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House as a mirror of self?

Exploring the ideology behind Gehry and Jung s houses
AMIRREZA GOSTARYFARD C77073972 AC3.1 TUTOR: LESLEY MILLAR 28/01/2011

The homes of Carl Jung and Frank Gehry as an expression of the collective unconsciousness and showing the different layers of the psyche under the persona. Abstract Read the body at least two times and write an abstract of 200-300 words describing your aim to do this research, your findings concisely, and your conclusion from this research. Carl Jung (1875-1961), reputable psychiatrist and prominent assistant of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), and Frank Gehry (1929- ), prize-winning CanadianAmerican architect, worked in the fields which they were really good at; through their careers they both tried to reveal what was hidden inside the psyche
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and the so called “collective unconscious“. Through their lives and careers they tried to articulate this, even more individually, in the building of their homes. Gehry and Jung are both thought to be very influential players of the postmodernism movement. Tracking the footprints of modernism and postmodernism in human civilization is essential to understand these two spectacular characters and the effect they had in the cultural trend of modern world. The use of the word “Modern” here refers to anything in the modernist era, as opposed to the present era. Modernism describes the cultural changes and movements that occurred in most parts of culture and society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was born as a reaction to the industrial revolution. It is acknowledged that the new era was totally different from any era that had come ahead of it, making new methods and new ways of thinking essential. This movement grew across contemporary fields such as architecture, art, literature, politics, and music as well as new fields of study including psychoanalysis. In that era, old assumptions and methods were scrutinized, and traditional authorities were challenged. Wherever possible, the constant search for novel and better ways of doing
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things and, therefore, the appetite for progress; eliminated the schools of thought holding them up. The zeitgeist of the movement can be summed up by eminent modernist poet Ezra Pound’s famous aphorism ”Make it new”. (ref?) At the dusk of the modernist era in 1859, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) published " The Origin of Species", a book mainly intended to be read by nonspecialists. In this work, he introduced the theory of evolution of populations in the course of generations by natural selection. His theory was the first widely accepted scientific substantiation to contradict the Biblical accounts of creation. This, destabilized the authority of religion in the eyes of the public, and the belief that humans are unique, and “above” other animals began to erode. The idea of man as an animal was further promoted by Sigmund Freud. During his studies of human psyche, he observed that many mental problems seemed to have no sign of physical cause. As a result of his research, he attempted to link emotional causes to mental problems, i.e. when he invented psychoanalysis, he then went on to create theories of personality that introduced his revolutionary idea that behavior is derived from a battle between

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glass and metal. They attempted to promote any piece of architecture that would have fit for the modern age: This removed the 4 . All three had worked in an early form of modernist architecture called the "international style". This arrangement was mostly manifested in the design of skyscrapers and large residential buildings. Characteristics of Modern architecture were derived from simple. one of the pioneers of modern architecture.unconscious primal desires and self-imposed restrictions learnt from society. The supporting structures were put in display instead of making them hidden like classic styles. Le Corbusier proclaimed that houses should be considered as “machines for living”. a phrase which was coined by American architect Louis Sullivan (18561924). Walter Gropius (1883–1969). Modernism in architecture started by the principle of “form follows function”. There was a predominant use of prefabricated parts and manmade materials like concrete. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969) and Le Corbusier (1887–1965) were the three most influential architects of the modern era. rectilinear forms and logical layouts and by removal of ornaments that were considered to be superfluous. Mies van der Rohe adopted the dictum “less is more”.

1975). the international style asserted a superior “honesty” in the imitation of the geometric forms of the machine age and sought to replace nature with man-made environments. "We want to create a clear.need for ornaments and focused on the functionality of houses rather than counting in historicism. Best and Kellner (1997) describe it in this form: "Against art nouveau. we want an architecture adapted to our world of machines. because its aim was to replace the nature with something that was performing a man-made function. This style of architecture was thought to be more “honest” than the classical styles. or at least to integrate nature into a massive new technoscape of proportions." 5 ." Gropius asserts his idea of the importance of "honesty" as such. whose inner logic will be radiant and naked. unencumbered by lying facades and trickeries. organic architecture. an architecture whose function is clearly recognized in the relation of its forms (Benton and Benton. radios and fast motor cars.

