Making a Bamboo Flute

Much of this information is from

“Simple Flutes”
by
Mark Shepard

1. Choose a flute size
- See sample flutes: can you cover the holes?
- The G flute will best serve the needs of most players.
- Smaller hands will be better off with an a’ or b’ flute.

2. Choose a tube: (sizes in mm)
The Flute Tube
The length of the tube is roughly decided by the
flute’s low note, which is also its “key.” The longer
the flute, the lower that note. This measurement is
for the flute interior only--in other words, from the
open end of the tube, up to the stopper.
The inside diameter (I.D.) of the tube--the distance
between the tube walls--must vary with the length,
for the sake of range and octave tuning. Longer
tubes should be wider. For a simple flute, the best
ratio of I.D. to length is about 1 to 23, or 4.35%. A
wider tube than that will favor low notes, and a
narrower tube will favor high notes. This
measurement too is shown in the table.

Tube Size Table
Key
bore
23:1
C
25
D
23
E
21
F
19
G
17-18
a
15-16
b
13-14
c
12-13
d
11-12

Inside Length
(min)

590
540
490
460
410
360
320
285
270

3. Clean the tube up:
- The wall thickness of the tube is important mostly because it determines the
depth of the fingerholes.
- A thin wall helps volume, tone, range, and octave tuning. Aim at 1/16 inch
(1.5mm) to 1/8 inch (3mm) for most materials, and never thicker than 5/32 inch (4
mm).
- Rasp and sand out the inside except near the sound / blowhole. Leave the walls
as thick as possible there, just sanding slightly to remove loose material.

If the mouth hole is so wide that it cuts into the sides of the tube. clean it out with a sanding stick. the mouth hole may not work. Even better is an oval of about the same area. . Note 1: we burn holes in bamboo rather than drilling because bamboo splits easily when drilled. . Try 12mm wide by 10mm high.Thick tube walls are better: thin tube walls are good for fingerholes.) . Check the octave tuning. Make the Mouth / Sound Hole The mouthhole must be placed at just the right distance from the flute stopper to give the closest octave tuning. but a deeper mouth-hole produces a more solid tone.But a smaller mouthhole will improve range and octave tuning. Now you will cut off small sections of the tube until the note is just a bit flat of what you want. It should be lower (flatter) than what you want for your final tuning. Then clean it up with a sharp knife to have clean perpendicular edges and be oblong as shown below. Note 2: If you have trouble getting a note. Final adjustment can be done by sanding. . for an edge better fitted to your blowing.A larger mouthhole will improve volume and tone. (The distance is measured from the mouthhole center. . When burning a hole. as well as a clear tone. and see what note it plays on the tuner. Cut to length Play your flute. 5. the iron tool should be red hot and generate large amounts of smoke. .A good compromise size is 7/16 inch(11 mm) or slightly larger.Burn the hole with a hot iron tool. there may be loose material inside the tube. Try not to breath the smoke. A good beginning guess for this measurement is 2/3 of the flute tube’s inside diameter--but you will have to experiment.4.

The chart measurements are shown as percentages of distance from the mouthhole or soundhole (from center of the hole for sideblown flutes. and also to reach. For flutes above G. half step. For flutes in G and below. the less room there is for error. instead of your ring finger. So carefully measure this distance on your tube and look up the measurement on the charts of hole placement. as long as you can reach and cover them. If you go too quickly and make the note sharp.A good general hole size is 3/8 inch to 7/16 inch.You can move the center of the hole up or down as needed as you increase the size. But the holes don’t need to be all the same size. whole. then half step from the top hole back to all holes covered and the second octave overblow) Measure: . All measurements are to finger hole centers. . not edges.Large fingerholes give better volume. compare with a finished flute of the type you are making and the images above to be sure that you have not made a major marking error. From there. you will have to experiment with final placement and hole size.Before burning. you could place the bottom hole under your little finger. .Use the precalculated measurement charts and mark your flute tube carefully. tone. Burning: . and octave tuning.. . The higher the key or root note. The charts provides a starting point only. Individual holes can be made as large as 1/2 inch. The holes also don’t need to be in a straight line. This will give the standard do re mi tuning (whole step. I burn the hole centered on the line. Western major scale tuning with the Key starting on the lowest or Root Tone of the tube.Smaller holes are easier to cover. . I burn the hole with it’s lower edge right on the marked line. . using the tuning techniques we’ll now discuss. I use the burner to increase the size and a knife to clean up the burned part. You may want to offset them to make fingering easier.Tuning The notes of the flute are determined chiefly by the size and placement of the fingerholes. On longer flutes. whole. range. it is very hard to lower the note.Do the bottom 3 holes first and when they are close but still slightly flat. whole. check the tuning and then increase the hole size to bring the hole into tune.6. for better positioning and an easier reach. depending on the flute’s size and the player’s fingers. Tuning The Fingerholes .Burn the holes small to start with. do the top three. because they wind up closer together. The percentages of the acoustic length are set to be a bit flat to start out. The pictures below gives a rough guide to where to put the holes for some tuning possibilitites. the lower edge of the hole for fipple or notch flutes). whole step.

