar pressure given in shaking hands (the grip).
differences consist largely in the
form and tenor of the solemn addresses and counter-.FREEMASONRY
. addresses. way.
the ritual of
such as was used by the monkish and the orders but the prototype of all these rituals was Icnightly undoubtedly the ceremonial of baptism in the Catholic Church. The mason is also recognized by his knock on a door. that of apprentice. it became necessary to establish tokens by which a mason may be able to recognize the mason ship and the
degree of a fellow inason. his way of drinking.
furthermore. with respect to jthe business of the lodges and the membership. time.
Discretion. and the symbols are the only secrets in Freemasonry. represent masons' tools and implements. they lose all the effect they have when employed in the act of initiation.
our. in the course of
have. Of these the
most ancient are borrowed from the stonemasons' lodges. and so far the order is a close
or a private society. knowledge of things that are hidden from
other symbolic devices are reminiscent of various secret But both in symbolism societies or of ecclesiastical rites. the order has none.
that these ceremonies are different in different
systems. and that they would be likely to make no impression whatever on one who should desire to know
that. and. when communicated in writing.186
No doubt many persons are desirous of knowing what takes place on the admission of a would-be FreeFor the sake of such persons it may be remason.
In the ceremonial of Freemasonry symbols or emblematic devices hold a prominent place. there
Freemasonry. crept in. and the claims that have been made in that regard are without foundation. and not a secret society. that is to say. Freemasonry enjoins in common with many other societies. Of secret machinations and intrigues such as are hatched in the Jesuit order and in the secret political associations of
society. and innovations have been made which mar the native simplicity of the order and divert it from the pursuit of more useful ends. and that consequently an exposition of them would require a more than ordinarily voluminous work. therefore.
ileged lodges. attend its meetings. and with him are associated two Wardens besides other officers. but that is rarely the case.
of Freemasons. adopted in
certain specially priv. Again.
is. town. Scotland. consisting of members. each with a distinct system of ritual.. The several lodges of such a union work sometimes on one common system.
England. Sweden.) in which there arc one or more lodges is called Orient. with several Grand Officers. The assemblage of the
members. of Switzerland. Ireland. Switzerland. as a rule each lodge belongs to a union of lodges. But in Holland.
which they meet. called
Grand Lodge. Belgium. As a rule they have a Grand Master.
grand lodges. village. that
entirely independent. and Brazil have each two grand lodges. The place (city. etc. and Greece all the lodges of each country belong to one grand lodge. so that often there may be in a given city several lodges belonging to as
grand lodges but that does
no prejudice to fraternal harmony.is that
in every five years.
1844: there the seat of the In mon-
archical countries the royal residence city is usually the There are in Germany eight seat of the Grand Lodge. is lodge may be an isolated one. whose jurisdictions overlap one another. and these are either elected by delegates from all the associate lodges. Italy.
Denmark. as well as the place
called a lodge. sometimes on different systems. In each of the states
. the presiding officer of a lodge is the Master. Portugal. Hungary. Spain. is called a Lodge. France. or Grand Orient. the grand
lodges differ greatly in their organization. all as a rule.FREEMASONRY
and in minor union
organization of each country exists for independence of other countries.
several lodges are
after persons. or eavesdroppers. In America and England they are often designated by numbers indicative
of the time of their foundation. has its own Grand Lodge. virtues. spies. historic events. and obtain the approval of the grand An indispensable requisite lodge having jurisdiction. The grand lodges of the world number more than 90. and the to be said of the larger states of Central and America. Australasia. precise figures
a unitary organization. reckoning only those in good and regular standing. however.
an organization. one million.
3. the subordinate lodges more than 15. with white gloves
(emblematic of hands not soiled by unjust gain) and a short white leather apron. for a lodge is a "well tiled" apartment one well protected against the intrusion of outsiders.000. India.
masonic emblems. the lodges are under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the United Kingdom: British America. but this is only a rough are not obtainable in default of estimate.188
American Union there
is a grand lodge.
IXXDOE. In the British colonies and depend-
encies. The attire of
the assembled brethren
usually black. and decorated with the masonic insignia. etc. etc.
A lodge may be erected wherever a certain number of resident accepted brethren. furnished after the manner of the time and country. The use of other insignia and of tokens to indicate the rank of the officials is left In England and to the discretion of the several lodges. a memento of the stonemasons
and of the obligation to labor. the Cape. Usually the lodge is a square oblong hall or room. and the members.
A Freemason lodge is an Apprentice Lodge. a Fel-
lowcraft Lodge. the three
degrees are explained as the embodiment of the masonic motto: Beauty.
proposes for imitation the examples of great men who have given up their life for humanity. the teaching of the master's delife. to
career. In the Apprentice lodge.
man. In the Fellowcraft lodge the Fellows' and the Masters
take part: its function is simply to promote members from the first to the second degree. also. in each degree there is given inis
upon the symbolism and work
called a ''Lodge of Instruction.
of the Apprentice degree
seeing of the light in the spiritual sense the spiritual birth of man an explanation is given of the nathe
ture -of the order. and Wisdom.
griefs. Besides. and to form an idea of the model
Finally. bearing the emblematic insignia of the order: in Germany and Switzerland such parade is frowned upon by Freemasons as unbecoming. Sometimes. a sum of doctrines and a certain num-
ber of symbols.
gree treats of the end of
death. These degrees
teaches to withstand passion and temptaoneself. The Masters' lodge
for masters exclusively: the masters direct the work of the apprentices and promote Fellowcrafts to the master's degree. according to the degree of its members."
of the same this Each degree has meaning. Strength.
. suggests thoughts concerning the immortal life. its
tion. Belgium and France Freemasons appear in public and on the streets in full masonic regalia.
joys. or a Masters' Lodge. masons
degrees take part:
the affairs of the lodge. and to admit new apprentices.
Women and children are not altogether shut out
here of the so-called "higher debut amateurish fabrications. they differ as to name and number between one
known as the Saint John degrees. exclude Jews. without regard to race.
system and another. staor creed. calling. both grand and particular. Freemasons have
not always and everywhere been free from antiquated Down to prejudices in the admission of new members. and Swedish lodges. the first meeting of the
. They are distasteful forms of the true freemasonry.
are not whites. the Baptist being the chosen patron of the order. as he was also of the medieval stoneare also
masons and of the Templars.
good repute and their own masters. John. this day lodges in the United States shlut their doors in
the face of
of color. and thie true lodges of Saint John freemasons recog-nfize no such "supergraduation.. there are very many lodges of colored men and in Germany some Jewish lodges. and the lodges as lodges of St. in fact. Unfortunately.
e. On the feast of Saint John (June 24th) or thereabout. as John was the forerunner of Jesus.
fact that the
are under the patronage of Saint terpreted to mean that the order
John the Baptist is inis the forerunner of a
happier condition of mankind. in the year 1717.
and on that same day
held in every masonic lodge throughout the
once grave and joyful. are
tion. without any practical aim.*
and many German. whereas in the British colonies brethren of all colors and creeds work together in
*We make no mention
admission to the order. in consequence." The higher degrees are considered in another part of this work.
headed a public walk The Empress Maria Theresa also. daughter of the Irish viscount Donneraile. thus.
secrets of Freemasonry.
dressed in man's apparel. But we have an unmasonic excrescence and an abuse when. It is the almost universal custom to admit. once stole into a ledge in
from Freemasonry everywhere. wearing the masonic togs. with doors open to the public. and under the Restoration the Duchess de Larochefoucauld were presidents of In other quarters also the cry has been raised lodges. peeped through a crack in a partition and witnessed the admission of a mason. the sisters. and
in. the dignity. and were promoted to various degrees. before the Revolution the luckless Princess de Lamballe.
In the act.
tuted at various times in France: in these
initiated with a
ceremonial adapted to the occasion. in the time of
Napoleon the Empress Josephine. was herself initiated.
and the secrecy of the order. who may have been instructed by 'Lheir fathers There are also speas to the meaning of Freemasonry. She was caught in
unwittingly admitted Elizabeth Aldworth. in whose house a lodge used to hold its meetings. the betrothed. a masonic baptism and a masonic marriage ceremony are performed with special ritual. on one occasion.
and once. to prevent betrayal. still more worthy of reproba-
tion are the
Adoption lodges or Women's lodges. before the attainment of majority. and the daughters of masons are permitted to attend. her after life she was noted for her acts of benevolence. masons' sons.
breed trouble. as in French lodges.
for the admission of the fair sex: but needless to say that
such an innovation would very seriously compromise the
cial meetings which the wives.
said. it is of the brethren. and. both in the lodges and
the families of the
members. in her young girlhood.
but the Grand Lodge of Hungary canceled the
in the lodge.192
in the habit of
Vienna. she with-
Quite recently a Hungarian lodge admitmembership a countess resident in its locality. but as she saw no
there. having been informed that her husband.
the members were cousins (cousins.
1. e. The "Order of Hope" (esperance) was founded expressly for the behoof of Freemasons' wives. and so forth. but masons of the higher degrees could visit
lodges without initiation. a distinguished Freemason.
able to the
Conditions in the i8th century were specially favorvogue of secret organizations illuminism was
. chantiers). founded
societies of both! sexes
for their exclusion
1747 by the Chevalier Beauhaine. The manifest contrasts of
opinion naturally inclined
in secret societies for the
of like mind to advancement of
their favorite principles. e. but at the same time there remained many a relic of medieval barbarism. male and female cousins).PART TENTH.
Secret Societies of the Eighteenth Century. the lodges were yards (i.
lodge. cousines. in a) greater or less Some of them admitted women to degree its rivals. i. and they alone were admitted.
These societies copied the methods of Freemasonry.
were intended to comfrom the Freemason The "Order of Woodsplitters" (fendeurs).
membership. took its symbolism entirely from the work of the woodsplitter or woodchopper. and were. the candidate was a Steel (used to strike fire from a flint).. woodyards.