due to the fact that there was nothing in the design to point to the context. like the staircases and the lifts. And that these moral buildings were thought to be beautiful. Therefore. These projects were usually tight on budget and the authorities would have demanded more than the value of the invested money.In addition. 6 . therefore the areas which were quieter. These massive concrete monuments were considered to be ugly by the majority of public. became the venue for muggings. This ideology was later on carried into the design of social housing projects. they decided to buy small pieces of land and build upwards. then the building would be beautiful. raising the maintenance cost way over the budget. who had no interest in the principles behind the design. there was a mentality stating that if a building was designed purely with function in mind. The modern high rise building was perceived as a cost-effective solution to the housing shortage after the Second World War. Many of these projects were built with poor quality. graffiti and public urination. due to the fact that at that time there was a shortage of public housing and it was preferred to build simple buildings rather than wasting money adorning the available ones with ornaments.

Pruitt-Igoe in the U. These large buildings created a stigma against those who lived in them.S. Some of these buildings were even built in the 1980s. He detailed the window blinds to function only in 7 . Pruitt-Igoe’s tenants fell victim to its immense size. Louis was one of the most famous social housing projects. city of St. it was dehumanizing for its tenants. and high rise institutional appearance that branded everyone who lived in it as under privileged. As Ramroth (2007) says: "One by one. where in this design he wanted to ensure the uniformity of the façade. and even though it was cost efficient and logical. Seagram building located at Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. This project was designed with lifts that only stopped on every third floor. and therefore different to everybody else. was another example of the ideology of modernism being employed at the expense of the ultimate users of the building. but most of them were demolished prior to the end of their useful life. New York City." These buildings became symbols of poverty and crime. It was designed by Mies van der Rohe. were considered as social failures and were rejected by public. lack of amenities.

This was an extreme application of the ideology of the modernism. elitism and inclination to the middle class by ignoring the differences in society. rather than a small group of architects." The failure of modern architecture in the eyes of public demonstrated vividly that a building that would communicate with its users and its local community is most likely to be successful not only to 8 .three positions: fully open. the modern buildings looked the same. As Edgar (2007) says: "The crisis of modernism comes as its aspirations to universalism (and thus its tendency to dictate from a privileged position. half open or fully closed. having lack of reference. and distracting everyone's attention from context or meaning. they were thought to be boring. Regardless of where in the world situated. what culture and architecture should be) are revealed as concealing a closure against the many alternation voices that had in fact been excluded from modernist developments. removing the liberty of the tenants to keep the façade more organized. The modern architects were accused of power centralization. so the façade would not appear to be disorganized.

with a rich source of wondrous forms that sparks the imagination. the landscape and the community. distances itself from modernism 9 . Humans evolve in nature. but also to be an augmentation to the lives of its users. Modern architecture does not follow the laws of nature. and eventually to live a happy life. it is so plain and rigid that its forms are not open to individual interpretation. The postmodernism movement in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. principles are not what people are interested in when they are to the detriment of their environments. rather than treating them as breathing living souls who required aesthetic beauty and wanted to have an opportunity to express their individual nature using their imagination. in a place with everlasting beauty and variety. There is also not any opportunity for expressing personal preferences. Why would one choose tower block A over tower block B to live in? The reason why modern architecture was not an enhancement to the lives of users is that it treated people minimally as cogs inside a so called ‘machine”.function. In modernist architecture there had been no communication in the straight lines and bland color of modernist design other than their underlying modernist principles. Nevertheless.

Architects of postmodern era often used historical style in their buildings. In different time frames. power relations. science. It was also a cultural movement which affected various aspects of the evolving society from art. As Paden (2007) says: "Postmodern architects are highly suspicious of rationalism in both ethics and architecture. religious faith and social organization. terracotta and stone might be used. (ref?) It was from this era that buildings could have curved walls. by designing buildings that would be stronger in communication and richer in context.) parodied Mies van der Rohe’s dictum ’less is more’ with his own dictum “less is a bore”. and philosophy. and motivations. The stifling ideology of modern architecture was rejected and ornaments were brought back. Robert Venturi (1925. strange angles and reflective surfaces.by emphasizing on the role of language. Architects of the postmodern era attempted to solve the failures resulted from implementation of modernist ideology in architecture. to ethics. Materials such as bronze. outstanding movements occurred both in modernism and postmodernism. literature. they 10 . and some buildings used a few styles of historical periods.