It will flatten the first note of the third octave. If you tune this way.A hole will give a higher note if made larger. the notes of the flute can be compared to the notes of a piano.”bend” into tune when you play them. For tuning. so you aren’t tempted to “bend” your note to match the other. and without bending over the mouthhole. . The larger the mouth-hole. the thickness of the tube. the first octave must normally be tuned a little sharp.The size and depth of the mouthhole. in the do-re-mi pattern. remember that the notes of the flute aren’t supposed to be exactly in tune. anything that “opens up” the tube wall and allows the air to vibrate more freely will raise the note. check each note against the flute’s low note. The more and larger these fingerholes. Play your own note first. . . . You may also have to smooth out differences in “out-of-tuneness” between holes of different sizes.The open fingerholes farther from the mouthhole. and you’ll get better. A wider tube produces a lower note.The depth of the hole--in other words. with the low note as do. To make sure both the first and the second octave are tuned well enough. Or you can simply tune the notes of the flute to each other.” as shown below. the more you do it. Instead of covering all the holes. the lower the note. How you play the flute will also affect the tuning. It will give a lower note if smaller. you should leave the top hole uncovered as a “vent. You can “lower” the note by using a smaller hole or by placing the hole farther from the mouthhole.Here are the two most important rules for tuning: . or a smaller hole placed closer to the mouthhole. so you don’t “drift” out of tune. the lower the note. play at a medium loudness. The closer to the mouthhole. the higher the note. When checking the tuning of a note. It will become easier. the higher the note. Whichever way you choose. or other tuning instrument.The placement of the stopper.The width of the tube. These rules mean you can “raise” a note by enlarging the hole or by placing the hole closer to the mouthhole. Anything that “closes” the wall and resists air vibration will lower it. Enlarging the vent hole or placing it closer to the mouthhole will sharpen the first note of the second octave. This is because simple flutes seldom have perfect octave tuning. The deeper the mouthhole. pitchpipe. The deeper the hole. Also keep in mind that the first note in both the second and third octave is fingered differently from the flute’s low note. A larger hole could be placed farther from the mouthhole. Generally. the higher the note. . . The tuning of any fingerhole’s note is also affected by: . and the second octave a little flat. Try your best not to “bend” the notes into tune. The tuning of these two higher notes is affected by both the flute length and the size of the vent hole. It also means you can change the hole size and its placement without changing the note. Tuning is the chief art in simple flutemaking. but only close enough to.A hole will give a higher note if it is placed closer to the mouthhole. as you would during normal playing. It will give a lower note if placed farther away. with your fingers at a medium height over the fingerholes.

