Iraq: An Introduction to the Country and People

Introduction Overview


The United States is committed to on-going involvement with Iraq to rebuild the country. Marines, who deploy to Iraq or are involved with Iraqis, need a basic knowledge of the country, its culture, history and present-day state of affairs. • This handbook explains a number of basic issues that should be in the knowledge “toolbox” of a Marine working with Iraqis or deployed to the region. • You can use the links that form an integral part of this document to explore further any of the topics discussed in this handbook.


This handbook includes the following topics: Topic Introduction Overview Iraqi Culture, History, and Religion Culture and Peoples Kurds Iraqi Economy and Livelihood Religious Division or Iraqi Nationalism? Another “Division”: Secular vice Religious Tribes and Villages Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History British Influence Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party Saddam Hussein, Former Leader of Iraq Saddam Hussein’s Policies Kurdish Oppression Internal Control International Response to Saddam Hussein’s Oppression Iran-Iraq War, External Domination Persian Gulf War See Page i i 1 1 3 6 8 10 11 13 15 18 19 21 23 25 26 28 31 32 34

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Old Neighbors New Iraqi Government Guerilla-Style War Operation Iron Hammer Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building References Appendix A: Islam Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq Appendix C: Chronology of Events Aug. the division between Sunnis and Shias (Shi’ites) • Oil – which supplies Iraq with its “life blood” • Saddam Hussein – former leader of the country You will learn more about each of these as you read this handbook. 2002 See Page 36 39 40 42 44 46 50 53 53 56 60 62 64 68 70 73 75 75 77 78 80 82 84 87 89 107 111 Three Critical Factors There are three important factors that have shaped Iraqi culture and society: • Islam – particularly. 1990 – Aug. Continued Contents. 1991-1998 Important Post-1998 Events Iraq’s Weapons Declaration A New Coalition Possible Options for Invading Iraq Operation Iraqi Freedom Preparation for War Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins Top Priority: Baghdad War in the South Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North War in the West The Turkish “Card” Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom After Operation Iraqi Freedom Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq “New” Iraq.Overview. Continued on next page Iraq ii Introduction . (continued) Topic Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq Arms Inspections and Disarmament Inspections.

lib. Other large cities are Mosul and Kirkuk and the port of Basra. as the elevation increases. The exception is the northern mountains along the Iranian and Turkish borders. the Persian Gulf.924 square miles (434.Overview. The largest oil fields are near Mosul and Kirkuk.edu/maps/iraq. but is less common today because of flood-control projects. Flooding from the rivers because of melting snow is a problem farther south. with blowing winds and sandstorms. such as grains and vegetables. Continued Geography Iraq or Irak. a country of 167. • Because of the sandy soil and intense heat. and Saudi Arabia West by Jordan and Syria North by Turkey East by Iran Baghdad is the capital and largest city. Iraq iii Introduction .924 sq km) in southwest Asia is bordered on the • • • • South by Kuwait.utexas. The winters are cool.html has a number of good maps showing Iraq. Here the winters are cold with heavy snows. • Farther up the rivers. • In the mountains of the north. summers are dry and hot. Climate and Weather Most of Iraq gets little rainfall. Agriculture depends mainly on water from the rivers. Note: Appendix B provides you with quick facts about Iraq. officially the Republic of Iraq. agriculture gives way to oil. Iraqi farmers in the southeast grow “orchards” of dates and cotton. The country is divided into 18 provinces. http://www. rainfall allows different kinds of crops.

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Continued on next page Urban and Rural Iraq 1 Iraqi Culture.) • Kurds are a large minority living in the uplands of northeast Iraq. • Most of the people are of Arabic origin. • Ninety-five percent of the people are Muslim. Urban growth is in this area. History. (Sunnis are the more numerous sect or religious group in most Muslim countries. including the Shatt al Arab waterway. The southwest is desert and supports a small population of nomad shepherds. Iraq’s only way of reaching the sea is a short stretch of coast on the northwestern end of the Persian Gulf. Minority Groups Other minorities of Iraq include Turks. and Assyrians (Nestorian Christians). For the majority of the population. which flow southward and come together in the Shatt al Arab. Armenians. Present day Iraq encompasses the approximate area of the Middle East called Mesopotamia in ancient times. and Religion Culture and Peoples Cultural and Ethnic Factors Iraq with its population of about 22 million people has been shaped by a number of cultural and ethnic factors.Iraqi Culture. There are also numerous marshlands and water basins between these two rivers. They are primarily Sunni Muslims. and Religion . Most of the country’s once large Jewish population resettled in Israel in the early 1950s. History. life centers on the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. There are about twice as many Shias (Shi’ites) as Sunnis. About 80% speak Arabic.

Topic Culture and Peoples Kurds Iraqi Economy and Livelihood Religious Division or Iraqi Nationalism? Another “Division”: Secular vice Religious Tribes and Villages Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History British Influence Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party Saddam Hussein. History. culture. and peoples are shown in the table below. and Religion .Culture and Peoples. Former Leader of Iraq See Page 1 3 6 8 10 11 13 15 18 19 21 23 Iraq 2 Iraqi Culture. Continued Selected Topics The topics covered in this section on Iraqi history.

primarily. and Iran. Iraq. This the Present area is often called Kurdistan.C. Ancient The Kurds are an old. History. Sweden. physically cut off from one another into what is often called the “Kurdish diaspora.5-4 million. numbering about 25 million total. and Sulaimaniyah. which is covered later in this handbook.” Kurdish Expansion Current Population Distribution Currently. live in Turkey. 1. They live near the towns of Mosul. Continued on next page Iraq 3 Iraqi Culture. still occupy. and the United States. • Eventually. There are groups living outside the Middle East in Armenia. The Iraqi Kurds are sometimes known by the name Failili Kurds. 6-7 million live in Iran. • The Kurds have developed as “isolated” units. It described a group of nomads that lived on the plateaus and mountains between Armenia and the Zagros Mountains.5 million live in Syria. • • • • About half of this total population lives in Turkey. most of the Kurdish people. descendents of this tribe. 3. Indo-Iranian tribe who lived in ancient Persian times in History: Key to areas that the present-day Kurds. Kurdish communities also exist in various countries of the former Soviet Union. France. you will read about these people separately in this section. the Kurds spread out and settled in a region reaching from central Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) to northeast Iran.Kurds Special Case The Kurds are one among a number of minorities living in present-day Iraq. Kirkuk. the Arabs applied the name to the residents of these mountainous areas who had converted to Islam. Later. Syria. A Distinct Name The name Kurd was used around 640 B. and Religion . in Iraq. Because of their oppression by the regime of Saddam Hussein. Germany. The Kurds in Iraq The Iraqi Kurds make up about 23% of Iraq’s population.

Their legends are filled with heroism and romance.Kurds. History. most of them are bound together as a common group by their language. The concept of a Kurdish sovereign state is still not a full reality in the minds of all Kurds.) Indo-European. and dance. Their hope is to “integrate” the Kurds into the respective country that they live in. Iran. poetry. and coats decorated with silver and gold thread. • Men still wear turbans and baggy pants (called shalvari). They are Sunni Muslims. Nature. It is certainly not an idea that the nation states of the presentday Middle East –Turkey. The Kurdish language can probably be traced back to an ancient language that was more closely related to Farsi (the current language spoken in Iran) and Hindi (the current official language of India).D. traditions. not Shias (Shi’ites). They don’t speak a language that is related to either Arabic or Turkish. and Iraq – want to consider. long colorful dresses. The Kurds accepted Islam from the Arabs during the 7th century A. Turks second. In recent interviews among Kurds living in southeastern Turkey. (See http://ethnicity. Continued on next page Iraq 4 Iraqi Culture.your-directory. and their culture. Religion Culture Kurds have their own music. Present-day Kurdish is closely related to the northwestern group of Iranian languages. Individual villages have their own dances in which men and women often dance together. and Religion . • Women wear headscarves. Continued People vice Nation In spite of the fact that the Kurds as an ethnic group are spread over such a large area. particularly the mountains.html for a detailed discussion of the implications of a Kurdish sovereign state. has shaped Kurdish life. • Mountain flowers have contributed to the color and patterning in Kurdish clothing and kilims (woven rugs). respondents considered themselves to be Kurds first.com/Finding the Kurds a Way Kurdistan and the Discourse of the Nation State'2242643. not Arabic The Kurds are not an Arabic speaking people.

de/exhib/kt/e_kt_index. In the 8th century.kelim-art. • Culture has developed along separate lines.html for a good detailed introduction to the culture of the Kurds. • About a third of their land is fit for farming. Kurdish dairy products were considered so delicious that the Vikings from Scandinavia and medieval Russia traveled south to the Iraqi region to buy butter from Kurdish peasants. Iraq 5 Iraqi Culture. • Many Kurds grow wheat and other grains.Kurds. Continued Economy and Livelihood The Kurds’ economy has been based on agriculture from ancient times.com/65/ku/Kurds. the Kurds herd sheep. A Distinct Difference There is a distinct difference between the Arab-speaking majority of the “desert lowlands” of Iraq and the Kurdish mountain folk. • Language separates them. http://www.bartleby.html is a site that shows the beauty and craftsmanship of Kurdish kilims [rugs].com/Meet_the_Kurds'2242666. Because of unstable conditions in present-day Iraq agriculture has declined. the Iraqi Arabs have expanded into marketing entrepreneurship. See http://ethnicity. http://www. the Kurds have held to their farming traditions. History. • Economically.your-directory. • In the higher mountains.html gives a good overview of Kurds. and Religion .

• The destruction of oil fields by Saddam Hussein when the U. used to produce the oil. Natural gas reserves are nearly 850 billion cubic meters. Syria.0 million barrels per day (bpd). coalition invaded in 2001. and the Persian Gulf. Oil Production The Iraq Petroleum Company. History. oil production averaged about 2. • In the early 1980s. it produced about 7 million cubic meters.7 million barrels per day (bpd) were pumped. Natural Gas Iraq also has reserves of natural gas. Oil exports have been substantially reduced because of • The United Nations imposed economic sanctions after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. The oil is pumped to Turkey.Iraqi Economy and Livelihood Oil The chief factor that dominates Iraq’s economy is oil. In 1987. Continued on next page Iraq 6 Iraqi Culture.S. • In the late eighties about 1. Lebanon. and Religion . a national company. • Current terrorist sabotage of the oil pipelines. Traditionally it provided about 95% of the money received from foreign trade.

cotton. textiles. History. http://www. leather goods. The economic UN embargo just emphasized this. The University of Texas at Austin has good detailed information about Iraq at http://inic. • The main crops include wheat.iraqresearch. Production in electronics. • Services contributed about 40% to the gross domestic product. barley. and Religion . and machinery. Iraq 7 Iraqi Culture. Since the invasion of Iraq the production of these goods and services is at a standstill.com/ is a good Congressional Research Service site that has links about Iraq. vegetables. Labor Force Government figures showed the industrial labor force was at 170. Continued Other Goods and Services Other industries produce chemicals. Both exports and imports were significantly reduced under the embargo.utexas. Since the downfall of Saddam Hussein agricultural production has fallen off. and sugar had recently started. causing shortages and a rise in prices in Iraq. • Iraqis also raise cattle and sheep. • Mining and manufacturing. fertilizers.Iraqi Economy and Livelihood. with • 80 percent of workers in state factories • 13 percent in the private sector • 7 percent in the mixed sector Agriculture About 30% of the workforce was usually involved in agriculture. cement. rice. and dates (Iraq is one of the world’s largest producers). about 6%. construction materials.000 in 1984. food products.edu/menic/Countries_and_Regions/Iraq/. Foreign Dependence Iraq depends very heavily on economic aid from both the West and Arab countries. Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the gross domestic product. • Construction employed about 20% of the civilian population and the military forces.

all members of the ruling Baath Party. Historical Division: One Side of the Coin There was good historical reason for making the assumption that the Shias would have driven out the Sunnis. and Ar Rutbah. and Shias or Shi’ites. the large cities of Iraq. Sunnis. were also Sunnis. There was much discrimination against the Shias. the Arabian Sunnis from the areas around Baghdad. dominated and ruled Iraq. • Most people feel that the Shias would have driven the Sunnis out of power if given the chance. • For many years. History. Continued on next page Iraq 8 Iraqi Culture. Most of the Shias live in the south. ran the country both before and during Saddam Hussein’s regime. (See appendix A for details on the differences between these two sects of Islam. but the minority.) Current Tension One of the key issues today in post-Saddam Hussein Iraq remains the relationship between the majority Shias and the minority Sunnis. and Religion . they will lose their political domination of the country. Mosul. • The main Muslim sects of Islam. dominate the culture of Iraq. Sunnis had also held the top posts in the Iraqi security forces and had been the army corps’ commanders.Religious Division vice Iraqi Nationalism? Two Sects One of the important factors in understanding Iraq and its people is Islam. the Sunnis. • How the majority Shias will treat the minority Sunnis is an important issue in post-Saddam Hussein Iraq. the most depressed part of Iraq. The majority in the country are the Shias. • Saddam Hussein and his top deputies. • The Sunnis are now apprehensive that with popular sovereignty.

and Religion . this historically based idea of “revenge” of the Iraqi Shias may not be as strong as assumed. Iran invaded Iraq. are an Arabic-speaking people.” a medieval battle in which the Arabs. Continued Possible Reverse Side: Nationalism However.D. • In 1982. a language totally unrelated to Arabic. History. Saddam Hussein and his Baath Party capitalized on this ancient enmity.Religious Division vice Iraqi Nationalism?. They described the war with Iran in terms of this hatred. in response to aggression by Saddam Hussein. is primarily a Shia country. Iraq’s neighbor. 637. while Shias in religion. even after the Iraqi army suffered major setbacks from the Iranian military. Between Arabs and Persians there has always been historically bitter hatred. both the Sunnis and the Shias. the true believers bearing Islam. Exploiting Ancient History Perhaps what was at work here was the age-old antagonism between Arabs and Persians. are descendents of the Persians and speak Farsi. Iran. defeated heathen Persia in A. No such general revolt occurred. • The expectation of many was that the Shias of Iraq (75% of enlisted Iraqis were Shias) would join with their Shia brothers of Iran and revolt against the Sunnis of Iraq. characterizing the modernday conflict as the “Battle of Qadisiyah. • The modern Iranians. • The Iraqis. Iraq 9 Iraqi Culture. The Shias of Iraq continued to defend their country and the Sunni Baath regime of Saddem Hussein.

business. • Later in the 1980s. Iraq 10 Iraqi Culture. History. eventually headed by Saddam Hussein. • Saddam Hussein further suppressed the Shias so that they had no controlling voice in the Iraqi government. whether they are Shias or Sunnis.Another “Division”: Secular vice Religious Islam vice Baath Another cultural division. Shia Opposition Before the Baath Party. came to power. and Religion . who were primarily of the Baath Party. For example. Shias gained more representation in the government. proportional to their numbers in the population. of the eight top Iraqi leaders who in early 1988 sat with Saddam Hussein on the Revolutionary Command Council--Iraq's highest governing body-. is the division between • the religious believers in the population. Shias had made progress in education. which has played a role in Iraq in more recent times. and • the secularists or non-believers. and law even though they were under-represented in the government.three were Shias. The question remains if there will be a Shia “revival” in the “new” Iraq.

