TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………….iii ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………...iv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY………………………………..1 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………….....2 Purpose……………………………………………………………………….

2 Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………2 Significance of Study……………………………………………………..….3 Individual The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………..3 Productivity Limitations……………………………………………………………………4 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE………………………………….…….5 Physiological Effects of Sleep Thesis submitted to Deprivation……………………………..…...5 Sleep Deprivation and the Workplace…………………………………….…7 The Graduate College of Marshall CHAPTER 3: METHODS……………………………………………………..…...10 University Subjects…………………………………………………………………..….10 Instruments……………………………………………………………….…10 Design…………………………………………………………………….…11 Procedures…………………………………………………………………...11 Data In partial fulfillment of the Analysis………………………………………………………………..12 Requirements for the Degree of Education Specialist in the CHAPTER 4: RESULTS…………………………………………………….…….13 Department of Adult and Technical Demographic data………………………………………………………..…13 Education Correlations Between Predicting Variables…………………………..…….14 Predictions of Productivity from Independent Variables………….………..14 CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION………………………………………………………15 By Limitations………………………………………………………………….17 Recommendations……………………………………………………….….18 Implications for the Field………………………………………………..….18 Sephra L. Snyder REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………...20 APPENDIX A……………………………………………………………………....23 Marshall University APPENDIX B……………………………………………………………………....24 Huntington, West Virginia APPENDIX C……………………………………………………………………....26 May 2003

LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1……………………………………………………………..……………..13 Table 4.2……………………………………………………………..……………..14 Table 4.3……………………………………………………………..……………..14

ABSTRACT Being sleepy on the job can have a vital impact on how well workers can do their job. The study examines the effects of partial sleep deprivation on productivity. It included a nonrandom sample of thirty participants, of which, sixty percent were female and eighty percent were Caucasian. All participants were employed and possessed a minimum of a bachelor’s degree. Participants were asked to keep a sleep journal recording behaviors that could possibly affect sleep. Participants were also asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a task log sheet. The percent of tasks completed daily on the task log sheet was calculated to signify the productivity level. The results revealed a higher mean productivity rating for individuals who slept more than nine hours. The second highest mean productivity rating was for individuals who slept less than five hours. The two negative correlations found for levels of productivity included nocturnal awakenings and the self-perception of mood in the morning. This suggests that as the number of nocturnal awakening increase, the productivity levels decreased. It also implied that the more an individual feels fatigued in the morning, the lower the productivity level.

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The sleep habits of society has changed but the bodies of individuals have not. in fact. In the past century. 2001). Sleep problems have become a modern epidemic that is taking a toll on individual bodies and minds. safety. in the past 25 years. A review of literature uncovered research showing that rotating shifts and sleep deprivation lead to mistakes. reduced productivity and . The penalty of sleep-deprived employees is significant distress or impairment in social. TO THE STUDY Sleep is a basic necessity of life.difficulties in communication (National Sleep CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Foundation. accidents in the workplace. added a month to the average annual work time (National Sleep Foundation. dips in attention. or other important areas of functioning. the majority of American adults (63%) do not get the recommended eight hours of sleep needed for good health. we have reduced the average sleep time by 20 percent and. many adults say they now spend more time at work and less time sleeping (40% vs. occupational. we use precious nighttime hours for daytime activities. delayed reactions. The current 24-hour society. According to the poll. nearly one-third The NSF poll sleeping due in part because our society has become a 24-hour (31%) report revealed. The National Sleep Foundation (NSF) conducted a Gallup Poll in March 2001 which looked at the relationship between Americans' lifestyles. and optimum performance. working fifty hours or more aso sleepy during the day that it interferes with daily activities a few days a week or more (National Sleep Foundation. 1999). sleep habits and sleep problems. crashes on the roadways. More than one-third (38%) responded that they are One in five adults (20%) are week. operation. 38%).less than seven hours each weeknight. The National Commission on Sleep Disorders reported that decreased productivity and accidents in the workplace cost the nation $150 billion a year. 1999).