MISCELLANEOUS SECRET SOCIETIES..
had for its motto "Courtesy. There is some doubt as to the
true character of the
"Order of Saint Jonathan"
of Saint Joachim).
new member was "to add a link to the chain".194
There were Esperance lodges
in several cities of
woman. The "Order of the Pilgrims' Chain" (Kette der Pilgrime). Mother of Our Lord
and Savior Jesus Christ" (ritterlicb-weltliches ordenskavon St. It was founded by some German nobles. Joachim. also (this for the female members) to nurse their own children. The "Order of Argonauts"
1772 by Conrad von Rhetz. to refrain
end would seem to have been from the dance (especially the waltz).
female. it took on a strongly Catholic character.
members. any member could add any "link" whom he The symbolism might have known for half a year.
Goettingen the university students joined the order for the sake of the refinement of manners got from association with the ladies."
first grandmaster was Christian Francis.
Germany. in Germany and Denmark.
(favoriten). the blessed Father of the Holy Virgin Mary. etc. Duke of Saxe-Coburg. and from games of chance. and
Divine Providence. Bestaendigkeit. and in 1785 adopted the style of "the knightly
Secular Chapter of the Order of Saint Joachim." or "for the Defense of the Honor oi
to propagate belief in the Trinity. and Silence" (Willfaehrigkeit. qualified as "for True and Perfect Friendship. Stillschweigen). and wore in a buttonhole
words. whose members belonged to the higher classes. Though Protestants and Catholics were members of the order.) The society passed quietly out of existence. was borrowed from travel. Steadfastness. a Brunswick
a Prussian military ofhad for its end simply good-fellowship: it labored to win over to Prussia the Silesian nobility. at
cession procurred by
received a ducat. This society was reputed to be connected
with the Herrnhuters (Moravian brethren). The "Order of the Leal" (Order* der Echten).
. were the Pilot. with mustard tree in the middle. founded
Landeshut. and concerned itself chiefly with religious affairs its emblem was a gold cross. the badge of the order was a green-enameled anchor of silver.
. the Ship's Chaplain. and the
temple disappeared. leaving no vestige. After the founder's death the order went to wreck. and so forth. There was no fee for admission. then for the first outsider his own contribution for the month current was remitted."
of the Mustardseed. On an islet in a pond leased to him by the state he built a temple in which the members were initiated. and the members were Argonauts. The motto was "Long Live Gladness".
ducat a month but
. by Bessel." said to have been England in 1708: it spread over Holland and Germany: it assumed the form of a Protestant clericoknightly order.
when a member induced
join the society. The "Society of the Ducats" (Dukatensocietat) had for its founder (1746) Count Louis of Neuwied. as the founder was styled. for the
third. The renowned Fenelon founded at Douai an order called "the Palladium.SECRET SOCIETIES OF 18TH CENTURY
Freemason." its secret dialect was taken from his romance "Tele-
masque. colonel The members contributed one in the Prussian Army. The officers. besides the Grand Admiral. They approached the temple in barges and there Were entertained by the Grand Admiral.
been once a
Jesuit. at Komorn. with the title
(The Institute's Rose). and the membership grew rapidly: but the of the Ducats was suppressed by the government Society after an existence of two years. Rosendamen). or Francis Rudolf von Grossing.196
gar swindle. but met with a repulse then he represented himself to Joseph II. But in fact Grossing was all in all. finely.
of illuminism in the i8th century gave
to the partisans of the ancient despotism of creed and They saw all privilege matter of most serious concern. 'donning women's clothes. He named "Frau von Rosenwald." a nonexistent personage. as a victim of the
reactionary policy of the preceding reign. and he appropriated to himself the very liberal contributions and all other income: for that end alone were the societies established. in Hungary. which was the sole end of the society." both orders admitting members of either sex. and in 1784 in the interest of his own pocket the "Order of
the "Order of
and again in 1788. he offered to
to Frederic the Great
. seem to have
Matthew Grossinger. The several local sociewere known as Roses. He died in wretched circumstances. born 1752.
documents. as head of the order. son himself. and their presiding officers as Rosylords and Rosyladies (Rosenherren. Attempts to establish other fraudulent orders were
made by a
the foible of his
contemporaries for mysteries.
After the suppression
of his order.
h styled of a butcher. having always squandered his gains in luxury and extravagance.
other champions must take the place of the Dominican inquisitors: the Freemasons must be won over to the good cause by flatteries and cajoleries.
authority that presumed to determine the or to dictate their opinions. But theirs was a war with a far more redoubtable foe than Protestantism ever was. incorporated. the scheme surely was one The plan quite consonant with the spirit of their order.
For them. To down this
hateful spirit of illuminism with one blow what satisfaction that would afford to the obscurantists of that
It was vain to But where should they begin? think of silericing the literary champions of illuminism. at capturing the den of the "dragon" of illuminism. and though it cannot be demonstrated that they had aa actual part in the business. But the experience of the Popes and the Inquisition had shown that Freemasonry was not to be overmastered by persecution. Hence. The Stuart dynasty. or by the stake.
the illuminists of that day the Jesuits were regarded as the agents chosen for carrying out this plan.SECRET SOCIETIES OF 18TH CENTURY
their contrivances for
keeping the people ignorant and
as for the Papacy at the daybreak of the Reformation the question was. as it were.
and thus the conspiracy aimed. so to speak. Illuminism did not aim merely at separation from the Roman Church: it declared a war of extermination against Rome. it aimed at
submissive baffled. The age of witch trials and courts of Inquisition was past. To be or Not to be. and that could be no other than the society of the Freemasons. which had returned to the Catholic fold. was shrewdly contrived. was in
. It dealt with political considerations affecting England. by prisons. the native
The problem was to find an organized institution in which the odious spirit of illuminism was.
was ever striving to regain the lost throne. Chandos. hence. and dreamers. In the event of success. we can see how easy it would be. and as such. aided by France materially and by Rome intellectually. Besides.
Now. the order might gradually and insensibly be made Catholic. Norfolk. but. with a little Jesuit finesse. earls. thusiasts by exploiting their foibles. to make converts of them for any ends whatever. mystics. and the whole
by appealing to their loyalty to the was a secret society.
grandmasters belonged to the highest nobility of the Among them we find dukes of Montague.
and marquises. all the succeeding
of the Catholics
as had been
done with the Buddhist ceremonial
Society of Saint John might be transformed into a preparatory school for the Society of Jesus. hierarchic degrees.198
from the end of the I7th century. to say nothing of a long series
of viscounts. the stronghold of illuminism would
be captured. And now.
element. the nobles and legitimists (the Tories) by preaching legitimacy. and with the help of its former champions the most powerful kingdom in Europe. if we consider what a scandal it must have been
India: in this
to the coronetted chiefs of
mechanics. of course. who were all practical masons (architects). The efforts of kings and kings' sons in exile possess a poetical and romantic It was possible to win over all sympathetic enquality. by dishing up a few fables in proof of a nobler origin.
sonry cosmopolitan extension.
the masonic order
realm. and a great
. the nobility was strongly represented in the society: after the first four grandmasters of the Grand Lodge of England. Richmond. was a rallying point for all enthusiasts. As for the Catholic had many things in common with Freemaceremonies and mysticism.
Persons inaccessible to religious considerations
would be influenced by hopes of riches to be acquired through the secret arts of alchemy. Obstinate Protestants
. would be given back to a Catholic King. and the like.
not be carried out
would be quieted by the offer of a cryptic Catholicism which apparently would be in accordance with their own
. on the title page of the rules of the
bles. rather. 6. hence the president of a Royal Arch lodge took the name of Zerubbabel. Aristocratic sentiment would be gratiby the institution of higher masonic degrees. re-
Without any sufficient reason assigned. when the process was completed. the let and purple. after the return from Babylonian captivity. 5.
3. The whole purpose of the order would be directed toward spiritual and Catholic ends. content was a hotchpotch of New Testament passages. there arose England between the years 1741 and 1743 a new degree. at first as a higher division of the
Its master's degree afterward as an independent degree.
. finally. and soon.
course. as thus: i.SECRET SOCIETIES OF 18TH CENTURY
centre of illuminism. or. and thereby the road to conquest opened for the
Rome. Royal Arch. and wore a vesture of scarThe meeting was called a "chapter". these vast designs could The work had to proceed by
stages. there would stand forth in all its nakedness the savage fury of the Inquisition. 2. unmasonic fawent back to the building of the second Temple of Jerusalem. three masonic degrees were dubbed "probationary degrees". These
degrees would be connected with the religious orders of knighthood by a chain of fable 3.
4. and masonic.
THE "HIGH DEGREES" SWINDLE.
Saint Andrew's degrees. they were easily deThenceforward there were High Degrees of all luded. there
France. the highest
degres began to be
as Scottish. to
gather the human race in one fold under the great Shepherd of souls. and taught the aspirants for admission to avenge that death. and scientific. that after
the Crusades the order was established in Scotland. the work of this degree was
sorts in France. after the
of Scotland's patron. uneducated members who had been as for the many admitted into the French lodges. the aim of the "order" was defined to be. and later into This historic lie was. in which masonry is divided into Operative and Speculative.
place in the history of
as the fable assigned to Scotland masonry. John (Hospitalers). and the lodges Scottish or Saint Andrew's lodges. the meaning being
. Saint Andrew. with the inscription "Nulla Salus Extra" (no safety outside).200
degree was represented an ark. a statement that Freemasonry arose
during the Crusades. instrumental. wherefore the lodges came to be called Sai'nt John's lodges.
other countries. or.
Even before this came into circulation
England. and was there consolidated with the Knights of St.
thence afterward introduced into England. For the rest. wel-
who were members of the order. and the former subdivided into manual. Aftenvard the Royal
Arch degree published a program of its work.
admission they adopted from the traditions of the English and French stonemasons a lot of
myths about the death of Hiram. whereby we are reminded that according to Catholic doctrine the ark of Noah was a type of the Church. of course.
