Chapter 13 (338-347

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I. Indian Ocean Trade A. Monsoon Mariners -The Indian Ocean is also much larger and vast than the Mediterranean, with trade routes stretching from African and the Middle East, all the way to Southern China. The Indian Ocean also was connected to the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, which would later provide pathways for early explorers. In addition to all of this, the Indian Ocean also had monsoon winds, which provided a quicker and easier way for ships to travel. -Because of the powerful monsoon winds and vastness of the sea, large cargo ships with engineered sails (Square and made to trap the wind) were needed. Monsoon winds could propel a ship across the ocean without the use of oars; therefore longer distances could be achieved, with more goods aboard. -The Chinese made ships called junks, basically large ships made for transporting large amounts of goods and people. The larger ones could have up to 12 sail and hold over 1000 people. The Chinese built special rudders so that they could control these huge ships. -New navigation technologies were needed to navigate the Indian Ocean. In the Mediterranean, people navigated using the shoreline as a reference point, and some of the smaller ships in the Indian Ocean used this navigation. However, the larger ships, and the ships that traveled long distances used the stars and other navigational instruments in order to navigate the seas. -The merchants and sailors also had a different mindset than the Mediterranean people. In the Mediterranean, people tended to be loyal and identify with their homeport or colony, and tended to return there after their voyages. The people in the Indian Ocean system tended to be freer and people tended to lose their political ties to their country over time. B. Africa: The Swahili and Zimbabwe -Gold was a major resource imported and exported in Africa. Prior to the focus on long-distance trade, the communities tended to be small agricultural and pastoral tribes and villages. This changed as the demand for gold spiked. -African trade led to city-states development, and helping to upgrade villages. Kilwa was the main commercial center of the Swahili people. C. Arabia: Aden and the Red Sea -The city of Aden was separated from the rest of Arabia because of the fact that the monsoon winds showered enough yearly rainfall to support large populations, unlike the rest of Arabia, which was very dry with arid and unfertile soil. Aden also was in the center of the major trade, in between

East Africa, India, the Persian Gulf, and Egypt. Aden’s economy depended not only on trade, but manufacturing as well. - Cotton cloth, slaves, beads, spices, gold, ivory, and pearls were exported from Aden, for which they traded grain, opium, and different dyes. D. India: Gujarat and the Malabar Coast -Gujarat was located in west India, and was involved in overseas trade with Arabian merchants. This trade became vital after the 1258 CE Mongol invasions, which compromised their land trade. -Gujarat’s exports included cotton textiles and indigo. E. Southeast Asia: The Rise of Malacca -In between the eastern end of the Indian Sea and the South China Sea was a strait called Malacca. The Malacca strait was the main passageway to the South China Sea and became a strategic spot that was fought over by the surrounding countries. It also served as a place that traders from India and China could meet, and served as a “stockholder” for all Southeast Asian trade. II. Social and Cultural Change A. Architecture, Learning, and Religion -The religious institutions within a city (such as a Islamic mosque or a Buddhist temple) showed cultural diversity through their art in the building and the architecture used to build it. -The literacy of the sub-Saharans was greatly improved by the Islamic mosques in the cities. Mosques served as learning centers for the illiterate while at the same time fulfilling their religious purpose. -The practice of sailors and merchants marring different wives at other ports helped to spread cultures throughout the Indian Ocean trading system. Their offspring often had a diverse heritage and ethnic background. -As Islam spread to India through invading forces, Hinduism started to decline. Buddhist monks went into exile in Nepal and Tibet after the Islamic invaders burned and raided the Buddhist temples. B. Social and Gender Distinctions -In the Indian Ocean region, slaves were abundant and slavery during that time was very popular. People sometimes trained their slaves to do specialized work too. -While Islam was spreading, women received a slight elevation in status. Punishment became less severe and the law was sometimes easier on women than men. Women were still sent off to be married at a young age (before puberty sometimes), but they weren’t sent off until they were ready

to leave their father’s household. Women were also required to raise and educate her husband’s children. -In the tropical areas of Asia and Africa, women were supposed to do daily chores to help the household. She would be expected to collect firewood, bring home the food, get fresh water, make clothes, and make pots for everyday usage. (For storage and cooking) -Even though Islam was a major influence in the early world, not all of the Islamic customs were adopted into some societies

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