As Best and Kellner (1997) say. One good example of a building that incorporates metaphor is the chapel of Notre Dame du Haut by Le Corbusier (Figure 1). the architects are sufficient alone to stimulate the imagination of the public and to invite interpretations." Figure 1: Notre Dame du Haut. architects use this rich repertoire to communicate irony.reject the modernist’s view that beauty is dependent on function. the chapel “is rich in metaphor and illusion. a steamship. Some postmodern architects 11 . they celebrate the use of architectural ornaments. wit and metaphor. hands in prayer. suggesting at once a floating duck. or a hat”. but that is not enough for the postmodern architect. and they intentionally (self-consciously means uncomfortably) use ornaments to link their buildings to various and multiple architectural traditions. 10th July 2003 In the postmodern era. In postmodern era.

who was Jung’s mentor for over 6 years. 1991) The most conspicuous postmodern architect to incorporate double coding and metaphor into his work is Frank Gehry. Charles Jencks’s definition of postmodern architecture incorporates this concept: "To this day I would define postmodernism as I did in 1978 as double coding the combination of modern techniques with something else (usually traditional building) in order for architecture to communicate with the public and a concerned minority. The theories of Freud (who was very influential during the modern era) suffered from a similar lack 12 . To understand the influence of Wexler on Gehry. usually other architects … double coding to simplify mean both elite/popular and new/old." (Jencks.intentionally seek to incorporate multiple layers of meaning into their work so that it would communicate more with different segments of the community. it is vital to understand the theories of Jung. and as such Freud. his relation with Wexler lasted throughout his career. for over 35 years until Wexler’s death in 2007. One of the most influential relationships in Gehry’s life was his relationship with his Jungian psychoanalyst Milton Wexler.

Freud’s model of mind consisted of a basic structure including the id. and then attempt to help patients develop a healthy 13 . Freud was the psychoanalyst. desire for warmth and sexual impulses. The id is an unconscious part of the mind. super-ego and the ego. whose task is to ensure the survival of the individual in the external world. The super-ego is a mainly unconscious part of the mind which comprises our moral sense of right and wrong. It seeks pleasure and instant satisfaction of impulse. He invented psychoanalysis to find causes of mental illnesses that he observed to have no obvious physical cause. hunger. our conscience. The ego intercedes between the id and the super-ego. seeking to satisfy both. and control their expression in appropriate ways to ensure well-being of the individual in the external world. and punishes “bad” behavior with feelings of guilt.of depth and meaning as modern architecture. which contains the basic natural drives and impulses e. but avoids pain. He tried to find the cause of emotional disturbances. It rewards “good” behavior with feelings of self-esteem and pride. Neither the id nor the super-ego recognizes any situation in which the appearance would be inappropriate. thinking part of the mind. shame and anxiety.g. Ego is the coherent.

Its difference with the Freud’s model was that Freud's unconsciousness terminated at the level of personal unconsciousness. the anal stage and the genital stage. Freud later on created a model of childhood mental development. These ideas were mainly based on recollection of his own childhood and his focus on the libido as the primary source of psychological energy. Jung divided the psyche into three parts: the ego. a desire which they would later repress.way to deal with their feelings. however he felt that it was incomplete and that there were deeper layers. I am 40 years old. because it is the personality that we present to the world. It defines itself solely on external things e. Jung was a student of Freud for six years. and that girls are jealous of men because they do not have a penis. The persona is the first layer of ego. He stated that young boys desire a sexual relationship with their mothers.g. Jung agreed with the model of unconsciousness that Freud had introduced. which included three stages that he termed as the oral stage. the personal unconsciousness and the collective unconsciousness. the 14 . These ideas were rejected by later psychologists and psychoanalysts and fell out of favor. etc. I am a dentist. The ego calls itself “I”. while blaming their mother for.