SECRET SOCIETIES OF 18TH CENTURY
were to avenge the expulsion of the Stuarts, and the wrongs done the Catholic Church by the Reformation and by illuminism. But as degrees were multiplied the Hiram myth no longer sufficed, and for the higher steps it was necessar> Meanwhile it was to have recourse to other myths.
seen that the story of the consolidation of the Freemasons and the Knights of Saint John would not work,
for that knightly order was still in existence; therefore, if the aristocratic brethren were to have their vanity flattered, recourse must be had to a suppressed order of
knighthood. True, that was not pleasing to strict Cathoand a bond of conneclics, but there was no alternative
had to be formed between Masonry and the order of
the heretical Templars.
So here is the story of the relation of the Freemasons to the Templars: A few Templars, fleeing from papal and royal persecution among them Grand Comptroller Harris and Marshal Aumont reached Scotland, and in that country, in order to gain a livelihood, worked as common masons. Advised of the death of the Grandmaster Molay, and of his last will, wherein he had directed
the brethren to perpetuate the order, these fugitive knights that same year established the "Fremasons' league,*'
and on the Scotch
Mull held the
to say nothing of the fact that, as we shall see, the story took more than one different shape! after-
it is on other grounds It quite unworthy of belief. beyond question that documentarily the Freemason league can assign for itself no other origin but the constitution of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717. But,
besides, the story
ridiculous, not only in that Harris
and Aumont are purely
personages, but also
Grand Lodge of Scotland and the oldest lodges kingdom know nothing of any such creation of a society; and, furthermore, the objects and the sentiments of Templarism and masonry differ too widely
in that the
of that ancient
any unification to take place between them. In the one body free thinking through levity of temperament: in the other repudiation of odium theologicum out of love of fellowmen; on one side egotism: on the other regard for the general weal; on one side pride of arisfor
on the other regard only
for the dignity of
And yet the most eminent men of the i8th century were fooled into believing that the Freemasons are descended from the Templars. The first serious and formal introduction of spurious Templarism into masonry took place in France. The Chevalier de Boneville, on Novemv
ber 24, 1/64, founded at Paris a chapter of the high; degrees called (apparently in honor of the then grand-
master of Freemasons,
Louis de Bourbon, count of
its members were, for the most part, partisans of the Stuarts, and therefore of Here it was that the story of the wonthe Jesuits also.
Clermont) the "Clermont chapter";
drous transformation of Templars into Freemasons in Scotland was invented, taught, and employed as part of The the ceremonial of admission to the higher degrees. members wore the masonic togs, and in their ritual the
death of the Grandmaster Molay- took the place of that
Hiram; and, in fact, by Hiiam, as some asserted, Molay was meant. From this chapter the influence of the Jesuits extended soon over the whole field of French Freemasonry. Surely, it was not by accident nor out of patriotism that the very next year the French Grand Lodge, till then dependent on England, declared itself
SECRET SOCIETIES OF 18TH CENTURY
independent, and adopted statutes according to which
Scotland) were to have oversight of the work.
APOSTLES OF NONSENSE.
Germany, where, in those degenerate whatever bore the French stamp was received with days, reverence and conscientiously aped. The Scottish lodges
got entrance into Berlin as early as 1742.
importation belongs to Baron E. G. von
who had been initiated into the new Templarism at Paris. Dying soon afterward, he was succeeded by a man who presented the curious spectacle of noblest and
most strenuous endeavor toward a fantastic goal, of the nature of which he knew nothing. Charles Gotthilf, Imperial Baron of Hund and Altengrottkau (so he was styled), born in 1722, was a nobleman of Lusatia and actual privy councilor of the Emperor; he was ai man of narrow mind, without high education, but he was an idealist, a chivalrous, hospitable and kindly gentleman. At Paris he was received into the Catholic Church and into the spurious order of Templars, to which he was devoted heart and soul: he was commissioned "Master of the Host" in Germany. He founded a lodge on one of his estates, which bore the ominous name of Unwurde (unworth), and soon had several subordinate lodges under
a contemporary writer, "the broke out. The French troops came into Germany, and with them many Jesuits. With the French Army, and particularly in its commissariat, were a
this time," says
of the higher degrees,
of those gentlemen hiad calculated to make a good deal of money by the sale of merchandise in Germany. I knew
one French commissary who had a whole wagonload of some forty-five degrees, and these he peddled all the way from Strasburg to Hamburg. Thereafter no German lodge was any longer content with the three symbolic degrees, but nearly every one of them had a series of higher degrees of one brand or another, according to the particular windbag each fell victim to; and so they dropped one system and took up another when a new apostle came that way and reformed them." Such an apostle of fraud was the Marquis de LerTaken prisoner of war to Berlin, he nais or Lerney.
the Jesuitical doctrine of the Chapter
of Clermont, and even founded a chapter in the Grand Lodge of the Three World-Spheres. To spread these
chapters over the rest of Germany, or, in plain terms, to give the whole country into the hands of the Jesuits, a character by no means ambiguous, one Philip Samuel
Rosa, once a Protestant clergyman, counsel to the consisand superintendent, but afterward deposed for imRosa's whole endeavor was to morality, was employed.
Joining the Chapter of Clermont he got "Knight of Jerusalem and Prior of the Chapter of Halle." As he traveled up and down the land, the lodge
The eyes of the deluded brethren were at last opened, on the discovery of the relations between Rosa and another swindler, one Leuchte,
at Halle paid his expenses.
who palmed himself off as an Englishman, Baron Johnson, and who founded a Grand Chapter, admitted novices
and knights, ^boasted of armies and fleets at his command, and sent forth to all Templars in Germany an encyclical letter summoning them to his standard. Many were his
SECRET SOCIETIES OF 18TH CENTURY
dupes, among them Rosa, who visited him at Jena, humbled himself before him, and consented to the expulsion But as Rosa was of the Berlin chapter from the "order."
loth to admit at Halle his submission to Johnson,
counseled the "knights" there not to recognize Johnson, his double-dealing was betrayed to his dupes at Halle by
the "Baron," and he
was dismissed from
their service in
himself, after the discovery of his frauds, was repudiated by his followers, and in 1765 was imprisoned in the famous castle of Wartburg, and there remained till his death in 1775.
This was the opportunity of the Baron von Hund,
Quixote of the i8th century. He became now the acknowledged head of the "order," and ruled it as his fancy dictated. He always spoke of "Unknown Supe-
though his policy was guided by them but the "Superiors" who imposed on the guileless
riors" of the order as
gentleman were the intriguants at Paris. Because of the unconditional obedience required of the members, Hund called the system of the order that of "Strict Observance," in contradistinction to the "lax observance" of ordinary Freemasons. The Strict Observance comprised seven, degrees; viz., the three masonic degrees, the degree of the
Scottish, Master, that of the
the degree of the
Novice, that of the KnightEques Professus, or
Professed Knight (one who has "professed" or taken the monastic vows!). All knights assumed Latin names or surnames. Hund was Eques ab Ense (knight of the
sword); others were Knight of the Sun, of the Lion, of the Star, even of the Whale, of the Chafer, of the Golden Crab, of the Mole, etc. Soon Strict Observance
was dominant in the German lodges, while genuine Freemasonry was forgotten. No less than twenty-six German
in consideration of a certain sum in cash: but the order had not the
now proposed to exact enormous fees and admissions to high degrees (for examBut the scheme could ple. and but
few of the lodges had the
. to show its independence of pseudo-Templarism. and so puffed up were its directors in consequence that forthwith they divided Europe
up into provinces. Hund's financial affairs
in confusion. Prefectures.206
princes joined the order. 350 thalers for admission)."
speak out against the the few was the
gallant old Lodge of Unity.
lodges which held aloof from this bastard masonry the Hundian Templars were supremely disdainful. Knight of the Ostrich. etc. at Frankfort on the Main.
the Templars. and he pro-
posed to bequeath his property to the order. The subdivisions of provinces were called. Knight of the Golden Ear (of wheat. and Schubart withdrew from the order. which declared itself an English provincial lodge. time had come for the Jesuit influence to assert itself: it
money. not be worked. barfcy. in
consequence of the war. where he founded several
chapters: even the
of France united
with the Strict Observance. von Weiler.
constantly on the road converting lodges to that system. The The order had no longer any use for Hund. naming for each province a Master of the Host.) to France and Italy. A. ComptrollerTo give these subdivisions something more
than an existence on paper. etc. after the manner of the Templars and the Jesuits. Hund dispatched the Baron G. Schubart devised a plan by which the order was to acquire great wealth.
zealous apostle of the Strict Observance was John Christian Schubart of Kleefeld. as
but only to the clerical members. Later. accoutrements. but all the same. they must betimes provide a
clerical directorate for the organization. the high-degree meetings were called Conclaves.
recognized Stark and two of Stark 's
. and joined
sino. a Greek. at Paris.SECRET SOCIETIES OF 1STH CENTURY
would have no more fooleries with helmets.
Through some acquaintances. then he was a teacher in Petersburg. on his return home he served as professor of theology at Koenigsberg. While a student in Goettingen Stark was admitted (1761) to the masonic order.
John Augustus von Stark. to
he revealed the great secret which he had learned namely. that the true chief of the order of Templars was none other but the
. and afterward in Darmstadt.
of knighthood. and Templar's mantles. and then as court preacher and general ecclesiastical superintendent in the same city. and even a mass. where he adopted the mystic system of one Mele-
The ceremonial of Melsino's system comprised a number of prayers and genuflections. swords. the Pretender. and that these mysteries had been
at Petersburg. he got an introduction to Hund. and the members wore surplices.
kept and handed down to that time further. then resident in Florence. who were members of the Strict Observance. Stark took an interest in Oriental manuscripts.
the Catholic Church. They found a convenient instrument in the person of the Protestant theologian. Charles Edward Stuart. that the grand mysteries of the Templars were revealed not to the knights. Delighted at the prospect of an enhancement of what he fancied to be his
sciences. It was seen by the original projectors of the "order" that if they would succeed in their design of winning over Freemasonry to the plan of catholizing Germany. born at Schwerin in 1741.