4 334.2 333.0 302.8 568 244.0 308.7 404.3 376.0 301.0 322.8 372.0 508 218.0 283.2 410.8 338.8 464.0 242.1 278.0 330.3 255.7 337.3 500 215.8 556 239.0 323.4 247.0 436.0 315.6 416.9 413.2 530 227.5 335.7 371.0 297.8 329.4 283.4 254.4 352.7 384.5 416.6 246.0 317.3 466.6 387.0 257.6 534 229.2 408.0 312.8 443.5 411.6 280.4 420.8 280.3 506 217.0 381.6 395.6 522 224.0 290.8 408.9 265.9 251.3 384.9 544 233.8 372.9 526 226.8 380.4 488 209.0 295.3 423.5 282.5 552 237.8 392.7 252.0 454.3 354.98 241.4 459.9 373.2 548 235.4 368.1 401.2 349.Major C 542 233.5 351.1 299.1 369.9 279.0 331.7 504 216.1 285.0 306.0 303.3 269.1 357.0 310.5 261.0 287.0 324.9 272.4 370.9 356.9 353.0 305.1 389.5 378.7 363.0 319.6 400.5 564 242.0 258.2 448.7 281.8 355.3 524 225.2 405.0 243.6 267.12 208.6 428.4 570 245.0 365.5 275.2 375.3 444.0 328.0 374.0 365.4 386.6 345.5 456.9 439.6 528 227.6 379.4 403.6 353.7 281.3 463.2 357.2 284.1 330.1 405.3 342.5 546 234.02 221.0 458.0 314.9 327.8 266.1 249.5 369.7 367.0 326.5 434.2 378.0 288.4 407.8 244.5 413.3 .1 411.8 562 241.0 307.6 361.0 415.2 Major D 482 484 486 207.4 360.6 260.6 359.4 438.0 329.9 397.1 383.9 532 228.7 492 211.5 558 239.5 344.0 316.1 473.8 346.0 496 213.0 401.9 364.7 245.1 566 243.2 469.7 259.8 421.0 321.9 418.0 300.0 385.4 494 212.7 498 214.0 309.4 441.0 264.2 394.1 451.88 256.1 560 240.0 426.6 410.2 367.3 262.0 292.7 446.0 284.0 340.1 271.9 538 231.2 414.2 554 238.3 348.3 518 222.6 431.6 379.3 362.1 429.2 341.8 550 236.7 425.3 248.0 327.7 468.6 510 219.9 461.9 520 223.2 263.0 279.0 490 210.8 400.0 294.2 270.0 293.3 208.3 382.0 382.8 388.7 403.0 286.9 360.0 298.3 398.7 449.2 376.6 253.7 406.6 471.8 273.0 313.0 291.6 274.0 320.8 375.2 359.0 285.6 453.2 536 230.0 250.4 386.1 Major C .8 356.5 350.0 502 215.5 268.6 363.4 366.1 433.5 540 232.2 221.D 512 514 516 220.2 277.5 391.4 276.