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the estimated total cost of such accidents per year in the United States is $16 billion and $80 billion worldwide (Moore-Ede. and an increased accident rate. Those same young people indicated that 22 percent of them have been Being work on the of whether the cause is simple sleep 14 percent. The National Sleep Foundation survey concluded that workers estimate about a 30 percent decline in the quality and quantity of their work when they are sleepy.effects on cognitive. Therefore. The researcher is specifically interested in the number of nocturnal awakenings and self-perception of mood in the morning and its correlation to productivity levels. The cost of sleepiness-related accidents can vary considerably. 1993). Young people (age 18 to 29) seem to be the sleepiest – 40 percent of them report that they are sleepy at work at least twice a week. For example. which in turn effects the workplace. About a quarter of the workforce (27 percent) report they are sleepy at work two or more days each week. Hypothesis Although the review of literature revealed a discrepancy. 2001). and emotional measures. In addition to numerous health problems there is a substantial cost to the economy in terms of decreased efficiency and productivity (Arendt. reduced night-time alertness and performance. behavioral. physiological. Productivity is defined as the percent of tasks completed daily on the task log sheet. can have a vital impact on how well workers can do their job. but in general. and emotional measures will affect Statement of the Problem productivity. the majority of articles describe partial sleep deprivation (sleeping less than 5 hours in one 24-hour period) as having negative . while the overall total isdeprivation or an undiagnosed or untreated sleep disorder. physiological. late tosleepybecausejob. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine what effects. it is hypothesized that partial sleep deprivation and productivity have a negative correlation. behavioral. if any. mild sleep deprivation has on productivity. From this information it is derived that cognitive. night-shift workers have poorer daytime sleep.sleepiness.

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gender and age lines. "This trend in daytime sleepiness should raise concerns among parents. social. Definition of terms Terms in this study are defined as the Sleep: a natural and periodic state of rest during which following: consciousness of the world is suspended Adult: a fully developed person from maturity onward . your relative. growth. maintains Thomas Roth. Millions of Americans are suffering from daytime sleepiness so pervasive that it interferes with their daily activities. educational. racial.Partial sleep deprivation: sleeping less than 5 hours in one 24-hour period Short-term total sleep deprivation: no sleep for 24-48 hours Long-term total sleep deprivation: no sleep for more than 48 hours Nocturnal awakenings: waking up during a period of sleep Significance of the study The significance of this study is that it affects all walks of life. It cuts across all cultural. 2001). health and science advisor. Lack of sleep and sleep problems can have serious. National Sleep Foundation (NSF). productivity"an issue that everyone should be aware of. or your friend suffers from sleep loss. and development of your child. health care professionals. educators. Whether you. Whether you are an employer looking out for the safety of your employees or a mother concerned for the welfare. life-threatening consequences [as well as] a significant impact on Sleep loss is (National Sleep Foundation. Sleep loss knows no boundaries. safety experts. ethnic. and employers. it is an issue that is linked to every aspect of your life. economic. religious.

Another key limitation has been identified. It is the willingness of the participants to complete the sleep journal and the task log sheet. the findings from the current study cannot reveal causal relationships between sleep deprivation and personal productivity. This limitation may have a negative affect on the results of the study.CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Limitations As with all correlational studies. . Because this study is not a controlled experimental design. some participants may forget to keep accurate track of their sleep habits or task log sheet.