If the ego learns to correctly “file” the information it stores. a school teacher may want to teach people everywhere. with ego being represented by white and the areas which would be the most difficult to access would be presented by black. The ego observes physical objects. There is also the chance of feeling pain while 15 . all of the time. it is important to know where they can find this information so it can be used later on. Some become possessed by their persona. The ego would be afraid of moving further out of the light. because it has less power and authority in those lower layers. The layers of the psyche below the ego become progressively less clear and less accessible to the ego as the distance from the ego increases. and after observing them. The personal unconsciousness can be referred to as a mental hard drive.mask that we wear everyday. it interprets them by labeling things as “good” or “bad”. This can be represented in color using white. grey and black (Figure 2). This information is then stored in the personal unconsciousness. for example. For example if someone memorizes a telephone number. it can later retrieve that information and bring it up to the ego. People who are less connected to their personal unconsciousness are forgetful.

It is like having hard drive containing all the memories of the universe since the beginning of time. Ego is based on logic. The collective unconsciousness is the area which is shared by all the humanity. The ego has the responsibility to provide the best response to any situation which arises in life. The ego would prefer to understand a situation and formulate an appropriate response with the clearest and accessible layers of the psyche. If the data is not appropriate. which he knows about and can control. 16 . When one is connected to the collective unconscious. download it and save it. A psyche that is not connected to the collective unconscious is like a computer that is not connected to the internet.becoming confused by contradictory experiences from different memories (by personal or collective unconsciousness). then all that will be available is the date from the collective unconsciousness. he can find the necessary data that he needs. It also enables him to enter his data in. and if a situation requires information from the past. the computer can only access the information that it has available in its hard drive. the ego should then move to personal unconsciousness to find the data.

The meaning of "arche" is soul or origin and "type" is referred to its style or model. as the ego is small at that time and the child is highly connected to the collective unconsciousness. The personality of most people tends to dominate three or four different archetype. The archetypes are the original patterns of personality. These are usually brought to the ego in the first seven years of life.Figure 2: Constituents of the psyche (ref?) The collective unconsciousness contains the archetypes. Archetypes are activated and brought to the ego by recognition of archetypal images in the outside world. After these seven years the ego becomes stronger and 17 .

dated back to the roman times. this floor had a living room (which Jung referred to as a “salon”) furnished with Rocco-style furniture. He pulled the ring and the stone slab lifted. Archetypes are potential abilities and desires that have a potential energy. the more different energies they will experience and enjoy. He then went down and there he entered a room with broken and 18 . there also was a heavy door. Fine paintings were hung on the walls. he found a slab made from stone with a ring attached to it. they would have energy for making art. at the start he found himself on the first floor. On the floor. however it was “his” house. He opened the door and found a stairway leading to a cellar. It consisted of two floors. revealing underneath a narrow stairway of stone steps. Jung's theories of personality were not complete until he dreamt of a house that he did not know. He then explored the ground. which dated back to the medieval times. Collective unconsciousness is the source of pure creative energy. The more archetypes activated in them.does not like to connect to the collective unconsciousness. For example if someone activates an artistic archetype in them. The rooms were quite dark.

cited in Hauke. However. And that’s when he thought of building a house (Figure 3). completed in 1923.scattered bones. but with a fireplace in the center. It was then. he added an annex to the building. the first idea that came to his mind was a primitive one-storey home. In the cave. including a retiring room. "It was plain to me that the house represented a kind of image of psyche…consciousness was represented by the salon…The ground floor stood for the first level of unconscious. Everything was covered in dust. I discovered remains of a primitive culture that is the world of the primitive man within me – a world which can scarcely be reached or illuminate by consciousness." (Jung. at that moment. so he altered the design to a two-storey building. He imagined an African style hut. 2000) Jung wanted to express the contents of his unconsciousness in a solid form. he thought that such a design would be too simple. Four years after that. After four years. a broken pottery and two very old skulls. The deeper I went the more alien and the darker the scene became. he built a private room for meditation that only he was 19 . that I got the idea of the collective unconsciousness. 1963.

