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  • Iraqi Culture, History, and Religion
  • Culture and Peoples
  • Kurds
  • Iraqi Economy and Livelihood
  • Religious Division vice Iraqi Nationalism?
  • Another “Division”: Secular vice Religious
  • Tribes and Villages
  • Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past
  • Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History
  • British Influence
  • Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background
  • Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party
  • Saddam Hussein, Former Leader of Iraq
  • Saddam Hussein’s Policies
  • Kurdish Oppression
  • Internal Control
  • International Response to Saddam Hussein’s Oppression
  • Iran-Iraq War, External Domination
  • Persian Gulf War
  • Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq
  • Arms Inspections and Disarmament
  • Inspections, 1991-1998
  • Important Post-1998 Events
  • Iraq’s Weapons Declaration
  • A New Coalition
  • Possible Options for Invading Iraq
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • Preparation for War
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins
  • Top Priority: Baghdad
  • War in the South
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North
  • War in the West
  • The Turkish “Card”
  • Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • After Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq
  • “New” Iraq, Old Neighbors
  • New Iraqi Government
  • Guerrilla-Style War
  • Operation Iron Hammer
  • Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building
  • References
  • Appendix B Quick Facts on Iraq




Iraq: An Introduction to the Country and People

Introduction Overview


The United States is committed to on-going involvement with Iraq to rebuild the country. Marines, who deploy to Iraq or are involved with Iraqis, need a basic knowledge of the country, its culture, history and present-day state of affairs. • This handbook explains a number of basic issues that should be in the knowledge “toolbox” of a Marine working with Iraqis or deployed to the region. • You can use the links that form an integral part of this document to explore further any of the topics discussed in this handbook.


This handbook includes the following topics: Topic Introduction Overview Iraqi Culture, History, and Religion Culture and Peoples Kurds Iraqi Economy and Livelihood Religious Division or Iraqi Nationalism? Another “Division”: Secular vice Religious Tribes and Villages Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History British Influence Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party Saddam Hussein, Former Leader of Iraq Saddam Hussein’s Policies Kurdish Oppression Internal Control International Response to Saddam Hussein’s Oppression Iran-Iraq War, External Domination Persian Gulf War See Page i i 1 1 3 6 8 10 11 13 15 18 19 21 23 25 26 28 31 32 34

Continued on next page




Overview. Continued Contents. 1991-1998 Important Post-1998 Events Iraq’s Weapons Declaration A New Coalition Possible Options for Invading Iraq Operation Iraqi Freedom Preparation for War Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins Top Priority: Baghdad War in the South Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North War in the West The Turkish “Card” Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom After Operation Iraqi Freedom Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq “New” Iraq. the division between Sunnis and Shias (Shi’ites) • Oil – which supplies Iraq with its “life blood” • Saddam Hussein – former leader of the country You will learn more about each of these as you read this handbook. Old Neighbors New Iraqi Government Guerilla-Style War Operation Iron Hammer Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building References Appendix A: Islam Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq Appendix C: Chronology of Events Aug. Continued on next page Iraq ii Introduction . 2002 See Page 36 39 40 42 44 46 50 53 53 56 60 62 64 68 70 73 75 75 77 78 80 82 84 87 89 107 111 Three Critical Factors There are three important factors that have shaped Iraqi culture and society: • Islam – particularly. 1990 – Aug. (continued) Topic Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq Arms Inspections and Disarmament Inspections.

http://www.Overview. • Farther up the rivers. • In the mountains of the north. such as grains and vegetables.lib. The winters are cool. Agriculture depends mainly on water from the rivers. a country of 167. the Persian Gulf.html has a number of good maps showing Iraq. The largest oil fields are near Mosul and Kirkuk.924 square miles (434. as the elevation increases. Iraq iii Introduction . Flooding from the rivers because of melting snow is a problem farther south. summers are dry and hot. Note: Appendix B provides you with quick facts about Iraq.edu/maps/iraq. and Saudi Arabia West by Jordan and Syria North by Turkey East by Iran Baghdad is the capital and largest city.utexas. Iraqi farmers in the southeast grow “orchards” of dates and cotton. with blowing winds and sandstorms. officially the Republic of Iraq. • Because of the sandy soil and intense heat. Other large cities are Mosul and Kirkuk and the port of Basra. Continued Geography Iraq or Irak.924 sq km) in southwest Asia is bordered on the • • • • South by Kuwait. Climate and Weather Most of Iraq gets little rainfall. The exception is the northern mountains along the Iranian and Turkish borders. rainfall allows different kinds of crops. but is less common today because of flood-control projects. agriculture gives way to oil. Here the winters are cold with heavy snows. The country is divided into 18 provinces.

(This page intentionally left blank.) Iraq iv Introduction .

For the majority of the population. About 80% speak Arabic. Iraq’s only way of reaching the sea is a short stretch of coast on the northwestern end of the Persian Gulf. History. which flow southward and come together in the Shatt al Arab. There are also numerous marshlands and water basins between these two rivers. and Religion . They are primarily Sunni Muslims. Most of the country’s once large Jewish population resettled in Israel in the early 1950s. life centers on the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. Continued on next page Urban and Rural Iraq 1 Iraqi Culture. (Sunnis are the more numerous sect or religious group in most Muslim countries. Present day Iraq encompasses the approximate area of the Middle East called Mesopotamia in ancient times. The southwest is desert and supports a small population of nomad shepherds. Minority Groups Other minorities of Iraq include Turks. and Religion Culture and Peoples Cultural and Ethnic Factors Iraq with its population of about 22 million people has been shaped by a number of cultural and ethnic factors. Armenians. including the Shatt al Arab waterway. • Ninety-five percent of the people are Muslim. and Assyrians (Nestorian Christians). • Most of the people are of Arabic origin. There are about twice as many Shias (Shi’ites) as Sunnis. History.Iraqi Culture.) • Kurds are a large minority living in the uplands of northeast Iraq. Urban growth is in this area.

and Religion . Continued Selected Topics The topics covered in this section on Iraqi history. Former Leader of Iraq See Page 1 3 6 8 10 11 13 15 18 19 21 23 Iraq 2 Iraqi Culture. History. and peoples are shown in the table below. Topic Culture and Peoples Kurds Iraqi Economy and Livelihood Religious Division or Iraqi Nationalism? Another “Division”: Secular vice Religious Tribes and Villages Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History British Influence Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party Saddam Hussein.Culture and Peoples. culture.

Kurds Special Case The Kurds are one among a number of minorities living in present-day Iraq. and Religion . They live near the towns of Mosul. There are groups living outside the Middle East in Armenia. the Kurds spread out and settled in a region reaching from central Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) to northeast Iran. Indo-Iranian tribe who lived in ancient Persian times in History: Key to areas that the present-day Kurds. in Iraq. and Iran. you will read about these people separately in this section. which is covered later in this handbook. live in Turkey. France. Germany. and Sulaimaniyah.C. the Arabs applied the name to the residents of these mountainous areas who had converted to Islam. 1. descendents of this tribe. Later. Iraq. Kirkuk. Syria. Kurdish communities also exist in various countries of the former Soviet Union. primarily. physically cut off from one another into what is often called the “Kurdish diaspora. Because of their oppression by the regime of Saddam Hussein.5 million live in Syria.5-4 million. still occupy. • The Kurds have developed as “isolated” units. numbering about 25 million total. • • • • About half of this total population lives in Turkey. Sweden. 3. 6-7 million live in Iran. The Iraqi Kurds are sometimes known by the name Failili Kurds. History. most of the Kurdish people. • Eventually. This the Present area is often called Kurdistan. and the United States. The Kurds in Iraq The Iraqi Kurds make up about 23% of Iraq’s population.” Kurdish Expansion Current Population Distribution Currently. Ancient The Kurds are an old. It described a group of nomads that lived on the plateaus and mountains between Armenia and the Zagros Mountains. A Distinct Name The name Kurd was used around 640 B. Continued on next page Iraq 3 Iraqi Culture.

has shaped Kurdish life.) Indo-European. most of them are bound together as a common group by their language. poetry. respondents considered themselves to be Kurds first. long colorful dresses. and Iraq – want to consider. The Kurdish language can probably be traced back to an ancient language that was more closely related to Farsi (the current language spoken in Iran) and Hindi (the current official language of India). traditions. • Women wear headscarves. and their culture. The Kurds accepted Islam from the Arabs during the 7th century A. • Men still wear turbans and baggy pants (called shalvari).your-directory. It is certainly not an idea that the nation states of the presentday Middle East –Turkey. and dance. They are Sunni Muslims. Religion Culture Kurds have their own music. Individual villages have their own dances in which men and women often dance together. Nature. The concept of a Kurdish sovereign state is still not a full reality in the minds of all Kurds. and Religion . Their hope is to “integrate” the Kurds into the respective country that they live in. In recent interviews among Kurds living in southeastern Turkey.D. particularly the mountains. Iran. • Mountain flowers have contributed to the color and patterning in Kurdish clothing and kilims (woven rugs). Continued on next page Iraq 4 Iraqi Culture.html for a detailed discussion of the implications of a Kurdish sovereign state. History. (See http://ethnicity. not Shias (Shi’ites). Present-day Kurdish is closely related to the northwestern group of Iranian languages.com/Finding the Kurds a Way Kurdistan and the Discourse of the Nation State'2242643. Continued People vice Nation In spite of the fact that the Kurds as an ethnic group are spread over such a large area. and coats decorated with silver and gold thread. Turks second. Their legends are filled with heroism and romance. They don’t speak a language that is related to either Arabic or Turkish.Kurds. not Arabic The Kurds are not an Arabic speaking people.

• Economically. and Religion . • Many Kurds grow wheat and other grains. History.kelim-art. Iraq 5 Iraqi Culture. Kurdish dairy products were considered so delicious that the Vikings from Scandinavia and medieval Russia traveled south to the Iraqi region to buy butter from Kurdish peasants. A Distinct Difference There is a distinct difference between the Arab-speaking majority of the “desert lowlands” of Iraq and the Kurdish mountain folk. the Kurds herd sheep. • About a third of their land is fit for farming. Because of unstable conditions in present-day Iraq agriculture has declined. http://www.html for a good detailed introduction to the culture of the Kurds.Kurds.com/Meet_the_Kurds'2242666.com/65/ku/Kurds.html is a site that shows the beauty and craftsmanship of Kurdish kilims [rugs].de/exhib/kt/e_kt_index. In the 8th century.bartleby. • Language separates them. the Kurds have held to their farming traditions. the Iraqi Arabs have expanded into marketing entrepreneurship. • In the higher mountains.your-directory. http://www. Continued Economy and Livelihood The Kurds’ economy has been based on agriculture from ancient times. • Culture has developed along separate lines. See http://ethnicity.html gives a good overview of Kurds.

Oil exports have been substantially reduced because of • The United Nations imposed economic sanctions after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. Natural Gas Iraq also has reserves of natural gas. oil production averaged about 2. Lebanon. it produced about 7 million cubic meters. The oil is pumped to Turkey. History.S. used to produce the oil. a national company. and Religion . Continued on next page Iraq 6 Iraqi Culture. In 1987. Oil Production The Iraq Petroleum Company.0 million barrels per day (bpd).7 million barrels per day (bpd) were pumped. Syria. • The destruction of oil fields by Saddam Hussein when the U. • Current terrorist sabotage of the oil pipelines. coalition invaded in 2001. Natural gas reserves are nearly 850 billion cubic meters. • In the late eighties about 1.Iraqi Economy and Livelihood Oil The chief factor that dominates Iraq’s economy is oil. • In the early 1980s. Traditionally it provided about 95% of the money received from foreign trade. and the Persian Gulf.

Iraq 7 Iraqi Culture. and dates (Iraq is one of the world’s largest producers).edu/menic/Countries_and_Regions/Iraq/. • Mining and manufacturing. textiles. about 6%. Production in electronics. Both exports and imports were significantly reduced under the embargo. Since the invasion of Iraq the production of these goods and services is at a standstill.com/ is a good Congressional Research Service site that has links about Iraq. • Construction employed about 20% of the civilian population and the military forces. Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the gross domestic product. causing shortages and a rise in prices in Iraq. vegetables. and machinery. cotton. construction materials. fertilizers. with • 80 percent of workers in state factories • 13 percent in the private sector • 7 percent in the mixed sector Agriculture About 30% of the workforce was usually involved in agriculture. Foreign Dependence Iraq depends very heavily on economic aid from both the West and Arab countries. leather goods. and sugar had recently started.Iraqi Economy and Livelihood. rice. http://www. Labor Force Government figures showed the industrial labor force was at 170. • The main crops include wheat. History.utexas. cement. and Religion .iraqresearch. • Iraqis also raise cattle and sheep.000 in 1984. The University of Texas at Austin has good detailed information about Iraq at http://inic. food products. Continued Other Goods and Services Other industries produce chemicals. barley. The economic UN embargo just emphasized this. • Services contributed about 40% to the gross domestic product. Since the downfall of Saddam Hussein agricultural production has fallen off.

• For many years. and Religion . There was much discrimination against the Shias. • Saddam Hussein and his top deputies. dominate the culture of Iraq. • How the majority Shias will treat the minority Sunnis is an important issue in post-Saddam Hussein Iraq. (See appendix A for details on the differences between these two sects of Islam. the Arabian Sunnis from the areas around Baghdad. the large cities of Iraq. History. Sunnis. • Most people feel that the Shias would have driven the Sunnis out of power if given the chance. Mosul. and Ar Rutbah. all members of the ruling Baath Party. were also Sunnis. they will lose their political domination of the country. The majority in the country are the Shias. the most depressed part of Iraq. • The Sunnis are now apprehensive that with popular sovereignty. Sunnis had also held the top posts in the Iraqi security forces and had been the army corps’ commanders. Most of the Shias live in the south. dominated and ruled Iraq. Historical Division: One Side of the Coin There was good historical reason for making the assumption that the Shias would have driven out the Sunnis. and Shias or Shi’ites. • The main Muslim sects of Islam. the Sunnis. Continued on next page Iraq 8 Iraqi Culture.) Current Tension One of the key issues today in post-Saddam Hussein Iraq remains the relationship between the majority Shias and the minority Sunnis. but the minority.Religious Division vice Iraqi Nationalism? Two Sects One of the important factors in understanding Iraq and its people is Islam. ran the country both before and during Saddam Hussein’s regime.

Exploiting Ancient History Perhaps what was at work here was the age-old antagonism between Arabs and Persians. defeated heathen Persia in A. in response to aggression by Saddam Hussein. Between Arabs and Persians there has always been historically bitter hatred. both the Sunnis and the Shias. No such general revolt occurred. characterizing the modernday conflict as the “Battle of Qadisiyah.Religious Division vice Iraqi Nationalism?. this historically based idea of “revenge” of the Iraqi Shias may not be as strong as assumed.” a medieval battle in which the Arabs. • The modern Iranians. Iran. 637. a language totally unrelated to Arabic. and Religion . • The expectation of many was that the Shias of Iraq (75% of enlisted Iraqis were Shias) would join with their Shia brothers of Iran and revolt against the Sunnis of Iraq. Iran invaded Iraq. History. They described the war with Iran in terms of this hatred.D. Iraq 9 Iraqi Culture. • In 1982. Iraq’s neighbor. • The Iraqis. The Shias of Iraq continued to defend their country and the Sunni Baath regime of Saddem Hussein. the true believers bearing Islam. is primarily a Shia country. Saddam Hussein and his Baath Party capitalized on this ancient enmity. while Shias in religion. even after the Iraqi army suffered major setbacks from the Iranian military. Continued Possible Reverse Side: Nationalism However. are an Arabic-speaking people. are descendents of the Persians and speak Farsi.