Van Helder and Radomski (1989) reported short-term memory alterations due to decreased attention. and disorientation to findings a stable level of performance. hallucinations. such as myopia. & Lee An increasing workplace for many included a hyperactive gag reflex. whereas active. demanding tests report visual hallucinations or distortions and feelings of paranoia. tendon reflexes. and emotional measures. slurred speech. short-term total sleep sleep. For example. tremor. Some sleep-deprived individuals few hours of sleep reduction (Gillberg. and an increased sensitivity According The (2001) relations. physiological. in turn. hyperactive deeplogical reasoning. an individual studies is difficult because their active. an individual lacking a night’s sleep can deprivation (no sleep for 24-48 hours). a study on extended total sleep deprivation. boring tests of cognitive ability – such as simple tests of vigilance person deprived of total sleep experiences negative mood. permanent effects. Lim. and performance. and sluggish battery of abstract reasoning. The majority of research has could provide ideas for the temperature. which. Physiological Effects of significant effect of sleep loss is the Ross (1965) discovered the mostSleep Deprivation physiological sleepiness. and long-term total sleep deprivation (no fall asleep within 2 or 3 minutes the next day. or the tendency to fall asleep when there is a lack How an individual responds to sleep loss. the study system responses to total the “need for the development of changesinvestigative techniques to study how sleep deprivation affects rate. to pain. and comprehension test that were written to the spatial studied the effects of sleep deprivation in the military. a minimum of eight days. Pressman. mood changes The interpretation of increases. The paranoid ideation are also observed with sleep loss. of performance. 1997 indicates that sleep affects on productivity. The performance of Similar results were published by Binks (1999). Sleepiness becomes extreme after the loss of a single night of (sleeping less than 5 hours in one 24-hour period). autonomic nervouswas conducted because of sleep deprivation produced authors. found a decrease in body formulation However. After about 48 hours without sleep. maintain have been inconsistent. except for reducing time to exhaustion. Goh. This can cause dramatic sleep for more than 48 hours) can vary. 1996). the conclusions about blood pressure. blood pressure. heart rate.respiratory rate vary from remaining constant to a slight increase or decrease. Without competing stimuli. difficulty in concentration. sleepiness. whether it is partial deprivation of stimuli. Tong. Ross (1965) detected neurological findings thatis the military.” The authors hypothesize that “the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on performance are apparently related linearly to the . become increasingly more common even when participants are physically behavioral. deficits but no which consistently discovered mild neurological signs. periods of sleep deprivation up to 72 hours had no effect on strength or motor and decreased motivation. As sleepinesshuman sleep-deprivationmust increase effort to including irritability. Systematic of cognitive ability are largely immune to disruption by even long period of sleep studies of total sleep deprivation have revealed some temporary cognitive Ross (1965) conductedHorne. heart rate. reliable in body temperature. study concluded that the passive. and Tilley (1983) found that subjects deprived of deprivation. fatigue. Low. and respiratory under demanding time constraints. (staring at a computer screen looking for signals) – is often disrupted by even a and decline in alertness and performance. visual misperceptions. and measures to reduce sleep-related accidents. sleep for one night displayed no deficits on a corneal reflexes. Illusions. concentration lapses. fatigue. micro sleeps deprivation has been shown to impact negatively on a wide range of cognitive. Percival.

& Lee. .amount of sleep loss. the more pronounced the disturbance. however. Lim. Tong. Low. such that the longer the duration of sleep deprivation. there was no significant interaction found. 2001). Performance declined significantly during the second day of the study regardless of the sleep condition (Goh. Tracking performance improved throughout the day for both groups.” The study tested the effects of sleep deprivation on productivity and performance using the rotary pursuit test. The sleepdeprived group performed better than the control group. During the rotary pursuit test the participants were asked to place a stylus tip in contact with the rotating target and maintain contact at all times.