With this addition. Figure 3: A sketch of Jung's house (drawings by Glebb Robert Lynn) (ref?) 20 . but it grew to the point that it was a representation of Jung’s ego personality.allowed to enter. he wanted to represent his ego personality that had been hidden for several years. Over those 32 years. Jung added the final addition to his house 20 years later. he made the center of his house taller. his house began from a very simple idea. after the death of his wife. he desired to make a space where he could connect more to the nature and have a clear view of the sky. In another four years. so he decided to build a courtyard with fences around it. between the spiritual tower and the other tower. To represent this addition.

Gehry later said “she was my model of how an adult can play creatively. instead. Moreover. Once a week. 2005). Jung's model of personality was free from the rigidity of Freud’s libido-driven version of personality and. we made houses. Every week Gehry would sit by the tub and study the shapes and movements of the fish. it showed the limitless nature of personal enhancement and. They would build miniature cities together from scraps of wood from his father’s hardware store. we made cities. as a reaction to the problems of modernism discussed in modern architecture. interactive model of personality that was rich in communication and metaphor. and it was from the early ages that he started building creatively. specifically. it was wonderful” (Lazo.There was a wider post-modern movement further to Jung’s theories of personality. Jung’s model was not a burden to live with. 21 . unlike the perpetual conflicts that existed in Freud’s model. Frank Gehry lived with his grandmother in Caplan. included sensitivity of context. embraced a multidimensional. she would buy a live carp to make gefilte fish and would let it swim in the bath tub for a few hours before she cooked it.

have a better connection with collective unconsciousness. It is quite possible that Milton and Gehry would have worked together to help Gehry express more archetypes. on top of it. He built a new shell around the house.At the beginning of Gehry and Wexler’s meetings. With this discovery. and. Eventually. he felt that he found what had been holding him back in his career. two-storey house in the Californian suburbs and decided to renovate it. pink. revealing the structure of the house. rafters and joints. when he bought a small. But it was not until 1978 that he began to attract serious attention. and also removed some part of the ceiling. During one of the group meetings he had with Wexler. Wexler immediately told Gehry that his marriage was in limbo and he had to either commit 100% to it or leave. three sides of it being 22 . High level of intensity and trust were demonstrated in these events. Gehry divorced the other members of the group who mistakenly took his shyness for hostility. He removed some interior walls and stripped some others. Gehry immediately moved out of their home into a hotel and in 1966 he and his wife got divorced. Gehry graduated in architecture in 1954 and enjoyed a successful career.

its junk.” but (Gehry replies) “That’s how you live” (BBC. I’m building what your backyard looks like but I’m turning it into an art form"…people next door said "hey. That’s awful. 1992. viewing it as an “expansion of the American dream into new areas”. In 1980. awkward angles. plywood and glass. but the art students came in their droves to see it. He 23 . The neighbors hated the house. rather than just a dogmatic architect. cited in Hauke. chain-like fencing. He deconstructed the house and showed the inside out. He also took elements from the local and displayed them for everyone to see. That’s despicable. 2000). (ref?) People said that it was just cheapskate and he said "yeah that’s right. you can’t do that! You can’t turn what we don’t see into a high art form. Gehry says that Wexler taught him how he could also be a teacher. the American Institute of architects chose the building for its honor award. as a metaphor for the collective unconsciousness. and set them against each other at random.corrugated metal. Gehry wanted to show people what was hidden below the façade of the building.

It was around the same time of renovating his house. a 50million-dollar shopping mall in California. At times of difficulty. Gehry confirmed that was true.says “buildings look most interesting before they are finished” (Bodden. he helped a person become free of his ego 24 . 2005) Wexler said of Gehry that he became bankrupt more than once." (Pollack. but that he had done the project because he had to make a living. suffered a failed marriage and stormy client relations (Pollack. Gehry invited the president of the company that was commissioned for the shopping mall to dinner at his house. After that dinner he cut staff to three and only accepted projects that he thought he could make art out of. Upon seeing Gehry’s house. 2008). 2005). Gehry remarked "it was like jumping off a cliff. Later on. that he had completed Santa Monica place. the man was taken aback and remarked that if Gehry liked his house then he could not possibly like the Santa Monica Place. it was an amazing feeling and I was so happy from then on. At that time Gehry had forty five staff working on various projects in his office. The president then told him that he should stop designing buildings he does not like.