Villages The most widespread social living unit. the primary family unit is the clan. As the government extended social services to the village.. is usually a mixture of tribal folk. Mutual assistance is the key to a successful shaykh economy. and Religion . which is made up of two or more lineage groups. local tradesmen. with the lineage through several generations from the father’s side of the family. • This patrilineal (descent on the father’s side of the family) kinship group is responsible for the extended family in feuds. arguments. Clans Within the tribe. the number and influence of non-tribal people grew. History. Most family-oriented relations for an Iraqi are rooted in the age-old traditions of tribalism. • The “elders of the tribe” share authority. is usually very centralized and has a developed social hierarchy. the village. The line between tribal people and village dwellers used to be very distinct. and “wars.g. which has existed through many generations. e. land ownership. • A shaykh. • The clan supports its members in any dispute with other clans of the same tribe or shaykh.Tribes and Villages Tribalism As with many Middle Eastern countries. Continued on next page Iraq 11 Iraqi Culture. This tribalism is based on nomadism. primary relationships play a key role in an Iraqi’s life. Clans are usually part of a particular tribe defined by blood or by adoption. • Lands belonging to clans of a particular tribe are usually adjacent to one another. but has been restructured to accommodate the sedentary environment in cities and towns and the limited territory of the modern age. Tribal Responsibility The primary kinship unit is a tribe or shaykh. and government employees.” • It controls marriage and jointly controls parts of the “tribal” land.

Iraq 12 Iraqi Culture.Tribes and Villages. Government cooperatives might also work as the “middleman” selling farmer’s goods. government representatives began to be drawn from the local village population where they were serving. History. For example. • In the 1950’s most government employees came from Baghdad. instead of the farmers doing this themselves. Continued Role Changing Government and service people before and during Saddam Hussein’s regime took over the role that tribal leaders and village people used to play. a government school might be set up and competed with a village religious school. As you can see. • In the 1980’s before the war with Iran. these Sunni bureaucrats often provoked antagonism among the local Shia villagers. the division between Shia and Sunni also plays a part in the Iraqi bureaucracy. With their citified ways. and Religion .

. Hammurabi • The Sumerians were overrun and conquered by a number of Semiticspeaking tribes. by stamping clay tablets with a reed stylus. meaning “between two rivers.” in this case the Tigris and the Euphrates). Another name for this region is the Fertile Crescent. you will cover a bit about the history of the country. called cuneiform. Mesopotamia was one of the ancient centers of civilization. • These ancient Sumerians built irrigation systems to harness the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates and developed the first cereal agriculture. the Sumerians dominated the area. In 4000 B. • There was also much bitter infighting between the various tribes indigenous to the area.. Like Egypt.Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past Introduction To get a better picture of the current political situation in Iraq. History.C. Hebrew and a number of ancient. Historians often refer to it as the cradle of civilization. the region was united under King Hammurabi into one political unit called Babylon or Babylonia. China.C. and India.) Thus the Arab-related population became a force in the region early on. extinct languages. This brief historical survey is outlined as follows: • • • • “Ancient” Iraq Importance of Islam British Influence Background of the Rise of Saddam Hussein Ancient Iraq: First Civilization The area that modern Iraq covers is almost the same as that part of the ancient world called Mesopotamia (from the Greek. • Banking also originated in ancient Mesopotamia. • They also created the earliest writing system. Continued on next page Iraq 13 Iraqi Culture. and Religion . Finally around 1700 B. (The Semitic languages include Arabic.

Its common theme is that the punishment should fit the crime: “An eye for an eye. about 50 kilometers south of present-day Baghdad. History. a tooth for a tooth. designed and had constructed the ancient architectural wonder. Iraq 14 Iraqi Culture. Nebuchadnezzar. Hammurabi’s Code. the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.Iraqi History: A Rich and Ancient Past. Continued Hammurabi’s Dynasty: Achievements King Hammurabi conquered territory and extended the borders of Babylon.” Hammurabi’s son. He is remembered for his body of laws. and Religion .

a successor dynasty to the Umayyads. • The Republic of Turkey abolished the caliphate in the 1920’s. • A power center where Arabic and Persian culture. 634. in Iraq in 750 AD. and learning merged to create what all Muslims consider the apogee (high point) of Islam. With the fervor of their Islamic jihad. which was the administrative. intellect. (Jihad fi Sabeel lillah) they conquered and converted the Persians there. you need to know about the caliphate. eventually establishing the Arabic dynasty of the Umayyads in Iraq. • Early on in the history of Islam after the death of Muhammad. religious.Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History Introduction While ancient civilization is an important factor in Iraq’s past. and legal “directorate” of Islam. but the caliphate as an historical tradition in Islam is very important for modernday Iraqis. Muslims chose a leader and established a “dynasty” for controlling all Muslims worldwide. which became one of the cultural and economic centers of the Middle Ages. the caliphate was moved to Turkey. the conquest and establishment of Islam in the region is the historical and religious event that modern-day Iraqis are most proud of. in what is present-day Iraq. The Caliphate To understand the importance of Iraq in the history of Islam and the Middle East. In A. The Abbasid caliphate. Baghdad was: • The intellectual center of the world at that time and the cultural capital of the Islamic world. known at the caliphate. Arab Muslims reached the Euphrates delta.D. History. • The caliph was the leader or head of this dynasty. and Religion . Later when the Ottoman Turks conquered Iraq and incorporated it into their empire. founded the city of Baghdad. The Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad Islamic culture and civilization in Iraq and the surrounding Middle East region reached its height under the Arabic dynasty of the Abbacies. who establish the Abbasid caliphate. Continued on next page Iraq 15 Iraqi Culture.

History. Shias are one of the two important divisions of Islam). a newly-arrived Turkish tribe. The Safavids were very involved in attempting to conquer Iraq in the 16th and 17th centuries and in establishing Shia as the dominant sect of Islam in the region.achilles. (Good information on the early history of Iraq can be found at the web site http://home. • Did not want the Shias. • Sought to counteract the Shia aggression of the Safavids. Continued Safavids Two groups vied for domination in the Iraqi region for the next two centuries. The Safavids were the Persian dynasty that ruled Persia (Iran). led by the Safavids.net/~sal/iraq_history. and Religion . fast gaining ascendancy in Anatolia (modern Turkey) and Asia Minor: • Were Sunnis (the competing sect of Islam). The Ottoman Turks eventually dominated Iraq and incorporated it into their empire.Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History. For the next two hundred year. • Wanted to extend Shia power throughout the Middle East. The Safavids: • Were Shias (Shi’ites) (remember.) Continued on next page Iraq 16 Iraqi Culture. the Persians (Iranians) and the Ottoman Turks conquered and re-conquered various parts of the Iraqi region. Ottomans The Ottomans. to dominate Islam.html . Iraq’s neighbor.

Continued Iraqi Nationalism One of the important legacies of the Ottoman domination of the Iraqis was the beginning of Iraqi nationalism. Offshoots of Al Ahd formed “cells” among Iraqi officers serving in the Ottoman army and in larger towns such as Mosul and Baghdad.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+iq0018 ) Iraq 17 Iraqi Culture. • Copying a group of Ottoman Turkish nationalists called the Young Turks. • The aim of this group was to gain more autonomy for Iraqis from the Ottomans.Islam: The Crown and Thorn in Iraq’s History. and Religion . Iraqi intellectuals founded an Iraqi nationalist society called Al Ahd (the Covenant) in the early 1900s. History. (For more information on this period see the following web site: http://memory.

• By 1926. Kuwait. a time of instability in the country. was defeated by the British in early 1943. • Iraqi oil exports began in 1934. • During the period 1936-41. but after the pro-Axis Iraqi leader.nybooks. under a 1924 treaty. Iraq 18 Iraqi Culture.) World War II Initially. and Religion . Iraq experienced seven military coups. (For a fascinating narrative on how the British set up the borders of Saudi Arabia. After the war. • In 1921 the country was given a monarchy headed by King Faisal I.British Influence Post World War I The British invaded Iraq as part of their campaign against the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Iraq sided with Germany and Italy in World War II. History. • The British mandate ended in 1932 when Iraq was admitted to the League of Nations.com/articles/3032. the Treaty of Sevres gave Great Britain control of Iraq as a mandate of the League of Nations. the country joined the Allies and declared war on Germany. al-Gaylani. and Iraq in 1922. go to the web site http://www. had a veto over legislation. an Iraqi parliament was governing the country although the British.

• In July 1968.Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background Key Factors To understand the rise of Saddam Hussein to power in Iraq. • The growth of the Baath Socialist Party was important too. (This is an excellent article on the family “clan” of Saddam Hussein: http://www.meforum. Continued on next page Iraq 19 Iraqi Culture.org/article/273 . and seventies was one of continual conflict in Iraq: • In the late 1950s the monarchy was overthrown. and Religion . Coup and counter coup with espionage trials were common during this time. General Abdul Rahman Arif. the Baath Party regained power in a coup under Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr. We will consider this context in discussing Saddam Hussein’s emergence as Iraq’s leader. • During the 1960s the Baath Socialist Party under Hasan al-Bakr came to power in the country. who then became president of the country.) Continual Conflict The period of the fifties. you need to know about certain key facts in Iraqi political history: • Constant conflict including coup and counter-coup has been a common feature of Iraqi political life for many years. • The Baath-led government was overthrown in a coup led by President Abdul Salam Mohammad Arif. sixties. • The relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. who was succeeded by his brother. History. particularly Iran. played a role in influencing Saddam Hussein.

loc. • In March 1975. which defined the boundary of the Shatt el-Arab waterway.Rise of Saddam Hussein: Background. Iraq 20 Iraqi Culture. • In 1975 the Kurds.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+iq0022).loc. supported by the Iranians. Iraq bombed parts of Iran. • Iraq participated in the Arab-Israel War of 1973 and in the oil boycott against nations supporting Israel. • In early 1974.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+iq0023) http://memory. continual border clashes with Iran erupted in an armed conflict along the entire Iraq-Iran border. Continued Iraqi Foreign Relations To understand some of the reasons for Saddam Hussein’s aggression toward his neighbors. military aggression has played a role in Iraq’s relations with its neighbors! Detailed information on this period and on the rise of Saddam Hussein is at http://memory. fighting for their independence. who suffered enormously with intense Iraqi bombings. As you can see. Iran then withdrew support from the Kurds. History. • The Islamic revolution in neighboring Iran was recognized as a threat to secular Baath party control of Iraq and caused great anxiety in Iraq. Iraq and Iran signed the Algiers Agreement. again revolted in northern Iraq. you need to know a bit about Iraq’s relations with neighboring countries before Saddam’s rise to power in the country. and Religion . which created more tension between the two countries.

Although the Baathists established the National Council of Revolutionary Command. was the Baath political leader who consolidated the party’s power. History. Coup and Counter Coup The Baath-led government was overthrown in late 1963. hence. One Party State: Saadi Saadi. What the party needed in its role as the nation’s leader was cohesion. only to regain power in 1968. and unity. which appointed the prime minister and the president. Saadi gave it this cohesion. and Religion . • The party grew quickly in the early 1950s. He established a one-party state that tolerated little opposition. The Baath Party of 1968 was much better organized and was a more cohesive unit than in 1963. • The word Ba’ath or Baath means resurrection in Arabic. Saadi was the real power behind the government. one of the chief leaders of the party. The party had difficulty after an assassination attempt in the late fifties. Continued on next page Iraq 21 Iraqi Culture.Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party Early History The Iraqi Baath Party was founded in the 1940s by two Syrian students. the party’s goals were to ”resurrect” the Arabs of Iraq as an ethnic group through socialism. This was supposed to occur in Iraq the way it was happening in neighboring Syria. The party also was aided by its reorganization. the party controlled the state. • It also had local party branches that supported the central Baath Party. freedom. In other words. • The party gained broader support based on its newly established militia and intelligence system.

html http://home. Sunni Iraqis from Tikrit. who was Tikriti. • Some of the party members were also related to the new president. al Bakr. Continued The Tikrit Connection Tribal ties bound ruling members of the Baath Party together.com/65/hu/HusseinS.html Iraq 22 Iraqi Culture. Besides the prime minister. who wielded the political power in the country. a town in northwestern Iraq.achilles.bartleby. More information on Saddam Hussein can be found at: http://www.Rise of Saddam Hussein: Baath Party. The one-party system was thus reinforced by this coterie of Tikritis. • Most of them were Tikritis. History. and Religion .net/~sal/iraq_history. Saddam Hussein himself was also related to al Bakr and from a town near Tikrit.

The Baathist Tikrit Team President al Bakr and Saddam Hussein.Saddam Hussein. He knew how to outmaneuver and eliminate political opponents when necessary. which returned to power in 1968. Former Leader of Iraq Early Years Saddam Hussein had been a long-standing member of the Baath Party of Iraq. • Later he played a leading role in the 1968 revolution that gave the Baath Party control of the country. who became the Baath chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council and the President of Iraq. As time went on. and Religion . He fled Iraq in 1959 after taking part in an assassination attempt against then Prime Minister Kaseem. both Tikritis. He also ensured support from the army among Baathist and non-Baathist officers. dominated the Baath Party. it became clear that Saddam Hussein was the moving force behind the party. His expertise was in organizing secret opposition operations. • Saddam Hussein returned to Iraq in 1963 when the Baathists came back to power for a short time. the political aficionado who worked behind the scene. • Saddam Hussein was the politician. • Al Bakr had espoused pan-Arab causes and gave the party its legitimacy. He personally • Directed Iraqi efforts to deal with the Kurdish problem • Organized the party’s infrastructure Continued on next page Iraq 23 Iraqi Culture. supporting Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr. History. He then lived in Egypt and attended law school there.