He appeared in the costume of the Templar clerics. "prior" in the "order.
But the ritualistic pomp of the Clerics had already awakened suspicion in the minds of the.
origin and against the dictation of unknown This discontent found expression in the con-
Order of Templars. while Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick was made Grandmaster." Nevertheless. white cassock with red cross on the breast and a hat like
He presented to the meeting a prounion drawn up by Stark. and also an initiate in Stork's
the secular Templars.. head of the Templar clerics.
out. Ernest Werner von Raven. a mystic and Raven. he begged a friend to negotiate on his behalf with
This friend was a noble personage.
that of a cardinal.
and Stark announced
keep the "Clericate" independent of the "Order. where Pylades. in 1772." member of a Chapter under Rosa and Hund. Knight of the Pearl.
order of Templars. attended a convention held
Kohlo. resided. and appointed one of the Masters of the Host. in Lusatia. a wealthy landowner.
friends as Clerics of the
Templars thereupon drewl up a ceremonial and created degrees of their own. and they began to cry out against mysteries of
Superiors. which the knights received with! plaudits of satisfaction. he was a and narrow-minded.Protestant members. but vain
an alchemist. and other princes were named to be Superiors! and Protectors under him. and as a special favor initiated some
secular knights into their mysteries. Hund was deposed from his high office. for the purpose of bringing about an understanding between the Knights and the clerics.
of honor. viz.
But because Hund accommodate Stark with a loan of two hun-
dred thalers to defray the expenses of a journey to Petersburg.
had been perpetuated in
of mysteries into which he in telling of them used phrases
. and declared that the Order to which he belonged. Gugomos such was his name styled baron and professor of art. and the Prior of the
Clerics to attend a convention at
said. in order. Judean. was founded by Moses. and as a member of the Strict Observance Knight of the
to naught. whose successors in the office of Grandmaster had been Egyptian. whose place of birth and of death are unknown. the
following year he died of a broken heart.
And many "Knights" obeyed among them several princes. in 1776.SECRET SOCIETIES OP 18TH CENTURY
vention held at Brunswick in
1775. and. was interred in the
Melrichsstadt in front of the
altar. and of which the ancient order of Templars was only an offshoot. The Templar succession." he exhibited his insignia and the commission of a "Most Holy See" in Cyprus.
office. in his capacity as dignitary of the order of Templars with a long string of titles. clothed in the regalia of Master of the Host. invited the Grandmaster. Grecian philosophers. and who himself admitted to his confidants that he was an agent of the Jesuits. a man who was an enigma.
boasts of the great
had been initiated. finally popes. Christ himself and his apostles. he said. Thus the machinations of the Jesuits seemed to have
But now they sent forth a new apostle.
Triumphant Swan. and and terms that remind us strongly of the "Exercitia Spiritualia . as genuine Templarism. the Directorate.
Wiesbaden. and other kings.
questioned as to the legitimacy of his appointment as a Master of the Host and the Clerics as to the authenticity
of their mysteries.
of the Grandmaster was fixed permanently at Brunswick.
Swedenborg." and in largest proportion the Clermont system: the doc-
famous mystic and seer. the Strict Observance.
was the end of Jesuit Free-
Templarism lived a few years yet. But seeing how little confidence was placed in him.
RITE. Some of the though people members went back to the old-fashiioned masonry others turned to new lights of mysticism that had for some time been looming on the horizon the Swedish Rite and the
mos absconded. mysteries and degrees.
Swedish Freemasons. which in its organization was. may compound. Many persons recognized the fraud. and were initiated.210
Cyprus (not in Scotland. The one thing needed in order to instruct men in the occult sciences was a holy temple.
the completion of such a temple the "natural fire"
fall from heaven.
Rosicrucianism. he said. others walked into the trap. and
masonry. etc. attempted to satisfy this want by concocting a new system. Gustavus counted on obtaintrines of the
also have given a flavor to the
ing the help of the members in his effort to rid himself
. King Gustavus III. as early as the middle of the century. and the archbishops of The Cyprus were the successors of the Grandmasters. then).
the ingredients being genuine freemasonry. had found the genuine English masonry toe simple and inornate: they longed for more glitter and pomp. of Freemasonry (thus he driveled on) were a degrees later innovation on the original clerical and knightly system. exactly the same as the Jesuit order. were growing tired of it. In founding the Swedish Rite or System. and the system then known at "Rosicrucianism.
The New Rosicrucianism had its rise in Southern Germany about the year 1760. reciting every
night Saint Bernard's prayer to the Lamb of God. the clerical Templars. as Foebron.
of the higher deThe cere-
monies of the highest degree are said closely to resemble Other alleged usages are. where.
THE NEW ROSICRUCIANISM AND ALLIED SYSTEMS.
grees refer to
degrees. that from Paris he took these into Scotland.
Templarism and Catholicism. and of its nine degrees not even the first three were named after the masonic
predecessor of Molay.
of the Strict
Observance joined the new order. the wearing of the red cross of the Templars on the breast.
Rite has ten
It is founded on two stories. visited Molay in prison. useless and ridiculous. H. The members
of the Swedish System. The members assumed fanciful names. have descended to it from Christ through the
one that certain
Apostles. then eating three slices of
bread. Voss. Its originators had no connection with Freemasonry. he found the insignia and the records of the order. Cedrinus. in a casket. that a nephew of the Grandmaster Beaulieu."
6. fasting on Good Friday till sundown. and the Freemasons. among brated poet J. the lodges were called "Circles. and.SECRET SOCIETIES OF 18TH CENTURY
of the party of the nobles. have characterized as "vain. the other. went down into his uncle's sepulchre. at the
suggestion of Molay. with oil
Sweden. while Rosa and Johnson
were busy with their systems." Unquestioning obedience was to be rendered to the Superiors.
of the head of the
Vicar of Solomon.
had the man publicly bastinadoed: but Schrepfer shortly afterward inspired
both him and the Duke of Brunswick with a curiosity to be instructed in the mysteries. and men. to afford his customers a better style of masonry than was found in
the ordinary lodges. They also practiced necromancy. with crosses of silver or gold. The motto was: ''May God and His Word be with us.
all nature's secrets and possess supreme control of angels. urine. they taught planation of the universe. and of other alleged
sacred or occult writings. and even of evolving hu-
beings by chemical processes. In 1777 he founded in coffee-house keeper in Leipsic.
own shop a lodge of the Scottish Rite. alchemy. whence they deduced an exFor example.212
learned only the mysteries of their own particular circle. that the planets and the other heavenly bodies reflect
light they receive from him. The Duke of Courland. thus conserving his might and his splendor. kabbalistic. and visited them at Dres-
Their specialty was a mystical. the art of making gold. The first prophet of the New Rosicrucianisrru was John George Schrepfer. and totally absurd interpretation of the Bible. devils. especially of the Fall of the Angels. exorcization. At the initiation the candidates swore
Aspirants to the ninth degree were assured that once they should attain that eminence they
fearful oaths. and other bodies.
In their assemblies
members wore white and black
but those of
the higher degrees wore priestly vestments. protector of one of the masonic lodges. of preparing the elixir of life they studied such
back on the sun the
problems as the production of the noble metals from rain water." They claimed to possess a cryptic Book containing a
sacred history of events prior to the creation of the world.
He was initiated into the mysteries by Schrepfer. minister at war 1768.
died by his
did in the person of John Christopher Woellner
(born at Spandau. ordained preacher 1759. Schrepfer indulged in of the dead.
In his lodge he gave demonstra-
tions of his supernatural powers as a magician and a necromancer: for example. a councilor in the Prussian service in 1766.
of debauchery. Knight of the Cube. major in the Prussian army 1772. (born in Thuringia 1741. who like himself had seceded from The pair won the crown prince over to Templarism.
as William II. and shared his good fortune with Woellner. he would summon up spirits Puffed up by success. deceased 1803).
in the place of the
had prevailed under old
. But Rosicrucianism was yet to reach its highest point. Bischofswerder went in search of an order that practiced
the magic art. and it was he who converted the Duke of
Courland from an enemy into a friend of the coffeehouse Rosicrucian. and Minister of State
1788. and was so fortunate as to find it in the New Rosicrucianism. deceased 1800).SECRET SOCIETIES OP 18TH CENTURY
Brunswick. whose most
zealous supporter he had been.
as ministers of state. 1732. aged 35 years. penury. and John Rudolf Bischofswerder. nephew of Frederic the Great. After the death of Schrepfer. Not content with the honor
Knight of tHe Griffin in the Strict Observance. Bischofswerder obtained promotion in the Prussian service through the favor of
the crown prince Frederic William. they suc-
obscurantism and state religionilluminism and toleration that
last. and enjoyed his confidence both then and after his accession to the throne of Prussia in 1786. chamberlain to the Elector of
ten masterships a Dec-
and so on. and
mysticism. but did not exclude Jews. admitted to their order only scholars
artists. and white or
founded by War Councilor had rather higher aims than the Rosi-
crucians and the Asiatic Brethren: they studied the history of Freemasonry.. the society of the
Asiatic Brethren. those in the higher degrees wore red hats and mantles. Its head There were five degrees. the atTen tire of those in the highest degree was all rosy-red.
constituted a Mastership. an ex-Rosicrucian
mitted only Freemasons.
in Berlin. magic.