then you have nothing to loose.identifications and. As Heyer (1993) says "Gehry deigned to finish a compilation of academic facilities. One of these projects was Loyola law School in the heart of downtown Los Angeles. the campus had consisted mainly of one building and a parking garage. necessitated by community compromising 1000 25 . communicate better with the collective unconsciousness. The students had felt that they had been “denied a place”. Originally. to glass and concrete. These difficult times had helped Gehry to have better connection with the collective unconsciousness. And from this point on. and he was truly able to express himself. Gehry replaced the original building with several individual structures. Gehry only accepted works where he felt he could design something as an expression of his soul. so that he would design for his soul rather than for the money. Each one of the buildings was built uniquely with different materials ranging from clear plastic sheets. Wexler later said that Gehry had to come out of a phase of feeling “bankrupt” before he felt courageous enough to fully express himself. Plywood and copper sheet metal were used to create a “neighborhood”. because if you have nothing. therefore.

I tried to be inclusive. housed in individual expressive structures. and as Banham says. He said of the project: "The whole idea here was to create that kind of space in downtown. unadorned columns. A sense of context was important for Gehry. it included three small incomplete temples made from short. he incorporated double coding into his designs: 26 ." (dotSUB.students. These were functioned as centers for students to practice. reminiscent of ancient Greek civilization or the roman forum. 2008) Gehry created a sense of village with this project that symbolized nature." He created a public space for students to meet.com. in a neighborhood that was difficult to fit into. And it was my theory or point of view. that one didn’t upstage the neighborhood. one made accommodation. to include the buildings in the neighborhood. He also inserted plenty of historical references to stimulate the collective unconsciousness of the student. the birth place of modern law and justice. whether they were buildings I liked or not.

In the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. and that is the pitch at which the whole design operates. he used organic forms and shapes to reflect light and music. If you don’t know your architectural history it is still a pleasure to be there. Many of his later projects that he did were inspired by fish forms that he had observed from his childhood. where it is the centre of the scheme. "why to stop there? Why should we not go back 100 million years?" (ref?) This shows that Gehry became free of putting limitations and conditions on his ego. 2003) Gehry’s further work was amazingly successful and Gehry has been labeled as the first “starchitect”. The Walt Disney Music hall in downtown Los Angeles (Figure 5) and the Weismann Art 27 ." (Whitely. pasted on. just like the original curia in the form where the ancient roman did their legislating. pastiche classicism that makes post-modernism too tedious. If you know architectural history. There is not a single classical detail to be seen anywhere. but Gehry said. but Merrifield Hall. Spain (Figure 4). it is a subtle erudite pleasure to be there. He also remarked that other postmodern architects were based on sampling of architectural styles of Roman and Greek times."The whole concept is free of the pushy. is plain brick box.

Museum in Minneapolis (Figure 6) use the same rhythm. that was because the designs came from the pure creative energy of collective unconsciousness. which is inherent in everyone. Gehry’s amazing success came about when he stopped compromising his work. Figure 4: Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. 2005. Spain. January 14th. Michael Reeve (ref?) 28 . the collective unconsciousness. and the work came from his soul. Many people liked and connected with these buildings.

Carol M.Figure 5: The Walt Disney Music hall in downtown Los Angeles. Highsmith (ref?) 29 . April 7th. 2005.

he felt that it was the place where “I am most deeply myself” (Jung. both Jung and Gehry used Jungian psychology to express themselves and become more complete psychologically. and after the building was complete he remarked that when he was inside the house. September 18th. As the building was getting more complete he became happier. 30 . he built his home gradually and his psyche developed in that sense.Figure 6: Weisman Art Museum in Minneapolis. 2004. In Jung’s case. Mick Hicks (ref?) Throughout their lives. 1969).