Iraq 10 Iraqi Culture. and Religion . whether they are Shias or Sunnis. The question remains if there will be a Shia “revival” in the “new” Iraq. Shias gained more representation in the government.three were Shias. • Later in the 1980s. who were primarily of the Baath Party. and law even though they were under-represented in the government. For example. business. and • the secularists or non-believers. which has played a role in Iraq in more recent times. • Saddam Hussein further suppressed the Shias so that they had no controlling voice in the Iraqi government. proportional to their numbers in the population. came to power. Shias had made progress in education. Shia Opposition Before the Baath Party. is the division between • the religious believers in the population.Another “Division”: Secular vice Religious Islam vice Baath Another cultural division. History. eventually headed by Saddam Hussein. of the eight top Iraqi leaders who in early 1988 sat with Saddam Hussein on the Revolutionary Command Council--Iraq's highest governing body-.

and “wars. • Lands belonging to clans of a particular tribe are usually adjacent to one another. which has existed through many generations. This tribalism is based on nomadism. but has been restructured to accommodate the sedentary environment in cities and towns and the limited territory of the modern age. As the government extended social services to the village. Clans are usually part of a particular tribe defined by blood or by adoption. Clans Within the tribe. • The “elders of the tribe” share authority. Continued on next page Iraq 11 Iraqi Culture. The line between tribal people and village dwellers used to be very distinct. and Religion . with the lineage through several generations from the father’s side of the family. the primary family unit is the clan. and government employees. arguments. • This patrilineal (descent on the father’s side of the family) kinship group is responsible for the extended family in feuds. History. the number and influence of non-tribal people grew. • A shaykh. e. local tradesmen.Tribes and Villages Tribalism As with many Middle Eastern countries. the village. • The clan supports its members in any dispute with other clans of the same tribe or shaykh. Mutual assistance is the key to a successful shaykh economy. primary relationships play a key role in an Iraqi’s life. land ownership.. Tribal Responsibility The primary kinship unit is a tribe or shaykh. is usually a mixture of tribal folk. Most family-oriented relations for an Iraqi are rooted in the age-old traditions of tribalism. which is made up of two or more lineage groups.g.” • It controls marriage and jointly controls parts of the “tribal” land. is usually very centralized and has a developed social hierarchy. Villages The most widespread social living unit.

instead of the farmers doing this themselves. • In the 1950’s most government employees came from Baghdad. • In the 1980’s before the war with Iran. History. With their citified ways. As you can see. government representatives began to be drawn from the local village population where they were serving. and Religion . these Sunni bureaucrats often provoked antagonism among the local Shia villagers. Continued Role Changing Government and service people before and during Saddam Hussein’s regime took over the role that tribal leaders and village people used to play. For example. Iraq 12 Iraqi Culture. Government cooperatives might also work as the “middleman” selling farmer’s goods. the division between Shia and Sunni also plays a part in the Iraqi bureaucracy. a government school might be set up and competed with a village religious school.Tribes and Villages.

by stamping clay tablets with a reed stylus. Historians often refer to it as the cradle of civilization. called cuneiform. In 4000 B. China.C.Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past Introduction To get a better picture of the current political situation in Iraq. • There was also much bitter infighting between the various tribes indigenous to the area. • Banking also originated in ancient Mesopotamia. (The Semitic languages include Arabic. the Sumerians dominated the area. Hebrew and a number of ancient. Mesopotamia was one of the ancient centers of civilization.C.. Hammurabi • The Sumerians were overrun and conquered by a number of Semiticspeaking tribes. the region was united under King Hammurabi into one political unit called Babylon or Babylonia.” in this case the Tigris and the Euphrates).) Thus the Arab-related population became a force in the region early on. • They also created the earliest writing system. Finally around 1700 B. extinct languages. Another name for this region is the Fertile Crescent. This brief historical survey is outlined as follows: • • • • “Ancient” Iraq Importance of Islam British Influence Background of the Rise of Saddam Hussein Ancient Iraq: First Civilization The area that modern Iraq covers is almost the same as that part of the ancient world called Mesopotamia (from the Greek. you will cover a bit about the history of the country. History. meaning “between two rivers. • These ancient Sumerians built irrigation systems to harness the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates and developed the first cereal agriculture. and Religion . and India. Continued on next page Iraq 13 Iraqi Culture.. Like Egypt.

Nebuchadnezzar. and Religion . History. Hammurabi’s Code. He is remembered for his body of laws. Its common theme is that the punishment should fit the crime: “An eye for an eye. the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.” Hammurabi’s son. designed and had constructed the ancient architectural wonder. about 50 kilometers south of present-day Baghdad. Continued Hammurabi’s Dynasty: Achievements King Hammurabi conquered territory and extended the borders of Babylon. a tooth for a tooth. Iraq 14 Iraqi Culture.Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past.

The Caliphate To understand the importance of Iraq in the history of Islam and the Middle East. With the fervor of their Islamic jihad. but the caliphate as an historical tradition in Islam is very important for modernday Iraqis. Muslims chose a leader and established a “dynasty” for controlling all Muslims worldwide. Arab Muslims reached the Euphrates delta. in what is present-day Iraq. eventually establishing the Arabic dynasty of the Umayyads in Iraq. Continued on next page Iraq 15 Iraqi Culture. the caliphate was moved to Turkey. • The Republic of Turkey abolished the caliphate in the 1920’s. you need to know about the caliphate. • A power center where Arabic and Persian culture. Baghdad was: • The intellectual center of the world at that time and the cultural capital of the Islamic world. 634. intellect. which was the administrative. in Iraq in 750 AD. founded the city of Baghdad. known at the caliphate. History. religious.D. and legal “directorate” of Islam. • Early on in the history of Islam after the death of Muhammad. The Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad Islamic culture and civilization in Iraq and the surrounding Middle East region reached its height under the Arabic dynasty of the Abbacies. which became one of the cultural and economic centers of the Middle Ages. the conquest and establishment of Islam in the region is the historical and religious event that modern-day Iraqis are most proud of.Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History Introduction While ancient civilization is an important factor in Iraq’s past. Later when the Ottoman Turks conquered Iraq and incorporated it into their empire. • The caliph was the leader or head of this dynasty. In A. and learning merged to create what all Muslims consider the apogee (high point) of Islam. The Abbasid caliphate. and Religion . who establish the Abbasid caliphate. (Jihad fi Sabeel lillah) they conquered and converted the Persians there. a successor dynasty to the Umayyads.

net/~sal/iraq_history. For the next two hundred year. and Religion . to dominate Islam. The Safavids: • Were Shias (Shi’ites) (remember. Ottomans The Ottomans. History. fast gaining ascendancy in Anatolia (modern Turkey) and Asia Minor: • Were Sunnis (the competing sect of Islam). The Ottoman Turks eventually dominated Iraq and incorporated it into their empire.achilles. (Good information on the early history of Iraq can be found at the web site http://home. Shias are one of the two important divisions of Islam).) Continued on next page Iraq 16 Iraqi Culture. Continued Safavids Two groups vied for domination in the Iraqi region for the next two centuries.Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History. • Did not want the Shias. • Wanted to extend Shia power throughout the Middle East. The Safavids were very involved in attempting to conquer Iraq in the 16th and 17th centuries and in establishing Shia as the dominant sect of Islam in the region.html . The Safavids were the Persian dynasty that ruled Persia (Iran). a newly-arrived Turkish tribe. • Sought to counteract the Shia aggression of the Safavids. the Persians (Iranians) and the Ottoman Turks conquered and re-conquered various parts of the Iraqi region. led by the Safavids. Iraq’s neighbor.

Continued Iraqi Nationalism One of the important legacies of the Ottoman domination of the Iraqis was the beginning of Iraqi nationalism. and Religion . Iraqi intellectuals founded an Iraqi nationalist society called Al Ahd (the Covenant) in the early 1900s. • Copying a group of Ottoman Turkish nationalists called the Young Turks.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+iq0018 ) Iraq 17 Iraqi Culture. History.loc. • The aim of this group was to gain more autonomy for Iraqis from the Ottomans.Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History. (For more information on this period see the following web site: http://memory. Offshoots of Al Ahd formed “cells” among Iraqi officers serving in the Ottoman army and in larger towns such as Mosul and Baghdad.

• By 1926. Iraq experienced seven military coups. After the war. the Treaty of Sevres gave Great Britain control of Iraq as a mandate of the League of Nations. al-Gaylani. and Religion . the country joined the Allies and declared war on Germany. under a 1924 treaty. • The British mandate ended in 1932 when Iraq was admitted to the League of Nations. Iraq sided with Germany and Italy in World War II. • During the period 1936-41. • In 1921 the country was given a monarchy headed by King Faisal I. a time of instability in the country. and Iraq in 1922. had a veto over legislation. but after the pro-Axis Iraqi leader. Iraq 18 Iraqi Culture. • Iraqi oil exports began in 1934.) World War II Initially.com/articles/3032. History. was defeated by the British in early 1943. Kuwait.British Influence Post World War I The British invaded Iraq as part of their campaign against the Ottoman Empire during World War I. an Iraqi parliament was governing the country although the British. go to the web site http://www. (For a fascinating narrative on how the British set up the borders of Saudi Arabia.nybooks.

who was succeeded by his brother. particularly Iran. sixties. • The Baath-led government was overthrown in a coup led by President Abdul Salam Mohammad Arif. and Religion . (This is an excellent article on the family “clan” of Saddam Hussein: http://www. We will consider this context in discussing Saddam Hussein’s emergence as Iraq’s leader. Continued on next page Iraq 19 Iraqi Culture.org/article/273 . • The growth of the Baath Socialist Party was important too.meforum. who then became president of the country. • The relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. • In July 1968. the Baath Party regained power in a coup under Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr.Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background Key Factors To understand the rise of Saddam Hussein to power in Iraq. History. • During the 1960s the Baath Socialist Party under Hasan al-Bakr came to power in the country. and seventies was one of continual conflict in Iraq: • In the late 1950s the monarchy was overthrown. played a role in influencing Saddam Hussein. General Abdul Rahman Arif. Coup and counter coup with espionage trials were common during this time.) Continual Conflict The period of the fifties. you need to know about certain key facts in Iraqi political history: • Constant conflict including coup and counter-coup has been a common feature of Iraqi political life for many years.

which created more tension between the two countries. and Religion .loc. Iraq and Iran signed the Algiers Agreement.loc. again revolted in northern Iraq. who suffered enormously with intense Iraqi bombings.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+iq0023) http://memory. • In March 1975. • In 1975 the Kurds. supported by the Iranians. • Iraq participated in the Arab-Israel War of 1973 and in the oil boycott against nations supporting Israel. continual border clashes with Iran erupted in an armed conflict along the entire Iraq-Iran border. As you can see. Iran then withdrew support from the Kurds. History. • In early 1974.Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background. Iraq bombed parts of Iran. military aggression has played a role in Iraq’s relations with its neighbors! Detailed information on this period and on the rise of Saddam Hussein is at http://memory.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+iq0022). which defined the boundary of the Shatt el-Arab waterway. • The Islamic revolution in neighboring Iran was recognized as a threat to secular Baath party control of Iraq and caused great anxiety in Iraq. Continued Iraqi Foreign Relations To understand some of the reasons for Saddam Hussein’s aggression toward his neighbors. Iraq 20 Iraqi Culture. fighting for their independence. you need to know a bit about Iraq’s relations with neighboring countries before Saddam’s rise to power in the country.

Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party Early History The Iraqi Baath Party was founded in the 1940s by two Syrian students. What the party needed in its role as the nation’s leader was cohesion. In other words. • The party grew quickly in the early 1950s. The party also was aided by its reorganization. only to regain power in 1968. one of the chief leaders of the party. • It also had local party branches that supported the central Baath Party. Coup and Counter Coup The Baath-led government was overthrown in late 1963. the party controlled the state. Saadi was the real power behind the government. freedom. This was supposed to occur in Iraq the way it was happening in neighboring Syria. Continued on next page Iraq 21 Iraqi Culture. History. • The party gained broader support based on its newly established militia and intelligence system. Although the Baathists established the National Council of Revolutionary Command. and unity. He established a one-party state that tolerated little opposition. hence. • The word Ba’ath or Baath means resurrection in Arabic. The Baath Party of 1968 was much better organized and was a more cohesive unit than in 1963. the party’s goals were to ”resurrect” the Arabs of Iraq as an ethnic group through socialism. One Party State: Saadi Saadi. The party had difficulty after an assassination attempt in the late fifties. and Religion . Saadi gave it this cohesion. which appointed the prime minister and the president. was the Baath political leader who consolidated the party’s power.

al Bakr.net/~sal/iraq_history. Saddam Hussein himself was also related to al Bakr and from a town near Tikrit. who wielded the political power in the country. • Most of them were Tikritis. Sunni Iraqis from Tikrit. Besides the prime minister.achilles.html http://home.html Iraq 22 Iraqi Culture.bartleby. The one-party system was thus reinforced by this coterie of Tikritis.Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party. and Religion . • Some of the party members were also related to the new president. More information on Saddam Hussein can be found at: http://www. who was Tikriti. a town in northwestern Iraq. Continued The Tikrit Connection Tribal ties bound ruling members of the Baath Party together. History.com/65/hu/HusseinS.

History. which returned to power in 1968. • Saddam Hussein returned to Iraq in 1963 when the Baathists came back to power for a short time. He fled Iraq in 1959 after taking part in an assassination attempt against then Prime Minister Kaseem. The Baathist Tikrit Team President al Bakr and Saddam Hussein. • Later he played a leading role in the 1968 revolution that gave the Baath Party control of the country. who became the Baath chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council and the President of Iraq. it became clear that Saddam Hussein was the moving force behind the party. He also ensured support from the army among Baathist and non-Baathist officers. • Saddam Hussein was the politician. Former Leader of Iraq Early Years Saddam Hussein had been a long-standing member of the Baath Party of Iraq. He knew how to outmaneuver and eliminate political opponents when necessary. both Tikritis. the political aficionado who worked behind the scene. and Religion . As time went on. He then lived in Egypt and attended law school there. He personally • Directed Iraqi efforts to deal with the Kurdish problem • Organized the party’s infrastructure Continued on next page Iraq 23 Iraqi Culture. dominated the Baath Party. • Al Bakr had espoused pan-Arab causes and gave the party its legitimacy. His expertise was in organizing secret opposition operations.Saddam Hussein. supporting Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr.

Former Leader of Iraq. who should have been reporting to the president. Iraq 24 Iraqi Culture. Saddam Hussein began to consolidate his political power.alone In the mid-seventies. History. In July 1979. and Religion . • Saddam Hussein showed his modus operandi: He did not share power and considered the cabinet and the council rubber stamps for his will. and Head of the Iraqi Armed Forces. most of the ministers. • With President al Bakr in failing health.Saddam Hussein. Chairman of the Regional Command Council. reported directly to Saddam Hussein. President al Bakr resigned. and Saddam Hussein officially became President of the Republic. Secretary General of the Iraqi Baath Party Regional Command. Continued Saddam Hussein -.

The topics discussed show his domination and oppression. External Domination Persian Gulf War Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq Arms Inspections and Disarmament Inspections. we will choose key topics that show his policies. Topic Kurdish Oppression Internal Control International Response to Saddam Hussein’s Oppression Iran-Iraq War. 1991-1998 Important Post-1998 Events Iraq’s Weapons Declaration A New Coalition Possible Options for Invading Iraq See Page 26 28 31 32 34 36 39 40 42 44 46 50 Iraq 25 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . Selected Topics The topics covered in this section are shown in the table below.Saddam Hussein’s Policies Introduction Purpose Rather than “narrate” the history of Iraq under Saddam Hussein’s dictatorship.