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Motor skills are impaired.makes us think more rigidly and less flexibly. psychomotor coordination. Medicine. not even aware of it. Problem solving skills are impaired. 3. With increasing sleepiness. Behavior Medicine illustrates that not getting enough sleep increases the likelihood of distraction. 4. reaction time. affects the person in several ways: . loss are productivity" suffering from routine sleep 2001). and decision-making. Studies show there is a direct connection between sleepiness and impaired hand-eye coordination. Sleep loss reduces the words in vocabulary both verbally and in writing. Lack of sleep and sleep problems can have serious. which can be associated with decrements in vigilance. memory. and reduces our ability to produce innovative solutions to problems. The degree of impairment has led researchers to compare it in severity to drunkenness. Communication skills suffer. and employers. 2. educators. information processing. National Sleep Foundation (NSF). "This trend in daytime sleepiness should raise concerns among parents. verbal fluency and overall creativity. maintains Thomas Roth. and they may report indifference regarding the outcome of their performance (Behavioral 1. individuals demonstrate poorer performance despite increased effort. Sleep loss diminishes scores on tests of memory. Sleep Deprivation and the Workplace Millions of Americans are suffering from daytime sleepiness so pervasive that it interferes with their daily activities. health and science advisor. safety experts. Sleep loss noticeably impairs our ability to comprehend rapidly changing situations. Sleep loss creates sleepiness. 1996). health care professionals. life-threatening consequences [as well as] a significant impact on Many people (National Sleep Foundation. Learning and memory suffer. and many who do realize they are not getting enough sleep are not aware of what it is costing them.

2001). measured by barometers such as tardiness. most unaware they are suffering from it. sleep deprivation often leads to an increase in the incidence of motor vehicle accidents. and an increase in fatigue. 1999).d. management is in a position to perform a public service of tremendous value and. decrease in attention. secondarily. inexplicably moving through their jobs at half speed. energy. industrial accidents and medical bills owing to sleep deprivation is $60 billion per year.apnea workers (Bonvallet. With more than 20 million people in the United States suffering from sleep deprivation. anxiety. They also are more disposed to industrial accidents than non. 2001). One study found that individuals suffering from fatigue due to sleep apnea are six more likely to have a motor vehicle accident than persons who are not suffering from fatigue. Sleep deprivation causes individuals to feel so sleepy during the day that their concentration and performance suffer. and c) ever-mounting sick leave requests and. increase productivity by educating its . absenteeism and an increased number of grievances. tension. b) lower morale. One thing is for certain. irritability. turning in mediocre work. and increased muscle tension (National Sleep Foundation. This is a good reason to shed light on the silent thief of our workforce's vitality.personnel on the issue (Romani. According to the medical journal Chest (2000). menstrual irregularities.). increased disability claims (Romani. in some instances. sleep deprivation in the workplace was unrecognized. Until recently. and concentration. the bill to society due to loss of productivity. n. and depression. Individuals suffering from sleep deprivation may have an increased incidence of psychophysical problems such as stomach problems. For example. although Any one of these consequences of sleep deprivation can seriously affect supervisors regularly see its effects first-hand: a) superior performing employees productivity and performance. headaches. that chronic sleep loss may lead to deterioration of mood and motivation.

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Program Director for asked to keep a sleep journal recording behaviors the study. This was conducted for the time period of two weeks. This information generated whether a participant has suffered from partial sleep deprivation. a that could possibly affect sleep. At the end of the day. go to sleep. WV. The population contained approximately 30 the study. The participant’s responses on the sleep Three instruments were used to collect data. WV took part in Sleep deprivation was measured allow a second instrument. and several other productivity. The correlational predictive study as they appear in the population. American approved by a panel of experts (Please see appendix C). Western-Southern demographic questionnaire is being used to see how closely the sample Life Insurance. from one graduate level course at Marshall University. number of years in participants. period. P. 3 Method Subjects s The final instrument is a task log sheet developed by the researcher produced Nonrandom participants in this study were selected from one graduate level from a review of related literature. The first was a demographic journal were calculated to determine if partial sleep deprivation has occurred. completed daily signifies the productivity level.22. A employees of Andrx Laboratories. The content was chosen based on a review of Thirty participants. and other organizations located in Huntington. the participant check the appropriate box to employees. when they wake up. The task log sheet was used to identify the productivity level of the highest educational level completed. It is how public education brochure and has not been tested for reliability or validity. Design marriage status. It was used to measure Electric Power. American Electric Power. It was then evaluated and approved by a panel of experts. marriage status. reviewed and approved by sleep scientistswhen they woke and many times during the night they woke up. and number of miles driven to commute to work will be correlation exists between sleep deprivation and productivity. WV area.appendix B). race/ ethnicity. It was. A variety of ages.groups sleep journal. occupation. Instruments included 30 nonrandom participants. Participants were the National Sleep Foundation (personal communication. such the National Sleep Foundation. The population will be both male and female participants from signify if the activity was completed or not completed. Western. Britz. however. The questionnaire consists of seven Partial sleep deprivation was considered sleeping less than 5 hours in a 24-hour questions (Please see appendix A). 2003) the author and publisher of the National Sleep Foundation (NSF) sleep diary is as. January According to responding to the survey. Procedures deduced from the questionnaire. socioeconomic backgrounds. The task log sheet was then evaluated and course at Marshall University. A Pearson’s Product Moment was used to conclude if a negative occupational field. Participants list activities they wish to accomplish for each day of organizations in Huntington. employees of Andrx Laboratories.Southern Life Insurance. race. how they felt (Please see the number of hours slept during the night. This instrument was chosen because it allows the researcher to Chapter measure levels of sleep deprivation in an unobtrusive manner. and education levels are studied The study was qualitative and self-reporting. related literature. Gender. . questionnaire created by the researcher. a of those replicates the known population and to using analysis of sub. The percent of tasks various locations around the Huntington.