Simultaneously with the order of the Rosicrucians arose two variant forms of the same. two probationary and three superior degrees.
by them Thessalonica.
in Austria. The (Asiatische Asiatic Brethren's order was founded in Vienna by Baron
Hans Henry von Eckhofen. black mantles.
The order became shockingly
society. kabbalism. which was expected to prove a deathblow to illuminism and free thought: but the death of the King upset all their calculations.
Their degrees were
five inferior or
black ribbons. called
gave a foreign
to every place. Afrikanische Bauherren).
ade. broidered with different emblems.214
the odious Edict of Religion of 1788. officers were styled Inquisitors. and Its its aims were the same as those of the Rosicrucians. That
was the end
Rosicrucianism. and of fered prizes for scientific researches: but they indulged in farfetched and absurd symbolism. conducted their business in Latin. The members in the two lower degrees wore round black hats with distinctive feathers for each degree. those of Seekers and of Sufferers viz. anl that of the African Buildingmasters
and five higher or esoteric. and of the Lion.. They had no connection whatever with Freemasonry. introduced into the United States the 33 degrees: they entered France again in 1803. of darkness against enlightenment. founded by Count Christian von Haugwitz (1752-1832). Princes of the Royal Secret/ etc.SECRET SOCIETIES OF 18TH CENTURY
was a French adventurer. is worthy of mention that of the Brethren of the which Cross (Kreuzbrueder) or Devotees of the Cross (Kreuzfromme). inveigled princes. who was at one time Knight of the -Holy Mount in the Strict Observance. in 1761. afterward belonged to a German imitation of the Swedish rite. Grand Inquisitors. High Princes of Jerusalem. of stupidity against talent. instituted mostly
purpose of fraud and moneymaking: of these we But there still remains one society give no account here."
strictest secrecy. Princes of Grace. having been forgotten during the Revolution. The order lived for a few years only. Unfortunately this multiplication of mystical orders
was not without effect on the fortunes
of the masonic body. has led to a vicious growth of "high degrees. and were regarded as a novelty. There were many other societies.
. and at last founded a society which was described by a contemporary as "a
conspiracy of despotism against liberty. and in some of the variations of these ridiculous degrees we have Knights of the Ape. of vice against virtue.
order to rule
their stead (after the
chofswerder and Woellner) and practiced all manner of superstitions to make an end of science. who. and Emperor of East and West. The titles of these degrees are at once bombastic and unmeaning: Grand Scots.
of the Cross observed the
in cipher. Stephen) Morin. Knights of the East.
.PART ELEVENTH. and
consonance with the more
enlightened spirit of the age. but besides he had
learned the artifices and the secrets of the Jesuits. The intrigues of the ousted Fathers against their successor in a professorial chair
which they had held for nearly a century forced to maturity the thought which he had cherished from his student days and the founding in the neighboring village of Burghausen of a lodge of Rosicrucians. was born in 1748. Then it was that an ingenious mind conceived the thought of employing on behalf of enlightenment such
instrumentality as the Jesuits had employed against it.
The Illuminati and Their Era. It was a pupil of the Jesuits to whom this thought first
occurred their mechanical. the
done. soul-stifling method of education had made him their enemy. who were try:
. and also lecturer on history and philosophy.
the suppression of the Jesuit order by Clement results of two centuries of painful toil in the interest of a universal ecclesiastical dominion were un-
THE ILLUMINATI. and when only 25 years of age was professor of canon law and jurisprudence in the university of Ingolstadt. he might thereby Adam Weishaupt promote the very opposite interests. and hoped that by imitating them in a Catholic country likely to be influenced by such arts.
seemed not unpractical. was assisted mainly by Francis Xavier von Zwackh.
he adopted entire the hierarchic system
government existing among the Jesuits despotic rule from top to bottom secondly. Accordingly Weishaupt. who was full of vanity. Bavarian chamberlain. a man initiated in the highest degrees of maSeveral years after its foundation the order of sonry. but rather than.
win over to the order the lodges in that Costanzo himself had little success. and Protestants no less than Catholics. an order that
arose outside of the
masonry: and so to the defeated reactionary movement against Freemasonry now succeeded an unmasonic revoIn executing his plan Weishaupt lutionary movement. just as the Jesuits had attempted to do. in the circumstances of the time. he employed Freemasonry to promote the ends of his order. to Frankfort-on-the-
city. only of its perversions. but a young man
in 1779 to
First. the Illuminati was still confined to South Germany. or
even to Bavaria.
nothing of the true Freemasonry. and desire of revenge. of Landshut. but as Weishaupt desired that the north also. should take an interest in his institute. To propagate this institution and to strengthen it he adopted measures which. Perfectibilists to founded the Order of
I. the rich merchants of Frankfort being averse to anything that would unsettle the peace of the world. councilor to the government of the Bavarian Palatinate.
1776. he sent the Marquis Costanzo von Costanza. ambition. decided
On carry his idea into execution.ILLUMINATI
ing to attract to themselves his students. but knew
. obtained admission to the order in a lodge in Munich. he
which he afterward
gave the name Illuminists (Illuminati). Hence it is not true that the Freemasons founded the league of the Illuminati.
his lively fancy led him to develop the order further.
tended the Conventus of ilhelmsbad. Francis von Ditfurth. whose gifts were those of the
thinker rather than of the contriver of forms. in which both were agreed that allusions to the and lightworship of the Persians should be
employed. but. and brought into the system a number of men who became its apostles. for his much-read book. the most effective promoter of the new soThis was Baron Adolf von Knigge. entered
into a correspondence with Weishaupt. and helped to
give the deathblow to Templarism. Bode. having next below him two officers. of
Nothing disheartened. And now as Knigge. however.
with that order." He had been an amateur of spiritism (ghostseership). for
example. well known ciety. who supposed the order to be an ancient one. associate justice. But and was admitted to the order in splendid style. he adopted
the idea of Illuminism enthusiastically. "Ueber den Umgang mit MemHe was born in 1752. and there championed the cause of Illuminism stoutly. after Weishaupt.
of thje polity of the Illuminati was supreme president ruled the whole. and from his youth up schen. he journeyed to Bavaria. each of whom again had
. the translator. as typical of the spiritual fire of Illuminism. was already an Initiate of the higher degrees of the Strict
Observance. he was not a astonished on learning from him that the society
was no more than an embryo: in fact.218
whose acquaintance he made was destined to be. and the sober-mindel Weishaupt. left to Knigge the elaboration of the several degree? and their
Lessons. it had only the degree of the minor Illuminates (Kleine Illuminaten).
required. were required to make known what they thought of the order.
three principal degrees. Cato Costanzo. Nicolai.
life. Austria. which occupied itself with answering questions in. Diomede. and so on. The candidate for admission was at first a Novice. Frankfort. Egypt. the domain of
of degrees'" and their designations were never definitely fixed. in reckoning time they followed the place calendar of the ancient Persians with the Persian names
members used a
months and the Persian
aera. hence they are different in different But all the accounts agree that there were localities. The members of the Minerval class formed a sort of learned society. numbers taking the of letters. and one likely to be of service to the order.ILLUMINATI
two others under him. Ditfurth. Knigge. furthermore.
knew no member
of die order. and they assumed the obligation of obedience.
submitting a detailed account of his
lars as to all his doings. Philo. the School of Plants (Pflanzschule) was designed to receive youths ap-
proaching adult age.
The Minervals. except the one who indoctrinated him. They were under the eye of their superior
. Each member took the
some historic or mythic personage of distinction Weishaupt was Spartacus Zwackh.
Franconia. Countries and cities also had pseudonyms: Munich was Athens. and. The first of these. so that the first could most conveniently govern all. The doings of the order were kept most strictly secret.
In correspondence the
forth. and so on. and what
they expected of it. Frpm the grade of Novice
he passed to that of Minerval. to
prove himself a fit subject for admission.
read and wrote whatever superiors required of
particukeeping a journal.
presided over the several divisions of the illuministic The third and highest degree was that of the masonry. Regent.220
them. and practiced themselves in that art. according to Knigge's plan. not a sudden and violent League. but their functions were never It was proposed also to add a department fully defined.
The supreme heads of the! several divisions of the order were called Areopagites. This principal degree was elaborated only in part.
acters of their
and the task of these was to study the charfellowmembers and Dirigent Illuminati. The members of the two Scottish degrees were called Greater
were taken by surprise at the meetings of their degree and nominated to that dignity a method that wonderfully stimulated ambition they were instructed in the management and oversight of their subjects.
Pythagorean They contemplated.
these four divisions of the third degree the ends of the order were. to be explained. they were besides required to report their experiences. and
was not brought
into use. so that the membership of the order might be steadily increased. and reported one another's faults to superiors as in the Jesuit system. and spied on each other.
adopt a system agreeable to the ideas of the Illuminati. The three original degrees of masonry were imparted to the regular Illuminati without ceremonies. comprising the four stages of Priest. The second principal degree was Freemasonry. Magus and King (rex). through the three original degrees of which and the two so-called Scottish degrees the Illuminati passed. in which the
remind us forcibly
those of the
. and strenuous effort was made to have the masonic lodges
. The leaders of the Minervals were called Minor Illuminati. but a gradual and peaceful revolution. The aims of this organization of the Illumifor women.
. when they should have among their number all those forces. In sharp contrast to the masonic systems in which Jesuits had had a hand. and welcomed whatever favored the dominance of reason and the overthrow of revelation. a result very materially promoted by the rule that any member possessing authority from the superiors could' admit a candidate. In the superior degrees the members were to be taught as a grand secret of the order that the means whereby the redemption oi
mankind was one day to be accomplished was Secret Schools of Wisdom. sweep Princes and National boundaries from the face of the earth. To imbue the minds of men with these principles.
prince-bishop. These would lift man out of his
fallen estate these would.
crown). and constitute the human race one family. and Reason the one lawcode of mankind. must everywhere attain the highest places in government. without violence. while yet only heir of the ducal
Dalberg.000. of Saxe-Weimar
Illuminism of the i8th century should gain the victory. every housefather a priest and lord of his own. Among the members were many men eminent. the Illuminati avoided all forms which might suggest obedience to any religion or church. the triumph of their enlightened
principles could not be for long delayed. both socially and in science. illuminist books were prescribed to the members for their reading.
the members. though the new associates were only little by little to learn what the aims of the order were. And inasmuch as
. Brunswick (Ferdinand). as the dukes of SaxeGotha (Ernest).