Heavy fighting between the central government and Kurdish forces erupted when the central government tried to force limited autonomy on the Kurds in 1974. Iran or Iraq. The Kurds rejected the proposal for two reasons: • The proposed autonomy did not really give Kurds authority. the Kurds hoped for more autonomy in administration.Kurdish Oppression Early Oppression and Resistance Kurdish history. The new Iraqi government failed to follow through. Continued on next page Iraq 26 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . an important city in the Kurdish area and a key oil-producing center. Iraqi Kurds under the leadership of Mustafa al-Barzani waged a lengthy military campaign with the aim of establishing a unified and autonomous Kurdistan in Iraq. • During the 1960s. This has resulted in strong military resistance from the Kurdish side. Their capital was to be Erbil. has been a tradition of oppression with the aim of controlling the Kurdish population. • As part of the newly proposed Kurdish autonomous region. The Iraqi government has characterized the Kurdish response as rebellion and revolt. The central government still retained control. In Iraq the oppression and its response is outlined thus: • In 1958 after the overthrow of the Iraqi monarchy and the establishment of the Baathist-led government. whether in Turkey. 1970’s In 1970 the central government promised local self-rule to the Kurds. the Kurds were not granted control of Kirkuk.

-protected region for Iraqi Kurds was established in northern Iraq. It also carried out a program of systematic assassination of Kurdish leaders. and one million fled over the border into Iran.000 people. the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. Continued Saddam Hussein’s “Campaign” In 1979. Later when an autonomous U.N. Iraqi forces again crushed another Kurdish uprising. Saddam Hussein ordered the use of poison gas attacks on Kurdish villages and the arrest and execution of Kurdish males in a final effort to root out all resistance. the Baathist-led government of the new Republic of Iraq launched a campaign of terror and murder against the Kurds. • He destroyed many Kurdish villages. Post-1991 Persian Gulf War In 1991 after the end of the Persian Gulf War. nearly 500. Kurdish “Politics” The Kurds themselves have internal problems. Saddam Hussein’s reign of terror continued for eight years. • His forces tortured and killed Kurds. forcing the surviving villagers to live in special zones and camps where he could control them.Kurdish Oppression. Fearing gas attacks again. The result that year was the murder of 200. In 1999 these two groups ended hostilities. culminating in 1987-1988 with the Anfal Campaign.000 refugee Kurds attempted to flee to Turkey. They are split into two opposing factions. A general election was held in the autonomous region. Finally. thousand of Kurds returned to and resettled in Iraq. Iraq 27 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .

In some instances. Continued on next page Suppression of Human Rights Iraq 28 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . • There was no freedom of association and movement in the country. He effectively silenced all opposition to his regime in Iraq. totally. his style of oppression ruled Iraq. Iraqis. members of a family were so terrorized that they reported on their relatives. • Saddam Hussein established a large network of spies. For over 20 years. • Iraqis had no freedom of expression. through blackmail and fear. • Saddam Hussein did not allow his people to vote. silencing a people that had once been a rich source of thought and culture in the Middle East.Internal Control Cult Atmosphere Saddam Hussein created a personality cult that fed on his will. Iraqis were not free to leave the country. The daily Iraqi newspaper was owned by his son. could only assemble to show their support for Saddam Hussein and could only vote for him in elections. allegedly.

Hospitals were known to brand dissidents or to amputate their limbs.There were numerous ways that Saddam Hussein’s forces did this. • Public torture and humiliation -. excruciating death was preferred. Continued on next page Iraq 29 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . many were videotaped in order to blackmail their families. He decimated more than 60 villages and murdered 30. Women were allegedly raped and tortured in front of their families. the bodies were buried in unmarked sites. In 1994. their families had to pay for the instruments of death and then display the body as a warning to others who might be considering expressing an opinion. But much of the time. Military deserters were punished by amputation. Continued Regime of Systematic Torture and Terror The following allegations have been made against the regime of Saddam Hussein: • Collective torture -.Saddam Hussein used collective torture to suppress dissent and to instill fear in anyone considering opposing his will. a poison that “permeates” the human body and takes several days to bring death. Whole families or ethnic groups (the Kurds were a good example) were tortured for the actions of one dissident. a slow. • Chemical weapons -. • Branding and Amputation -. One “efficient” method was to line up all the males of a village and shoot them one at a time.Saddam Hussein’s forces respected no person’s dignity. In many instances.Saddam Hussein also used chemical weapons against his own people.000+ Iraqis with poison gas.Internal Control. Suspect citizens were cruelly dismembered. Political prisoners were given slowacting thallium. • Summary executions -. Saddam Hussein issued a number of decrees establishing cruel and inhuman penalties such as amputations.

(See the site http://www. This began almost immediately after he became president in July 1979. torture.gov/g/drl/rls/15996. were not just careless “by-stander” victims in Saddam Hussein’s reign of terror and suppression. reporting on their parents’ and relatives’ conversations and activities to Saddam Hussein’s internal security organization. Poor health care for children led to the reemergence of diseases such as polio and cholera in Iraq. Medical supplies were often delayed because the regime demanded bribes from the suppliers. • He waged terror and oppression against religious believers of Iraq.Internal Control.) Iraq 30 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . Saddam Hussein tried to silence other ethnic and religious groups. • Saddam Hussein’s forces supposedly abducted and held minority children hostage to force their families to relocate in particular regions. the largest ethnic minority in the country. particularly the Shia Muslims.state. and limitations on their religious activities. children were allegedly forced to become spies. subjecting them to 14 hours of physical training and psychological stress each day. he suppressed many clerics and scholars in the country. especially those families near oil-producing areas. he ordered his security forces to publicly and forcibly imprison and eventually kill several leading members of the Iraqi National Assembly. • Pharmaceutical supplies for sick children were supposedly exported for resale overseas. Continued Religious and Social Atrocities Besides oppressing the Kurds. • In many cases. Children: Pawns of Saddam Hussein Children. • Through murder.htm for details on how Saddam Hussein is silencing and controls his own people. Claiming “traitors” in the Iraqi National Assembly. • There were also weapons training courses for teenagers. Anyone whom Saddam Hussein feared would oppose his will was subjected to torture and arbitrary death. allegedly.

International Response to Saddam Hussein’s Oppression United Nations Resolutions In Security Council Resolution 677. He felt there was a prevailing regime of systematic human rights violations in the country. 5 April 1991. the United Nations condemned the repression of Iraqi civilians. In Security Council Resolution 688. “The mere suggestion that someone is not a supporter of the President [Saddam Hussein] carries the prospect of the death penalty. In the United Nations Secretary General’s Report of 2001. United Nations Reports After a 1999 trip to Iraq. November 28. the United Nations condemned Saddam Hussein for forcibly resettling various groups in order to alter the population in different areas of Iraq. the United Nations special representative on human rights reported he had personally received reports and testimonies of • People who showed him their scars from government torture • Women whose family members had been abducted by Iraqi authorities and then had disappeared. special representative stated. 1990. the U.N." Iraq 31 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .

His foreign policy emphasized • Strengthening Iraq’s role in world oil production • Gaining the leading role in the Arab world and the Middle East Accomplishing these two aims had to come at the expense of Iran. Saddam Hussein also maintained that Iran had been carrying out artillery attacks on Iraqi territory.Iran-Iraq War. • Add to this. who control Iran. External Domination • As discussed earlier. and there is bound to be constant tension between these two giants of Southwest Asia. • In 1980. who control Iraq. the religious competition between the two prominent Islamic sects. Background Political Aims Saddam Hussein’s aim at domination focused on this constant friction point between Iraq and Iran. Continued on next page Causes of the War Iraq 32 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . the Sunnis. It is based partly on the clash of two different cultures: one. • Besides the territorial claim over the waterway. which under both the former Shah and the later Islamic religious regime of Ayatollah Khomeini had also sought to expand its influence in these two areas. Saddam Hussein escalated a dispute with Iran over control of the Shatt al Arab waterway by attacking Iran. the antagonism between Iran and Iraq is age-old. the other. Arab-based. Persian. and the Shias.

the United States and some European nations got involved in the struggle. • Iran captured part of Iraq’s Fao peninsula in 1986. Western Involvement Initial Success. Finally. • Iran captured and occupied some oil-rich islands from Iraq in 1984. Summary Saddam Hussein’s principal aim in the Iran-Iraq War was to extend his power in the Middle East. the leader of Iran.Iran-Iraq War. He didn’t succeed. an area of extensive oil fields • France. declared that his country would only stop fighting when Saddam Hussein’s government had been destroyed. Iranian resistance strengthened so that Iraq had to withdraw in 1982. Iran accepted a United Nations cease-fire. • Iran received funding from some Arab countries. • Both countries began to attack each other’s capital cities in 1985. in July 1988. Ayatollah Khomeini. Continued Territorial Aims Saddam Hussein wanted to • Reclaim the Shatt al Arab waterway for Iraq • Seize the western region of Khuzestan in Iran. He wanted to dominate the area economically in terms of oil production and militarily by acquiring Iranian territory. They captured the Iranian port of Khorramshahr by late 1980. Later Defeat The Iraqis were successful at first in their aggression. External Domination. The country was not able to buy enough weapons to continue the war. and the Soviet Union were the main arms suppliers to Iraq. Ending the War • After Iran began to attack Kuwaiti oil tankers in the Persian Gulf. The United States and Great Britain also quietly provided arms and related military assistance. Germany. however. Iran then began a series of successful assaults that caused Saddam Hussein to use poison gas against Iranian troops. • Attacking a neutral nation like Kuwait caused problems for Iran. Iraq 33 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .

sponsored by Arab mediators • After assurances of the United States’ noninvolvement in the dispute Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded and occupied Kuwait on August 2.Persian Gulf War Causes of the Kuwaiti Invasion Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait. causing a decrease in oil prices Failed Negotiations • After a number of failed meetings between Kuwait and Iraq. the United Nations passed an economic embargo that prohibited nearly all trade with Iraq. which was the ultimate reason for the Persian Gulf War against Iraq. 1990. Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of the following: • Violating the Iraqi border to get oil resources from the disputed Rumaila oil field • Flooding the world market with Kuwaiti oil. There followed a series of United Nations resolutions including: • Further condemning the Iraqi invasion • Demanding again the withdrawal of Iraqi forces • Expressing sympathy for and grave concern over the treatment of Kuwaiti nationals in occupied Kuwait • Stressing the importance of the humane treatment of Kuwaitis under terms of the Geneva Convention • Laying out specifics of the international embargo against Iraq Continued on next page Iraq 34 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . the United Nations passed Resolution 660. Acting under Articles 39 and 40 of the United Nations Charter. was the result of a territorial dispute. later annexing the country as the nineteenth province of Iraq. United Nations Involvement The United Nations Security Council and the Arab League condemned the invasion. which • Condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait • Demanded immediate withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. The Embargo and Further UN Resolutions Four days later.

led by the United States. the U. launched aerial attacks on Baghdad in Operation Desert Storm.-led coalition forces entered Iraq with ground forces as part of the plan for liberating Kuwait. Iraq agreed to a permanent cease-fire with strict conditions. 1991. • Saddam Hussein still remained in power as the head of the Iraqi government. This site discusses the reconstruction of Kuwait after Saddam Hussein’s defeat and the withdrawal of Iraqi forces: http://www. preparations and the build-up for the eventual invasion of Iraq. member countries to use all necessary means. United Nations Coalition War Operation Desert Shield. Continued Resolution 678 This series of U. but did not penetrate as far as the Iraqi capital Baghdad. Over 140. • The war lasted six weeks.Persian Gulf War. against Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait and demanded total withdrawal of Iraqi forces by January 15. Conclusion to Hostilities Iraq 35 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .asp . 1991. 1991.000 Iraqi soldiers were killed.N. 1991.org/public_asp/journal_vol7/0006_tetreault. • In April 1991. including military action. resolutions culminated in United Nations Security Council Resolution 678: It allowed U.N. • The United States announced a cease-fire on February 28. allied coalition of 28 countries. On January 17.S. the U. All services were totally disrupted. began in late 1990.mepc. Bombing destroyed the Iraqi infrastructure including the oil refinery system. About 100. • On February 24. popularly known as the Gulf War.000 tons of munitions were unleashed over Iraq.N.

In the south. Iraqi aircraft and troops were sent there to regain control of the cities that the Kurdish resistance groups had taken during the Gulf War. • Operation Provide Comfort established a United Nations protected autonomous region in most of the Kurdish areas of Iraq. an exodus of Iraqi Kurdish refugees (about 2. many of whom are Shias. More Minority Persecution One of the key problems in Iraq after the United Nations cease-fire was Saddam Hussein’s continued oppression of the Kurds of northern Iraq. • United Nations Resolution 688 condemned this continued repression of the Iraqi civilian population. Continued on next page Iraq 36 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . Saddam Hussein’s forces attempted to control the marsh Arabs. created the United Nations Special Commission on Weapons and continued the embargo tying it to Iraqi weapons. Fearing a repeat of the gas attacks of 1988. The sanctions sought to • Eliminate Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction and delivery systems • Return to Kuwait all prisoners of war and property taken during the Gulf War • Establish the principle of Iraqi compensation for war damages Further the sanctions • Insisted that Iraq honor its international debts • Demanded that Iraq stop all terrorism A Goods Review List (GRL) listed all those items under embargo.Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq Continued Embargo United Nations Resolution 687 began the cease-fire.5 million in total) massed on the Turkish and Iranian borders.

The United States responded with troop deployments to the Persian Gulf.Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq.” Washington Post. and supplies necessary for the civilian infrastructure of the country. the United Nations modified the sanctions by establishing the Oil for Food Program in 1995 in United Nations Security Council Resolution 986.000 bombs and missiles against 250 targets in northern Iraq in protecting that no fly zone.000 sorties since the beginning of 1997. October 25. Ricks. Continued Exclusion Zones To prevent the genocide of the Kurds in the north and the marsh Arabs in the south. the United States. 2000. • The first shipments under this program began arriving in Iraq in 1997. • This resolution allowed Iraq to sell a billion dollars of oil to purchase humanitarian supplies. These nofly zones allowed Kurdish refugees to return home and live without fear of Iraqi reprisal in their autonomous region as allied planes continually surveyed and guarded these exclusion regions. The United States response was to fire cruise missiles at Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad. Saddam Hussein backed down and agreed to recognize the existence and borders of Kuwait. “Containing Iraq: A Forgotten War. primarily food and medicine. (See Thomas E.) There was also a no drive zone in southern Iraq to prevent Saddam Hussein from again massing forces on the Kuwait-Iraq border. • As of 1 October 2000. In October 1994. • The Iraqi air force was not allowed into these exclusion zones. Iraq attempted to assassinate former President George Bush while he was visiting Kuwait. established air exclusion zones or no fly zones north of the 36th parallel and south of the 32nd parallel. air force pilots had launched more than 1. Continued Incidents During the Clinton administration. Sanctions Modifications The original economic sanctions imposed on Iraq had been total. Continued on next page Iraq 37 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . Because of humanitarian needs of the Iraqi civilian population. it was reported that in 16. Saddam Hussein’s republican guard moved toward Kuwait. areas prohibited to Iraqi forces. together with France and Great Britain.