• Saddam Hussein showed his modus operandi: He did not share power and considered the cabinet and the council rubber stamps for his will. History. Iraq 24 Iraqi Culture.Saddam Hussein. Former Leader of Iraq. and Saddam Hussein officially became President of the Republic. In July 1979. and Religion . Chairman of the Regional Command Council. Saddam Hussein began to consolidate his political power. President al Bakr resigned. Continued Saddam Hussein -. most of the ministers.alone In the mid-seventies. Secretary General of the Iraqi Baath Party Regional Command. and Head of the Iraqi Armed Forces. • With President al Bakr in failing health. reported directly to Saddam Hussein. who should have been reporting to the president.

The topics discussed show his domination and oppression. we will choose key topics that show his policies. Topic Kurdish Oppression Internal Control International Response to Saddam Hussein’s Oppression Iran-Iraq War.Saddam Hussein’s Policies Introduction Purpose Rather than “narrate” the history of Iraq under Saddam Hussein’s dictatorship. 1991-1998 Important Post-1998 Events Iraq’s Weapons Declaration A New Coalition Possible Options for Invading Iraq See Page 26 28 31 32 34 36 39 40 42 44 46 50 Iraq 25 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . External Domination Persian Gulf War Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq Arms Inspections and Disarmament Inspections. Selected Topics The topics covered in this section are shown in the table below.

whether in Turkey. Iraqi Kurds under the leadership of Mustafa al-Barzani waged a lengthy military campaign with the aim of establishing a unified and autonomous Kurdistan in Iraq. an important city in the Kurdish area and a key oil-producing center. • During the 1960s. the Kurds were not granted control of Kirkuk. • As part of the newly proposed Kurdish autonomous region. This has resulted in strong military resistance from the Kurdish side. 1970’s In 1970 the central government promised local self-rule to the Kurds. The new Iraqi government failed to follow through.Kurdish Oppression Early Oppression and Resistance Kurdish history. the Kurds hoped for more autonomy in administration. Their capital was to be Erbil. In Iraq the oppression and its response is outlined thus: • In 1958 after the overthrow of the Iraqi monarchy and the establishment of the Baathist-led government. The central government still retained control. Heavy fighting between the central government and Kurdish forces erupted when the central government tried to force limited autonomy on the Kurds in 1974. Iran or Iraq. The Kurds rejected the proposal for two reasons: • The proposed autonomy did not really give Kurds authority. has been a tradition of oppression with the aim of controlling the Kurdish population. Continued on next page Iraq 26 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . The Iraqi government has characterized the Kurdish response as rebellion and revolt.

000 refugee Kurds attempted to flee to Turkey. Finally.N. Fearing gas attacks again. Saddam Hussein’s reign of terror continued for eight years. Post-1991 Persian Gulf War In 1991 after the end of the Persian Gulf War. nearly 500. culminating in 1987-1988 with the Anfal Campaign. • He destroyed many Kurdish villages. • His forces tortured and killed Kurds. In 1999 these two groups ended hostilities. the Baathist-led government of the new Republic of Iraq launched a campaign of terror and murder against the Kurds. Iraqi forces again crushed another Kurdish uprising.000 people. Continued Saddam Hussein’s “Campaign” In 1979. forcing the surviving villagers to live in special zones and camps where he could control them. The result that year was the murder of 200. Saddam Hussein ordered the use of poison gas attacks on Kurdish villages and the arrest and execution of Kurdish males in a final effort to root out all resistance. A general election was held in the autonomous region. thousand of Kurds returned to and resettled in Iraq. It also carried out a program of systematic assassination of Kurdish leaders. Later when an autonomous U. Kurdish “Politics” The Kurds themselves have internal problems.Kurdish Oppression. Iraq 27 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . and one million fled over the border into Iran.-protected region for Iraqi Kurds was established in northern Iraq. They are split into two opposing factions. the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.

his style of oppression ruled Iraq. members of a family were so terrorized that they reported on their relatives.Internal Control Cult Atmosphere Saddam Hussein created a personality cult that fed on his will. totally. Continued on next page Suppression of Human Rights Iraq 28 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . Iraqis. through blackmail and fear. • Iraqis had no freedom of expression. • Saddam Hussein did not allow his people to vote. allegedly. • There was no freedom of association and movement in the country. • Saddam Hussein established a large network of spies. In some instances. silencing a people that had once been a rich source of thought and culture in the Middle East. could only assemble to show their support for Saddam Hussein and could only vote for him in elections. The daily Iraqi newspaper was owned by his son. Iraqis were not free to leave the country. He effectively silenced all opposition to his regime in Iraq. For over 20 years.

• Summary executions -. Saddam Hussein issued a number of decrees establishing cruel and inhuman penalties such as amputations.Saddam Hussein used collective torture to suppress dissent and to instill fear in anyone considering opposing his will. • Branding and Amputation -. In 1994. many were videotaped in order to blackmail their families. Whole families or ethnic groups (the Kurds were a good example) were tortured for the actions of one dissident. He decimated more than 60 villages and murdered 30. a slow. • Public torture and humiliation -. a poison that “permeates” the human body and takes several days to bring death. Continued on next page Iraq 29 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .000+ Iraqis with poison gas. In many instances. their families had to pay for the instruments of death and then display the body as a warning to others who might be considering expressing an opinion.There were numerous ways that Saddam Hussein’s forces did this.Hospitals were known to brand dissidents or to amputate their limbs. But much of the time. the bodies were buried in unmarked sites. • Chemical weapons -. Suspect citizens were cruelly dismembered. One “efficient” method was to line up all the males of a village and shoot them one at a time. Political prisoners were given slowacting thallium.Saddam Hussein’s forces respected no person’s dignity.Internal Control.Saddam Hussein also used chemical weapons against his own people. Military deserters were punished by amputation. Continued Regime of Systematic Torture and Terror The following allegations have been made against the regime of Saddam Hussein: • Collective torture -. Women were allegedly raped and tortured in front of their families. excruciating death was preferred.

Claiming “traitors” in the Iraqi National Assembly. especially those families near oil-producing areas. were not just careless “by-stander” victims in Saddam Hussein’s reign of terror and suppression. he suppressed many clerics and scholars in the country. subjecting them to 14 hours of physical training and psychological stress each day. he ordered his security forces to publicly and forcibly imprison and eventually kill several leading members of the Iraqi National Assembly. children were allegedly forced to become spies. • He waged terror and oppression against religious believers of Iraq. (See the site http://www. • Through murder. Anyone whom Saddam Hussein feared would oppose his will was subjected to torture and arbitrary death.gov/g/drl/rls/15996.htm for details on how Saddam Hussein is silencing and controls his own people. allegedly. • In many cases. • There were also weapons training courses for teenagers. reporting on their parents’ and relatives’ conversations and activities to Saddam Hussein’s internal security organization. • Saddam Hussein’s forces supposedly abducted and held minority children hostage to force their families to relocate in particular regions. Saddam Hussein tried to silence other ethnic and religious groups. • Pharmaceutical supplies for sick children were supposedly exported for resale overseas.Internal Control. Children: Pawns of Saddam Hussein Children. and limitations on their religious activities. Poor health care for children led to the reemergence of diseases such as polio and cholera in Iraq. Continued Religious and Social Atrocities Besides oppressing the Kurds. particularly the Shia Muslims.state. Medical supplies were often delayed because the regime demanded bribes from the suppliers. the largest ethnic minority in the country. torture. This began almost immediately after he became president in July 1979.) Iraq 30 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .

special representative stated. 1990. In Security Council Resolution 688. 5 April 1991.International Response to Saddam Hussein’s Oppression United Nations Resolutions In Security Council Resolution 677. “The mere suggestion that someone is not a supporter of the President [Saddam Hussein] carries the prospect of the death penalty. United Nations Reports After a 1999 trip to Iraq.N. In the United Nations Secretary General’s Report of 2001. the United Nations condemned Saddam Hussein for forcibly resettling various groups in order to alter the population in different areas of Iraq. the United Nations special representative on human rights reported he had personally received reports and testimonies of • People who showed him their scars from government torture • Women whose family members had been abducted by Iraqi authorities and then had disappeared. the United Nations condemned the repression of Iraqi civilians." Iraq 31 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . the U. He felt there was a prevailing regime of systematic human rights violations in the country. November 28.

Continued on next page Causes of the War Iraq 32 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . who control Iraq. the Sunnis. the antagonism between Iran and Iraq is age-old. • In 1980. It is based partly on the clash of two different cultures: one. External Domination • As discussed earlier. Arab-based. Persian. and the Shias. • Besides the territorial claim over the waterway. His foreign policy emphasized • Strengthening Iraq’s role in world oil production • Gaining the leading role in the Arab world and the Middle East Accomplishing these two aims had to come at the expense of Iran. Saddam Hussein also maintained that Iran had been carrying out artillery attacks on Iraqi territory. who control Iran. the other. and there is bound to be constant tension between these two giants of Southwest Asia. • Add to this. the religious competition between the two prominent Islamic sects. Saddam Hussein escalated a dispute with Iran over control of the Shatt al Arab waterway by attacking Iran. which under both the former Shah and the later Islamic religious regime of Ayatollah Khomeini had also sought to expand its influence in these two areas. Background Political Aims Saddam Hussein’s aim at domination focused on this constant friction point between Iraq and Iran.Iran-Iraq War.

Iran-Iraq War. • Iran captured and occupied some oil-rich islands from Iraq in 1984. Later Defeat The Iraqis were successful at first in their aggression. an area of extensive oil fields • France. • Iran received funding from some Arab countries. External Domination. Iranian resistance strengthened so that Iraq had to withdraw in 1982. The United States and Great Britain also quietly provided arms and related military assistance. and the Soviet Union were the main arms suppliers to Iraq. the leader of Iran. Iraq 33 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . The country was not able to buy enough weapons to continue the war. Iran accepted a United Nations cease-fire. Germany. the United States and some European nations got involved in the struggle. declared that his country would only stop fighting when Saddam Hussein’s government had been destroyed. They captured the Iranian port of Khorramshahr by late 1980. • Iran captured part of Iraq’s Fao peninsula in 1986. Ending the War • After Iran began to attack Kuwaiti oil tankers in the Persian Gulf. He wanted to dominate the area economically in terms of oil production and militarily by acquiring Iranian territory. Iran then began a series of successful assaults that caused Saddam Hussein to use poison gas against Iranian troops. • Attacking a neutral nation like Kuwait caused problems for Iran. Summary Saddam Hussein’s principal aim in the Iran-Iraq War was to extend his power in the Middle East. Western Involvement Initial Success. Continued Territorial Aims Saddam Hussein wanted to • Reclaim the Shatt al Arab waterway for Iraq • Seize the western region of Khuzestan in Iran. Finally. however. Ayatollah Khomeini. He didn’t succeed. in July 1988. • Both countries began to attack each other’s capital cities in 1985.

United Nations Involvement The United Nations Security Council and the Arab League condemned the invasion. later annexing the country as the nineteenth province of Iraq. the United Nations passed an economic embargo that prohibited nearly all trade with Iraq. the United Nations passed Resolution 660.Persian Gulf War Causes of the Kuwaiti Invasion Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait. which • Condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait • Demanded immediate withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. There followed a series of United Nations resolutions including: • Further condemning the Iraqi invasion • Demanding again the withdrawal of Iraqi forces • Expressing sympathy for and grave concern over the treatment of Kuwaiti nationals in occupied Kuwait • Stressing the importance of the humane treatment of Kuwaitis under terms of the Geneva Convention • Laying out specifics of the international embargo against Iraq Continued on next page Iraq 34 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . was the result of a territorial dispute. The Embargo and Further UN Resolutions Four days later. sponsored by Arab mediators • After assurances of the United States’ noninvolvement in the dispute Saddam Hussein’s forces invaded and occupied Kuwait on August 2. causing a decrease in oil prices Failed Negotiations • After a number of failed meetings between Kuwait and Iraq. 1990. Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of the following: • Violating the Iraqi border to get oil resources from the disputed Rumaila oil field • Flooding the world market with Kuwaiti oil. Acting under Articles 39 and 40 of the United Nations Charter. which was the ultimate reason for the Persian Gulf War against Iraq.

-led coalition forces entered Iraq with ground forces as part of the plan for liberating Kuwait. member countries to use all necessary means. allied coalition of 28 countries.org/public_asp/journal_vol7/0006_tetreault. 1991. led by the United States. preparations and the build-up for the eventual invasion of Iraq.000 tons of munitions were unleashed over Iraq. On January 17. resolutions culminated in United Nations Security Council Resolution 678: It allowed U. but did not penetrate as far as the Iraqi capital Baghdad. Iraq agreed to a permanent cease-fire with strict conditions. 1991.N. Conclusion to Hostilities Iraq 35 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . against Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait and demanded total withdrawal of Iraqi forces by January 15. This site discusses the reconstruction of Kuwait after Saddam Hussein’s defeat and the withdrawal of Iraqi forces: http://www. • In April 1991. All services were totally disrupted.Persian Gulf War. began in late 1990. Bombing destroyed the Iraqi infrastructure including the oil refinery system. • The United States announced a cease-fire on February 28.S.000 Iraqi soldiers were killed. About 100. 1991.N. the U. • The war lasted six weeks.mepc. • On February 24. the U. 1991. including military action. launched aerial attacks on Baghdad in Operation Desert Storm. United Nations Coalition War Operation Desert Shield. Continued Resolution 678 This series of U. popularly known as the Gulf War.asp .N. Over 140. • Saddam Hussein still remained in power as the head of the Iraqi government.