In the very short period of
of the Illuminati attained a
existence the order
membership of 2. This revolution was to be effected by winning for the orthe considerable intellectual forces of the time.
He dreaded Liberalist books. the State were imperiled. Nicolai. mere formalism.
etc. President Count Geinsheim. in each principal division of
a country a Provincial. Professors
Igolstadt. on the other hand.
Goettingen. the Catholic
Gedike. the authors Bahrdt. And now the head of the
whole organization was to be the General (as among the Jesuits). Whereas Weishaupt
cared only for the ends of the society. Knigge. bishop of Munich.
Goethe. under him there was to be in each country a head officer. in subdivisions of provinces a Prefect. though a few Frenchmen had been
mitted while visiting Germany. Herder.222
Kiel. Bode. Biester. were already reaching out farther.
cathedral prebendaries Schroeckenstein of Eichstadt and Schmelzer of Mayence Haefelin. the National. Then the dissensions ever growing more serious between Weishaupt and Knigge. Despotic rule and espionage could
never promote the cause of liberty and enlightenment and the founder of the order proposed to make enlighten-
ment the means of attaining liberty. Darmstadt. shrank in horror
from the program of his associate: religion.
. morality. the celebrated philosopher Baader. This aping of Jesuit polity and the imprudent admission of objectionable or indifferent characters proved the ruin of the order. but its plans.
"Wilhelm Meister" reminds us strongly of the Illumithe
The order was not yet spread abroad beyond German borders. and so on. being a man of the world. afterward minister of state. all else being in his eyes only incidental.
. and prob-
ably Pestalozzi also belonged to the order.
. suppressed. though with an elaborate ceremonial and manifold degrees and mysteries. the seat of corruption. then such of the Illuminati as thought the hopes of the order had been
disappointed. innocent ideal of human welfare and brotherly love as the object
of their endeavors.
remnant of the
and would have been far better pleased to see the order working on the lines of the Freemasons of that day. and with some harmless. and at the same time. ever laboring dark though their society had been and now again. bigoted despotic Elector Charles Theodore. at their head. and
industriously in the
were the sons of Loyola. played traitor. and
all manner of vices and crimes..
membership of the Order of Illuminati was of longest standing and most numerous. classing with the Illuminati the Freemasons. or who expected to profit by a betrayal of the order to the enemies of liberty and light. "without ado.
This rising storm within boded less ill to the order than the attacks from without growing from day to
violent. professors. finally. infidelity. the Observance.
Weishaupt called Knigge's pet contrivance tinsel and trumpery and child's playthings.
were the masonic systems of the reactionary or superstitious kind. and clergymen who had been members of the order. with the secret
pamphleteer. Joseph Utzschn eider. such as the Rosicrucians.
Illuminism was assailed by enemies
all sorts. etc. the country in which the
all. some courtiers. the Asiatic Brethren. and the pair of "Areopagites" grew steadily ever more asunder. possessing great influence in Bavaria. charging the order with rebellion. At that court. the African Masterbuilders. thanks to the licentious.
and a refusal to
fiscated. and declared incapable of legal defense. and closed their doors.
hoping to change the mind of the Elector by
bringing up for public discussion their rules and their Vain Ijope. very grave charges were
brought against the members. were banned. Frank. the lodges of all secret without government's approval. who already had labored against
Freemasonry. and the Elector became alarmed for his throne. Weishaupt was deposed from his place at Ingolstadt.
bidden to hold meetings. This whole busi-
nes was managed. 1784. in-
cluding the Illuminati and the Freemasons.
Illuminati. The Minister of State. by a special commission under Court direcThis persecution lasted till after the outbreak of tion. but Weishaupt and his associates went on with
The masonic lodges submitted
their work. and in the case of persons of the punished with stripes. or even suspected of sympathy with it. Aloysius Xavier Kreitmayr. an ex-Jesuit. deposed
office. and they were imprisoned. in consequence
of the discovery of compromising documents in a search of the houses of Illuminati. but soon. and all
secret organizations that continued to exist in violation
it. The Elector's confessor. by which the previous one was confirmed.
banished. without any recourse to" the regular tribunals. a second decree. expelled from that city. Father usages. at once. procured on March 2.. he had to flee the country. He first tarried in Ratisbon.
the French" Revolution. Without distinction of class or
station a prosecution was entered against all persons accused of membership in the order. distinguished himself by the rigor with which he executed the ukaz. 1781.224
a decree of August 2.
" For the rest it is
said that the suppression of the Illuminati was the result of "an understanding with Frederic the Great. and made him Court councilor. no longer safe at Ratisbon. after the suppression of the Society of Jesus.
Knigge. tius von Born.
thus was the cry of Voltaire. Freemason."
uttered. where Duke Ernest. a member of the order. "Ecrasons taken up by the party against which it was rinfame. at
body. sent back to the Bavarian Emperor Joseph of Sciences his diploma as member of that Academy
II. and in his prim. and IIFew were so stout-hearted and firm as Ignaluminist. Born. Here he lived till 1830.
spirit. but who. but he failed to resuscitate his order on an im-
proved plan. before men of enlightenment had made the first move toward "stamping out" what to them seemed an "infamy. a native of Transylvania.
Weishaupt. and to awaken opposition to monkish rule in the state. but among educated people it tended to spread the principles of Illuminism. emasculate "Umgang mit Menschen. whose policy was threatened by the order. who had been a Jesuit. the old-time Templar. and by them given effect in the shape of a most infamous persecution. fled to Gotha. had joined the Illuminati and beAfter the suppression of the Bacome a Freemason.
." strongly condemned all "secret societies" he. th Bavarian government having set a price on his head. protected him. he made haste to quit the incriminated order. the natufalist.
then in the service of the
French people was taken as evidence of a revolutionary
This system naturally fostered ignorance among the lower classes. accompanying it with a letter in which he bluntly declared that he would rather be a Freemason than a member of a body with which he had nothing in com-
Protestant theologian. tion was to be a "silent brotherhood" that was to hurl
their throne superstition and fanaticism.
many. thus acquiring the means of insuring the triumph of enlightenment.220
2. The literary
was ingeniously organized in such fashion that the Union would by diligent effort in time gain control of the press and the whole book trade. and his plan was to combine it with the masonic society. Outwardly the Union was to have the appearance of a purely literary association but inwardly it was to consist of three
." (Deutsche Union der XXIL). It once a zealous
after the break-up of the Order of Illuminati a similar order sprang up in Northern Geroriginated in the brain of a man unfortunately
and a morally depraved
vagabond. and whose miracles he offered a rather forced natural ex-
In accordance with this plan the associaplanation. sometime preacher. of which the lower ones were to be simply read-
. whom Bahrdt in a voluminous work
portrayed as the founder of a sort of Freemasonry.
and once even keeper of an eating house at Halle.
degrees. This was Dr.
IMITATIONS OF ILLUMINISM. Charles Frederic Bahrdt. that twenty-two men had formed a union for the ends set forth. for the reason. The projected association he called "German Union of the XXII. and this by the literary activity of the members. The Union was to be organized on the plan of Jesus Christ. professor.
in the South. who made
a deplorable misuse of the talents
with which nature had endowed him richly. as he explained in a circular letter. of which he had become a
in England. or teacher in sundry places. In 1788 it occurred to him to found an association to promote enlightened views.
the Deutsche Union existed only on paper. betterment of education.
no unwas reckoned from the death The supreme head was called
Archiepistat (archiepistates. One of the three leaders betrayed the other two. or welldoers) which sprang up at the close of the 1 8th century. and religion. and afterward his adversaries tried to convert it into a sort of moral Femgericht by tracking and brand-
ing all offenses.ILLUMINATI
ing societies. art. except positive theology
prudence. of which only the higher one had a political aim. there were two degrees. but they acknowledged
positive juriswere designated after the man-
Time superiors. remuneration for services. which he survived but a short
time. but soon
afterward released: that ended the association. 400.
. also for the widows and orphans of members. The members ner of the Illuminati. chief overseer). or benefactors. Fessler. while the third alone would understand the
purpose of the order. viz. commerce. advancement of science. had a longer term of life. provision for meritorious workers in age and misfortune. but it wrought for its projector a protracted term of imprisonment. But
inasmuch as Bahrdt had painted this beautiful picture solely to make money.. he died in 1792. B. C. popular representation. by his protests against such tendencies.
Another imitation of the Order of
sciences. and was with them put in prison. of Socrates. the
(Bund der Evergeten. though but
of the Evergetes
expansion. encouragement of men of talent. brought about a split in the association.
existing. As we have seen.
at last. No critical or serious work of history gives any justification of the belief that Freemasonry had a hand in
bringing about that Revolution: but a decisive proof of
the true relation of Freemasonry to the troubles of those times is had in the fact that the Terror made an end of the
All the clubs of the French Grand Orient of France. as we know. Knight of the Golden Crab). Revolution were open: the people would not tolerate secret clubs. in England: their allegations were received only with ridicule. where no revolution took place: in fact. and hence as
early as 1791
of Stark (significantly named in the Strict Observance.
FREEMASONRY AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.
and called himself Citizen Equality.