• Contract reviews were tedious.net/~sal/un-ros.state. Continued • Under this program. • The United Nations controlled all revenues from such oil sales. The U.S. Department of State web site has a myth/facts sheet about the effect of sanctions on Iraq at http://www. A Slow Process Sanctions Modifications. Critics of the program called for revised sanctions that were more targeted and credible. Iraq 38 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . (continued) The process of “food” for oil was slow.Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq.html has a list of the United Nations resolutions on sanctions. • The program was extended and modified through the years. Iraq could sell oil for humanitarian needs.achilles. http://home.htm . • Some funds from oil sales might have been diverted to purchase nonhumanitarian supplies. and the contracts to implement this program were subject to United Nations oversight.gov/p/nea/rls/01fs/3935.

or rendering harmless. for declaring. destroying.” Purpose Definition Four categories of WMD. the United Nations: • Established The United Nations Special Committee (UNSCOM). Iraq 39 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . destroying or rendering harmless its WMD. were defined in the resolution: • • • • Nuclear weapons Chemical weapons Biological weapons Missile delivery systems Implementation To ensure that Iraq followed the resolution by declaring. • The resolution also charged Iraq to “forego the future development or acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). and rendering harmless Iraq’s WMD.Arms Inspections and Disarmament • The principal purpose of United Nations Resolution 687 was to eliminate Iraq’s capability to inflict damage and make war on its neighbors. • Charged UNSCOM and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect Iraq to ensure its compliance with the United Nations resolution on declaring. destroying. Essentially the resolution required the elimination of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction and delivery systems.

1991-1998 Iraqi Obstructionism From the start of the UNSCOM inspections. Saddam Hussein had been determined to keep a sizeable part of his WMD arsenal. • Iraqi officials outwardly maintained a façade of cooperation. • This led to constant dissembling and obstruction on the part of the Iraqi government during UNSCOM inspections. • Saddam Hussein’s security force coordinated a campaign of concealment and deception. This made it extremely difficult to resolve. United Nations Response Prompted by this Iraqi obstructionism. while at the same time delaying or denying UNSCOM inspectors access to facilities. documents.Inspections. let alone inspect. the United Nations Security Council passed several resolutions demanding that the Iraqi government • Cooperate with UNSCOM and IAEA in the inspection process • Provide UNSCOM and IAEA with ” immediate and unrestricted access to any site they wished to inspect” The Iraqi Arsenal The coalition military strikes during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and UNSCOM inspections through 1998 destroyed most of Iraq’s prohibited ballistic missiles and some Gulf war-era chemical and biological munitions. and personnel in a purposed effort to deny information to UNSCOM on Iraq’s WMD program. as they were called. Iraq still had • • • • A small force of extended-range Scud missiles Some pre-chemical weapons Stocks from which biological weapons could be produced Munitions suitable for chemical and biological agents Continued on next page Iraq 40 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . including hiding documents related to WMD and materiel. issues and materiel related to Iraq’s WMD program.

• Iraq had also stopped most IAEA inspections since 1998.gov/cia/publications/iraq wmd/Iraq Oct 2002. After the United Nations staff had been evacuated from Baghdad. Iraq 41 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . to destroy Iraq's nuclear. chemical. 1991-1998. • Technical monitoring systems installed by the United Nations at known and suspected WMD and missile facilities did not operate.htm is a detailed discussion of Iraq’s WMD and the UNSCOM effort.cia. the United States and Great Britain launched a bombing campaign. Iraq may have also • Preserved and enhanced the infrastructure and expertise necessary for WMD production • Maintained a stockpile of WMD and increased its size and sophistication in some areas Hiatus in United Nations Weapons Inspections In December 1998. Continued The Iraqi Arsenal. http://www. the Iraqi government refused to continue working with UNSCOM. • Iraq prohibited Security Council-mandated monitoring over-flights of Iraqi facilities by United Nations aircraft and helicopters. Operation Desert Fox. particularly through 1998.Inspections. • Onsite inspections by UNSCOM were prohibited. and biological weapons programs. (continued) Following the Gulf War.

including Saddam Hussein.S. Actions In September 2002 President Bush urged the United Nations to encourage Saddam Hussein to comply with United Nations resolutions or "actions will be unavoidable. • There was a dangerous possibility that Saddam Hussein might supply terrorists with WMD.N. the United Nations passed resolution 1441. Iraq accepted the return of United Nations weapons inspectors under resolution 1441. particularly biological weapons. biological.org/apps/news/storyAr.” • Iraqi officials rejected Bush's assertions. emphasizing the following: • A connection existed between Saddam Hussein and terrorism by his giving “aid and comfort” and training to such terrorists. is a concerted effort at statesponsored terrorism. • Saddam Hussein had never met his disarmament obligations under numerous United Nations resolutions and implementation inspections. brought Saddam Hussein and Iraqi armaments to the forefront of the Bush administration’s policy on terrorism. • An axis of evil. (See the UN site. Assertions by President Bush and his administration now focused on Saddam Hussein as the primary terrorist security risk to the United States and the world. such as smallpox.) In mid-November. Heightened U. which included a call for Iraq to "disarm its chemical. with its connection to Al Qaida-sponsored terrorism. (See the next section for provisions of this resolution./U. In response to the United States’ heightened effort and possible direct action against Iraq." • Bush said that Saddam Hussein had repeatedly violated 16 United Nations Security Council resolutions.un.asp?NewsID=5344&Cr=iraq&Cr1= for information on this acceptance. and nuclear weapons programs. http://www.Important Post-1998 Events Terrorism: The Focus The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in Manhattan and the Pentagon.) Continued on next page Iraq 42 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .

The resolution said nothing about the “punishment” that Iraq would incur if it didn’t fulfill this resolution. The families of interviewees may also travel with the interviewees.pdf?OpenElement The Mandate United Nations Security Council Resolution 1284 created the United Nations Monitoring. Continued United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441: Important Features The key provisions of Resolution 1441 were that Iraq must: • Submit to the United Nations Monitoring.) Iraq 43 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .org/Docs/journal/asp/ws. Interviews may occur without the presence of Iraqi government observers. Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC). the IAEA. A complete text of the resolution is at: http://www. either inside or outside Iraq.asp?m=S/RES/1441(2002) or at http://ods-ddsny. • Provide UNMOVIC and IAEA with “unimpeded. stocks of agents.org/apps/news/infocusRel. unconditional. it would be in violation of the resolution.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N02/682/26/PDF/N0268226. Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC).un. which would be reported to the Security Council.Important Post-1998 Events. with a precise listing of all weapons locations. and all production facilities. which replaced UNSCOM. and the Security Council a complete accounting of all its nuclear. and chemical programs.asp?infocusID=50&Body=Iraq&Bo dy1=inspect has information on the resolutions and the inspections. • Allow unrestricted interviews to all personnel that UNMOVIC and IAEA may want to talk with. The mandate of UNMOVIC was to • Continue with UNSCOM's efforts to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction • Check and monitor Iraq's compliance with its obligations not to reacquire the weapons prohibited by the United Nations Security Council (The United Nations site http://www. and unrestricted access” to all types of facilities and transport which the two agencies may want to inspect. If Iraq failed to comply with this resolution.un. all ballistics missiles and other delivery systems.un. biological.

200 liters of botulism toxin • 5. Cooperation with U. however.N.500 liters of clostridium The United States asked why the Iraqi government ignored these agents in its declaration. An Iraqi security official was invariably present. such as scientists and technicians. to talk freely with UNMOVIC inspectors. including: • 2. personnel. was not full or complete.Iraq’s Weapons Declaration Compliance Iraq allowed United Nations inspectors back into the country. Iraq omitted a number of key biological agent items. • Iraq submitted its required weapons declaration to the United Nations. • The Iraqi government did not allow personnel associated with its various WMD programs or facilities.160 kilograms of growth media for anthrax • 1. some of which are discussed below. • Iraq said it was manufacturing new energy fuels suited for a class of ballistic missile which it had not admitted it had previously possessed. Biological Agents In the declaration on its weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations. Continued on next page Ballistic Missiles Iraq 44 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . • The United States government asked why Iraq was manufacturing fuel cells for missiles it said it didn’t have. but the report had irregularities and gaps.

biological labs in trucks.S.. • The Iraqi government had not adequately accounted for these chemical weapons in the declaration. Instead it insisted that these were "refrigeration vehicles and food testing laboratories.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/16118. the United States asked what was the Iraqi government concealing about these mobile facilities. the United Nations Special Commission reported that Iraq had not provided credible evidence that: • 550 mustard gas-filled artillery shells and 400 biological weapon-capable aerial bombs had been lost or destroyed.e.htm Iraq 45 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .Iraq’s Weapons Declaration. i. government asked what the Iraqi government was concealing by not including these munitions in its declaration.state." Again. Mobile Biological Weapon Facilities The Iraqi declaration provided no information about its mobile biological weapon agent facilities. Continued Chemical & Biological Weapons Munitions In January 1999. More information about the declaration is at http://www. The U.

otherwise. China. • It had to be one of the key countries in any coalition strategy against Iraq because part of the Bush administration’s military strategy was to attack Iraq from the north.A New Coalition The Smoking Gun Many members of the United Nations were looking for direct evidence of Iraq’s WMD before considering the possibility of any intervention in the country. Turkey is a non-Arabic secular state. had not ruled out military force against Iraq. Many nations that participated in the 1991 Persian Gulf War were reluctant to join the coalition. France would veto any United Nations resolution authorizing force against Iraq. • France. but said that United Nations inspectors must be given the broadest opportunity to fully do their job. and Germany were against immediate military intervention in Iraq. • The northern prong of this possible invasion would come from Turkey. Beginning a Coalition The United States was working on building a new coalition for the possible attack on Iraq. • Germany said it would not support a military campaign. a permanent member of the Security Council. Turkey The Republic of Turkey is an example of a reluctant coalition partner. • The reluctance of other United Nations members made it difficult for the United States to build an allied coalition for invading Iraq. • Russia. • Popular opinion in much of the world was against military intervention without United Nations approval. France. Continued on next page Iraq 46 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .

Hungary. public opinion in the country was not in favor of the war as many Turks felt that the war might engulf the whole Middle East and destabilize their country politically and economically. Turkish Apprehension Joining Up The United States’ staunchest ally in forming a coalition for the invasion of Iraq and in support of reconstructing post-war Iraq has been the United Kingdom. (See the site http://www. Prime Minister Tony Blair carried out shuttle diplomacy to persuade reluctant nations to join the U. led a drive to persuade other European nations to join the coalition.S. Poland. • Most glaring was the absence of the two giants of Europe. Denmark.) Continued on next page Iraq 47 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . and the Czech Republic – signed on.A New Coalition. Portugal. • Six additional nations – Italy.com/wp-dyn/articles/A36852003Jan30. The United States continued to work on an acceptable allied coalition strategy with nations such as Turkey. • There was also the fear that Saddam Hussein would retaliate directly against Turkey if the country were used as a base for invading Iraq. the Turkish parliament voted against stationing United States and coalition troops that might transit the country. Germany and France. • At this point. which both had very strong reservations about military action against Iraq.-led coalition. • Additionally.html for details on coalition building. Blair. together with Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar of Spain. In late January 2003.washingtonpost. Continued • Most Turks are Muslims like the Iraqis.

• He cited intelligence sources showing that the Iraqis had been dispersing rockets armed with alleged biological weapons in western Iraq. presented the U. case against Iraq to the United Nations general assembly.A New Coalition. 2003. the Secretary of State offered evidence that Iraq • Still had WMD • Was not cooperating with the U. Using satellite photographs and intercepted audio messages from the Iraqi military. the Secretary of State discussed the following: • Iraq had bulldozed and concealed alleged chemical weapons at the Al Musayyib chemical complex in 2002 and had a series of cargo vehicles and decontamination vehicles moving around at the site.N. inspectors • Had links to Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) Military Intercepts Powell played recordings of telephone messages between high-ranking Iraqi military officers discussing • “Forbidden ammo” • Concealment of modified vehicles from U. Colin Powell. Continued Making the Case against Saddam Hussein On February 5.S.N. Continued on next page Iraq 48 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . the U. inspectors Concealment In maintaining that Iraq still concealed WMD.S. Secretary of State. • Iraqi informants claimed that Iraq had 18 trucks that it used as mobile biological weapons labs.

speech is at http://www. • In the United Nations.gov/secretary/rm/2003/17300pf.state. member states. • Because of member states opposition to military intervention and the threat of a veto by other Security Council members.S. the United States did not request a vote for military intervention in Iraq.htm . which had had reservations about military intervention in Iraq. an associate and collaborator of Osama bin Laden and his al Qaeda lieutenant.A New Coalition." • Zarqawi spent two months in Baghdad during May and June 2002 getting medical treatment. N. felt that the UNMOVIC should still be given more time to carry out further inspections. Iraq 49 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . Continued Al Qaida Connection Powell also maintained that “Iraq harbors a deadly terrorist network headed by Abu Musab Zarqawi. Reaction Reaction among the U. Full text of Colin Powell’s U. • Some members of his group were supposedly based in Baghdad. population to Powell’s presentation was generally positive.

Rolling War Tactics here included large forces seizing and establishing bridgeheads in northern. with high casualties. Saddam Hussein might have been able to launch a pre-emptive strike. Baghdad First This strategy called for taking the capital of Iraq..Possible Options for Invading Iraq Desert Storm Type Tactics This “scenario” would be a replay of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. It would require about 250. • A disadvantage was that fighting would primarily occur in the Baghdad region. • Dissident groups. Continued on next page Iraq 50 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . and southern Iraq.000 troops would participate in this war. • The disadvantage of this option was that it required basing a large presence of Western forces in the area. The aim was a swift strike that would cause a collapse from within. • Kurds in the north and Shia Arabs in the south would play a role in this campaign.000 troops were needed. mostly in urban areas. About 100. • There probably would not be a direct assault on Baghdad. • There might have been repercussions from Arab countries reluctant to join the coalition. • About 300. deserters.000 troops. • Saddam Hussein’s republican guard had been trained in urban warfare and would probably do much of the fighting. western. There would be a more intense air campaign with faster deployment of ground troops than in 1991. Surprise was very important here. Saddam Hussein’s government would eventually collapse. etc. where the power and communications center of Saddam Hussein’s government was located. • Since it would require a large build-up of troops and supplies. pressuring Saddam Hussein’s regime internally. The main invasion would come from Kuwait with air strikes from warplanes based in neighboring countries. would then rally. Baghdad.

pbs. Rolling War (continued) Coup or Exile Two other options were: • A surprise coup. with promised shelter and safety.Possible Options for Invading Iraq. • The Iraqi Government had experience in controlling minorities in these areas. • Some Arab countries tried to persuade Saddam Hussein and his family to go into exile.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/gunning/interviews/sciolino.-led air forces attacked military targets around Baghdad. would seize key installations in Baghdad while U. sponsored by the CIA. the allies could not be certain that the Kurds and Shias would fully support this plan. This early interview covering various political. html . Continued • The main disadvantage to this plan was that the Iraqi opposition was splintered. Iraq 51 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . administrative and international angles gives good perspective on the coming war by a PBS correspondent http://www.S.

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It could also isolate and overcome Baghdad without heavy casualties. success very likely. The United States could then use airpower to take out the northern Iraqi military. This combination of mobility and air power would make U. Continued on next page Iraq 53 Operation Iraqi Freedom . Topic Preparation for War Operation Iraqi Freedom: the War Begins Top Priority: Baghdad War in the South Operation Iraqi Freedom: Ware in the North War in the West The Turkish “Card” Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom See Page 53 56 60 62 64 68 70 73 Some Basic Assumptions & Conclusions United States and coalition forces had two important questions in relation to winning the military campaign in Iraq: • Could the Iraqis put up a strong resistance? • Could the United States react as quickly to changes on the battlefield as it thought it could? Conclusions were: • Even if the Iraqis could resist effectively and the United States had problems with managing the battlefield. the United States still could win the war.S.Operation Iraqi Freedom Preparation for War Selected Topics The topics covered in this section are shown in the table below.S. • Even if there were resistance at first. military could isolate southern Iraqi forces. the U.