. He wanted to activate archetypes in other people as well as within himself. Jung and Gehry both used traditional wisdom in the building of their homes. C. He remarked that he was jealous of painters. but “when an artist comes to see me. and that he sees the building as a sculpture. T.Gehry was an artist. Benton. 2005). References 1. and Benton. He also wanted to teach people about the collective unconsciousness. he wants to know how he can change the world”(Pollack. when most of the people come to him. Form and Function Form: A Sourcebook for the History of Architecture and Design 1890-1939. they want to know how they can improve their life. 1975. Crosby Lockwood Staples 31 . London. and he tried to do so by showing that everything has different layers and foundations. but with different aims and different methods. As Wexler noted. eds. This just shows that wisdom could have pure constructive energy. This is why he removed the façade of his house and designed the inside out..

dotSUB. King (ed. Heyer.wikipedia..com/view/4cbd41a7-59f5-4a3d9cb1-9b537d6982d8/viewTranscript/eng. [available at: http://en. S.. accessed October 26th. 9. so should be deleted. V. C. The Postmodern Turn.. accessed 2nd august 2010] 32 . [online document available at: http://dotsub. Cultural Theory: The Key Concepts. 2nd ed.org/wiki/File:Weisman_Art_ Museum.. 2010] 5. P.. Transcript for Frank Gehry as a Young Rebel. Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment. Routledge 7. Routledge 8. In A. YEAR?. Guilford Press 3. London. Duffy. MN.2. 1997. Best. The Creative Company 4. F. Jung and the Postmodern: The interpretation of Realities.com. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Plc (this reference is not used in the text. John Wiley and Sons. and Kellner.jpg. Hicks. London.. Bodden. London. M. Frank Gehry. check it!) 6.. 2004. Mankato. D. A. 1980. American Architecture: Ideas and Ideologies in the Late Twentieth Century. 1993. Weisman Art Museum. 2000. Hauke. 2008. Edgar.). 2008. ‘Office buildings and organisational change’.

Beverly. Memories. Rev. and Butler. W. Inc... Indiana University Press 13. CO. publisher? 14. C. 2005. Reflections. C. J. 1991. Jencks. (this reference is not used in the text. McGuigan. Modernity and Postmodern Culture. Marcus. The Language of PostModern Architecture.. Holden.j pg. Dreams.. 1978. Frank Gehry. 2006. Twenty-First Century Books 15. Universal Principles of Design.. C. In I. Jencks. Breckenridge. [available at: http://en. C. Lidwell.. J. 2010] 11. ed..C.wikipedia. ME: Nicolas-Hays. 2005. check it!) 33 . K. so should be deleted. Hoesterey.... C. Rockport Publishers 16. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International. 1969. New York. Walt Disney Concert Hall. LateModern.org/wiki/File:ImageDisney_Concert_Hall_by_Carol_Highsmith_edit. Postmodern vs.. [accessed September 10th. Lazo. Berwick. ed.. check it!) 17. C. 2006. Jung.10. Rizzoli 12. so should be deleted. Bloomington. (this reference is not used in the text. MA. 2003. Zeitgeist in Babel: The Postmodernist Controversy. House as a Mirror of Self. Highsmith.

Daniel.. Directed by Sydney Pollack. Reyner Banham. accessed November 5th. power and prehistory (this reference is not used in the text.org/wiki/File:Guggenheimbilbao-jan05. Kaplan Publishing 21. Ramroth. 2005. 2007. M. 2003. 2005. Ideology. [video document]. [available at: http://en. Reeve. check it!) 19.wikipedia. Mysticism and Architecture. Sony Picture Classics 23. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lexington Books 20. S. MIT Press 34 . N. so should be deleted.jpg. 2007. Whiteley. [available at: http://en. Cambridge. Shamdasani. Guggenheim Museum. Pollack. Bilbao.. 2010] 22. 2003. Lanham. Paden.org/wiki/File:RonchampCor bu. Accessed 5th November 2010] 25. Notre Dame Du Haut. check it!) 24. Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology. 2003.18. Sketches of Frank Gehry. MD. Valueyou. W. so should be deleted. Planning for Disaster...jpg. Miller. MA. S. R. London. (this reference is not used in the text. USA.wikipedia.

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