9 229.0 294.1 332.0 242.0 353.3 342.6 292.7 294.5 211.9 400.0 221.5 310.0 237.8 450 193.3 380.5 218.0 414 178.0 218.1 Major E 452 194.9 251.7 492 211.6 434 186.8 408.1 280.0 229.0 262.6 359.0 365.9 378.0 320.8 401.2 408.5 301.9 413.2 227.4 334.3 463.3 248.3 205.9 378.3 191.0 291.2 284.4 258.7 202.0 264.5 552 237.5 239.5 312.4 315.0 278.4 356.5 464 199.2 357.0 328.4 226.1 296.7 252.3 212.9 315.6 428 184.8 338.5 378.0 226.9 420 180.1 374 160.3 384.0 393.6 327.6 379.8 230.6 274.8 319.5 335.8 381.6 416 178.9 296.3 412 177.3 198.0 308.5 275.5 446 191.3 241.5 310.0 333.5 416.4 277.4 266.0 390 167.4 394 169.0 264.4 386.1 271.3 506 217.2 375.6 306.9 360.0 220.8 562 241.2 307.4 330.9 340.4 370.2 300.5 332.1 192.6 224.5 546 234.0 258.3 219.6 388.5 302.2 206.0 255.8 237.Major C 542 233.8 456 196.6 391.7 281.6 400.7 385.2 365.9 397.3 376.2 410.0 508 218.7 274.7 367.4 326.1 221.7 269.1 315.3 454 195.5 353.0 236.5 369.1 281.3 380.2 386.9 313.8 456 196.0 172.9 426 183.0 239.6 259.7 347.0 266.0 454.2 469.3 406 174.9 Major D 482 207.6 453.1 Major F G 400 402 172.9 200.0 292.4 337.3 325.4 403.0 295.1 332.2 554 238.5 564 242.0 326.0 322.7 331.0 321.6 290.2 234.1 328.8 278.2 284.2 325.0 288.4 240.0 293.5 338.4 334.0 284.6 286.6 270.2 265.2 257.4 494 212.0 235.0 214.3 273.1 350.12 208.4 233.6 251.8 280.5 452 194.4 570 245.6 203.4 254.8 283.8 421.1 484 486 208.8 244.0 279.5 411.0 257.4 Major F 1 430 432 184.0 502 215.6 246.6 510 219.8 338.0 310.7 238.8 253.4 470 202.0 319.0 324.7 403.4 488 209.5 351.3 362.5 395.0 230.3 289.8 187.7 392 168.5 318.4 292.0 277.5 281.7 366.2 333.7 386 166.8 550 236.0 261.0 317.4 476 204.0 228.8 287.1 278.0 270.8 464.1 199.0 243.1 405.6 322.9 303.6 327.8 304.0 315.9 317.7 449.7 331.5 232.7 468.5 558 239.4 459.0 401.7 245.8 474 203.0 248.9 329.8 299.8 223.8 468 201.5 373.0 207.8 568 244.0 201.0 348.3 255.4 376.1 411.7 363.7 281.9 254.9 438 188.3 308.6 217.0 193.6 471.7 188.1 560 240.7 504 216.9 222.2 291.0 262.4 204.1 378 162.2 414.0 227.4 197.3 424 182.0 490 210.0 254.2 277.0 331.1 390.5 225.2 341.1 255.0 259.6 395.7 261.0 265.1 330.7 480 206.9 272.3 318.1 566 243.1 235.8 312.4 376 161.8 320.0 234.7 498 214.0 256.6 410 176.0 271.0 263.9 324.6 387.0 250.6 311.0 415.2 Major G 370 159.0 286.0 269.0 344.1 472 203.1 473.0 408 175.0 327.4 407.6 363.7 295.3 418 179.0 330.4 355.9 262.1 384 165.7 195.6 416.0 328.0 374.0 375.0 215.3 346.9 418.7 311.4 276.9 208.4 350.4 247.8 351.0 283.6 319.7 404.0 280.6 410.5 413.7 406.9 444 190.2 436 187.7 209.2 341.4 330.9 322.1 460 197.3 398.2 272.0 271.0 323.7 323.7 337.3 500 215.2 343.5 189.3 354.3 466.4 300.3 308.0 216.2 325.0 265.0 232.1 228.5 458 196.8 270.8 .0 316.2 220.0 243.6 327.0 285.0 382.1 346.0 287.4 388 166.7 303.2 299.2 322.4 382 164.0 396 170.3 282.1 478 205.9 287.3 372 160.2 544 233.3 383.6 345.8 360.5 344.4 283.0 225.4 284.0 297.9 229.4 297.2 307.5 456.7 380 163.0 276.9 288.98 242.5 440 189.1 369.0 314.0 240.1 228.7 345.0 375.6 277.2 227.8 346.0 241.1 249.2 448 192.2 337.6 308.4 293.2 442 190.1 316.0 247.3 340.0 312.0 272.0 263.6 196.2 405.1 185.8 335.8 356.1 323.4 334.1 466 200.0 306.6 343.0 251.6 253.5 458 196.0 280.5 276.1 289.3 423.6 285.0 222.4 190.8 321.3 274.9 279.0 249.0 263.8 273.1 451.0 186.3 309.2 305.4 318.8 313.1 368.1 285.8 194.0 314.2 548 235.0 252.8 372.0 340.0 329.0 214.2 321.6 311.4 366.6 210.5 267.5 330.0 371.6 422 181.7 231.0 458.4 398.6 348.7 404 173.0 273.1 307.9 185.0 223.0 275.4 376.8 278.8 556 239.5 282.7 371.3 361.0 290.0 273.8 462 198.7 398 171.8 372.4 226.8 342.9 396.0 233.0 219.4 420.0 268.2 213.2 454 195.9 461.0 496 213.6 370.0 244.0 274.9 335.0 216.4 250.0 236.3 316.0 293.1 383.8 215.9 358.0 245.8 380.4 368.