the researcher converted qualitative data on demographic questionnaire and sleep journal to numerical symbols. Data Analysis After all instrumentation was collected from participants. The correlation coefficient was interpreted to determine if the prediction study supports the hypothesis that partial sleep deprivation and productivity have a negative correlation. A comparison of means was ran to compare the mean productivity levels of various amounts of hours sleep acquired in a 24 hour period. . The task log sheet listed activities they wish to accomplish for each day of the study and whether or not the activity was completed or not completed. All data was entered into SPSS software program. The percent of tasks completed daily on the task log sheet was calculated to signify the productivity level. Productivity was calculated by the percent of tasks completed per day on the task log sheet.Participants were also asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and a task log sheet. A correlation coefficient was computed using the Pearson’s product moment. Scores were obtained for each variable.

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predictors (number of hours slept.01 Notes: Hours slept – number of hours slept taken from the sleep log. 50% had graduatedPredicting Variables. Asto Tabachnick and Fidell’s had attended or were multicollinearity. according regards to education. with a partner). and 16% were divorced. 10% were between –0. **p<.143** -.1). slept ___ -. 12 were male (40%) times woken up during the night. Occupations. Table number of times woken up during the night.1 andliving This range is considered free of correlations ranged single (meaning 0.301** African/African slept. and 42% had attended hours fatigue) school or more. Table Occupation Frequency awoken during night taken from sleep log. Pearson’s correlations among the Of the thirty participants.Chapter Correlations among the predicting 4 Results variables First. Person’s Correlations Among the college.2. 37% were married.2).3. American. and 80% variety of areas (see Table American.268** of the participants were 3 1 Hours Feelings ___ The 4% were Asian/Asian American. 4. and feelings of 123 attending college. (number of graduate 4. Sixteen percent 2 Awakenings ___ . 8% (1996) criteria. Advisor 1 Accountant 1 Academic Administrative Assistant 2 Billing Clerk 1 Bookkeeper 1 Case Manager 1 Coach 2 Counselor 2 Director 3 Director of Student Services 1 Emergency Inspector 1 Graduate Assistant 3 Instructor 3 Insurance Salesman 1 Music Director 1 Pastor 1 Pharmaceutical Representative 1 Sales Clerk 1 Student 2 Weight Watcher Leader 1 . The significant married).1 – number of times AwakeningsDistribution of Participant’s Feelings – subjective assessment of feelings of fatigue. participant’s occupations included a wide were Caucasian/European 4. Thirty-seven of fatigue) were computed (see Table single (meaning never been and feelings percent (37%) of all participants were 4. number of and 18 were female (60%). the intercorrelations between the predicting variables were tested to Demographic data avoid the possibility of multicollinearity.