Civilian casualties would be heavy throughout the country. chief weapons inspector Hans Blix reported back to the U.Preparation for War. Security Council Resolution 1441. 7 — The U. S. The chief issue would be: Is an extended war-fighting scenario politically tenable? Keep these points in mind as you continue reading: weighing the military and the political is key to understanding the military campaign and later reconstruction of Iraq. it might take up to two months to be effective. would probably win the war. Jan. Continued on next page Iraq 54 Operation Iraqi Freedom . 14 — During a White House meeting. Chemical weapons use by Iraq might be a reality in this case too. • The United States and Britain presented a revised draft resolution to the Security Council giving Hussein an ultimatum to disarm by March 17 or face the possibility of war.N. with the activation of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet. the U. military built up forces in the Arabian Gulf. Even then. Security Council saying Iraqi disarmament would take months. 8 — The Defense Department enlisted commercial airlines to transport troops and equipment as part of the buildup for possible war with Iraq. Feb. including Baghdad. Continued Possible Worst Case The United States couldn’t guarantee the • Timing of civilian casualties • Range of civilian casualties If intense aerial attacks were necessary. Then a full ground assault would follow in the hottest time. Military Build-up Jan.S. March 7 — • U. President Bush said he was tired of the continuing deception on the part of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein and saw no evidence that Hussein was disarming as required by U.N.N. but said that it was not a sign that war with Iraq was inevitable (Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld). summer.

United States and Britain met in the Azores for a final attempt at diplomacy.N.N. Portugal. • France and Russia said they would veto any U. March 16 — • The leaders of Spain.Preparation for War. resolution. observers evacuated the demilitarized zone along the border between Iraq and Kuwait ahead of the possible war. This resulted in an announcement that the allies would not pursue a second U.N. Iraq 55 Operation Iraqi Freedom . • U. The Ultimatum March 17 — • Bush delivered an ultimatum that Saddam Hussein and his sons have 48 hours to leave Iraq. resolution that implied war. • Arms inspectors evacuated the country. Continued Last Minute Diplomacy March 11 — • The White House rejected any plan to delay by one month the new resolution’s March 17 deadline for Iraq to disarm or face military action.

including Saddam Hussein. Airpower Focus Air Raids on Baghdad Iraqi air defenses in Baghdad were at best sporadic during the coalition bombing of the capital • Iraqi anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) and surface-to-air missiles at times returning fire against coalition aircraft. • Additionally. in Baghdad was struck by cruise missiles and bombs dropped by F-117 Nighthawk stealth aircraft. making most Iraqi air defenses totally ineffective. Continued on next page Iraq 56 Operation Iraqi Freedom . In a "decapitation" attack. The aim was to kill Saddam Hussein in one of his palace bunkers. • Patriot PAC-3 missiles in Kuwait successfully intercepted two Iraqi missiles. an important focus of the raids was Iraqi command and control centers and communications in the capital.Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins “Decapitation” Attack March 19 — The war begins. • Coalition forces used B-2 and F-117 fighters. The attack did not succeed. • Coalition aircraft dropped almost 2 million leaflets over Iraq — the second million-plus leaflets dropped in two days. • Iraqi commanders were holding off on using AAA and surface-to-air missiles until they felt the final offensive against the capital was in progress. Coalition forces used the fliers and broadcasts into the country to get information to the Iraqi population. and other times remaining silent. which eluded radar and could launch bombs from high altitudes. a suspected gathering of Iraqi leaders. • Coalition air forces also struck Iraqi long-range artillery emplacements. Reasons for Poor Iraqi Air Defenses There were several possible reasons for the lack of AAA and surface-to-air missiles: • Coalition bombing was effective in degrading Baghdad's air defense system. air defense sites and surface-to-surface missile sites.

• The 3rd Infantry Division (ID) (Mechanized) rolled out of Kuwait into southern Iraq at 6 a. the ground war began. Continued Degradation of Iraqi Air Defenses Throughout the early air bombardment phase of the war. As the air war progressed. • The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) and the British crossed into Iraq to seize Iraq's oil fields near Basra.m. • Special operation forces went into action throughout western and southern Iraq. coalition forces steadily bombed Iraqi air defenses around the country. local time and met only slight resistance.Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins. This was the point at which coalition forces were certain that they had truly degraded Baghdad’s air defense capability. 2003. showing air supremacy over every aspect of Iraq except Baghdad. Ground War On March 20. witnesses inside Baghdad said that coalition planes began to fly low enough to be seen by those on the ground. Continued on next page Iraq 57 Operation Iraqi Freedom .

S. Marines had captured the port town of Umm Qasr.S. The map below comes from: http://www.gif Continued on next page Iraq 58 Operation Iraqi Freedom . the 3rd ID had penetrated almost 100 miles into Iraq on its way towards Baghdad.infoplease. coalition forces struck hundreds of Iraqi targets. on the Kuwait border about 290 miles southeast of Baghdad. We will repeat it throughout this “chronology” as you need to have a “geographic” orientation when discussing any military campaign.edu/maps/cia03/iraq_sm03. It has the most important site names mentioned in this section on Operation Iraqi Freedom.Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins.com/spot/iraqtimeline2. • Coalition forces launched a massive missile assault on Baghdad. gave U.utexas. 2003. Heading for Baghdad Map The map below should orient you.html.lib. Continued • By March 22. A detailed chronology of the Iraqi war crisis is at http://www. Umm Qasr. In the next 24 hours. • U. and British forces a port for military and humanitarian supplies and a base from which to clear out any Iraqi resistance in the south.

and Royal Marines captured Umm Qasr.com. Continued • Navy SEALs and coalition special forces seized Iraq's major gas and oil terminals in the northern Persian Gulf and airfields in western Iraq.S.stratfor. Navy and Marine Efforts Iraq 59 Operation Iraqi Freedom . including the war in the North. • British Royal Marines seized the Fao peninsula. South and the West is based on reports from the site: http://www. • The first elements of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) crossed into Iraq. • The British also focused their efforts in the South at Basra.Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins. • U. Most of the chronology of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Into Baghdad On April 3. 2003. 2003 • Part of the 3rd ID fought its way into Baghdad's international airport as another part came to within 10 miles of the city. elements of the 3rd ID reached Karbala. Continued on next page Iraq 60 Operation Iraqi Freedom .Top Priority: Baghdad The Road to Baghdad By March 22. • Units of the 3rd ID pushed north to Hillah while the rest of the division advanced to within several miles of Karbala on March 30. Marines came to within 15 miles of the city. 2003 The 2nd Brigade of the 3rd ID had clashed with Iraqi troops. On April 2. the division penetrated 150 miles into Iraq. the 3rd ID battled the Iraqi Republican Guard's Medina Division outside of Karbala. casualties. approximately halfway to Baghdad. On March 24. Marines closed in on the city from the southeast after crossing a canal and the Tigris River at Numaniyah.S. In a furious sandstorm. 2003. 2003 • The 3rd ID crossed the Euphrates River at Musayyib and was within 30 miles of Baghdad. On March 26. • U.000 enemy troops in a three-day battle. within 50 miles of Baghdad. 2003 • Two separate columns of Republican Guard vehicles heading south out of Baghdad were struck by coalition air forces. killing 45 of the enemy with no U. • The 3rd ID and the 101st paused to refit on March 27.S. killing approximately 1.S. • Elements of the 3rd ID encircled the town of Najaf. Elements of the 3rd ID fought Iraqi irregulars at the town of Samawah. Bypassing urban areas and resistance. • U.

encountering pockets of resistance. All structured resistance in Baghdad collapsed and the regime's control was broken. • An armored column of the 3rd ID drove through southwestern Baghdad. • The 3rd ID made another sweep through Baghdad.S. • Baghdad residents came out onto the streets and toppled statues and destroyed pictures of Saddam Hussein and his Baath Party. Iraq 61 Operation Iraqi Freedom . military planes land at the Baghdad airport. 2003 • Soldiers of the 3rd ID continued to search out and destroy remaining pockets of Iraqi resistance in Baghdad." but said the war had not yet ended. • The White House called this an "historic moment. • U. • Saddam Hussein's whereabouts were still unknown. 5 • After a tank battle. Marines captured the Rashid military air base in eastern Baghdad. April 6 – • U. advancing from the west.S.S. Marines advanced further into eastern Baghdad. Saddam Hussein’s Residences On April 7.Top Priority: Baghdad. Continued Taking Baghdad On April 4. the 3rd ID took over the entire Baghdad international airport and began encircling the city. 2003 — • Elements of the 3rd ID seized Saddam Hussein’s Republican and Sijood presidential palaces. without any casualties. • U. Collapse of Baghdad: April 9. • Marines fought Iraqi soldiers in a fierce fight before advancing to the southeastern edge of Baghdad.

Marines captured the strategic port in the southern Iraqi city of Umm Qasr. potentially free from Iraqi resistance. Much of this was covered in earlier sections Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins and in Top Priority: Baghdad. This meant that coalition forces had to eventually take the towns from Basra through Nasiriyah and Karbala. 2003. Capturing this town gave U. Continued on next page Iraq 62 Operation Iraqi Freedom . and British forces a port for delivering military and humanitarian supplies. about 300 miles southeast of Baghdad. In this section you will cover a little more about key regions of the south and their importance. On March 21. the movement to Baghdad came from the south out of Kuwait. which is located along the Iraq-Kuwaiti border.S.War in the South On the Road to Baghdad As mentioned earlier.S. U.

however. it could have presented a stumbling block to coalition forces advancing on Baghdad. • Although Basra is a city smaller than Baghdad. • Any long-term siege of the city. with bombardment. would have meant starving the population.War in the South. Basra was important. as part of the southern front. Iraq 63 Operation Iraqi Freedom . Continued Basra (Basrah) The opening scenario of Operation Iraqi Freedom saw Marine expeditionary forces and Army special forces occupying the Basra region because Saddam Hussein’s forces had set fire to a number of oil wells in this oil-laden region of Iraq. and would have been a true political liability for the coalition. It lies on the north-south axis to Baghdad. British forces would have rapidly been “depleted” by extensive house-to-house urban combat.

Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North

Kirkuk and Mosul: Keys to the North

Key to the northern front of Operation Iraqi Freedom were two important oilproducing centers: Kirkuk and Mosul. • If coalition forces could occupy these two population centers, the road from the north through Tikrit, Saddam Hussein’s hometown region, to Baghdad would be secure. This would allow coalition forces a two-pronged approach, from the north and south, on Baghdad. • Besides coalition forces, which were much fewer than in the south, the chief player in this northern front were the Kurds and possibly Turkey, which bordered on Kurdish-dominated northern Iraq.
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Operation Iraqi Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North, Continued

Initial Phase

On March 26, 2003, the coalition opened the invasion of Iraq on the northern front. About 1,000 U.S. paratroopers landed in Kurdish-controlled Iraq. Coalition warplanes bombed: • Iraqi positions near the town of Chamchamal in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq. Chamchamal is about 20 miles east of the key oil city of Kirkuk, • Kirkuk in recent days. Aircraft also were heard flying over the nearby city of Sulaymaniyah.

Kurdish Involvement

Early on, Kurdish leaders hesitated in attacking major centers in northern Iraq; the Kurdish commander in the Dohuk area of northern Iraq said that: • There were too few U.S. troops in the North to open a new front against Iraqi military forces. • Air raids against Iraqi defensive lines during the early days of the offensive had not been very concentrated or intensive in the North.

Overrunning Iraqi Positions

Later it became clear that Iraqi forces in northern Iraq were not a strong match for Kurdish forces. With increased air support, Kurdish, together with U.S. ground forces, made steady progress against Iraqi forces. A report on Kurdish militia fighting Iraqi forces at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wpdyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A448212003Mar28&notFound=true
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Operation Iraqi Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North, Continued


On April 9, Mosul fell to essentially Kurdish forces supported by U.S. special operations forces and air power. • The Iraqis had withdrawn some of their divisions from Mosul, weakening its defenses substantially. • Mosul had limited strategic importance. Kirkuk, to the southwest, was more heavily defended. Kurdish troops would need increased coalition support to take it. The fall of Mosul did clear the way to Baghdad. The road from the north to Baghdad passes through Tikrit, which is Saddam Hussein's home town and was his political base and supposedly a heavily defended stronghold


On April 10, Kurdish and U.S. forces advanced to the western edge of Iraq's northern oilfields at Kirkuk and moved into the town of Dibis without encountering any Iraqi resistance. The oil facilities around the town appeared to be intact. Later in the morning the Kurdish forces of Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan occupied Kirkuk, which Baathist party militants and Iraqi forces had deserted earlier that day. Report on Kurds taking Kirkuk at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wpdyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A53952003Apr10&notFound=true
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Operation Iraqi Freedom

a task force of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force. Iraq 67 Operation Iraqi Freedom . • Early on April 14. supported by Cobra helicopters and F-18s. • About 20 U. with most of Saddam Hussein’s forces disappearing before coalition forces had arrived. Tikrit was taken by coalition forces the same way Baghdad and Kirkuk had been captured earlier. Continued Tikrit Because of continued pressure by coalition special operations forces and Kurdish forces in the north.S. tanks entered the center of Tikrit along the main road from Kirkuk and occupied the city square.Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North. Iraqi forces found it very difficult to withdraw to Tikrit and Baghdad. 2003. attacked Republican Guard units on the southern edge of Tikrit.

170 miles to the Mudaysis airfield.S. including British and Australian commandos. Continued on next page Iraq 68 Operation Iraqi Freedom . Special Operations U. • Coalition special operations forces. • The area is mostly unpopulated desert but has a few airfields and areas that might have been used by the Iraqi military to hide SCUD missile launchers. had already captured the airfields at the H2 and H3 pumping stations and were said to have been involved in skirmishes at Ar Rutbah and Akashat. special operations forces gained control of western Iraq. from the Jordanian border.War in the West Purpose The western front was a means to control airfields and to suppress any possible threatening missile systems there.

Iraq 69 Operation Iraqi Freedom . • The second. from the Jordanian border through Ar Ramadi to Baghdad. through Karbala to Baghdad. Continued Key Routes The area reportedly under coalition control also included two important highways into Iraq: • The first. from Arar.War in the West. in Saudi Arabia.

and nationalistic sentiment.S. • Some Turkish trucks did assist coalition forces by carrying some supplies for them into northern Iraq. Continued on next page Iraq 70 Operation Iraqi Freedom . • Additionally. These problems will play a part of the eventual solution to peace in northern Iraq. positioning tanks. rocket launchers and artillery behind embankments. but its parliament banned U. Turkish soldiers settled into Turkish villages and fields along the border with Iraq.The Turkish “Card” A Complex Challenge In contrast to the direct attack on Baghdad. aircraft to only use Turkish air space. military planes deployed in the war against Iraq from taking off from or landing at Turkish bases. Turkish Actions Turkey took the following actions in relation to its interest in Operation Iraqi Freedom: • Turkey allowed U. Turkey Here coalition forces had to consider a number of variables: • Chiefly: the Kurds. ethnic enmity. indigenous to northern Iraq • Possible military action that Turkey might take in northern Iraq Between these two “allies” as you saw in an earlier section of this handbook.S. including the main air base in Incirlik. is much tension. the war on the northern front had been more complex in terms of the • Local population • Effect on Iraq’s neighbor.