That there was any alliance of the Freemasons. not even private assemblages. As for the Freemasons. and passed into oblivion. we have already shown that they were opposed to the movement. gave up his title. in 1793.
to persecute the
The Grandmaster then
Joseph. Louis Philip of Orleans. with the men of the French Revolution. or even of the Illuminists.228
4. or. the Illuminati were to be found only in Germany. which broke out in 1789. whose mischief could not be repaired by the well-intentioned but narrow-minded Louis XVI. like the abbe and canon
Augustin Barruel in France. and
. can be affirmed only by
are ignorant of history or wilfully blind by Privy Councilor Grolman of Giessen. but that movement could have no other ground than the
dissatisfaction of the people of
France with the shameful
Bourbon dynasty. John Robinson. they were no longer in existence when the French revolution broke out. or the ship's captain and professor.
Superstition and child's play fell into disrepute: the Rosicrucians. condemned by public opinion. he
would That no more have anything to do with Freemasonry. with headquarters at Frankfort. and not till the fall of the Terrorists did Brother Roettiers de Montaleau come forth from the prison in which he had been incarcerated simply because he was a Freemason. those of the "Contrat Social" and of the "Xoeuf Soeurs" were taught. and. that "real" equality was a more dreadful "phantom'" than those they had pursued in the
lodges. found in Masonry. This League has ever since rendered notable service
masonry. though not in its whole extent. and their like. The general league of German Freemasons projected in 1790 by Bode
of Gotha. when they met with a hV fate. the Templars. the
were busy in reforming and strengthening themselves. for the reality. failed of realization in consequence of the death
soon afterward of that enlightened mason (1793). by
Freimaurerbund) founded as early as 1783.ILLUMINATI
declared that he had given up the "phantom" of equality. therefore.
. for a season they withdrew into retirement. and exerted no longer any influence on public affairs. same year his head fell under the guillotine. but its purpose was served. had to give up their absurdities and return to right reason. and his blood sealed the "reality of equality". and most of the members of the two zealous lodges. the "Asian" and "African" orders. that in the Republic
there should be no Mysteries.
through the Terror by extreme caution and secrecy. Thus did French Masonry weather the terrible storm
of the Revolution.
Transition. and finally there be men and parties that by their action against so-called secret societies make themselves comic without intending
it. was Goetz von Berlichingen. Transition's
The Comiq has a place everywhere in history: them no lack of it in secret societies.
Secret Societies of Various Kinds.
the revelations promised (but never high pseudomasonic degrees.
to Transition of
. there was formed
that city a satirical Society of Chevaliers.
SOCIETIES OF WITS. In sar-
of the Strict
castic allusion to
2. and they had four degrees. and author of a parody of Goethe's Werther. The members took knightly names: Goethe. they spoke in the style of chivalry. For there be secret societies that would be comic.PART TWELFTH.
Weimar. for example.
was suggested by Frederic von Goue. a Knight Observance and a strong believer in the descent of Freemasonry from Templarism. but a comical old soul withal. Transition's Transition to
degrees of the Society of Chevaliers were. there be secret societies that are comic without knowing it. in such societies it assumes many different forms.
. though it rendered good service to literature and art. Austria.
Creuzer. Another society of similar nature
that of the
Main by the physician Ehrmann in 1809. Arndt. Several writers and
was the only
actors of note belonged to
those of Vienna are worthy of special mention. and bearing the impress of a seal. One of these was called ''Ludlamshoehle. Among men honored with the diploma were
Paul.SECRET SOCIETIES OF VARIOUS KINDS
Aha. a comic-chevalresque society. The president of each Schlaraffenreich
eighty-five affiliated societies in Switzerland and other countries. in 1885. the police thought it best to suppress the society in 1826." after a not very successful
Schlosser. the Allschlar'fifties.
E. the candidates
It had many disThe members were Shadows.
which. but on festive occasions was in condemning offenses against the Allschlar-
(or society) was called Uhu.
diploma by a
parody of his
"Westoestlicher Diwan. in its membership.
called Bodies. Though mirth
society. and another at Prague in 1883. Membership consisted only in the receipt from the founder (in recognition of some humorous piece) of a Diploma written in
burlesque style in Latin. In 1855 appeared the Green Island."
societies of this
congress of the leagued societies met at Leipsic in 1876."
understood the profound
meaning of the Degrees.
went out and formed a Freemasonry of their own. the hierarchy of officials was complex and showy.
1814 by a Cairene ad-
lodge at Montauban in 1815. The Grand Lodge of Paris was called Osiris. under Masonic forms.
The system has no fewer than
pure nonsense. The degrees were more than ninety in number. the Egyptian:
Once there was a Holy Order of the Sofounded by French military officers who had been with Bonaparte in Egypt. The highest dignitaries were called Isiarchs. had hoped to be. because they were not promoted as they Milan. who contrived to
into a Freemasons' lodge in but who.
and three series.
the secret associations mentioned
volume. and was founded by some men of loose morals. as members of one grand association.232
ohisians. both of which in downright earnest trace their origin back to Egyptian
Mysteries. years before Christ. Two orders which still sub15.
There have been and still are in France secret sohave thought they could in our time transplant to Europe. Only the grouped Grandmaster received the ninetieth degree the "content"
in seventeen classes.
was Grandmaster of Lit n't. to which were
the head of the order
.000 sist are those of Misraim and of Memphis. except those having political aims. The order spread first over Italy and in 1814
get themselves received
to France. and their aera began priests.
The Memphis svstem
venturer. but has often since that time been obliged to interrupt its work. and the rest of the officers of the society bore similar titles (mostly fictitious) of Egyptian The lodges were Pyramids. The fact is that
in the present
the Misraim system had its origin in 1805.
IMITATIONS OP THE ANCIENT MYSTIC LEAGUES.
Grecian. Observance. Africa and America indeed. only the Conventus of the Templars could name a Grandmaster. and the wearers of
were happy. which in the present century.
. etc. nominated. having formed. they having given up their silly ideas.
There were Clerical Templars. by Molay as his successor. but its Latin is
then. they say. to prove the nomination of Larmenius. and. besides.
not that of the I4th century.. and turned to sensible. Another anachronism is the grhost of Templarism. But Larmenius never existed. a solemn mass of requiem perMolay's death. Egyptian. but the total was afterward reduced to thirty. the whole earth was
Priories. Thus. Here. beneficent work. there is no connection between Freemasonry and the New Templars of Paris. They comprised the Indian.
a succession of
and their "learned men" have imagined Grandmasters deriving from one Lar-
nienius of Jerusalem. or
variant of the story put forth by the Strict document is shown the Royal Arch. Persian.SECRET SOCIETIES OF VARIOUS KINDS
added three supreme degrees. Raimond Fabre de Palaprat
and from time
(1804 ^sS) had under him four Grand Vicars for Europe.
Grand Priories. They reckon the years from the founding of the order of
(1118). and even the Mexican mythologies and theologies. After the Revolution the new Templars purchased a
Nouvelle France suburb of observed the anniversary of Paris. walks abroad
connection with Masonry
rather loose. whose traditions do not differ from those of the New Observance. and these the Grand Orient of France took under
wing some years ago. The Grandmaster. Only two lodges exist today. Comptrolleries. etc. Scandinavian. Asia. as in the last.
an order with special garb. almost all of whom have received the so-called higher degrees of Freemasonry. Bannerbearers.
and the warriors. mathematical.234
The rules too.
The resuscitation of the ancient order of Druids is another example of imitation of the secret societies of Among the Kelts of Gaul and Britain the antiquity. But no one. poets. philosophical. of the Templarism permitted none to be admitted to
the order save
men of noble birth: but many a shopkeeper wore the white mantle with red cross..
There are New Templars also in England. and they formed
Druids were. has yet heard of their deeds on behalf of those imperiled articles Their lodges are called Commanderies. Ireland and the United States. and the members must swear to defend this belief with' their swords and with their lives. Their head was a Chief Druid. de-
mysteries were certain theo-
medical. a special
grees and mysteries. creation of the
. the and science were their exclusive province: hence they were priests. and these were conveyed in three-membered sentences (triads). etc. and scholars.
3. alas. in one god. next
after the nobles
art. They of faith. Prelates. The English Templars are divided into two opposing
parties. dogmata. Scotland. the highest grade being that of Bishop.
IMITATIONS OF FREEMASONRY. They believed in the immortality of the
from one of which came the Irish and the AmeriNo one is competent for admission to
any of these Templar societies who does not believe that Christ came on earth to save sinners with his blood.
with mutual benefit as a secondary object.
In Britain the Bards. The ringed round with enormous blocks of stone. It was founded toward very the end of the first half of the i8th century. Druidism was introduced into Their local organizations the United States in 1833. but is United States. In 1858 there
1781 a society
called themselves Druids. with about 2.
those of the Druids
cultivated poetry and song. each with its own High Arch Chapter. but by consolidation the number is now reduced to fifteen. were influential division of their order.. and the central organizations Grand Groves. There is no close connection between British and In 1872 Druidism was imported American Druidism. and within circles. and its transformation (not destrucTheir assemblies were held in tion) by water and fire. caverns and forests. are called Groves.
strong in the
was reorganized in 1812. They have three degrees. but appears to have been at first a convivial society of "goodfellows. on mountains. and the beneficent ends made paramount.
Probationers." or odd fellows.
emperors persecuted them as they did Jews and Christians.
i. this A rather is the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.SECRET SOCIETIES OF VARIOUS KINDS
world out of nothing. because the Druidic mysteries seemed to
to the state.
were twenty-seven mutually independent societies of Druids in Britain. There were
three degrees of the Bards ars and Learned Bards.000 members. Passed Schol-
in London whose and who practiced resembling those of Freemasonry. to which are appended other higher degrees. into Germany from the United States: there are in the German empire forty Groves.
e. the feature of conviviality dropped.
Fellows is of English origin.
attire resembling that of the Besides these there are in the United States
many other secret societies having for their end mutual beneficence. to relieve distress of members and procomrades vide benefit funds. Senate of Sparta.