In the south. The sanctions sought to • Eliminate Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction and delivery systems • Return to Kuwait all prisoners of war and property taken during the Gulf War • Establish the principle of Iraqi compensation for war damages Further the sanctions • Insisted that Iraq honor its international debts • Demanded that Iraq stop all terrorism A Goods Review List (GRL) listed all those items under embargo. Iraqi aircraft and troops were sent there to regain control of the cities that the Kurdish resistance groups had taken during the Gulf War. many of whom are Shias. Continued on next page Iraq 36 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq Continued Embargo United Nations Resolution 687 began the cease-fire.5 million in total) massed on the Turkish and Iranian borders. More Minority Persecution One of the key problems in Iraq after the United Nations cease-fire was Saddam Hussein’s continued oppression of the Kurds of northern Iraq. an exodus of Iraqi Kurdish refugees (about 2. created the United Nations Special Commission on Weapons and continued the embargo tying it to Iraqi weapons. • Operation Provide Comfort established a United Nations protected autonomous region in most of the Kurdish areas of Iraq. • United Nations Resolution 688 condemned this continued repression of the Iraqi civilian population. Fearing a repeat of the gas attacks of 1988. Saddam Hussein’s forces attempted to control the marsh Arabs.

The United States responded with troop deployments to the Persian Gulf. the United Nations modified the sanctions by establishing the Oil for Food Program in 1995 in United Nations Security Council Resolution 986.000 sorties since the beginning of 1997. air force pilots had launched more than 1. These nofly zones allowed Kurdish refugees to return home and live without fear of Iraqi reprisal in their autonomous region as allied planes continually surveyed and guarded these exclusion regions. Iraq attempted to assassinate former President George Bush while he was visiting Kuwait. together with France and Great Britain. Because of humanitarian needs of the Iraqi civilian population. it was reported that in 16. The United States response was to fire cruise missiles at Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad. Sanctions Modifications The original economic sanctions imposed on Iraq had been total. In October 1994. Saddam Hussein’s republican guard moved toward Kuwait.) There was also a no drive zone in southern Iraq to prevent Saddam Hussein from again massing forces on the Kuwait-Iraq border. Saddam Hussein backed down and agreed to recognize the existence and borders of Kuwait. primarily food and medicine. 2000. established air exclusion zones or no fly zones north of the 36th parallel and south of the 32nd parallel. • The first shipments under this program began arriving in Iraq in 1997. (See Thomas E. Continued Exclusion Zones To prevent the genocide of the Kurds in the north and the marsh Arabs in the south. Continued on next page Iraq 37 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq.000 bombs and missiles against 250 targets in northern Iraq in protecting that no fly zone. “Containing Iraq: A Forgotten War. areas prohibited to Iraqi forces. Ricks. and supplies necessary for the civilian infrastructure of the country. the United States. Continued Incidents During the Clinton administration. • This resolution allowed Iraq to sell a billion dollars of oil to purchase humanitarian supplies. October 25. • The Iraqi air force was not allowed into these exclusion zones. • As of 1 October 2000.” Washington Post.

Defiance of United Nations: Restrictions on Iraq.state. • The program was extended and modified through the years.achilles. http://home. Continued • Under this program. Iraq 38 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . • Contract reviews were tedious. and the contracts to implement this program were subject to United Nations oversight. Critics of the program called for revised sanctions that were more targeted and credible. Iraq could sell oil for humanitarian needs. Department of State web site has a myth/facts sheet about the effect of sanctions on Iraq at http://www.S. • The United Nations controlled all revenues from such oil sales. • Some funds from oil sales might have been diverted to purchase nonhumanitarian supplies.htm .html has a list of the United Nations resolutions on sanctions. A Slow Process Sanctions Modifications. The U.net/~sal/un-ros. (continued) The process of “food” for oil was slow.gov/p/nea/rls/01fs/3935.

destroying or rendering harmless its WMD. Iraq 39 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . or rendering harmless. Essentially the resolution required the elimination of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction and delivery systems.Arms Inspections and Disarmament • The principal purpose of United Nations Resolution 687 was to eliminate Iraq’s capability to inflict damage and make war on its neighbors. destroying. • The resolution also charged Iraq to “forego the future development or acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). for declaring. destroying. were defined in the resolution: • • • • Nuclear weapons Chemical weapons Biological weapons Missile delivery systems Implementation To ensure that Iraq followed the resolution by declaring. and rendering harmless Iraq’s WMD. the United Nations: • Established The United Nations Special Committee (UNSCOM).” Purpose Definition Four categories of WMD. • Charged UNSCOM and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect Iraq to ensure its compliance with the United Nations resolution on declaring.

This made it extremely difficult to resolve. including hiding documents related to WMD and materiel. while at the same time delaying or denying UNSCOM inspectors access to facilities. • Saddam Hussein’s security force coordinated a campaign of concealment and deception. let alone inspect. Saddam Hussein had been determined to keep a sizeable part of his WMD arsenal. United Nations Response Prompted by this Iraqi obstructionism. 1991-1998 Iraqi Obstructionism From the start of the UNSCOM inspections. the United Nations Security Council passed several resolutions demanding that the Iraqi government • Cooperate with UNSCOM and IAEA in the inspection process • Provide UNSCOM and IAEA with ” immediate and unrestricted access to any site they wished to inspect” The Iraqi Arsenal The coalition military strikes during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and UNSCOM inspections through 1998 destroyed most of Iraq’s prohibited ballistic missiles and some Gulf war-era chemical and biological munitions. • This led to constant dissembling and obstruction on the part of the Iraqi government during UNSCOM inspections. as they were called. and personnel in a purposed effort to deny information to UNSCOM on Iraq’s WMD program. issues and materiel related to Iraq’s WMD program. documents.Inspections. Iraq still had • • • • A small force of extended-range Scud missiles Some pre-chemical weapons Stocks from which biological weapons could be produced Munitions suitable for chemical and biological agents Continued on next page Iraq 40 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . • Iraqi officials outwardly maintained a façade of cooperation.

• Technical monitoring systems installed by the United Nations at known and suspected WMD and missile facilities did not operate. Continued The Iraqi Arsenal. the Iraqi government refused to continue working with UNSCOM. (continued) Following the Gulf War.gov/cia/publications/iraq wmd/Iraq Oct 2002. chemical. • Iraq prohibited Security Council-mandated monitoring over-flights of Iraqi facilities by United Nations aircraft and helicopters. particularly through 1998. to destroy Iraq's nuclear. Iraq 41 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . 1991-1998.htm is a detailed discussion of Iraq’s WMD and the UNSCOM effort. and biological weapons programs. http://www. • Iraq had also stopped most IAEA inspections since 1998. • Onsite inspections by UNSCOM were prohibited. Iraq may have also • Preserved and enhanced the infrastructure and expertise necessary for WMD production • Maintained a stockpile of WMD and increased its size and sophistication in some areas Hiatus in United Nations Weapons Inspections In December 1998.cia. Operation Desert Fox. the United States and Great Britain launched a bombing campaign. After the United Nations staff had been evacuated from Baghdad.Inspections.

/U.Important Post-1998 Events Terrorism: The Focus The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in Manhattan and the Pentagon.asp?NewsID=5344&Cr=iraq&Cr1= for information on this acceptance.S. In response to the United States’ heightened effort and possible direct action against Iraq. (See the UN site. • There was a dangerous possibility that Saddam Hussein might supply terrorists with WMD. brought Saddam Hussein and Iraqi armaments to the forefront of the Bush administration’s policy on terrorism. biological. which included a call for Iraq to "disarm its chemical. Assertions by President Bush and his administration now focused on Saddam Hussein as the primary terrorist security risk to the United States and the world.un. is a concerted effort at statesponsored terrorism. such as smallpox.) In mid-November.” • Iraqi officials rejected Bush's assertions. with its connection to Al Qaida-sponsored terrorism. • Saddam Hussein had never met his disarmament obligations under numerous United Nations resolutions and implementation inspections." • Bush said that Saddam Hussein had repeatedly violated 16 United Nations Security Council resolutions. Heightened U. http://www.N. emphasizing the following: • A connection existed between Saddam Hussein and terrorism by his giving “aid and comfort” and training to such terrorists. Actions In September 2002 President Bush urged the United Nations to encourage Saddam Hussein to comply with United Nations resolutions or "actions will be unavoidable. including Saddam Hussein. the United Nations passed resolution 1441.) Continued on next page Iraq 42 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . particularly biological weapons. • An axis of evil.org/apps/news/storyAr. and nuclear weapons programs. Iraq accepted the return of United Nations weapons inspectors under resolution 1441. (See the next section for provisions of this resolution.

The mandate of UNMOVIC was to • Continue with UNSCOM's efforts to disarm Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction • Check and monitor Iraq's compliance with its obligations not to reacquire the weapons prohibited by the United Nations Security Council (The United Nations site http://www. which replaced UNSCOM. Interviews may occur without the presence of Iraqi government observers.Important Post-1998 Events. it would be in violation of the resolution. • Provide UNMOVIC and IAEA with “unimpeded.org/apps/news/infocusRel. Continued United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441: Important Features The key provisions of Resolution 1441 were that Iraq must: • Submit to the United Nations Monitoring.un. If Iraq failed to comply with this resolution.) Iraq 43 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N02/682/26/PDF/N0268226. the IAEA. • Allow unrestricted interviews to all personnel that UNMOVIC and IAEA may want to talk with.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws. which would be reported to the Security Council. either inside or outside Iraq.un. unconditional. The resolution said nothing about the “punishment” that Iraq would incur if it didn’t fulfill this resolution. biological. A complete text of the resolution is at: http://www. and unrestricted access” to all types of facilities and transport which the two agencies may want to inspect. and chemical programs. all ballistics missiles and other delivery systems. The families of interviewees may also travel with the interviewees. stocks of agents. and the Security Council a complete accounting of all its nuclear.un. Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC). Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC). with a precise listing of all weapons locations.asp?m=S/RES/1441(2002) or at http://ods-ddsny.pdf?OpenElement The Mandate United Nations Security Council Resolution 1284 created the United Nations Monitoring.asp?infocusID=50&Body=Iraq&Bo dy1=inspect has information on the resolutions and the inspections. and all production facilities.

including: • 2. • The Iraqi government did not allow personnel associated with its various WMD programs or facilities. Iraq omitted a number of key biological agent items. however. • Iraq submitted its required weapons declaration to the United Nations. to talk freely with UNMOVIC inspectors. but the report had irregularities and gaps.500 liters of clostridium The United States asked why the Iraqi government ignored these agents in its declaration. • Iraq said it was manufacturing new energy fuels suited for a class of ballistic missile which it had not admitted it had previously possessed. personnel.200 liters of botulism toxin • 5. some of which are discussed below.N.Iraq’s Weapons Declaration Compliance Iraq allowed United Nations inspectors back into the country. such as scientists and technicians. An Iraqi security official was invariably present. Cooperation with U.160 kilograms of growth media for anthrax • 1. was not full or complete. Continued on next page Ballistic Missiles Iraq 44 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . • The United States government asked why Iraq was manufacturing fuel cells for missiles it said it didn’t have. Biological Agents In the declaration on its weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations.

gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2002/16118. Mobile Biological Weapon Facilities The Iraqi declaration provided no information about its mobile biological weapon agent facilities.e. • The Iraqi government had not adequately accounted for these chemical weapons in the declaration. biological labs in trucks.S.state. government asked what the Iraqi government was concealing by not including these munitions in its declaration." Again. Continued Chemical & Biological Weapons Munitions In January 1999.htm Iraq 45 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . More information about the declaration is at http://www. the United States asked what was the Iraqi government concealing about these mobile facilities. the United Nations Special Commission reported that Iraq had not provided credible evidence that: • 550 mustard gas-filled artillery shells and 400 biological weapon-capable aerial bombs had been lost or destroyed. i.. Instead it insisted that these were "refrigeration vehicles and food testing laboratories.Iraq’s Weapons Declaration. The U.

Turkey is a non-Arabic secular state. otherwise.A New Coalition The Smoking Gun Many members of the United Nations were looking for direct evidence of Iraq’s WMD before considering the possibility of any intervention in the country. Many nations that participated in the 1991 Persian Gulf War were reluctant to join the coalition. • The northern prong of this possible invasion would come from Turkey. • Popular opinion in much of the world was against military intervention without United Nations approval. France. and Germany were against immediate military intervention in Iraq. • Germany said it would not support a military campaign. Turkey The Republic of Turkey is an example of a reluctant coalition partner. • The reluctance of other United Nations members made it difficult for the United States to build an allied coalition for invading Iraq. China. had not ruled out military force against Iraq. • It had to be one of the key countries in any coalition strategy against Iraq because part of the Bush administration’s military strategy was to attack Iraq from the north. but said that United Nations inspectors must be given the broadest opportunity to fully do their job. a permanent member of the Security Council. • France. France would veto any United Nations resolution authorizing force against Iraq. • Russia. Continued on next page Iraq 46 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . Beginning a Coalition The United States was working on building a new coalition for the possible attack on Iraq.

html for details on coalition building. Turkish Apprehension Joining Up The United States’ staunchest ally in forming a coalition for the invasion of Iraq and in support of reconstructing post-war Iraq has been the United Kingdom.) Continued on next page Iraq 47 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . together with Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar of Spain. The United States continued to work on an acceptable allied coalition strategy with nations such as Turkey. led a drive to persuade other European nations to join the coalition.-led coalition. Blair. and the Czech Republic – signed on. Hungary. which both had very strong reservations about military action against Iraq. • Six additional nations – Italy. Germany and France.S. • There was also the fear that Saddam Hussein would retaliate directly against Turkey if the country were used as a base for invading Iraq. Portugal. In late January 2003. • Most glaring was the absence of the two giants of Europe. Denmark. Continued • Most Turks are Muslims like the Iraqis.washingtonpost. • Additionally. the Turkish parliament voted against stationing United States and coalition troops that might transit the country. Prime Minister Tony Blair carried out shuttle diplomacy to persuade reluctant nations to join the U. Poland.A New Coalition. public opinion in the country was not in favor of the war as many Turks felt that the war might engulf the whole Middle East and destabilize their country politically and economically. (See the site http://www.com/wp-dyn/articles/A36852003Jan30. • At this point.