6 to 6.240 9 or more 84.Predictions of productivity from independent variables The mean productivity levels were determined by a Pearson’s correlation. Table 4. Means Hours slept % of Productivity less than 5 78. The second highest productivity level was produced by participants who slept less than 5 hours (see Table 4.250 7 to Comparisons Among Productivity Levels.9 hours and 9 or more hours of sleep. The highest level of productivity was produced by participants who slept more than 9 hours.822 6 to 6. 7 to 7.3. 8 to 8.9 73.9 hours.967 . The decision was made to categorize the participants in the following five groups: less than 5 hours. 7.9 hours.919 8 to 8.9 72.9 78.3).

1996). The study compared to African/African Americans and Caucasian/European Americans. less than 5 hours (78. concluded that the person must be deprived of total sleep to experiences negative One explanation may be the impeccable reputation of the Asian work ethic. 1997). race. According to our study. acquire a few hours of sleep showed no decline in alertness or performance. 79 or more hoursto sleep.correlation.9 hours (78. that college students have a greater number of immediate deadlines.240% productive). value education.9 hours.822% productive).9 hours. They may organize their time better The mean comparison least 9 partial sleep. If he or she is syllabi to follow with impending deadlines. WV. A mean comparison was to categorize the participants in the following five groups: less than 5 hours. less than 5 and productivity levels are not in agreement with previous studies (e. and a decline in alertness and performance. gender were evenly distributed. to avoid the possibility CHAPTER 5 of multicollinearity. words. sleepiness. produced by participants who slept more than 9 hours (84. The third highest level was produced Those participants currently attending college were found to have a by participants who slept 8 to 8. N As anticipated. The highest level of productivity was The productivity levels for marital status were evenly distributed. imply that regardless if an individual is single. college students have strict that a participant must receive at least 9 hours of sleep per night. the researcher determined that the DISCUSSIO study was free of multicollinearity. productivity Americans were found to have a higher productivity level Pressman. besides the task of work and home life. This could be due. the demographic questionnaire determined that the sample The researcher investigated the impact of partial sleep deprivation (less than five replicates the known population of Huntington. The results gender. to the idea of productivity were recorded for participants who slept 6 to 7. 6 performed for the sub-groups of marital status. According to Tabachnick and Fidell’s (1996) criteria. 8 of to 6. Asian/Asian level. in part. Productivity levels may be enhanced Another study suggests that with increasing sleepiness. mood. living with someone. married. fatigue. It also allowed analysis of hours of sleep) on the aspect of personal productivity. The results indicate that gender does regarding the outcome of their performance (Behavioral Medicine. . or divorced does not profoundly affect productivity levels. Similar results were published by Binks (1999). individuals demonstrate The productivity levels for by these characteristics.967% productive). education level. have cohesive family units. Men and women poorer performance despite increased effort. The lowest levels substantially higher productivity level. and respect authority. In other The pattern of findings suggest that to have the highest level of productivity. not significantly affect levels of productivity. the between thesleepiness (fewer hours slept) showed a using a Pearson’s decline in productivity (with the exception of individuals who slept nine hours or more).9 hours of sleep. widowed. The decision was made sub-groups of those responding to the survey. and they may report indifference generated very similar production rates.9 hours and to 7. which would account for the considerably higher per night) hours per night. then they (less than off sleeping not going to receive at betweenhours ofsleep deprivation are better 5 hours of sleep to complete the tasks on time. The intercorrelations increase of predicting variables were tested. The second highest productivity level was produced by participants who slept separated.g. and 8. The ability to Asian workers are known to be hard workers.