England about the same time with the Odd Fellows' order. Forestry also has been transplanted to the United States.
lapel. founded in Wash1864. The Grand Knights of Friendship.000 members. and wear an
Indians. its object is to disseminate "the great
The Order of Red Men (Improved Order of Red Men) is of earlier origin than the preceding the members in their lodge meetings imitate some of the customs of the Ameri:
principles of friendship. Knights of the Mystic Chain. There were in the United States in 1889 more than 600. as Knights of Malta.
are veteran soldiers of
ends are to perpetuate the associations of in arms.
of Foresters. Royal Arcanum. A society of American
that of the Knights of Pythias. Legion of the Red Cross.236
similar organization.000 lodges.000 separate lodges and 160. American Oddfellowship severed its connection with the British Grand Lodge in 1842. and benevolence": it in 1885 2. charity. of the Republic was founded soon after the close Army
of the civil war. The badge of membership is a small bronze button worn in the coat
that war.boo Oddfellows in 10.
. and to advance the interests of the members in every honorable and lawful way.
of the existence
after. 24 Brahma. heathen saint.37
Chaldaea. 126.26 sqq. realm of
Islanders Aristeas. 109. 65 sqq. 203 sqq. and thaumaturge. the Dionysiac or Bacchic cult appealed to sensuality. Buddhists
on Egyptian mysteries 22 Dionysiac mysteries. .. appears after his
Aphrodite Urania.. Livy's
.. 89 sqq. in Mesopotamia. 61. a false prophet. 120..
Angekoks Animals and
trees as gods. 125. Nile.. soul of the universe 35 Brahmans 33 Brethren of the Cross. Ludlamshoehle.
death and sundry age. 18. his trick serpent. Bacchanalia in Rome.INDEX. Chaldee astrol28 ogy 40 Chimaera
and warriors. philosophies.
107 sqq.. religion grounded on astronomy.
Demeter Demotic writing
. 9 sqq. Buddha. 215 33 sqq. 10... mystic. 99. he claims to be a reincarnation of Pytha127 goras Amenhotep IV.61
Egypt. antics of her devotees 67
Daemons.19 49 sqq. her mysteries.
the Maenades orgies
their . Bible translated into Greek. Allscharaffia 231 Cretan mysteries 59 Cuneiform writing 28 Cybele or Rhea. 23 to the Hel40
narrative 62 sqq.. 26. . reformer of Egyptian religion 17 Clermont Chapter 202 Comic secret societies. the phallus honored. how de115 veloped Chuenaten.214 26 Akkadians Alexander. its origin. Chaldaean
Dead. sacred bull of Mem14 phis Apollonius of Tyana. reappearances 214 Asiatic Brethren
27 Baal Babylonian religion. 60. 231. Society of Chevaliers.. 11
African buildingmasters.'. reformer of
Christianism an inevitable development of Hellenic mysHellenic teries. 117 sqq.. 231. 119. 93 Book of the Dead 19. 124 sqq. Ethiopia. and Aphro40 dite Pandemos
Christian church. mysterious
Society 37 person-
Death.. 60 sqq. 11. his wife the moon goddess.
Paul the Apostle.
ion.. India. 123.
animals and plants as. all procedure. 190. grand and particular lodges.98 227 Evergetes. 130 sqq. 8 Graces. a Palestinian order or sect of puritans. 54. called also Therapeutae. 44.
Neit. seership and prophecy.
a town's population. Kerytae... of the mysteries. 40. Sam.. hospitable to for-
eign gods. 186. Hathor. 52. mythic descent from Templarism. worship of
228 sqq. of Egypt. Lernais (Marquis). symbols. 207. Scottish (or Saint Andrew's) degrees. 165. 181: institution of the three degrees. Furies 38 Grecian religion.INDEX
Herodotus on the great Labyrinth. Eleusinian mysteries. 51.
(Phil. Turn. Set. the Mystic
226 Gods. ritual. Amon.
Egyptian gods: Shu. 48.
etc. 51. of India 33 sqq. 53.. Stark invents clerical Templarism. fantastic titles.
and sacrifice. grew out of the Stonemasons' organization. 47. Gugomos traces the to back degrees high 209 Moses
. 200.. 18. origin. State function.. femic courts exercise jurisdiction over the empire.
ib. 184. 203. first grand
lodge instituted 1717.
ingpurification and expia"Eleusinian see 49. sqq. Thot. the sun god. 148.. Horos Re.
devils. 49 sqq. diffusion of the order. the -myth underlying the
lesser and Eleusinia. 96. a
basilissa. sqq.. John Aug. his praise
of Westphalia. 201.
12. ib. Royal Arch.
159. death by the
rope. 180. 43. 50. Harmachis. women not admitted to the lodge. Ptah. tion. 39. . wars suspended during the solemnities. 154. league of
Gugomos." 195 sqq. 187.
. 11. becoming the one god. Euripides. epoptae. 27 sqq. knew no dogma. femic courts super161 ceded
Fire Worship Foresters
Freemasonry. 206.. procession to Eleusis. 183.
Heaven and Earth as gods. 178 sqq. oracles.
51. 147 sqq. an anomaly.l3 sqq. 94 sqq. ib. signs. Nunu.
also Cicero's. 182. a mysterious personage
Hellenic mysteries.. in Ger-
Strict Observance.. 95. mystae.
Osiris. 199. of Babylonia. 40. 204. ib.. of the Cockchafer. peddling high degrees.. rites of admission. 55. greater Eleusinia.). recognizes human brotherhood regardless of race or
creed. Essenism a middle term between the Grecian mysteries and Christianism. Fates. its aims. on Egyptian mys26 teries 23 Hieroglyphs 51 Hierophant "High Degrees.
von. 21. 75.
. 70. 68. rape of Persian religion
49 32 sqq.. .
202. leagues. 6 New Testament.
Hiram myth. Heliogabalus an initiate.
. 133. his personality.
Labyrinth at Crocodilopolis. their oeconomy o-f religious truths. Mithras coupled with Zagreus and Attis.
2 Mithras worship imported from Persia into Rome. 138. deceased.34
sqq. initiation into the Sabazian mysteries. Order of
Judaism and Hellenism. inventor 90 of husbandry Jesus.8 Priests of Assyria and Babylonia 28
Unity at Frankfort
degrees. . his
. 136. invention of.
Hund. of Egypt included Monothe-
Jasios. worship of an idol.
a Don 203 sqq.
elaborate symbolism of the
initiation. 145 the order dissolved
Kings and queens.. wealth and power. Order of Sophisians. secret aims and cryptic beliefs.
secret schools or clubs. 102 sqq..
Mysteries. . 141.
"Johnson. his visit to Egypt.
Nile. origin." the
Egypt.. became nests of mendicants
Osiris. 3. 225 apostatizes Knights Templar. to Babylon.
206 46 21
Brahmans. 135.. 94 22
Hellenist Jewish phil-
Plato in Egypt Plutarch on Egyptian
in Egypt societies. 76. 199. teachmiracles.
ancient.. many convicted and burnt to death. ing.
Natural forces worshiped.
'Lost God. founder of Illuminism. 232. Knigge. Illuminati Imitations of ancient mystic Holy 232 sqq. 110 sqq. 129 sqq. 70. pretensions.
Chaldaean goddess. 72 sqq. her the infernal into descent 31 realm
. life in Crotona.
Order of Misraim. accused of heresy and members tried by the Inquisition. son of Zeus. contempt for the cross.
17 made gods 37 Klobbergoll Baron Adolf von. 131. Joannine gospel a product of the Alexandrine school. exchange of ideas between Jews and Hellenes. 134.. and the compound deity called Sabazius. sqq.
sq." "High Degrees. the Solomonic myth.:
Rosicrucianism 212 Schubart. 169. hostility to ecclesiastieism..
. the Pilgrims' Chain.
Compagnonnages. Riddle of existence .
. promoter of the "High Degrees" fraud . the new. the mythical friar Christian Rosenkreuz..
." Solon in Egypt
Sorcery among savages. father of Illuminism 216 sqq. of Germany. rites.
Schrepfer. 173 sqq. of 190 the Rose
mathematical science. Order of Hope.
1 Samothrace. Edward. knowledge. founder of the
Observance 207 sqq. ib.. 193. miscellaneous: The Woodsplitters.. 57 ib. John Valentine Andreae its originator.16 .
201. 192. mysteries of. passwords. promoter of the "High Degrees" fraud 206
199. 166 sqq. sqq.. phallic the initiaworship. 177 Rosicrucianism. Philip Samuel. of Saint Jonathan (or Joachim)...32 sqq.. Egyptian supreme god. 195. 78. 211 sqq.
233. ib. 204 174 Rosicrucianism.. . the order claimed to be an offshoot of the knightly order of the Hospitalers.
Secret Societies.. 168 sqq.. sqq.36
.. 170. ib.
79 sqq. of the Leal.240
Order of Argonauts. soul.
.. ib. John Christian.. 175.
.. of the Ducats.. 175. Sphinxes
Spirit.. astronomical 77.
other stonemasons and craftsmen in France. fa..
.5 Religious ideas.
Siva Solomonic Legend. 58.
.. 207 26 Sumerians Sun and moon as gods 7 Swedish rite 210
Sabazius: see "Mithras.. promoter of the Degrees delusion
. league of lodges organized by Albertus Magnus.. Cabiri. Engstonemasons.207
Stonemasons' lodges. Adam. origin of.
school and the Pythagorean league.
Re. tion ib.. 194.
Degrees.ll of the league.
. usages. of the Mustardseed.
.. 2 Rosa.
M. (Mayor of Toledo. ). J. At length there is a chance tha.
Prof. power and longevity.23
pages. T. says: "I have two dear Tokology and during the whole nine months. had neither
ache nor pain. such as yours and Carpenter's. after fifteen years of childless married life.
GUIDE TO HEALTH. Sabula.
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