A break with Turkey is inconceivable. the Middle East and in many of the Muslim countries of the former Soviet Union. Perspective on U. • It influences events in the Balkans.S. The Turkish Perspective: Importance of the U.Turkish Relations U. strategy since World War II. who are interested in a unified independent state. which would probably include parts of Iraq. Importance of Turkey Turkey is the single most important ”piece of real estate” in the EuroSouthwestern Asian area. Turkey depends on the United States to • Guarantee its national security • Support Turkish armed forces in guaranteeing Turkish secularism • Prevent the disintegration of Turkey by controlling the Kurds. It has been a basic pivot of U. Turkey and Iran Continued on next page Iraq 71 Operation Iraqi Freedom . regardless of how it treats the United States.S . • Turkey is the key nation in the United States’ geopolitical strategy in the region. Continued The U.The Turkish “Card”.S.-Turkish relations probably outweigh many other international considerations in the Middle East. Regardless of Turkish “non-cooperation” during Operation Iraqi Freedom the United States needs Turkey.S.S.

the Turkoman. For this. The Turkoman Minority To make the Turkish-Kurdish issue even more thornier.The Turkish “Card”. forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom (the Turks did not). who would see it spreading and influencing the Turkish Kurds of southeastern Turkey. • Any move toward a Kurdish sovereign state would destroy U. and the threat of an independent Kurdish state would be a nightmare to the Turks. Iraq 72 Operation Iraqi Freedom . As you can see.S.-Turkish relations. the Kurds expect something in return. but is limited by the Turks. a large Turkic minority living in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq.S. • Naturally. ethnicity will continue to play a dominant role in any political stabilization of post-Saddam Hussein Iraq. are beginning to demand power in that region. Turks favor their “brothers” the Turkoman in any kind of “struggle” with the Kurds. Continued The Kurds: Forcing a Symbiotic Relationship The Kurds have cooperated with the U. • There have been clashes between Kurds and Turkomans in the Kirkuk area. • The U. As you can see the Kurds are one of chief factors that keeps Turkey and the United States balanced in a dependent relationship. administration wants to reward the Kurds.S.

html Iraq 73 Operation Iraqi Freedom . – Operation Iraqi Freedom • United Kingdom ..S. • Australia .000 Combat deaths – 2.000 U.000 British 2.320 Iraqi civilian deaths – 7. Estimates • Casualties – 115 U.000 Australian 200 Polish Official Names Troops Deployed U. 45.100 Iraqi POWs – 7.600 Iraqi civilian wounded – 5.com/ipa/A0908900.S.900-9.S.000 coalition troops were deployed to the Gulf region: • • • • 255.110 • POWs – 8 (all rescued) • • • • • Iraqi Estimates Iraqi troops – 350.Operation Telic. 53 other coalition countries • Wounded – 2.S.infoplease.Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom Length Combat operations lasted officially March 20 – May 1.300 Cost $4 billion per month to keep troops stationed in Iraq Statistics from http://www.Operation Falconer More than 300. 2003 • U.

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(He replaced retired Lieutenant General Jay Garner. Topic Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq “New” Iraq. administration of post-Saddam-Hussein Iraq.After Operation Iraqi Freedom Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq Selected Topics The topics covered in this section are shown in the table below. Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay Hussein were killed in a gun battle at a villa in Mosul.S.) An excellent time line of post-Saddam Hussein administrative and managerial events is at http://www. in a night operation called Operation Red Dawn. L.S.php?id=6|35||12. U.” Continued on next page Iraq 75 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . • In August 2003.” was captured.org/reg_index. forces captured Saddam Hussein in a village near Tikrit.cfr. • In May 2003. currently runs the U. • One of the earliest “members of this deck” taken into custody was Saddam Hussein’s former deputy prime minister Tariq Aziz. Rewards have been offered for information leading to the capture of the remaining “cards. former ambassador and State Department counter-terrorism director. Paul Bremer. Old Neighbors New Iraqi Government Guerilla-Style War Operation Iron Hammer Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building See Page 75 77 78 80 82 84 Administrative Structure A civilian administrator. . • In December 2003. He was hiding in an underground “spider hole” with a few weapons and $750k. the United States developed a list of the 55 most-wanted members of Saddam Hussein’s regime in the form of a deck of cards. the first administrator. Ali Hassan al-Majid or “Chemical Ali. The Most Wanted List In April 2003. Saddam Hussein's cousin.

S. was awarded a contract to • Operate Iraqi oil fields • Distribute oil from Iraqi fields Bechtel was also awarded a contract to rebuild bomb-damaged Iraq. Continued Early Administrative Measures In May 2003. administrator in Iraq abolished • The Baath Party • The Iraqi army and police force as constituted under Saddam Hussein • Institutions of Saddam Hussein’s regime The interim governing council (IGC) of Iraq met for first time.S.S-led administration in Iraq • Lifting of economic sanctions The U. Rebuilding Iraq Halliburton Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. Kellogg Brown and Root. Contracting for Two large U. Agency for International Development for more than 1. corporations are participating in the reconstruction of Iraq. the UN Security Council approved a resolution • Supporting the U.7 billion dollars. A Halliburton subsidiary.S. Iraq 76 After Operation Iraqi Freedom .Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq.

are difficult to assess. Iraq and Iran have been at odds over the years in their efforts to dominate the Middle East. • It is possible that the pro-Iranian Shias of Iraq could organize to carry out a guerilla style war against coalition forces. Additionally. • Iran is at best unpredictable in its attitude and actions regarding the liberation and reconstruction of Iraq. pressure and threats. the country left its border with Iraq open so that anti-coalition voluntary forces could freely mass in Syria and launch “attacks” against coalition forces.S. The president of Syria spoke out about what his country considers the U.“New” Iraq. An example is Syria.S. which could pose destabilizing problems for both coalition forces and the newly emerging postSaddam Hussein Iraq. Iran has more long-term goals. Iraq 77 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . the government closed the border though traffic in supplies to anti-coalition forces in Iraq continued. war plans. Iran has tremendous resources at its disposal to support this kind of a war.S. • Syria voted in favor of Security Council Resolution 1441 and maintained a behind-the-scenes dialogue with the United States despite condemning U. policymakers’ minds. something that is uppermost in U. While Syrian actions can be contained and are often very evident. Old Neighbors Syrian Challenge A democratized Iraq could eventually present a potential threat to many Middle Eastern countries. potential for dominating the Middle East. Busloads of anti-coalition volunteers launched from Syria into Iraq. which in their complexity and subtlety. Iran As you learned earlier. because of U. • Later. the “favored” status of Iraq’s Shias by the regime in Tehran has been a sore spot in the relationship between the two countries. encouraging anti-war activity and sentiment. • Initially. • Then it changed course.S.

This political pluralism.S. and coalition administration to the newly formed Iraqi government is a progressive shift of power. • A peaceful means for political parties to coexist. with respect to their differences. must be ensured. based on negotiations between the • Coalition Provisional Authority • Former Iraqi anti-Saddam Hussein opposition parties IGC Responsibilities The council: • Appoints and dismisses ministers. General elections are set to follow a referendum on this new constitution. Continued on next page Iraq 78 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . • The transition to political pluralism is not easy because Iraqis had lived more than three decades under Saddam Hussein’s one-party dictatorial system. which is one of the most elementary foundations of democracy. Such a process requires time. • Controls the national budget. • Oversees the convening of a conference to draft a new Iraqi constitution. is a process that requires time to shape. together with the consolidation of new Iraqi political institutions. Establishing the The 25-member Interim Governing Council of Iraq was established in July IGC 2003. The Transfer Process The aim of the transfer of power from the U.New Iraqi Government What Iraq needs: Peaceful Pluralism Political and economic stability in post-Saddam Hussein depends on a government of all peoples of present-day Iraq.

• Representatives of indigenous political parties some of which are at odds with the United States. passed a resolution • Welcoming the IGC of Iraq to the U.New Iraqi Government. • Kurds from the liberated Kurdish areas of Iraq. UN Approval In August 2003. • Giving a 12-month mandate to the new U. the U.N. which had been originally opposed to the invasion of Iraq.N. reflecting Iraq's ethnic and religious composition. Continued IGC Make-up Most of those holding council seats are • Members-in-exile from historically anti-Saddam Hussein groups. would like to see a more speedy transition of power to the Iraqi people. Iraq 79 After Operation Iraqi Freedom .N. assistance mission for Iraq Council Action • In early September 2003. France and other countries. the IGC appointed a cabinet of 25 ministers. • The cabinet was tasked to run the country's affairs until a new elected government was established. Reaction to the IGC Many Arab countries have not yet recognized the IGC as the government of post-Saddam Hussein Iraq because they consider the ICG a “puppet” of the United States.

including the prominent Shia leader Ayatollah Mohammed Baqr-alHakim. Types of Opposition The terrorist opposition is probably made up of the following types of individuals and groups or has attracted similar individuals • • • • Remnants of military forces still loyal to Saddam Hussein Remnants of the Baath Party Sunni Muslims loyal to Saddam Hussein Disgruntled Iraqi citizens who have lost patience with the U. S. Continued on next page Terrorist Incidents: Examples Iraq 80 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . coalition forces in Iraq face a terrorist adversary using guerrilla style low intensity tactics. A car bomb killed 125 people in Najaf. the Jordanian Embassy in Baghdad was bombed. headquarters in Baghdad.-led coalition • Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) and other voluntary terrorist-type forces who have crossed over into Iraq to “liberate” the country from coalition forces • In August 2003. Twenty-two people were also killed when a terrorist bomb destroyed U. Dozens of people were killed when the Red Cross office in Baghdad was bombed. • A female member of the Interim Governing Council was assassinated in September 2003.N.Guerrilla-Style War Low Intensity CENTCOM has admitted that in its efforts to stabilize Iraq and to maintain the peace there. with 11 people killed.

forces in Iraq. • The murder of Japanese diplomats and Spanish civilians working in Iraq seemed to indicate that terrorists are targeting allied personnel in an effort to discourage coalition countries from sending support to U.S.S. personnel and officials associated directly with U.stm. Since late October 2003. Shift in Tactics? Iraq 81 After Operation Iraqi Freedom .uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/737483. Previously most of the targets had been U.Guerrilla-Style War. Continued • There may be a change in the targets of terrorist attacks. This discussion is based on http://news.bbc. S. more Iraqi citizens appear to be targeted.co. • The brutal suicide bombing of an Italian police base in Nasiriyah in November 2003 may also signal that terrorist forces have shifted their attacks to regions located outside the capital. reconstruction efforts.

• Two policemen were wounded when assailants tossed a grenade at a police station in Mosul.0.story?coll=hc-headlines-newsat3 Continued on next page Terrorist Activities Coalition Responses Iraq 82 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . the Education Ministry's director general in Diwaniyah province in the southern town of Diwaniyah. Details can be found at http://www. • U. forces also used heavy artillery. on camps suspected of making bombs. S. • Near Kirkuk.com/news/custom/newsat3/sns-apiraq.000-pound bombs on terrorist targets. • A roadside bomb exploded in the southern city of Basra as a British civilian convoy was passing by. coalition forces initiated Operation Iron Hammer in November 2003. battle tanks. This kind of assassination is part of the new terrorist policy to murder Iraqis who are working with coalition forces. • Gunmen assassinated Hmud Kadhim. Baqouba and Fallujah. fighter-bombers dropped 1. • The coalition said it would use “overwhelming force” to suppress these attacks. U.ctnow. supply convoy north of Samara. forces targeted an abandoned dye factory in southern Baghdad that was hit by artillery and air strikes.S. • This operation was an aggressive attack on insurgents before they could strike coalition forces and coalition-friendly indigenous groups. including Tikrit.S.Operation Iron Hammer Operation Iron Hammer: A Response To deal with the upsurge in terrorist activity (examples in the next section). • Insurgents fired on a U. forces returned fire. • U.000-pound satellite-guided bombs was dropped near Baqouba. attack helicopters.7589745.S. damaging a vehicle • A pair of 2. F-16 fighter-bombers and AC-130 gun ships to take out targets in central Iraq. 30 miles northeast of Baghdad.

and leadership of these groups. a key player in the insurgent terrorist attacks on coalition forces and Iraqis. he would be able to give critical information on the structure. Continued Battle of Samara This was the largest post-Saddam Hussein engagement for coalition forces.Operation Iron Hammer. in fact. in a planned attack. coalition forces engaged insurgent forces. in which scores of Fedayeen-like troops were routed or destroyed. location. Saddam Hussein could reveal his plans and the locations of these weapons and missile systems. • If Saddam Hussein were. coalition forces cannot be certain how much direction or command he had over such forces. strength. In late November 2003. Iraq 83 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . a number of key issues came to the forefront: • Would his capture decrease or increase the insurgent attacks on coalition forces and Iraqis working with coalition forces? The chief issue here was how involved in the insurgency “movement” was Saddam Hussein. hiding alone in an underground hole. • An important issue that has been a constant problem for the Bush Administration was Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction. Hopefully. From the way he was captured. Capture of Saddam Hussein: Implications With the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003.

200 primary care clinics are now open.com/images/2003/11/03/international/1104HEAL. coalition allies are spending $422 million on health care. environmental research.S. in conjunction with U. agriculture. untreated sewage is now deposited into the Tigris River. universities. • The water authority has restored the worst parts of the system.Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building Utilities and Sanitation Although the water treatment system was antiquated and damage to the city power system also affected water treatment. Because of looting and sabotage. and legal education. University and higher technical schools had been isolated from the international academic community. Improvements in education include the following: • School registration at the primary and secondary level has increased. • U. Based on: http://graphics7. there had been little maintenance on school buildings. • Teachers’ salaries have increased. Continued on next page Iraq 84 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . • The coalition has allocated more than $100 million for repairs to the sewage system.6 million inhabitants of metro-Baghdad.gif Health A health assessment of hospitals found that 65% of the equipment in the country was not working. The sewage system was not designed to support the 5. • Baghdad has electricity about12 hours per day. Education Since 1991. have been awarded to Iraqi centers of higher education to encourage study in the fields of archaeology. Agency for International Development is in charge of the contract for equipment for water treatment. • Grants.nytimes. In 2003. about 60% of Baghdad now receives adequate water.S. All 240 hospitals and 1.

00 – 1. soldiers have been killed per week since major combat ended.Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building. normality – an end to violence.S. • “The wave of lawlessness which gripped the country upon the fall of the regime has largely subsided.opendemocracy. Continued • About five U.” Continued on next page Iraq 85 After Operation Iraqi Freedom .net/debates/article-2-95-1573.2003 Key points made by the author.’ said the Iraqi policeman.S.00. Price of Reconstruction Reconstruction: Eyewitness Report This section is based on the article below from http://www. it was about $5.” He had been out of country for twenty-five years. displays its wares late into the night. • A “rediscovered humanity” – the courtesy and politeness of the local Iraqi police force would make inhabitants of Iraq’s neighboring countries jealous: “ ‘I apologise for the inconvenience. soldiers is $300. Eight days in Iraq by Yahia Said 6 . • Coalition allies have destroyed about 100 weapons and munitions per day. a big change apparently from just weeks ago.jsp#. In May 2003. • The bounty paid to Iraqis who kill U. It is a firsthand account of some of the every-day “realities” of reconstruction in Baghdad.00.000.” The police force is the first government service organization in 35 years to work outside of Baathist control. who spent eight days in present-day Iraq found “a people yearning for freedom. Many now eat out in outdoor cafes and restaurants. Night curfews have been lifted and Baghdad residents are gradually venturing out of their homes. Said feels this is a plus for the Iraqi people and to the detriment of Saddam Hussein. • The average price of a Kalashnikov rifle is now about $80.11 . one of the few revived shopping destinations in the capital.00. instead of hurriedly grabbing takeaways. Goldsmiths on Karrada Street.