The negative correlations found for nocturnal awakenings and productivity are consistent with previous studies. the productivity levels decreased. which is a subjective way to measure productivity. sixty percent of the participants lived in a region. some even weeks. conclude that the findings are relevant to adults who are . The researcher can only did affect their sleep habits as well as their task lists. Because of the different occupations. Others could not return to work for several days.Two negative correlations were found for levels of productivity. This in turn can produce a consequence of lower production ratings. The Pearson’s correlations suggest that as the number of nocturnal awakening increase. The solution would be a study that included participants of one particular occupation that had a more reliable (objective) measure of productivity. that suffered a severe ice storm. A second constraint of the data collection process was an environmental issue. Most participants were without electricity for several days. individuals have different task lists. Limitations A key limitation is the variations of occupations and the assessment of personal productivity. Nocturnal awakenings may hinder individual’s ability to obtain adequate sleep. Arendt (2001) discovered that night-shift workers that have poorer daytime sleep have reduced night-time alertness and performance. These included nocturnal awakenings and the self-perception of mood in the morning. A few days into the sleep deprivation study. Most participants commented that this natural disaster The final weakness of the current study is that due to a relatively low rate of participation in the survey. It also implied that the more an individual feels fatigued in the morning. and an increased accident rate. A number of participants were forced to leave their homes to seek shelter. the lower the productivity level.

the marginally significant correlations between sleep and productivity highlight the importance of the issue. Despite this restriction.employed and possess a college education. .

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a more comprehensive study should be conducted using a longitudinal design. Recommendations for future studies If studying the issue of partial sleep deprivation in the future. Being sleepy on the job. The study should consist of a larger sample of participants over a longer period of time.personal relationships. is to observe has children. Implications This study illustrates the need for employers to be aware of how productivity is affected by sleep deprivation and fatigue. whether the cause is simple sleep deprivation or an undiagnosed or untreated sleep disorder. communication. individuals that have one particular occupation in common. This not only affects employers and the workforce but individuals and their families and friends. can have a vital impact on how well workers can do their job. These indicators can have a lasting effect on . participants. and motor skills as well as a deficiency in learning and memory. Individuals who suffer from sleep loss experience impaired problem solving. possibly the most crucial to the study. educational endeavors. It would be beneficial to the researcher to know the age of the subjects and not only the marital status. and personal growth. This length of time will allow for a more Other elements that should be addressed are the demographics of the consistent analysis of sleep patterns. but whether or not the individual The last recommendation. It would be to the advantage of the researcher to conduct the study for a minimum of one to two months. 2001). One in five adults (20%) are so sleepy during the day that it interferes with daily activities a few days a week or more (National Sleep Foundation. This would allow for a more reliable and objective measure of productivity.

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cortical Sleep: The gentle tyrant. J. Gander. Schuster. DC. . Miller. Washington. Rosekind. InstituteMedicine. (1993). The clinician’s handbook. V. MA: Moore-Ede. P. E. MA: ButterworthHeinemann. Newton. Reading. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (2001). & Johnson. functioning. A.G. (2001). R. Decreased attentional responsivity during sleep deprivation: Orienting response latency. New York City. night of sleep deprivation on hormone profiles and performance efficiency. Chest. 21(winter): 157-165. higher (1975). D. 328-333. Retrieved April 22.Romani. Englewood Cliffs. P. Y. K. and Lee. R. fatigue. M. G. Supervision.R. The effects of sleep deprivation. R. S. New Jersey.. N. 22 (3). R. tiredness.) Obstructive sleep apnea. Behavioral Medicine. (1999). C. Orem. B. P. Chervin. A primer on sleep apnea for supervisors. Culebras. H. G. B. from http://www. (n. & Fidell. J. 288294. Military for Brain NY. DC: Author. (1980). The twenty-four hour society. Oyung. Washington. Normal human sleep: An overview. The functions of sleep. T.org/esdc/article2. MA: Allyn Pressman. M. Lim... Sleepiness. Short-term total sleep deprivations does not selectively Webb. L. Biopsychology (4 and Bacon. 20 Meyer. New York City. Sleep. M. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.htm Carskadon.. (2001).M. NY: Yale University Hartmann. Washington. NY: Academic Pinel.. New York City.M. (1981).H. Sleep mechanisms. Managing fatigue in operational L. Sleep. Lancet. Tabachnick.).d. Understanding sleep. E. th ed. 358. K. and lack of energy in obstructive sleep apnea. P. impair W. E. J. MA: Simon and (2). A. Tong. (1996).L. 118.L. C. J.B. National Sleep Foundation. Effects of one Goh. E. Press.). Low. th Physiological considerations and countermeasures. 999. M. (1973). center at overlake hospital medical center. Advances in sleep Eastside sleep disorders SP Medical & Scientific Books. American Psychiatric Association. Sleep. J. Arendt. (1999).. 7). NY: Weitzman. Brouchures. Physiology in sleep. (1996). M. R. McCarhty.. (1997). DC. Needham Heights. Smith. (August. 62 (6). 22 (3). 70 (7). (1994). Bonvallet. REFERENCES 11-14. 2003. research (Vol. D.D. Gregory.. and habituation.overlakehospital. L. G.. Sleep disorders. (1996). New York City. Diagnostic and statistical settings 1: Webbon. manual of mental disorders (4 ed. Press. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers. Needham Heights. Using multivariate statistics.. 22-25. (2001). 2000). (1997). Binks. amplitude. L. (1996). Research (1965).S. (1997). 115-122. 372-379 Cochrane.