7 240.6 233.0 187.2 189.5 193.2 268.5 169.9 248.6 267.4 293 126.2 239.4 Major a' 318 319 136.5 139.9 154.8 219.4 269 115.3 144.8 250.3 151.8 207.0 258.5 195.2 184.9 243.7 165.4 250.3 162.0 301.6 280 120.7 138.6 149.7 339 145.8 367 157.5 194.9 161.6 183.7 152.0 200.2 242.5 221.0 238.3 202.0 186.2 288 123.1 122.1 192.4 136.7 181.0 182.0 203.1 226.8 228.5 212.7 236.4 254.5 171.5 197.8 180.8 223.6 265.7 206.7 148.8 224.7 188.9 230.7 253.6 217.4 287 123.1 167.6 215.8 202.2 204.5 247.0 195.9 235.8 237.0 213.5 211.3 248.4 261.6 274.3 227.9 179.8 255.5 135.5 229.5 198.7 233.2 227.4 263.1 138.7 231.0 237.0 204.0 216.2 229.2 306 131.5 212.1 149.8 144.5 167.4 244.2 177.7 137.0 202.0 212.6 321 138.9 272 117.9 283.0 160.6 142.1 233.5 183.2 303.0 173.2 354 152.8 197.7 222.2 300 129.5 263.1 241.5 182.8 205.0 178.3 185.8 140.1 178.6 286 123.1 337 144.4 176.8 259.6 244.0 154.1 223.0 146.0 279.6 278.6 254.6 163.0 162.9 220.3 216.5 265.4 223.0 205.1 232.3 193.7 297 127.6 305.0 288.6 170.5 195.7 221.4 154.9 249.3 276 118.3 323 138.1 247.5 247.3 317 136.4 181.1 235.8 224.9 264.1 324 139.4 185.7 Major b' .1 283 121.1 208.2 159.1 331 142.3 155.5 175.5 160.5 180.7 220.7 240.1 224.0 142.7 291 125.8 244.0 261.0 221.5 310 133.5 281.5 358 153.9 325 139.1 205.3 158.3 218.5 363 156.3 141.7 262.2 260.5 164.0 239.4 238.9 263.8 320 137.3 269.1 271 116.0 366 157.6 274 117.3 206.0 174.3 236.8 169.0 Major d' 267 268 114.5 227.0 157.7 333 143.0 292.5 161.0 204.8 172.5 164.9 230.a' 301 302 129.6 182.1 360 154.2 133.8 298.9 147.5 199.5 242.7 258.8 236.6 217.0 176.3 226.1 254.2 166.5 168.9 278 119.0 143.2 348 149.5 246.0 139.5 134.4 143.2 156.5 188.9 290 124.6 362 155.1 145.3 219.3 148.9 194.5 238.7 203.6 368 158.0 225.5 196.9 158.8 356 153.9 234.2 216.7 134.3 208.3 299 128.5 187.4 206.5 176.6 197.6 175.5 159.0 158.0 212.4 241.6 230.8 185.4 335 144.8 273 117.2 184.6 156.5 208.0 255.0 289 124.0 198.9 295.5 173.3 251.9 .9 199.0 167.4 232.5 298 128.0 157.5 290.0 343 147.0 165.3 165.5 161.0 235.9 196.1 181.4 129.7 141.7 302.0 216.9 150.6 222.0 206.3 300.5 156.4 245.5 229.5 166.2 194.2 266.4 257.6 243.4 322 138.2 180.9 168.8 210.0 153.6 309 132.1 213.0 156.3 197.5 158.5 208.8 183.4 293.3 305 131.4 203.6 213.1 187.0 207.5 209.4 224.6 153.7 201.G 344 346 147.4 190.5 211.5 304 130.4 140.0 182.8 115.7 201.7 248.0 183.4 202.4 281 120.8 262.3 214.6 315 135.0 161.3 266.1 Major d' .c' 284 285 122.2 273.5 151.5 259.6 285.6 256.1 312 134.7 279 120.3 137.6 231.6 225.3 311 133.5 184.2 251.1 259.4 204.0 191.3 364 156.9 233.8 210.4 219.8 314 135.0 159.8 308 132.Major a' .5 292 125.2 294 126.3 200.1 267.3 297.0 174.2 218.8 361 155.9 214.0 210.9 252.3 240.5 287.4 243.5 182.6 174.0 163.5 175.2 197.7 145.2 211.8 244.4 275 118.1 135.8 268.0 211.9 267.5 172.4 329 141.0 199.0 160.0 182.5 157.5 268.5 249.1 193.2 246.5 229.8 228.2 239.0 177.9 186.5 187.3 248.8 231.0 181.6 199.9 207.1 245.5 190.1 252.8 246.0 307 132.9 195.0 227.6 160.0 246.7 303 130.5 171.7 271.5 157.2 210.0 201.2 282 121.5 186.2 213.2 250.1 200.9 212.5 210.8 226.0 169.1 277 119.3 257.4 284.5 303.8 162.1 365 157.5 181.5 178.5 299.8 137.0 171.8 189.0 313 134.0 295 126.1 276.6 191.0 170.7 205.0 150.4 341 146.0 208.5 316 135.8 265.6 221.1 225.8 327 140.0 219.4 198.2 152.9 232.9 155.6 146.3 270 116.9 304.2 209.3 234.4 222.0 136.4 211.5 163.2 230.6 235.6 196.6 234.5 189.9 296 127.0 249.0 172.5 179.5 164.8 350 150.7 214.5 200.4 147.9 148.5 192.9 215.6 209.0 179.4 183.2 264.0 185.0 168.5 352 151.7 155.