N. Colin Powell. Secretary of State. • Iraqi informants claimed that Iraq had 18 trucks that it used as mobile biological weapons labs. Continued on next page Iraq 48 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .A New Coalition. • He cited intelligence sources showing that the Iraqis had been dispersing rockets armed with alleged biological weapons in western Iraq.S.S. the Secretary of State offered evidence that Iraq • Still had WMD • Was not cooperating with the U. 2003. the Secretary of State discussed the following: • Iraq had bulldozed and concealed alleged chemical weapons at the Al Musayyib chemical complex in 2002 and had a series of cargo vehicles and decontamination vehicles moving around at the site. presented the U. Using satellite photographs and intercepted audio messages from the Iraqi military. Continued Making the Case against Saddam Hussein On February 5. inspectors Concealment In maintaining that Iraq still concealed WMD. the U.N. case against Iraq to the United Nations general assembly. inspectors • Had links to Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) Military Intercepts Powell played recordings of telephone messages between high-ranking Iraqi military officers discussing • “Forbidden ammo” • Concealment of modified vehicles from U.

member states. N. population to Powell’s presentation was generally positive.state. Iraq 49 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . Full text of Colin Powell’s U.htm .S. • Because of member states opposition to military intervention and the threat of a veto by other Security Council members. • Some members of his group were supposedly based in Baghdad. felt that the UNMOVIC should still be given more time to carry out further inspections.gov/secretary/rm/2003/17300pf.A New Coalition. Reaction Reaction among the U. an associate and collaborator of Osama bin Laden and his al Qaeda lieutenant. • In the United Nations. the United States did not request a vote for military intervention in Iraq. which had had reservations about military intervention in Iraq." • Zarqawi spent two months in Baghdad during May and June 2002 getting medical treatment. Continued Al Qaida Connection Powell also maintained that “Iraq harbors a deadly terrorist network headed by Abu Musab Zarqawi. speech is at http://www.

and southern Iraq. It would require about 250. etc. Baghdad. pressuring Saddam Hussein’s regime internally. There would be a more intense air campaign with faster deployment of ground troops than in 1991.000 troops. Continued on next page Iraq 50 Saddam Hussein’s Policies . western. • A disadvantage was that fighting would primarily occur in the Baghdad region. • Kurds in the north and Shia Arabs in the south would play a role in this campaign. • The disadvantage of this option was that it required basing a large presence of Western forces in the area.000 troops were needed.000 troops would participate in this war. Baghdad First This strategy called for taking the capital of Iraq. Rolling War Tactics here included large forces seizing and establishing bridgeheads in northern.. Saddam Hussein’s government would eventually collapse.Possible Options for Invading Iraq Desert Storm Type Tactics This “scenario” would be a replay of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. with high casualties. mostly in urban areas. where the power and communications center of Saddam Hussein’s government was located. • There probably would not be a direct assault on Baghdad. • About 300. Surprise was very important here. Saddam Hussein might have been able to launch a pre-emptive strike. • Since it would require a large build-up of troops and supplies. The main invasion would come from Kuwait with air strikes from warplanes based in neighboring countries. would then rally. About 100. • Saddam Hussein’s republican guard had been trained in urban warfare and would probably do much of the fighting. • There might have been repercussions from Arab countries reluctant to join the coalition. The aim was a swift strike that would cause a collapse from within. • Dissident groups. deserters.

administrative and international angles gives good perspective on the coming war by a PBS correspondent http://www. the allies could not be certain that the Kurds and Shias would fully support this plan. This early interview covering various political.pbs. • Some Arab countries tried to persuade Saddam Hussein and his family to go into exile. html . sponsored by the CIA. with promised shelter and safety.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/gunning/interviews/sciolino. Iraq 51 Saddam Hussein’s Policies .S. • The Iraqi Government had experience in controlling minorities in these areas. would seize key installations in Baghdad while U. Continued • The main disadvantage to this plan was that the Iraqi opposition was splintered.-led air forces attacked military targets around Baghdad.Possible Options for Invading Iraq. Rolling War (continued) Coup or Exile Two other options were: • A surprise coup.

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Operation Iraqi Freedom Preparation for War Selected Topics The topics covered in this section are shown in the table below. It could also isolate and overcome Baghdad without heavy casualties.S. This combination of mobility and air power would make U. Topic Preparation for War Operation Iraqi Freedom: the War Begins Top Priority: Baghdad War in the South Operation Iraqi Freedom: Ware in the North War in the West The Turkish “Card” Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom See Page 53 56 60 62 64 68 70 73 Some Basic Assumptions & Conclusions United States and coalition forces had two important questions in relation to winning the military campaign in Iraq: • Could the Iraqis put up a strong resistance? • Could the United States react as quickly to changes on the battlefield as it thought it could? Conclusions were: • Even if the Iraqis could resist effectively and the United States had problems with managing the battlefield.S. success very likely. the U. The United States could then use airpower to take out the northern Iraqi military. • Even if there were resistance at first. military could isolate southern Iraqi forces. the United States still could win the war. Continued on next page Iraq 53 Operation Iraqi Freedom .

Then a full ground assault would follow in the hottest time.Preparation for War.N. March 7 — • U. military built up forces in the Arabian Gulf. 7 — The U. 8 — The Defense Department enlisted commercial airlines to transport troops and equipment as part of the buildup for possible war with Iraq. Chemical weapons use by Iraq might be a reality in this case too. • The United States and Britain presented a revised draft resolution to the Security Council giving Hussein an ultimatum to disarm by March 17 or face the possibility of war. Military Build-up Jan.N. Feb. but said that it was not a sign that war with Iraq was inevitable (Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld). including Baghdad. S. would probably win the war.S. summer. 14 — During a White House meeting.N. Security Council saying Iraqi disarmament would take months. Civilian casualties would be heavy throughout the country. The chief issue would be: Is an extended war-fighting scenario politically tenable? Keep these points in mind as you continue reading: weighing the military and the political is key to understanding the military campaign and later reconstruction of Iraq. President Bush said he was tired of the continuing deception on the part of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein and saw no evidence that Hussein was disarming as required by U. it might take up to two months to be effective. Continued Possible Worst Case The United States couldn’t guarantee the • Timing of civilian casualties • Range of civilian casualties If intense aerial attacks were necessary. chief weapons inspector Hans Blix reported back to the U. Jan. Security Council Resolution 1441. Even then. with the activation of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet. the U. Continued on next page Iraq 54 Operation Iraqi Freedom .

resolution.N. • France and Russia said they would veto any U. Iraq 55 Operation Iraqi Freedom .N. resolution that implied war. March 16 — • The leaders of Spain.Preparation for War. observers evacuated the demilitarized zone along the border between Iraq and Kuwait ahead of the possible war. Portugal. • U. • Arms inspectors evacuated the country. This resulted in an announcement that the allies would not pursue a second U.N. United States and Britain met in the Azores for a final attempt at diplomacy. The Ultimatum March 17 — • Bush delivered an ultimatum that Saddam Hussein and his sons have 48 hours to leave Iraq. Continued Last Minute Diplomacy March 11 — • The White House rejected any plan to delay by one month the new resolution’s March 17 deadline for Iraq to disarm or face military action.

• Coalition air forces also struck Iraqi long-range artillery emplacements. including Saddam Hussein. Airpower Focus Air Raids on Baghdad Iraqi air defenses in Baghdad were at best sporadic during the coalition bombing of the capital • Iraqi anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) and surface-to-air missiles at times returning fire against coalition aircraft. and other times remaining silent. an important focus of the raids was Iraqi command and control centers and communications in the capital. which eluded radar and could launch bombs from high altitudes. in Baghdad was struck by cruise missiles and bombs dropped by F-117 Nighthawk stealth aircraft. • Patriot PAC-3 missiles in Kuwait successfully intercepted two Iraqi missiles. Reasons for Poor Iraqi Air Defenses There were several possible reasons for the lack of AAA and surface-to-air missiles: • Coalition bombing was effective in degrading Baghdad's air defense system. Coalition forces used the fliers and broadcasts into the country to get information to the Iraqi population. • Coalition aircraft dropped almost 2 million leaflets over Iraq — the second million-plus leaflets dropped in two days. a suspected gathering of Iraqi leaders. • Iraqi commanders were holding off on using AAA and surface-to-air missiles until they felt the final offensive against the capital was in progress. making most Iraqi air defenses totally ineffective.Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins “Decapitation” Attack March 19 — The war begins. The attack did not succeed. • Additionally. In a "decapitation" attack. • Coalition forces used B-2 and F-117 fighters. air defense sites and surface-to-surface missile sites. The aim was to kill Saddam Hussein in one of his palace bunkers. Continued on next page Iraq 56 Operation Iraqi Freedom .

This was the point at which coalition forces were certain that they had truly degraded Baghdad’s air defense capability.Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins.m. As the air war progressed. • The 3rd Infantry Division (ID) (Mechanized) rolled out of Kuwait into southern Iraq at 6 a. witnesses inside Baghdad said that coalition planes began to fly low enough to be seen by those on the ground. Continued on next page Iraq 57 Operation Iraqi Freedom . Ground War On March 20. coalition forces steadily bombed Iraqi air defenses around the country. 2003. Continued Degradation of Iraqi Air Defenses Throughout the early air bombardment phase of the war. • Special operation forces went into action throughout western and southern Iraq. local time and met only slight resistance. the ground war began. • The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) and the British crossed into Iraq to seize Iraq's oil fields near Basra. showing air supremacy over every aspect of Iraq except Baghdad.

gif Continued on next page Iraq 58 Operation Iraqi Freedom . Heading for Baghdad Map The map below should orient you. 2003.S. In the next 24 hours. We will repeat it throughout this “chronology” as you need to have a “geographic” orientation when discussing any military campaign.com/spot/iraqtimeline2.edu/maps/cia03/iraq_sm03. and British forces a port for military and humanitarian supplies and a base from which to clear out any Iraqi resistance in the south. gave U. Marines had captured the port town of Umm Qasr.utexas.Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins.html. Umm Qasr. coalition forces struck hundreds of Iraqi targets. It has the most important site names mentioned in this section on Operation Iraqi Freedom. • U. on the Kuwait border about 290 miles southeast of Baghdad.lib.infoplease. The map below comes from: http://www. • Coalition forces launched a massive missile assault on Baghdad. A detailed chronology of the Iraqi war crisis is at http://www.S. the 3rd ID had penetrated almost 100 miles into Iraq on its way towards Baghdad. Continued • By March 22.

• The British also focused their efforts in the South at Basra. • U.S. • The first elements of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) crossed into Iraq.Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins. South and the West is based on reports from the site: http://www. including the war in the North.com. • British Royal Marines seized the Fao peninsula.stratfor. Most of the chronology of Operation Iraqi Freedom. and Royal Marines captured Umm Qasr. Navy and Marine Efforts Iraq 59 Operation Iraqi Freedom . Continued • Navy SEALs and coalition special forces seized Iraq's major gas and oil terminals in the northern Persian Gulf and airfields in western Iraq.

killing approximately 1. the 3rd ID battled the Iraqi Republican Guard's Medina Division outside of Karbala. Elements of the 3rd ID fought Iraqi irregulars at the town of Samawah. Marines closed in on the city from the southeast after crossing a canal and the Tigris River at Numaniyah. killing 45 of the enemy with no U.S. approximately halfway to Baghdad. 2003 The 2nd Brigade of the 3rd ID had clashed with Iraqi troops. elements of the 3rd ID reached Karbala. On March 26. • U. 2003.000 enemy troops in a three-day battle. Bypassing urban areas and resistance. Continued on next page Iraq 60 Operation Iraqi Freedom . the division penetrated 150 miles into Iraq. • Units of the 3rd ID pushed north to Hillah while the rest of the division advanced to within several miles of Karbala on March 30. • Elements of the 3rd ID encircled the town of Najaf. In a furious sandstorm. casualties. • The 3rd ID and the 101st paused to refit on March 27. 2003.Top Priority: Baghdad The Road to Baghdad By March 22. On March 24. 2003 • Part of the 3rd ID fought its way into Baghdad's international airport as another part came to within 10 miles of the city. On April 2. Marines came to within 15 miles of the city. • U. 2003 • The 3rd ID crossed the Euphrates River at Musayyib and was within 30 miles of Baghdad.S. Into Baghdad On April 3. 2003 • Two separate columns of Republican Guard vehicles heading south out of Baghdad were struck by coalition air forces.S. within 50 miles of Baghdad.

• U. All structured resistance in Baghdad collapsed and the regime's control was broken. Marines advanced further into eastern Baghdad. • U. Marines captured the Rashid military air base in eastern Baghdad. • An armored column of the 3rd ID drove through southwestern Baghdad. • The 3rd ID made another sweep through Baghdad. advancing from the west. Collapse of Baghdad: April 9. • Marines fought Iraqi soldiers in a fierce fight before advancing to the southeastern edge of Baghdad. Continued Taking Baghdad On April 4. 2003 • Soldiers of the 3rd ID continued to search out and destroy remaining pockets of Iraqi resistance in Baghdad.S. Saddam Hussein’s Residences On April 7. the 3rd ID took over the entire Baghdad international airport and began encircling the city.S. April 6 – • U. Iraq 61 Operation Iraqi Freedom .S.Top Priority: Baghdad. • Saddam Hussein's whereabouts were still unknown." but said the war had not yet ended. encountering pockets of resistance. • Baghdad residents came out onto the streets and toppled statues and destroyed pictures of Saddam Hussein and his Baath Party. 2003 — • Elements of the 3rd ID seized Saddam Hussein’s Republican and Sijood presidential palaces. military planes land at the Baghdad airport. • The White House called this an "historic moment. 5 • After a tank battle. without any casualties.

This meant that coalition forces had to eventually take the towns from Basra through Nasiriyah and Karbala. Capturing this town gave U. the movement to Baghdad came from the south out of Kuwait.S. potentially free from Iraqi resistance. about 300 miles southeast of Baghdad. Marines captured the strategic port in the southern Iraqi city of Umm Qasr. 2003. and British forces a port for delivering military and humanitarian supplies. which is located along the Iraq-Kuwaiti border. In this section you will cover a little more about key regions of the south and their importance. Much of this was covered in earlier sections Operation Iraqi Freedom: The War Begins and in Top Priority: Baghdad.War in the South On the Road to Baghdad As mentioned earlier. On March 21. U.S. Continued on next page Iraq 62 Operation Iraqi Freedom .

however. British forces would have rapidly been “depleted” by extensive house-to-house urban combat.War in the South. as part of the southern front. and would have been a true political liability for the coalition. Basra was important. it could have presented a stumbling block to coalition forces advancing on Baghdad. • Any long-term siege of the city. • Although Basra is a city smaller than Baghdad. would have meant starving the population. Continued Basra (Basrah) The opening scenario of Operation Iraqi Freedom saw Marine expeditionary forces and Army special forces occupying the Basra region because Saddam Hussein’s forces had set fire to a number of oil wells in this oil-laden region of Iraq. with bombardment. It lies on the north-south axis to Baghdad. Iraq 63 Operation Iraqi Freedom .

Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North

Kirkuk and Mosul: Keys to the North

Key to the northern front of Operation Iraqi Freedom were two important oilproducing centers: Kirkuk and Mosul. • If coalition forces could occupy these two population centers, the road from the north through Tikrit, Saddam Hussein’s hometown region, to Baghdad would be secure. This would allow coalition forces a two-pronged approach, from the north and south, on Baghdad. • Besides coalition forces, which were much fewer than in the south, the chief player in this northern front were the Kurds and possibly Turkey, which bordered on Kurdish-dominated northern Iraq.
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Operation Iraqi Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North, Continued

Initial Phase

On March 26, 2003, the coalition opened the invasion of Iraq on the northern front. About 1,000 U.S. paratroopers landed in Kurdish-controlled Iraq. Coalition warplanes bombed: • Iraqi positions near the town of Chamchamal in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq. Chamchamal is about 20 miles east of the key oil city of Kirkuk, • Kirkuk in recent days. Aircraft also were heard flying over the nearby city of Sulaymaniyah.

Kurdish Involvement

Early on, Kurdish leaders hesitated in attacking major centers in northern Iraq; the Kurdish commander in the Dohuk area of northern Iraq said that: • There were too few U.S. troops in the North to open a new front against Iraqi military forces. • Air raids against Iraqi defensive lines during the early days of the offensive had not been very concentrated or intensive in the North.

Overrunning Iraqi Positions

Later it became clear that Iraqi forces in northern Iraq were not a strong match for Kurdish forces. With increased air support, Kurdish, together with U.S. ground forces, made steady progress against Iraqi forces. A report on Kurdish militia fighting Iraqi forces at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wpdyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A448212003Mar28&notFound=true
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Operation Iraqi Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North, Continued


On April 9, Mosul fell to essentially Kurdish forces supported by U.S. special operations forces and air power. • The Iraqis had withdrawn some of their divisions from Mosul, weakening its defenses substantially. • Mosul had limited strategic importance. Kirkuk, to the southwest, was more heavily defended. Kurdish troops would need increased coalition support to take it. The fall of Mosul did clear the way to Baghdad. The road from the north to Baghdad passes through Tikrit, which is Saddam Hussein's home town and was his political base and supposedly a heavily defended stronghold


On April 10, Kurdish and U.S. forces advanced to the western edge of Iraq's northern oilfields at Kirkuk and moved into the town of Dibis without encountering any Iraqi resistance. The oil facilities around the town appeared to be intact. Later in the morning the Kurdish forces of Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan occupied Kirkuk, which Baathist party militants and Iraqi forces had deserted earlier that day. Report on Kurds taking Kirkuk at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wpdyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A53952003Apr10&notFound=true
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Operation Iraqi Freedom

Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in the North. • Early on April 14. with most of Saddam Hussein’s forces disappearing before coalition forces had arrived. a task force of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force. 2003. Iraqi forces found it very difficult to withdraw to Tikrit and Baghdad.S. tanks entered the center of Tikrit along the main road from Kirkuk and occupied the city square. • About 20 U. attacked Republican Guard units on the southern edge of Tikrit. Tikrit was taken by coalition forces the same way Baghdad and Kirkuk had been captured earlier. Iraq 67 Operation Iraqi Freedom . Continued Tikrit Because of continued pressure by coalition special operations forces and Kurdish forces in the north. supported by Cobra helicopters and F-18s.

from the Jordanian border. including British and Australian commandos. • Coalition special operations forces. Continued on next page Iraq 68 Operation Iraqi Freedom .War in the West Purpose The western front was a means to control airfields and to suppress any possible threatening missile systems there.S. 170 miles to the Mudaysis airfield. special operations forces gained control of western Iraq. • The area is mostly unpopulated desert but has a few airfields and areas that might have been used by the Iraqi military to hide SCUD missile launchers. had already captured the airfields at the H2 and H3 pumping stations and were said to have been involved in skirmishes at Ar Rutbah and Akashat. Special Operations U.

Continued Key Routes The area reportedly under coalition control also included two important highways into Iraq: • The first. • The second. from Arar. through Karbala to Baghdad. from the Jordanian border through Ar Ramadi to Baghdad. Iraq 69 Operation Iraqi Freedom .War in the West. in Saudi Arabia.

rocket launchers and artillery behind embankments.S. These problems will play a part of the eventual solution to peace in northern Iraq. positioning tanks. • Additionally. is much tension. indigenous to northern Iraq • Possible military action that Turkey might take in northern Iraq Between these two “allies” as you saw in an earlier section of this handbook. and nationalistic sentiment. Turkey Here coalition forces had to consider a number of variables: • Chiefly: the Kurds. military planes deployed in the war against Iraq from taking off from or landing at Turkish bases. ethnic enmity. but its parliament banned U. Turkish soldiers settled into Turkish villages and fields along the border with Iraq.S. Continued on next page Iraq 70 Operation Iraqi Freedom . aircraft to only use Turkish air space.The Turkish “Card” A Complex Challenge In contrast to the direct attack on Baghdad. including the main air base in Incirlik. Turkish Actions Turkey took the following actions in relation to its interest in Operation Iraqi Freedom: • Turkey allowed U. the war on the northern front had been more complex in terms of the • Local population • Effect on Iraq’s neighbor. • Some Turkish trucks did assist coalition forces by carrying some supplies for them into northern Iraq.

S. regardless of how it treats the United States. It has been a basic pivot of U.S. • Turkey is the key nation in the United States’ geopolitical strategy in the region. Continued The U. Turkey depends on the United States to • Guarantee its national security • Support Turkish armed forces in guaranteeing Turkish secularism • Prevent the disintegration of Turkey by controlling the Kurds. Regardless of Turkish “non-cooperation” during Operation Iraqi Freedom the United States needs Turkey. who are interested in a unified independent state. which would probably include parts of Iraq.The Turkish “Card”. • It influences events in the Balkans.S.S. strategy since World War II. the Middle East and in many of the Muslim countries of the former Soviet Union.-Turkish relations probably outweigh many other international considerations in the Middle East.Turkish Relations U. Perspective on U. Turkey and Iran Continued on next page Iraq 71 Operation Iraqi Freedom . A break with Turkey is inconceivable. Importance of Turkey Turkey is the single most important ”piece of real estate” in the EuroSouthwestern Asian area. The Turkish Perspective: Importance of the U.S .

The Turkoman Minority To make the Turkish-Kurdish issue even more thornier. Iraq 72 Operation Iraqi Freedom . ethnicity will continue to play a dominant role in any political stabilization of post-Saddam Hussein Iraq. are beginning to demand power in that region. • The U. • There have been clashes between Kurds and Turkomans in the Kirkuk area. As you can see.S. and the threat of an independent Kurdish state would be a nightmare to the Turks. but is limited by the Turks. Turks favor their “brothers” the Turkoman in any kind of “struggle” with the Kurds. the Kurds expect something in return.S.The Turkish “Card”. administration wants to reward the Kurds.S. As you can see the Kurds are one of chief factors that keeps Turkey and the United States balanced in a dependent relationship. For this. forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom (the Turks did not). • Any move toward a Kurdish sovereign state would destroy U.-Turkish relations. Continued The Kurds: Forcing a Symbiotic Relationship The Kurds have cooperated with the U. the Turkoman. a large Turkic minority living in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq. • Naturally. who would see it spreading and influencing the Turkish Kurds of southeastern Turkey.

Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom Length Combat operations lasted officially March 20 – May 1. 2003 • U.300 Cost $4 billion per month to keep troops stationed in Iraq Statistics from http://www.100 Iraqi POWs – 7.com/ipa/A0908900.infoplease.S.S.000 coalition troops were deployed to the Gulf region: • • • • 255.. • Australia .000 British 2.110 • POWs – 8 (all rescued) • • • • • Iraqi Estimates Iraqi troops – 350.S.000 Combat deaths – 2.000 Australian 200 Polish Official Names Troops Deployed U. 53 other coalition countries • Wounded – 2. 45. Estimates • Casualties – 115 U.S.Operation Telic.320 Iraqi civilian deaths – 7.600 Iraqi civilian wounded – 5.Operation Falconer More than 300.html Iraq 73 Operation Iraqi Freedom .000 U.900-9. – Operation Iraqi Freedom • United Kingdom .

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administration of post-Saddam-Hussein Iraq. Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay Hussein were killed in a gun battle at a villa in Mosul. He was hiding in an underground “spider hole” with a few weapons and $750k. Rewards have been offered for information leading to the capture of the remaining “cards.cfr. forces captured Saddam Hussein in a village near Tikrit.) An excellent time line of post-Saddam Hussein administrative and managerial events is at http://www. Topic Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq “New” Iraq.After Operation Iraqi Freedom Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq Selected Topics The topics covered in this section are shown in the table below. the United States developed a list of the 55 most-wanted members of Saddam Hussein’s regime in the form of a deck of cards.S.” was captured. The Most Wanted List In April 2003.org/reg_index. Old Neighbors New Iraqi Government Guerilla-Style War Operation Iron Hammer Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building See Page 75 77 78 80 82 84 Administrative Structure A civilian administrator. currently runs the U. • In December 2003. L. Saddam Hussein's cousin. • One of the earliest “members of this deck” taken into custody was Saddam Hussein’s former deputy prime minister Tariq Aziz.S. . Paul Bremer.php?id=6|35||12. the first administrator. • In May 2003.” Continued on next page Iraq 75 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . (He replaced retired Lieutenant General Jay Garner. former ambassador and State Department counter-terrorism director. Ali Hassan al-Majid or “Chemical Ali. in a night operation called Operation Red Dawn. • In August 2003. U.

7 billion dollars. corporations are participating in the reconstruction of Iraq. A Halliburton subsidiary. Iraq 76 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . Contracting for Two large U. administrator in Iraq abolished • The Baath Party • The Iraqi army and police force as constituted under Saddam Hussein • Institutions of Saddam Hussein’s regime The interim governing council (IGC) of Iraq met for first time. the UN Security Council approved a resolution • Supporting the U.S. was awarded a contract to • Operate Iraqi oil fields • Distribute oil from Iraqi fields Bechtel was also awarded a contract to rebuild bomb-damaged Iraq. Rebuilding Iraq Halliburton Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. Agency for International Development for more than 1.S. Continued Early Administrative Measures In May 2003. Kellogg Brown and Root.Important Political Events in Post-Saddam Hussein Iraq.S.S-led administration in Iraq • Lifting of economic sanctions The U.

the “favored” status of Iraq’s Shias by the regime in Tehran has been a sore spot in the relationship between the two countries.S.S. Iran has more long-term goals. • It is possible that the pro-Iranian Shias of Iraq could organize to carry out a guerilla style war against coalition forces. The president of Syria spoke out about what his country considers the U. something that is uppermost in U. the country left its border with Iraq open so that anti-coalition voluntary forces could freely mass in Syria and launch “attacks” against coalition forces. which could pose destabilizing problems for both coalition forces and the newly emerging postSaddam Hussein Iraq. Old Neighbors Syrian Challenge A democratized Iraq could eventually present a potential threat to many Middle Eastern countries. encouraging anti-war activity and sentiment. • Syria voted in favor of Security Council Resolution 1441 and maintained a behind-the-scenes dialogue with the United States despite condemning U. pressure and threats. • Iran is at best unpredictable in its attitude and actions regarding the liberation and reconstruction of Iraq. war plans. Additionally.“New” Iraq. An example is Syria. Busloads of anti-coalition volunteers launched from Syria into Iraq. are difficult to assess. Iraq and Iran have been at odds over the years in their efforts to dominate the Middle East. • Initially.S. Iran has tremendous resources at its disposal to support this kind of a war.S. policymakers’ minds. Iraq 77 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . because of U. the government closed the border though traffic in supplies to anti-coalition forces in Iraq continued. which in their complexity and subtlety. potential for dominating the Middle East. • Later. Iran As you learned earlier. • Then it changed course. While Syrian actions can be contained and are often very evident.

New Iraqi Government What Iraq needs: Peaceful Pluralism Political and economic stability in post-Saddam Hussein depends on a government of all peoples of present-day Iraq. • Controls the national budget. Continued on next page Iraq 78 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . This political pluralism. is a process that requires time to shape. • Oversees the convening of a conference to draft a new Iraqi constitution. • The transition to political pluralism is not easy because Iraqis had lived more than three decades under Saddam Hussein’s one-party dictatorial system. General elections are set to follow a referendum on this new constitution. with respect to their differences. and coalition administration to the newly formed Iraqi government is a progressive shift of power. Establishing the The 25-member Interim Governing Council of Iraq was established in July IGC 2003. which is one of the most elementary foundations of democracy. based on negotiations between the • Coalition Provisional Authority • Former Iraqi anti-Saddam Hussein opposition parties IGC Responsibilities The council: • Appoints and dismisses ministers. together with the consolidation of new Iraqi political institutions. Such a process requires time. must be ensured. The Transfer Process The aim of the transfer of power from the U. • A peaceful means for political parties to coexist.S.

N. would like to see a more speedy transition of power to the Iraqi people. passed a resolution • Welcoming the IGC of Iraq to the U. the IGC appointed a cabinet of 25 ministers. UN Approval In August 2003. assistance mission for Iraq Council Action • In early September 2003. France and other countries.New Iraqi Government. Iraq 79 After Operation Iraqi Freedom .N. which had been originally opposed to the invasion of Iraq. Reaction to the IGC Many Arab countries have not yet recognized the IGC as the government of post-Saddam Hussein Iraq because they consider the ICG a “puppet” of the United States. • The cabinet was tasked to run the country's affairs until a new elected government was established. • Giving a 12-month mandate to the new U. • Kurds from the liberated Kurdish areas of Iraq.N. Continued IGC Make-up Most of those holding council seats are • Members-in-exile from historically anti-Saddam Hussein groups. the U. reflecting Iraq's ethnic and religious composition. • Representatives of indigenous political parties some of which are at odds with the United States.