• “Some reports from the country seem to imply that Iraqis welcome at least some of the violence as legitimate resistance to occupation. according to Said. They are sick of violence of all kinds. whatever the pretexts. Many of these terrorists are considered foreigners. Indeed. Continued • Baghdad is alive with commercial activity. • “Iraqis want to regain control of their future and to become truly independent and free. Children from poor families Said visited were eating bananas – something unheard of. They are tired of empty rhetoric and ideologies. Most suicide bombers and terrorists target police stations. schools and international organizations.” Reconstruction: Eyewitness Report (continued) Iraq 86 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . Whoever cares for them should help them do just that. • Most dangerous is the ongoing political violence.Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building. Most Iraqis want to pick up the pieces of their shattered lives and move on. start newspapers and to begin business enterprises. During my eight days I did not meet a single person who shared this view. The streets are clean. • Many Iraqis forced into exile by Saddam Hussein’s regime are now returning to the city to set up political parties. who represent 60% of the adult population – do not want the Americans to leave anytime soon. under Saddam Hussein. the vast majority of people in Iraq – especially women. Government employees are now receiving salaries ten times higher than before the war.

Simon. Washington. This is an extended analysis of the origins. 1991. Makariya discusses Iraq as a one party state. DC: AE1 Press. one of the leading national security advisors during the Clinton administration. Henderson uses a balanced approach to discussing Saddam Hussein and his importance to the Arab and non-Arab world. Kanan. The Republic of Fear. Study of Revenge: The First World Trade Center Attack and Saddam Hussein’s War against America. San Francisco: Mercury House. and eventual first bombing of the World Trade Center.References Sources Besides the numerous web sites cited in this handbook. Saddam Hussein: A political Biography. Makariya. the total control exercised first by the Baath Party and then by Saddam Hussein. planning. Efraim and Inari Rautsi. Instant Empire: Saddam Hussein’s Ambition for Iraq. Karsh. Karsh and Rautsi have written an analytical political biography of Saddam Hussein. Kenneth. an analysis of opposition and corruption in Iraqi politics. and the geopolitical motives behind Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait. concludes that the post-Gulf War policy of containment against Iraq is no longer effective and believes that Saddam Hussein must be deposed by invasion. Continued on next page Iraq 87 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . the list below of other sources may also help you: Henderson. The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq. He covers important subjects such as the family and political background of Saddam Hussein’s rise. Berkeley: University of California Press. The emphasis is on the security and secret forces of Iraq and the way they terrorize citizens. 1998. The authors focus on the link between the bombers and Saddam Hussein. 1991. 2001. 2002. New York: Free Press. Mylroie.” The authors cover the personality of Saddam Hussein and how it affects his political actions. Laurie. Pollack. The book “traces the meteoric transformation of an ardent nationalist and obscure Ba’th party member into an absolute dictator. The author. New York: Random House. background.

The following is a list of online “bibliographical” sources that have extensive sites dealing with Iraq and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Elaine.htm http://www. http://www.co.bbc.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1584660.org/reg_index.af. focuses on how United Nations weapons inspectors uncovered Iraq’s secret nuclear.mil/au/aul/bibs/iraq/iraq_crisis.af.References.mil/ Iraq 88 After Operation Iraqi Freedom .stm http://www.cia.htm http://www.mich. New York: Wiley.army. The Outlaw State: Saddam Hussein’s Quest for Power and the Gulf Crisis.edu/govdocs/usterror.htm#03.html http://news. Saddam’s Secrets: The Hunt for Iraq’s Hidden Weapons.cfr.au. 1999.au.ringnebula. This book.php?id=6|35||1 http://www.lib. Continued Sources. and biological weapons programs and exposed the deceit that is at the root of Saddam Hussein’s regime.org/man/dod-101/ops/index.centcom. chemical.html http://fas. by one of the leading United Nations weapons inspectors. 1991.mil/operations/iraqi_freedom/iraqifreedom. http://www. Trevan. The site below has a chronology of the UN resolutions on disarmament inspections and Saddam Hussein’s obstructionism.com/Oil/Timeline. (continued) Sciolino.asp http://www.htm http://www. Tim.gov/cia/publications/iraq_wmd/Iraq_Oct_2002. London: Harper Collins.mil/au/aul/bibs/tertod/tertod.

Appendix A Islam Iraq 89 Appendix A: Islam .

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Appendix A: Islam

Islam: Basic Ideas


You have probably heard the name Islam associated with Iraq. Most people in Iraq and in surrounding countries believe in Islam. In this section, you will learn about Islam, its main ideas, customs, and practices. (http://thetruereligion.org/intro.htm - - a short introduction to Islam)

Definition of Islam

Islam means submission to the will of God in the Arabic language. The word Islam has the same root as the Arabic word salaam, which means peace. Muslims around the world often greet each other with the phrase “Salaam” in much the same manner as Jews say, “Shalom,” as a greeting. Both salaam and shalom come from the same common language root, the three-letter root - s-l-m. (http://media.isnet.org/off/Islam/basics/index.html) – discussion of various “doctrinal” aspects of Islam by noted theologians.


Islam is not named after a person like Christianity, which was named after Jesus Christ, Buddhism after Buddha, and Confucianism after Confucius. The central focus of Islam is always God. The basic tenet of Islam is that you must submit to Allah (the Arabic word for God) and live according to His divinely inspired law. • The key truth that Allah has revealed to mankind is that the only divine and worshipful “being” is Allah, the almighty God; thus all human beings should submit to and worship Allah. • Allah has 99 names, among them, The Gracious, The Merciful, The Beneficent, The Creator, The All-Knowing, The All-Wise, The Lord of the Universe, The First, The Last, and others. No matter what “sect” of Islam a person belongs to, he believes in this important religious belief that is the common thread of Islam.

The Precept



Appendix A: Islam

Arabs and Islam

Muslims (Moslems)

Now that you know that the religion is called Islam and the name of the God of Islam is Allah, what does the word Muslim mean? The word has the same s-l-m root as the words Islam and salaam. A Muslim is a person who submits to the will of Allah, regardless of race, nationality, or ethnic background. A Muslim has to submit completely and obediently to Allah and live according to Allah’s message. • Muslims worship Allah alone and must not worship any person, place or thing other than Allah. They believe that Allah is the God for the Christians, the Jews, the Muslims, the Buddhists, the Hindus, and even atheists. • Orally repeating the basic belief of a Muslim found in the “motto” of Islam: "Laa Elaaha illallaah" which means, “There is no god but Allah,” is the way a Muslim professes that he belongs to Islam. • The “motto” above, "Laa Elaaha illallaah," is in Arabic. • The prayers, sayings, and many blessings of Islam are all spoken in Arabic, just as the holy book of Islam, the Qur’an (Koran) is written in Arabic. • This common religious language of Islam is one of the ties that bind all Muslims together.
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Importance of Arabic in Islam



Appendix A: Islam

Albania is Muslim. Muslims make up the majority in such non-Arabic countries as Turkey. there are immigrant communities of Muslims from Africa. and Asia in France. Continued Arabs and NonArab Muslims Because of the importance of the Arabic language in Islam. • In Europe. • There is a large minority in China too. Bulgaria. Bosnia. many people assume that most Muslims are Arabs. Turkey. Elsewhere in Europe. • In fact there are more Muslims in Indonesia than in the Arab Middle East. Britain. 20% of the population of Suriname in South America is Muslim. and Germany. both from conversions and immigration. Today there are about five million Muslims in America. Pakistan. and Macedonia have large Muslim populations. • In the Americas Muslims have increased in recent years. Uzbekistan and other central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. This is not the case: About 80% of all Muslims are not Arabs.Arabs and Islam. • Besides Indonesia. Iraq 93 Appendix A: Islam .

His message is Islam.. It was his habit to meditate in a cave near Mecca. Muhammad received his first revelation from Allah through the Angel Gabriel. during one of his retreats. Abraham. His Calling Muhammad was born in Mecca (Makkah) in what is now Saudi Arabia. and Jesus. Muhammad was very religious. so Muhammad was raised by his uncle. He has been described as calm and meditative.. Soon after his birth. Muhammad. Muslims do not worship him or ascribe any divine qualities to the prophet. Isaac. • He reinterpreted and corrected the message of Allah and gave mankind the true word from Allah. His father died before he was born. regardless of their beliefs. in the year 570 CE. is known as the Qur’an (Koran). 33:40) This one phrase from the Qur’an shows Muhammad’s place in Islam and in world religion. At the age of 40. • He is the last messenger of God.Muhammad (Mohammed) Importance Muhammad is … the Messenger of God and the last of the prophets . which he continued to receive for twenty-three years. Muhammad is the last prophet of God to mankind. • Muhammad is the successor to Moses. The revelation of Islam that Muhammad received is the Qur’an (Koran). In a sense. Muslims believe that Muhammad is the prophet of Islam. Muhammad and Other Religions In terms of other world religions. Because of his trustworthiness and sincerity he was often asked to arbitrate disputes. This revelation. Muhammad is the prophet among all previous prophets and messengers. • In spite of his importance in Islam and for the world. his mother also died. Continued on next page Iraq 94 Appendix A: Islam . Jacob. Muslims consider that he “cleansed” the message. (Qur’an. • His message applies to all mankind.

called the Hijra (‘migration’).Muhammad (Mohammed). Islam had spread to Spain in the West and as far east as China. Muhammad and his followers returned to Mecca. • Before Muhammad died at the age of 63. where they made peace with their enemies and established Islam. • This event. Iraq 95 Appendix A: Islam . he and his small group of followers suffered persecution. Continued Spreading Islam As Muhammad began to preach the truth that Allah had revealed to him. when they traveled about 260 miles to the north to the city of Medina. marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. most of Arabia was Muslim. • After several years. and within a century of his death. • This became so strong that in the year 622 CE Muhammad and his followers emigrated from Mecca.

this is the “credo” of Islam: “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.usc.Five Pillars of Islam Introduction The five tenets are the foundation for all Islamic belief. Alms Known as the Az-Zakaat in Arabic.) Commitment Called the Ash-Shahaadah.” All Muslims subscribe to and repeat this belief. eventually culminating in complete prostration or bowing down with the hands on the floor to show complete submission to Allah. Muslims face in the direction of Mecca. Continued on next page Iraq 96 Appendix A: Islam . this means that Muslims must contribute to the support of those less fortunate Muslims--support of the poor. They are the cornerstones of Islam. this is the requirement that adult Muslims pray at five specific times during a twenty-four hour day to Allah. Muslims are encouraged to pay their Zakaat during the holy month of Ramadan. • This is a ritual prayer requiring Muslims to say specific prayers and to coordinate hand and arm movements.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/pillars/ – an introduction to the five pillars. • While performing As-Salaat. ( http://www. Prayer Called As-Salaat in Arabic.

adult Muslims who are in good health • Cannot eat. • Must abstain from sexual relations. The time for Ramadan changes each year because it is based on a lunar calendar. Continued Fasting In Arabic this is called As-Sawam. • The Hajj commemorates the sacrifices and faith of Abraham. According to the Council on Islamic Education. which means performing a ritual walk seven times around the sacred stone of Islam called the Kab’ah. The intention of fasting is to worship Allah. drink. his second wife. Hagar.Five Pillars of Islam. Iraq 97 Appendix A: Islam . It means that during the month of Ramadan. it is the largest. regularly scheduled international gathering on Earth. or smoke from sunrise until sunset every day of this holy month. for example there are rules about shaving and cutting hair and what to wear. Ramadan is a sacred month because it commemorates the time when Allah first revealed the Qur’an to Muhammad. this pilgrimage requires a Muslim in good health to travel to Mecca in Saudi Arabia at least once in a lifetime. Ishmael. and their son. Pilgrimage Called Al. • One of the high points of the Hajj is the umrah.Hajj (Hadsh). • Specific preparation is necessary for the Hajj. Ramadan comes 11 days earlier each year.

as opposed to his life itself. As Allah’s final message to mankind. Sometimes they wrote on wood. the holy book of the Muslims. (http://www. trees. The Sunnah. the Qur’an was recopied and refined. the Sunnah. and the ahadith (plural of hadith) are the basic body of Islamic religious doctrine for all Muslims. Form and Content The Qur’an is a collection of surahs or chapters. and even stones.usc. • Muhammad received the message in bits and pieces from the Angel Gabriel during a period of 23 years.afghannetwork. it is the holy book that supercedes all others: the Old Testament. Scribes selected by Muhammad usually wrote down these verses.net/Islam/ ) (http://www.edu/dept/MSA/) Interpretation Iraq 98 Appendix A: Islam . Muhammad’s actual words and deeds. • The word Al Qur’an means the recitation. etc. It is important to remember that Muslims believe the Qur’an is the word of Allah. which is the Sunnah. accents and markings for reading were added. the Gospels. During Muhammad’s lifetime it was recited publicly. uses the life of Muhammad to explain and expand on the verses and teachings of the Qur’an so that Islam can eventually become a world religion. • The original language of the Qur’an is Arabic. • Muhammad received the surahs from Allah. • The Sunnah is the spoken word and acts of Muhammad. many of which you might call verses. The Qur’an. Many followers also memorized the Qur’an by heart.Al Qur’an (Koran) and Sunnah Definition Al Qur’an (the Qur’an) is the revealed word of Islam. This is narration about the life of the prophet or what he approved . • A second form of interpretation is called hadith. • In later years. untouched and uninterpreted by human beings. parchment.

The Qur’an says: “ Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you. Inner Struggle The second and more personal meaning of jihad is an inner struggle. injustice would triumph. If good Muslims do not risk their lives in the cause of Islam. This means a struggle between the forces of Allah (good) and the forces of evil --an eternal struggle. the word jihad has a couple of interpretations. Self-defense Islam allows fighting in self-defense and in defense of religion. with the final goal of attaining inner peace. They consider the terrorism that they perpetuate a jihad. trees and livestock. Iraq 99 Appendix A: Islam . but do not transgress limits. You have probably heard the word jihad in reference to Osama bin Laden and the Taliban. and egotism. according to Islam.190) War is the last resort and is subject to the precepts of Islamic sacred law.Jihad (Djihad) Definition The word jihad means struggle in Arabic. There are rules of combat including prohibitions against harming civilians and against destroying crops.” (2. Actually. is constantly fighting a “war” against self-centered desire. Each of us. God does not love transgressors.