73 .68 . allowing for tuning.0 . Burn the holes small to start with and increase the size to bring into tune.78 . The holes are numbered by how many half steps they are up from the base note of the tube. you can calculate where to place the holes using these percentages.83 .54 .439 .Tuning Chart: Major Keys Root 3 5 6 8 10 12 A B C D E F G B C# D E F# G A C# D# E F# G# A B D E F G A A# C E F# G A B C D F# G# A B C# D E G# A# B C# D# E F# R’ octave A B C D E F G Hole Placement for none standard tunings: Decimal fractions of acoustic length to allow hole placement for any tuning you want using the Western 12 step scale.50 .465 .89 1. . If you know the notes of the scale.0 Note: these calculations are set to be a bit flat. Example: Key of C B 11 A# A G# G 10 9 8 7 F# F E D# D C# C 6 4 3 5 2 1 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ | O O O O O O O O O O O O | |__________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | | | | | | | 0.585 .63 .

A bottle brush will clean the inside. If you prefer an oil that dries.hole and once at the open end. Binding a Flute (from “Simple Flutes” by Mark Shepard) . and levering. Wooden orchestra instruments are finished with bore oil. Waxed cords aren’t as affected by changes in humidity. Another is waxed nylon. Be careful not to use too much on the outside of your flute. you can use walnut oil. You should also bind the flute. and attractive. One way to apply a finish inside only is to seal the flute holes with masking tape and pour in the finish. The finished binding must be tight enough that the end loops don’t spread out when you nudge them with a finger. Other options for the outside include shellac and petroleum jelly. or extra bamboo pieces for wrapping. or even by inlaying. they work well inside. cord tight enough with your fingers alone. Natural cords become tighter and stronger when the air is humid--but hot. sealing against moisture better than most natural finishes. not slippery. Buy it at a natural foods store. You can’t pull the A bamboo flute will crack and split when the inside of the tube expands much more rapidly than the outside. Finishes You have many choices. This can happen when you take a flute outside on a cold day and blow your warm breath into it. available from leather supply and shoe repair shops. Your cord must be strong. Organic wood finishes are sometimes advertised in fine wood-working magazines. It can also happen anytime the flute absorbs moisture from your breath too quickly. bamboo requires finishes inside and out. at least once below the mouth. to remove dirt.7. so use one or more dowels. pulling. Bamboo needs only a light sanding. cotton and jute are too weak. You can find a wide variety of cords for binding at hardware stores and craft shops. You can make your bindings even stronger by coating them with epoxy or melted wax. Cleaning and Finishing Binding. To resist moisture and guard against cracking. or running a torch over it to darken it. See the illustration following. Synthetic cords become tighter and stronger when the air is dry. because they almost always have toxic additives. Avoid using commercial finishes from hardware stores on the outside of your flute. Among natural fibers. which is nothing but light mineral oil. humid weather also shortens their life. and last longer. because it never dries! Almond oil is used by many flutemakers. However. You can decorate the flute by burning in an insignia. sticks. One favorite is waxed flax (linen).

Step 2: No tools: need precut and sorted flute tubes. and then cut the top head off with a hacksaw. walnut. gas camp stove sharp knife Step 5: cheap electronic instrument tuner: I am using a and a.Tools: Step 1: sample flutes to test for ability to cover holes. and let it dry 15 minutes before sticking the paper onto the stick. Step 3: round rasps and rat-tail files (these can be hard to find) sanding sticks: use contact cement to glue pieces of sandpaper around the ends of sticks. Step 4: Metric ruler in millimeters pencil thin stick (to find the exact depth of the tube stopper to place the mouth hole properly) burning tool: I use double headed nails driven into a wooden dowel handle (a piece of old broomstick will do). finer grade on the other for finish sanding. hacksaw with 10” blade and 10 teeth / inch (rotate the tube as you cut to keep from knocking splinters out of the bottom edge of the tube) Step 6: measuring chart good metric yardstick in millimeters burning tool gas camp stove sharp knife electronic instrument tuner (or a good set of ears) Step 7: damp cloth fine sandpaper hemp twine beeswax natural furniture polish or oil (olive. I use large rubber bands to hold the paper in place while the glue finishes setting). Be sure to use the contact cement properly (apply it to the stick and sandpaper in a thin layer. Glue heavy grade paper on one end. orange) .

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