A car bomb killed 125 people in Najaf. S.N. with 11 people killed. Types of Opposition The terrorist opposition is probably made up of the following types of individuals and groups or has attracted similar individuals • • • • Remnants of military forces still loyal to Saddam Hussein Remnants of the Baath Party Sunni Muslims loyal to Saddam Hussein Disgruntled Iraqi citizens who have lost patience with the U. including the prominent Shia leader Ayatollah Mohammed Baqr-alHakim. Continued on next page Terrorist Incidents: Examples Iraq 80 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . Dozens of people were killed when the Red Cross office in Baghdad was bombed. headquarters in Baghdad.Guerrilla-Style War Low Intensity CENTCOM has admitted that in its efforts to stabilize Iraq and to maintain the peace there.-led coalition • Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) and other voluntary terrorist-type forces who have crossed over into Iraq to “liberate” the country from coalition forces • In August 2003. • A female member of the Interim Governing Council was assassinated in September 2003. coalition forces in Iraq face a terrorist adversary using guerrilla style low intensity tactics. the Jordanian Embassy in Baghdad was bombed. Twenty-two people were also killed when a terrorist bomb destroyed U.

bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/737483. • The murder of Japanese diplomats and Spanish civilians working in Iraq seemed to indicate that terrorists are targeting allied personnel in an effort to discourage coalition countries from sending support to U.S. personnel and officials associated directly with U. S. Continued • There may be a change in the targets of terrorist attacks. This discussion is based on http://news. • The brutal suicide bombing of an Italian police base in Nasiriyah in November 2003 may also signal that terrorist forces have shifted their attacks to regions located outside the capital. Previously most of the targets had been U. more Iraqi citizens appear to be targeted. Since late October 2003.stm.S. reconstruction efforts. Shift in Tactics? Iraq 81 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . forces in Iraq.Guerrilla-Style War.

damaging a vehicle • A pair of 2. S. • Insurgents fired on a U. Details can be found at http://www.Operation Iron Hammer Operation Iron Hammer: A Response To deal with the upsurge in terrorist activity (examples in the next section). forces targeted an abandoned dye factory in southern Baghdad that was hit by artillery and air strikes. • Near Kirkuk.S. This kind of assassination is part of the new terrorist policy to murder Iraqis who are working with coalition forces. • U. forces also used heavy artillery. • Two policemen were wounded when assailants tossed a grenade at a police station in Mosul. • Gunmen assassinated Hmud Kadhim. the Education Ministry's director general in Diwaniyah province in the southern town of Diwaniyah.story?coll=hc-headlines-newsat3 Continued on next page Terrorist Activities Coalition Responses Iraq 82 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . U. battle tanks.7589745. forces returned fire. supply convoy north of Samara. • U. F-16 fighter-bombers and AC-130 gun ships to take out targets in central Iraq. • This operation was an aggressive attack on insurgents before they could strike coalition forces and coalition-friendly indigenous groups. • The coalition said it would use “overwhelming force” to suppress these attacks.S. including Tikrit. on camps suspected of making bombs. coalition forces initiated Operation Iron Hammer in November 2003.000-pound satellite-guided bombs was dropped near Baqouba. fighter-bombers dropped 1.0.com/news/custom/newsat3/sns-apiraq. 30 miles northeast of Baghdad.S. • A roadside bomb exploded in the southern city of Basra as a British civilian convoy was passing by. attack helicopters.000-pound bombs on terrorist targets. Baqouba and Fallujah.ctnow.

From the way he was captured. in fact. coalition forces cannot be certain how much direction or command he had over such forces. he would be able to give critical information on the structure. in which scores of Fedayeen-like troops were routed or destroyed. Continued Battle of Samara This was the largest post-Saddam Hussein engagement for coalition forces. in a planned attack. Iraq 83 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . Capture of Saddam Hussein: Implications With the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003. Hopefully. Saddam Hussein could reveal his plans and the locations of these weapons and missile systems. • If Saddam Hussein were. location. and leadership of these groups. a number of key issues came to the forefront: • Would his capture decrease or increase the insurgent attacks on coalition forces and Iraqis working with coalition forces? The chief issue here was how involved in the insurgency “movement” was Saddam Hussein. In late November 2003. • An important issue that has been a constant problem for the Bush Administration was Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction. hiding alone in an underground hole. strength. coalition forces engaged insurgent forces. a key player in the insurgent terrorist attacks on coalition forces and Iraqis.Operation Iron Hammer.

Because of looting and sabotage.gif Health A health assessment of hospitals found that 65% of the equipment in the country was not working.Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building Utilities and Sanitation Although the water treatment system was antiquated and damage to the city power system also affected water treatment. • The water authority has restored the worst parts of the system. untreated sewage is now deposited into the Tigris River.200 primary care clinics are now open. environmental research. • Teachers’ salaries have increased. • Grants. about 60% of Baghdad now receives adequate water. In 2003. The sewage system was not designed to support the 5. All 240 hospitals and 1. coalition allies are spending $422 million on health care. there had been little maintenance on school buildings. Based on: http://graphics7. • Baghdad has electricity about12 hours per day.nytimes.com/images/2003/11/03/international/1104HEAL.6 million inhabitants of metro-Baghdad. universities. Improvements in education include the following: • School registration at the primary and secondary level has increased. in conjunction with U. • The coalition has allocated more than $100 million for repairs to the sewage system. and legal education. Agency for International Development is in charge of the contract for equipment for water treatment.S. agriculture. • U. Education Since 1991. have been awarded to Iraqi centers of higher education to encourage study in the fields of archaeology. Continued on next page Iraq 84 After Operation Iraqi Freedom .S. University and higher technical schools had been isolated from the international academic community.

instead of hurriedly grabbing takeaways.00. a big change apparently from just weeks ago. soldiers is $300.” Continued on next page Iraq 85 After Operation Iraqi Freedom .S.2003 Key points made by the author. Price of Reconstruction Reconstruction: Eyewitness Report This section is based on the article below from http://www. Night curfews have been lifted and Baghdad residents are gradually venturing out of their homes. soldiers have been killed per week since major combat ended. one of the few revived shopping destinations in the capital. it was about $5.Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building.00 – 1. Eight days in Iraq by Yahia Said 6 .00.’ said the Iraqi policeman. displays its wares late into the night. Goldsmiths on Karrada Street.S.” The police force is the first government service organization in 35 years to work outside of Baathist control. In May 2003. Said feels this is a plus for the Iraqi people and to the detriment of Saddam Hussein. • Coalition allies have destroyed about 100 weapons and munitions per day. who spent eight days in present-day Iraq found “a people yearning for freedom. Many now eat out in outdoor cafes and restaurants. • The average price of a Kalashnikov rifle is now about $80. • The bounty paid to Iraqis who kill U.000. • “The wave of lawlessness which gripped the country upon the fall of the regime has largely subsided.” He had been out of country for twenty-five years. Continued • About five U.jsp#. normality – an end to violence. It is a firsthand account of some of the every-day “realities” of reconstruction in Baghdad. • A “rediscovered humanity” – the courtesy and politeness of the local Iraqi police force would make inhabitants of Iraq’s neighboring countries jealous: “ ‘I apologise for the inconvenience.00.11 .net/debates/article-2-95-1573.opendemocracy.

Most suicide bombers and terrorists target police stations. schools and international organizations. They are sick of violence of all kinds. • Most dangerous is the ongoing political violence. During my eight days I did not meet a single person who shared this view. according to Said. Most Iraqis want to pick up the pieces of their shattered lives and move on. who represent 60% of the adult population – do not want the Americans to leave anytime soon. Many of these terrorists are considered foreigners. • “Iraqis want to regain control of their future and to become truly independent and free. under Saddam Hussein. • “Some reports from the country seem to imply that Iraqis welcome at least some of the violence as legitimate resistance to occupation. start newspapers and to begin business enterprises. Government employees are now receiving salaries ten times higher than before the war. Indeed. Whoever cares for them should help them do just that. They are tired of empty rhetoric and ideologies. the vast majority of people in Iraq – especially women. Continued • Baghdad is alive with commercial activity. The streets are clean. Children from poor families Said visited were eating bananas – something unheard of. • Many Iraqis forced into exile by Saddam Hussein’s regime are now returning to the city to set up political parties.Reconstructing Iraq: Nation Building.” Reconstruction: Eyewitness Report (continued) Iraq 86 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . whatever the pretexts.

Instant Empire: Saddam Hussein’s Ambition for Iraq. and the geopolitical motives behind Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait. Kenneth. Pollack. Laurie. planning. Karsh. The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq. 1991. Mylroie. Karsh and Rautsi have written an analytical political biography of Saddam Hussein.References Sources Besides the numerous web sites cited in this handbook. Makariya discusses Iraq as a one party state. the total control exercised first by the Baath Party and then by Saddam Hussein. Kanan. concludes that the post-Gulf War policy of containment against Iraq is no longer effective and believes that Saddam Hussein must be deposed by invasion. and eventual first bombing of the World Trade Center. Makariya. Continued on next page Iraq 87 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . one of the leading national security advisors during the Clinton administration. 1998. 1991. Saddam Hussein: A political Biography. The author. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Republic of Fear. The emphasis is on the security and secret forces of Iraq and the way they terrorize citizens. Henderson uses a balanced approach to discussing Saddam Hussein and his importance to the Arab and non-Arab world.” The authors cover the personality of Saddam Hussein and how it affects his political actions. an analysis of opposition and corruption in Iraqi politics. Washington. background. New York: Random House. San Francisco: Mercury House. Study of Revenge: The First World Trade Center Attack and Saddam Hussein’s War against America. New York: Free Press. The book “traces the meteoric transformation of an ardent nationalist and obscure Ba’th party member into an absolute dictator. Efraim and Inari Rautsi. The authors focus on the link between the bombers and Saddam Hussein. Simon. He covers important subjects such as the family and political background of Saddam Hussein’s rise. 2001. DC: AE1 Press. 2002. This is an extended analysis of the origins. the list below of other sources may also help you: Henderson.

army.mil/au/aul/bibs/tertod/tertod. New York: Wiley.com/Oil/Timeline.org/man/dod-101/ops/index.bbc.cfr.htm#03.php?id=6|35||1 http://www.stm http://www.au.co. Trevan. The following is a list of online “bibliographical” sources that have extensive sites dealing with Iraq and Operation Iraqi Freedom.mich. London: Harper Collins. 1999.mil/ Iraq 88 After Operation Iraqi Freedom . focuses on how United Nations weapons inspectors uncovered Iraq’s secret nuclear.asp http://www.edu/govdocs/usterror. This book.gov/cia/publications/iraq_wmd/Iraq_Oct_2002. and biological weapons programs and exposed the deceit that is at the root of Saddam Hussein’s regime.au.org/reg_index. Continued Sources.cia.lib. Saddam’s Secrets: The Hunt for Iraq’s Hidden Weapons.htm http://www.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1584660. http://www. chemical. Tim.af. 1991.ringnebula.af. The Outlaw State: Saddam Hussein’s Quest for Power and the Gulf Crisis.html http://news.mil/operations/iraqi_freedom/iraqifreedom.References. Elaine.mil/au/aul/bibs/iraq/iraq_crisis. The site below has a chronology of the UN resolutions on disarmament inspections and Saddam Hussein’s obstructionism. http://www.centcom.htm http://www. (continued) Sciolino.html http://fas. by one of the leading United Nations weapons inspectors.htm http://www.

Appendix A Islam Iraq 89 Appendix A: Islam .

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Appendix A: Islam

Islam: Basic Ideas


You have probably heard the name Islam associated with Iraq. Most people in Iraq and in surrounding countries believe in Islam. In this section, you will learn about Islam, its main ideas, customs, and practices. (http://thetruereligion.org/intro.htm - - a short introduction to Islam)

Definition of Islam

Islam means submission to the will of God in the Arabic language. The word Islam has the same root as the Arabic word salaam, which means peace. Muslims around the world often greet each other with the phrase “Salaam” in much the same manner as Jews say, “Shalom,” as a greeting. Both salaam and shalom come from the same common language root, the three-letter root - s-l-m. (http://media.isnet.org/off/Islam/basics/index.html) – discussion of various “doctrinal” aspects of Islam by noted theologians.


Islam is not named after a person like Christianity, which was named after Jesus Christ, Buddhism after Buddha, and Confucianism after Confucius. The central focus of Islam is always God. The basic tenet of Islam is that you must submit to Allah (the Arabic word for God) and live according to His divinely inspired law. • The key truth that Allah has revealed to mankind is that the only divine and worshipful “being” is Allah, the almighty God; thus all human beings should submit to and worship Allah. • Allah has 99 names, among them, The Gracious, The Merciful, The Beneficent, The Creator, The All-Knowing, The All-Wise, The Lord of the Universe, The First, The Last, and others. No matter what “sect” of Islam a person belongs to, he believes in this important religious belief that is the common thread of Islam.

The Precept



Appendix A: Islam

Arabs and Islam

Muslims (Moslems)

Now that you know that the religion is called Islam and the name of the God of Islam is Allah, what does the word Muslim mean? The word has the same s-l-m root as the words Islam and salaam. A Muslim is a person who submits to the will of Allah, regardless of race, nationality, or ethnic background. A Muslim has to submit completely and obediently to Allah and live according to Allah’s message. • Muslims worship Allah alone and must not worship any person, place or thing other than Allah. They believe that Allah is the God for the Christians, the Jews, the Muslims, the Buddhists, the Hindus, and even atheists. • Orally repeating the basic belief of a Muslim found in the “motto” of Islam: "Laa Elaaha illallaah" which means, “There is no god but Allah,” is the way a Muslim professes that he belongs to Islam. • The “motto” above, "Laa Elaaha illallaah," is in Arabic. • The prayers, sayings, and many blessings of Islam are all spoken in Arabic, just as the holy book of Islam, the Qur’an (Koran) is written in Arabic. • This common religious language of Islam is one of the ties that bind all Muslims together.
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Importance of Arabic in Islam



Appendix A: Islam

Bosnia. • In fact there are more Muslims in Indonesia than in the Arab Middle East. Elsewhere in Europe. many people assume that most Muslims are Arabs.Arabs and Islam. Uzbekistan and other central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. Iraq 93 Appendix A: Islam . • There is a large minority in China too. both from conversions and immigration. Turkey. there are immigrant communities of Muslims from Africa. Today there are about five million Muslims in America. Albania is Muslim. Muslims make up the majority in such non-Arabic countries as Turkey. • Besides Indonesia. and Germany. 20% of the population of Suriname in South America is Muslim. Pakistan. and Macedonia have large Muslim populations. • In the Americas Muslims have increased in recent years. This is not the case: About 80% of all Muslims are not Arabs. Bulgaria. Continued Arabs and NonArab Muslims Because of the importance of the Arabic language in Islam. • In Europe. and Asia in France. Britain.