Education level (please circle the highest level completed): A. Technical school/Other 4. What is your occupations? ______________________________________________ 6. Hispanic/ Hispanic American E. 3 to years 10 E.male B. Widowed C. 1. Caucasian/ European American D. 6 months to 1 year to 3 C. Asian/ Asian American C. How long have you worked in your occupation: A. 5 to years than 10 F. High school graduate E. Less than high school graduate D. Single. How many miles per day do you travel that A work related: Demographic Survey Instructions: Please circle the most appropriate answer for each question. Divorced 3. less than 6 months B. Race/ Ethnicity: A. Graduated college B. African/ African American B.APPENDIX is 7. female 2. more years . Graduate school or more C. meaning never been married D. Native American F. Single. Other (specify): _____________________________ 5. Are you: A. Attended or attending college F. Married F. living with a partner E. 1 years 5 D. Gender: A. Separated B.

23 PM/AM AM/PM Times reshed ___ Somewhat Refreshed ___ Fatigued Hours ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ day Feb. 10 to 50 miles C. emotional. e. 50 to 100 miles D.APPENDIX B A. physical. 20 PM/AM AM/PM Times reshed ___ Somewhat Refreshed ___ Fatigued Hours ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ay Feb.g. I felt: (Check one) night I slept for a total of: (Record number of hours) leep was disturbed by: (List any mental. 21 PM/AM AM/PM Times reshed ___ Somewhat Refreshed ___ Fatigued Hours ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ PM/AM AM/PM Times reshed ___ Somewhat Refreshed ___ Fatigued Hours ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ rday Feb. under 10 miles B. 22 day Feb. snoring. physical discomfor sday Feb. stress. or environmental factors that affected your sleep. 100 to 200 miles E. more than 200 miles Sleep Journal out days 1-7 below OMPLETE IN MORNING nt to bed last night at: out of bed this morning at: ke up during the night: (Record number of times) n I woke up for the day. 24 PM/AM AM/PM Times reshed ___ Somewhat Refreshed ___ Fatigued Hours ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Tuesday .

25 ______ PM/AM ______ AM/PM ______ Times ___ Somewhat Refreshed ______ Hours ______________ ___ Fatigued ______________ ______________ Wednesday ___ Refreshed ______________ 24 .______________ ______________ Feb.

At the end of the day. FEB.THURSDAY. 21 “To Do” Activities Completed Not Completed SATURDAY. FEB. 20 “To Do” Activities Completed Not Completed APPENDIX C Task Log Sheet Instructions: Please write a “To Do” list of the activities you wish to accomplish for each date below. please place a check in the appropriate box to signify if the activity was completed or not completed. 22 “To Do” Activities Completed Not Completed 25 . FRIDAY. FEB.

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