• A legal case may make use of religion. religion plays no direct part in such a system. • Simply put. just as varied interpretations of Christian doctrine have caused Christianity to split into various denominations. or Judaism. • These Islamic laws are based primarily on the Qur’an and are called the Sharia. Islamic View If you look at Islam. The two main sects of Islam. particularly how to interpret the Qur’an and the ahadith. The United States has a secular system of law. a religious denomination. has resulted in a certain degree of divisiveness in Islam. which are the schools of Islam. • It also includes crimes and the appropriate punishments for each. doesn’t have the power to rule on a case of adultery in a civil court or on a case of fraud in a criminal court.Islamic Schools (Sects) Religious vice Secular Law: Western View The United States and most other Western countries make a clear distinction between the rule of law and religion. the perspective is different. but religion is not the determining factor in most legal cases. Catholicism. • Religion is a separate personal issue that does not determine law. are the • Sunni • Shi'ites (Shi’ia) Continued on next page Iraq 100 Appendix A: Islam . Islamic law consists of guidelines and rules that determine all aspects of a Muslim’s life from how to perform ritual prayer to conducting business transactions. Interpretation and Reinterpretation This kind of religious legal system. such as Methodism. • Muslims must apply these precepts handed down to Muhammad in the sixth century to present-day situations.

about 16 percent. Results of the Division Because of this succession split. and practice have developed between these two main groups over the centuries. and Indonesia. there was confusion about who should succeed him as the leader of Islam. Muslims would find their own leader. Continued Shi’ites (Shi’ia) The basic divisiveness in Islam is based on an historical incident: • After Muhammad died. Ali was a relative of Muhammad and the first to accept Islam. Pakistan. • The prophet did not tell his followers how they ought to select their leaders or what qualifications their leaders should have. variations in Islamic doctrine. believe that: • Muhammad did not choose a specific successor and probably assumed that after his death. according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. The Shi’ites refused to accept the Sunnis’ choice and split off from this main group. Afghanistan. the remainder. The Sunnis chose a leader. later called the caliph. law. Sunnis make up about 83 percent of Muslims. was a minority and became known as the Shi’ites. from outside Muhammad’s household. • Sunni Muslims predominate in Saudi Arabia. called Sunni Muslims.Islamic Schools (Sects). One group felt that the successor was Imam Ali who had been appointed by Muhammad according to Allah’s decree. Shi’ites. and a few other small groups. They also believe that the leader of Islam must be endowed with grace and benevolence and should be infallible. • This group. Iraq 101 Appendix A: Islam . mostly from the household of the prophet. Turkey. Sunnis The majority group. • Shi’ites are the majority in Iran and southern Iraq.

legal and spiritual aspects. ideal society based on Islamic religion and law. for example: • The right hand should be amputated for theft. He was the founder of the sect and the co-founder of Saudi Arabia. which inspires and feeds on the Taliban’s fundamentalist religiosity. Wahhabism: The Way of a Muslim Life Wahhabi Islam is a total religious system. • Men should wear short robes and even avoid the black cords used on turbans and headgear. • Murder and sexual deviation are punishable by beheading. • Drinking alcohol is forbidden. • This society fits bin Laden’s mold too. • Adulterers should be stoned to death. especially beheading for capital crimes. The Saudis have adopted many of the conservative precepts of Wahhabism. Wahhabi Islam is ascetic. • Mosques should have no decoration. To this day Saudi Arabia uses these punishments.Osama (Usama) bin Laden and Islam Bin Laden’s Religious Background Bin Laden’s brand of Islam is based on extremely conservative Islam called Wahhabism. which was espoused by Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab (170387). the Taliban have created what approaches a pure. • For Islamic fundamentalists. Punishment is based exclusively on the Qur’an. Bin Laden and the Taliban The kind of radically. conservative state that the Taliban had developed in Afghanistan had roots in Wahhabism. Continued on next page Iraq 102 Appendix A: Islam . It has an answer for every question about a Muslim’s life including social. The Wahhabis and the royal Saud family have long intermarried.

Saudi Arabia supported the Afghan mujahidin when they were fighting the Communists. In the case of the Chechen rebels. a former Soviet republic in Asia. Continued • While bin Laden follows the conservative Wahhabi tenets. Toward winning this struggle.) http://www. specifically the United States. he may be trying to help them acquire radiological dispersal devices. and Russian officials are also concerned that he is financing Chechen rebel operations out of Dagestan. bin Laden allegedly sponsored the attacks on American embassies in Africa. • Besides the infamous 9/11 terrorist attacks against the Pentagon and the twin towers. Continued on next page Focus on Expansion and Terrorism Bin Ladensponsored Terrorism Iraq 103 Appendix A: Islam . what he most fervently supports is that his brand of Islamic faith must expand.Osama (Usama) bin Laden and Islam. A primary concern is that bin Laden’s forces are attempting to acquire or build chemical and/or biological weapons to use in their terrorist attacks. bin Laden has committed his forces to terrorism.htm#qb4 – a set of informative questions about terrorism. (To support this kind of expansion.org/fp/projects/terrorism/faqs.brookings.newyorker. his life and religion • Now bin Laden regards the struggle as a war between two civilizations: His Islam and the non-Muslim civilization. • U. So did Osama bin Laden.S. http://www.com/FROM_THE_ARCHIVE/ARCHIVES/?010924 fr_archive03 – good article on bin Laden.

the Philippines.000+. • What might be called tribute money to Al Qaida from countries that do not want the organization to establish cells in their own countries. primarily opium. Troops of Afghanis and Pakistanis number 200. • Funds from bin Laden’s personal fortune.” Bin Laden could probably rally an army of over 100. • In the interim. • There are a number of terrorist centers. Ethiopia and Somalia. Albania.000+ men around the world. excluding those currently “in service” in Pakistan and Afghanistan.000 commanders. all the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. Algeria. • Many members of his overseas forces are ready for both sustained and onetime operations. Yemen. Egypt.Osama (Usama) bin Laden and Islam. Kosovo. Chechenya. Saudi Arabia. Funding for Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) Terrorism The primary sources for funding Al Qaida-sponsored terrorism have been: • The sale of drugs. in North America. Continued Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) is the name of the network of Islamic extremists that bin Laden has at his command to carry out his radical Islamic terrorism. • Contributions from Saudi Arabia through various banks and from various Saudi businessmen. the members of these terrorist forces return to normal “civilian” life in host countries. Bin Laden’s “Army” Al Qaida is bin Laden’s personal “army. • Al Qaida consists of a group of about 3. They are also available for terrorist operations on their own countries. Continued on next page Iraq 104 Appendix A: Islam . with numerous cells.

Saudi Arabia. which are contrary to his purist concept of Islam. bin Laden finds that it is not conservative enough. He thinks the following reasons. Continued Bin Laden and Saudi Arabia Even though the country where he grew up. is extremely conservative. are grounds for overthrowing the Saudi royal family: • Alliance of the ruling Saudi family with the West • Saudi Arabia’s dependence on American and other foreign troops who came to the country to defend it during the Gulf War • Corruption of the Saudi regime Iraq 105 Appendix A: Islam .Osama (Usama) bin Laden and Islam.

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Appendix B Quick Facts on Iraq



Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq

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Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq

Quick Facts on Iraq


This short facts page covers a number of important subjects that will give you a clearer understanding of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, and the post-Saddam Hussein era. It highlights critical issues.

Deserts and Mountains

The Republic of Iraq located in southwest Asia, is bordered by Kuwait, the Persian Gulf, and Saudi Arabia on the south, Jordan and Syria on the west, Turkey on the north, and Iran on the east. The climate is dry, with cool winters and hot summer. Most Iraqis live in the area of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The north is mountainous; the south, desert-like.

Key Factors

Oil, which is the main export; Islam, particularly the division between Shias and Sunnis; and former Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein, are the key factors that have shaped Iraq today.

Size and Population

Area: 434,924 square kilometers or 167,924 square miles. Estimated population: @ 23,000,000.

Language and Ethnicity

About 80%+ are Arab. Chief language is Arabic. 23% of population is Kurdish, speaking a non-Arabic language; others are Turkish, Armenians, and Assyrians.


95% of people are Muslim. There are twice as many Shias as Sunnis. Small pockets of minority religions like Nestorian Christians.

Admin. Sectors

Country is divided into 18 provinces.
Continued on next page



Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq

30% of work force in agriculture. 10% from agriculture. Economic Sectors 95% of all revenue was from oil exports. the port town of Basra. Iraq 110 Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq . 6% from mining and manufacturing. Additional Site http://www.odci. important interior towns are Mosul and Kirkuk.html -. the capital Baghdad. Politics Various political parties drawn from indigenous groups and from returned exiles vying for power. Continued Population Centers Principal towns include the largest. 40% of gross domestic product is from services. Dates and cotton are the biggest crops.Quick Facts on Iraq.CIA site that has handbooks of countries of the world.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index. Government/ Legal System The Interim Govern Council (IGS) of Iraq is tasked to draft a new constitution and to set up elections.

August 1990.August 2002 Iraq 111 Appendix C: Chronology of Events .Appendix C Chronology of Events.

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.. Most expert witnesses to US Senate Armed Services Committee reject military option towards Iraq. they are affecting the Iraqi military only at the margins. imposing comprehensive sanctions on Iraq and establishes a committee (the 661 or Sanctions Committee) to monitor the sanctions. In late November. services ranging from medical care to sanitation have been curtailed. August 1990. In addition. Arab League calls for Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait. William Webster tells US Congress that ``economic sanctions and the embargo against Iraq . CIA director. Jordan proposes a peace plan which is accepted by Iraq but rejected by the US. U.. Aug 28 Sep 19 Sep 24 Nov 22 Nov 29 Nov 30 Dec 5 Iraq 113 Appendix C: Chronology of Events . have dealt a serious blow to the Iraq economy. Morocco proposes a peace plan which is rejected by the US.S. Baghdad cut civilian rations for the second time since the rationing program began .." Although sanctions are hurting Iraq's civilian economy.Chronology of Events. proposes talks. the Iraqi army invades Kuwait. France proposes a peace plan which is accepted by Iraq but rejected by the US.. Security Council Resolution 678 authorizes use of force against Iraq if it has not withdrawn from Kuwait by 15 January 1991. Iraq accepts. . Continued on next page Aug 12-15 Iraq offers two peace plans which are rejected by the US.. Council passes Resolution 661. The United Nations Security Council passes Resolution 660 condemning the Invasion and demanding Iraq's immediate and unconditional withdrawal.August 2002 1990 Aug 2 Aug 3 Aug 6 After months of tension.

Air war begins.Chronology of Events." Resolution 687 begins cease-fire. "…Most means of modern life support have been destroyed or rendered tenuous. deducting 30% for a Compensation Commission.6 billion oil sales over six months. UN Secretary-General's talks with Iraq fail. UN mission to Iraq led by Sadruddin Aga Khan concludes that Iraq needs $22 billion that year to provide civilian services at pre-war levels. leaving less than 1/3 of the Report's recommended amount for humanitarian aid." "Sanctions in respect of food supplies should immediately be removed. of which $900 million would be available for civilian needs. "without dealing with the underlying need for energy. establishes UN Special Commission on weapons. UK ambassador Sir David Hannay states in the Council that "it will in fact prove impossible for Iraq to rejoin the community of civilized nations while Saddam Hussein remains in power. disregarding the Secretary General's request that the cap be raised. UK and France organize a "no-fly" zone in northern Iraq. plus UNSCOM and other international obligations." War ends. Mid-Apr US. extends sanctions by tying them to Iraq's weapons. French defense minister Chevènement resigns in protest against scale of bombing. Aug 15 Resolution 706 acknowledges the Sadruddin Aga Khan Report and calls for oil sales not to exceed $1. Resolution 712 proposes that Iraq be allowed $1. Continued 1991 Jan 9 Jan 13 Jan 16 Jan 21 Jan 29 Feb 3 Feb." No remedy to humanitarian need. Pope John Paul II rejects the claim that the war against Iraq is a "just war. while Operation Provide Comfort carves out an autonomous zone in a large part of the Kurdish areas. Iran protests scale of bombing." Resolution 688 condemns "the repression of the Iraqi civilian population" in the ensuing civil war. Ahtisaari Report to Security Council on humanitarian crisis in Iraq and Kuwait.6 billion over 6 months to be placed in escrow account. August 1990. Continued on next page Mar 20 Apr 3 Apr 5 Jul 17 Sep 19 Iraq 114 Appendix C: Chronology of Events .August 2002. destroying much of Iraq's civilian infrastructure.28 US-Iraq talks fail.

13% of total available funds set aside for U." US.August 2002. In Operation Desert Strike. beginning the Oil-for-Food program.we think the price is worth it.N.S. Continued 1992 Feb 1 Feb 5 August 1993 Jan 13 1995 Jan UN Secretary General Boutros Ghali issues a report calling sanctions a "blunt instrument" Resolution 986 allows Iraqi government $2 billion in oil sales every six months. U. US and UK continue air strikes on January 17 and June 26. It has since been renewed mostly in six-month phases. UK and France establish no-fly zone in southern Iraq US." Iraq is no longer able to provide survival sustenance for its civilian population. use in the northern governorates. August 1990. in response to claims of half a million child deaths in sanctioned Iraq.S. Iraqi government and U.N. UK and France attack Iraq with aircraft and cruise missiles. Apr 14 1996 May 12 May 20 Sep 3-4 Dec 10 Iraq 115 Appendix C: Chronology of Events . Council declares that Iraq "therefore bears full responsibility for their humanitarian problems. but the price . reach agreement on implementing Resolution 986.Chronology of Events. U. Sanctions Committee must review and approve all supplies purchased through escrow account. replies: "I think this is a very hard choice. Continued on next page Iraq rejects 706 and 712. fires cruise missiles at Iraqi targets First oil sales start. Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright.

although less than those recommended by the Security Council panel.K. Resolution 1284 offers improvements in Oil-for-Food.S. Continued 1998 Feb 20 Dec Oil-for-Food oil sales cap increased to $5. 2000 a comprehensive report and analysis of the humanitarian situation". Iraqi government does not allow the team to enter its territory.August 2002.N. Compensation fund reduced to 25% from 30% of oil revenues with the additional resources targeted to vulnerable groups.256 billion per six month phase. Mar 30 Aug 12 Dec 17 2000 Resolution 1302 establishes a team of "independent experts to prepare by November 26. August 1990. Security Council rejects the alternative of a report based on UN agency information and other reliable external sources. Continued on next page Jun 8 Dec 5 Iraq 116 Appendix C: Chronology of Events . The oil sales cap is removed and some items are allowed into Iraq with automatic Security Council approval. UNSCOM's credibility is undermined by evidence that staff members seconded to the agency by the United States have compromised the independence of the agency and engaged in espionage and covert action to overthrow the Iraq government. and expresses its intention to suspend sanctions with the ``fundamental objective of improving the humanitarian situation'' in Iraq. Resolution 1330 further expands lists of humanitarian items. 1999 Security Council panel report finds that Iraq had ``experienced a shift from relative affluence to massive poverty'' and predicted that ``the humanitarian situation in Iraq will continue to be a dire one in the absence of a sustained revival of the Iraqi economy. weapons inspectors withdraw from Iraq due to impending aerial attacks by the United States and the UK. U. and U.Chronology of Events.'' UNICEF estimates that an additional half million children under five who would be alive under normal circumstances had died in Iraq between 1991 and 1998. Dec 15 1998 Dec 16-19 Operation Desert Fox air campaign by U. which in turn cannot be achieved solely through remedial humanitarian efforts.

globalpolicy. as well as differences among Permanent Members blocks Council action. French. Lacking agreement with Iraq. reports abound of plans for a large-scale U. Iraq Foreign Minister Naji Sabri writes to U. One month extension of Oil-for-Food under previous conditions. OIP Director Benon Sevan warns the Security Council of a "financial crisis" in the humanitarian program due to the dispute over oil pricing.Chronology of Events. The UK proposes a Goods Review List of potential dual-use items and land-based border monitoring of Iraq trade. Objections by Russia and by Iraq. but scepticism remains that inspections will resume The source of this chronology is at http://www. Resolution 1409 adopts Goods Review List. Thereafter. and Russian draft resolutions propose various new approaches.S.htm#app1 . Bush declares Iraq to be part of an "axis of evil" in his State of the Union message to Congress.Food.August 2002. President George W. Oil-for-Food program extended by six months in Resolution 1382.org/security/sanction/iraq1/2002/paper. five month extension of existing Oil-for. Resolution proposes a Goods Review List to be adopted in May. August 1990. Secretary General Kofi Annan suggesting that Iraq may be ready to allow arms inspectors back into Iraq. military attack on Iraq. May-Jun Jun 6 Jul 4 Nov 29 2002 Jan 29 Feb 26 May 14 Aug 1 U. Continued 2001 UK.S. Iraq 117 Appendix C: Chronology of Events .N.

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