His message is Islam. in the year 570 CE. Muslims consider that he “cleansed” the message. Muhammad is the last prophet of God to mankind. Abraham. The revelation of Islam that Muhammad received is the Qur’an (Koran). This revelation. Muhammad was very religious. 33:40) This one phrase from the Qur’an shows Muhammad’s place in Islam and in world religion.Muhammad (Mohammed) Importance Muhammad is … the Messenger of God and the last of the prophets . his mother also died. His father died before he was born. • Muhammad is the successor to Moses. Continued on next page Iraq 94 Appendix A: Islam . He has been described as calm and meditative. • In spite of his importance in Islam and for the world.. Muhammad received his first revelation from Allah through the Angel Gabriel. (Qur’an.. Muslims do not worship him or ascribe any divine qualities to the prophet. In a sense. so Muhammad was raised by his uncle. His Calling Muhammad was born in Mecca (Makkah) in what is now Saudi Arabia. regardless of their beliefs. is known as the Qur’an (Koran). At the age of 40. and Jesus. Muhammad and Other Religions In terms of other world religions. It was his habit to meditate in a cave near Mecca. during one of his retreats. Isaac. which he continued to receive for twenty-three years. Muhammad. • He reinterpreted and corrected the message of Allah and gave mankind the true word from Allah. Because of his trustworthiness and sincerity he was often asked to arbitrate disputes. Soon after his birth. Jacob. Muslims believe that Muhammad is the prophet of Islam. • His message applies to all mankind. • He is the last messenger of God. Muhammad is the prophet among all previous prophets and messengers.

• This event. Continued Spreading Islam As Muhammad began to preach the truth that Allah had revealed to him. called the Hijra (‘migration’). and within a century of his death. • This became so strong that in the year 622 CE Muhammad and his followers emigrated from Mecca. Iraq 95 Appendix A: Islam . when they traveled about 260 miles to the north to the city of Medina. Islam had spread to Spain in the West and as far east as China. • Before Muhammad died at the age of 63. most of Arabia was Muslim. Muhammad and his followers returned to Mecca. • After several years. marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. he and his small group of followers suffered persecution.Muhammad (Mohammed). where they made peace with their enemies and established Islam.

this is the requirement that adult Muslims pray at five specific times during a twenty-four hour day to Allah. Continued on next page Iraq 96 Appendix A: Islam . Muslims face in the direction of Mecca. Muslims are encouraged to pay their Zakaat during the holy month of Ramadan. Prayer Called As-Salaat in Arabic.usc. • While performing As-Salaat.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/pillars/ – an introduction to the five pillars. eventually culminating in complete prostration or bowing down with the hands on the floor to show complete submission to Allah. ( http://www.” All Muslims subscribe to and repeat this belief. this is the “credo” of Islam: “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. this means that Muslims must contribute to the support of those less fortunate Muslims--support of the poor.) Commitment Called the Ash-Shahaadah. Alms Known as the Az-Zakaat in Arabic. They are the cornerstones of Islam. • This is a ritual prayer requiring Muslims to say specific prayers and to coordinate hand and arm movements.Five Pillars of Islam Introduction The five tenets are the foundation for all Islamic belief.

Ishmael. Ramadan comes 11 days earlier each year. drink. • The Hajj commemorates the sacrifices and faith of Abraham.Hajj (Hadsh). Ramadan is a sacred month because it commemorates the time when Allah first revealed the Qur’an to Muhammad. and their son. Continued Fasting In Arabic this is called As-Sawam. this pilgrimage requires a Muslim in good health to travel to Mecca in Saudi Arabia at least once in a lifetime. Pilgrimage Called Al. It means that during the month of Ramadan. The time for Ramadan changes each year because it is based on a lunar calendar. • One of the high points of the Hajj is the umrah. Iraq 97 Appendix A: Islam . regularly scheduled international gathering on Earth. or smoke from sunrise until sunset every day of this holy month. • Specific preparation is necessary for the Hajj. adult Muslims who are in good health • Cannot eat. his second wife. which means performing a ritual walk seven times around the sacred stone of Islam called the Kab’ah.Five Pillars of Islam. Hagar. it is the largest. for example there are rules about shaving and cutting hair and what to wear. The intention of fasting is to worship Allah. • Must abstain from sexual relations. According to the Council on Islamic Education.

which is the Sunnah. untouched and uninterpreted by human beings. • The Sunnah is the spoken word and acts of Muhammad. • A second form of interpretation is called hadith. As Allah’s final message to mankind. The Sunnah. many of which you might call verses.net/Islam/ ) (http://www. Scribes selected by Muhammad usually wrote down these verses. Sometimes they wrote on wood. • The original language of the Qur’an is Arabic. • Muhammad received the message in bits and pieces from the Angel Gabriel during a period of 23 years.usc. and even stones. accents and markings for reading were added. The Qur’an. it is the holy book that supercedes all others: the Old Testament. It is important to remember that Muslims believe the Qur’an is the word of Allah. • In later years. trees.as opposed to his life itself. During Muhammad’s lifetime it was recited publicly. This is narration about the life of the prophet or what he approved . (http://www. • The word Al Qur’an means the recitation. Many followers also memorized the Qur’an by heart. the holy book of the Muslims. and the ahadith (plural of hadith) are the basic body of Islamic religious doctrine for all Muslims. the Qur’an was recopied and refined. Form and Content The Qur’an is a collection of surahs or chapters. etc. parchment. the Gospels. • Muhammad received the surahs from Allah. the Sunnah. Muhammad’s actual words and deeds.edu/dept/MSA/) Interpretation Iraq 98 Appendix A: Islam .Al Qur’an (Koran) and Sunnah Definition Al Qur’an (the Qur’an) is the revealed word of Islam. uses the life of Muhammad to explain and expand on the verses and teachings of the Qur’an so that Islam can eventually become a world religion.afghannetwork.

190) War is the last resort and is subject to the precepts of Islamic sacred law. Self-defense Islam allows fighting in self-defense and in defense of religion. Actually. God does not love transgressors. Each of us. Inner Struggle The second and more personal meaning of jihad is an inner struggle. You have probably heard the word jihad in reference to Osama bin Laden and the Taliban. They consider the terrorism that they perpetuate a jihad. This means a struggle between the forces of Allah (good) and the forces of evil --an eternal struggle. Iraq 99 Appendix A: Islam . The Qur’an says: “ Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you. If good Muslims do not risk their lives in the cause of Islam. but do not transgress limits. is constantly fighting a “war” against self-centered desire. according to Islam. There are rules of combat including prohibitions against harming civilians and against destroying crops. injustice would triumph. with the final goal of attaining inner peace. and egotism.” (2.Jihad (Djihad) Definition The word jihad means struggle in Arabic. trees and livestock. the word jihad has a couple of interpretations.

doesn’t have the power to rule on a case of adultery in a civil court or on a case of fraud in a criminal court. or Judaism. which are the schools of Islam. • Muslims must apply these precepts handed down to Muhammad in the sixth century to present-day situations. such as Methodism. Islamic law consists of guidelines and rules that determine all aspects of a Muslim’s life from how to perform ritual prayer to conducting business transactions. just as varied interpretations of Christian doctrine have caused Christianity to split into various denominations. Catholicism. • It also includes crimes and the appropriate punishments for each. Interpretation and Reinterpretation This kind of religious legal system. are the • Sunni • Shi'ites (Shi’ia) Continued on next page Iraq 100 Appendix A: Islam .Islamic Schools (Sects) Religious vice Secular Law: Western View The United States and most other Western countries make a clear distinction between the rule of law and religion. particularly how to interpret the Qur’an and the ahadith. • These Islamic laws are based primarily on the Qur’an and are called the Sharia. but religion is not the determining factor in most legal cases. has resulted in a certain degree of divisiveness in Islam. • Religion is a separate personal issue that does not determine law. Islamic View If you look at Islam. The two main sects of Islam. a religious denomination. The United States has a secular system of law. • Simply put. religion plays no direct part in such a system. • A legal case may make use of religion. the perspective is different.

about 16 percent. according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. • Shi’ites are the majority in Iran and southern Iraq. One group felt that the successor was Imam Ali who had been appointed by Muhammad according to Allah’s decree. Continued Shi’ites (Shi’ia) The basic divisiveness in Islam is based on an historical incident: • After Muhammad died. Sunnis make up about 83 percent of Muslims. later called the caliph. Afghanistan. mostly from the household of the prophet. and practice have developed between these two main groups over the centuries. They also believe that the leader of Islam must be endowed with grace and benevolence and should be infallible. Turkey. The Sunnis chose a leader. Ali was a relative of Muhammad and the first to accept Islam. Shi’ites. there was confusion about who should succeed him as the leader of Islam. Iraq 101 Appendix A: Islam . Sunnis The majority group. was a minority and became known as the Shi’ites. believe that: • Muhammad did not choose a specific successor and probably assumed that after his death. • Sunni Muslims predominate in Saudi Arabia. variations in Islamic doctrine. from outside Muhammad’s household. the remainder. • The prophet did not tell his followers how they ought to select their leaders or what qualifications their leaders should have. Results of the Division Because of this succession split. and Indonesia. law. • This group.Islamic Schools (Sects). and a few other small groups. Pakistan. Muslims would find their own leader. The Shi’ites refused to accept the Sunnis’ choice and split off from this main group. called Sunni Muslims.

Continued on next page Iraq 102 Appendix A: Islam . legal and spiritual aspects. • Drinking alcohol is forbidden. especially beheading for capital crimes. • This society fits bin Laden’s mold too. ideal society based on Islamic religion and law. • For Islamic fundamentalists. The Saudis have adopted many of the conservative precepts of Wahhabism. To this day Saudi Arabia uses these punishments. Wahhabism: The Way of a Muslim Life Wahhabi Islam is a total religious system. for example: • The right hand should be amputated for theft.Osama (Usama) bin Laden and Islam Bin Laden’s Religious Background Bin Laden’s brand of Islam is based on extremely conservative Islam called Wahhabism. the Taliban have created what approaches a pure. Bin Laden and the Taliban The kind of radically. The Wahhabis and the royal Saud family have long intermarried. • Murder and sexual deviation are punishable by beheading. Punishment is based exclusively on the Qur’an. Wahhabi Islam is ascetic. • Mosques should have no decoration. He was the founder of the sect and the co-founder of Saudi Arabia. which was espoused by Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab (170387). • Men should wear short robes and even avoid the black cords used on turbans and headgear. • Adulterers should be stoned to death. It has an answer for every question about a Muslim’s life including social. conservative state that the Taliban had developed in Afghanistan had roots in Wahhabism. which inspires and feeds on the Taliban’s fundamentalist religiosity.

So did Osama bin Laden.com/FROM_THE_ARCHIVE/ARCHIVES/?010924 fr_archive03 – good article on bin Laden. http://www. specifically the United States. he may be trying to help them acquire radiological dispersal devices.htm#qb4 – a set of informative questions about terrorism. A primary concern is that bin Laden’s forces are attempting to acquire or build chemical and/or biological weapons to use in their terrorist attacks.S.newyorker. bin Laden allegedly sponsored the attacks on American embassies in Africa. and Russian officials are also concerned that he is financing Chechen rebel operations out of Dagestan. his life and religion • Now bin Laden regards the struggle as a war between two civilizations: His Islam and the non-Muslim civilization.Osama (Usama) bin Laden and Islam. Toward winning this struggle.brookings. In the case of the Chechen rebels. Continued on next page Focus on Expansion and Terrorism Bin Ladensponsored Terrorism Iraq 103 Appendix A: Islam . bin Laden has committed his forces to terrorism. what he most fervently supports is that his brand of Islamic faith must expand. • Besides the infamous 9/11 terrorist attacks against the Pentagon and the twin towers.org/fp/projects/terrorism/faqs. Continued • While bin Laden follows the conservative Wahhabi tenets. a former Soviet republic in Asia. Saudi Arabia supported the Afghan mujahidin when they were fighting the Communists. (To support this kind of expansion.) http://www. • U.

” Bin Laden could probably rally an army of over 100. the members of these terrorist forces return to normal “civilian” life in host countries. Kosovo. • In the interim.000 commanders. excluding those currently “in service” in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Egypt. Chechenya. • Contributions from Saudi Arabia through various banks and from various Saudi businessmen. Ethiopia and Somalia. in North America. Continued Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) is the name of the network of Islamic extremists that bin Laden has at his command to carry out his radical Islamic terrorism. with numerous cells.000+ men around the world. • Al Qaida consists of a group of about 3.Osama (Usama) bin Laden and Islam. • Funds from bin Laden’s personal fortune. Continued on next page Iraq 104 Appendix A: Islam . Albania. Saudi Arabia. Troops of Afghanis and Pakistanis number 200. the Philippines. • Many members of his overseas forces are ready for both sustained and onetime operations. They are also available for terrorist operations on their own countries. Yemen. all the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. • What might be called tribute money to Al Qaida from countries that do not want the organization to establish cells in their own countries. • There are a number of terrorist centers.000+. Funding for Al Qaida (Al Qaeda) Terrorism The primary sources for funding Al Qaida-sponsored terrorism have been: • The sale of drugs. Algeria. Bin Laden’s “Army” Al Qaida is bin Laden’s personal “army. primarily opium.

are grounds for overthrowing the Saudi royal family: • Alliance of the ruling Saudi family with the West • Saudi Arabia’s dependence on American and other foreign troops who came to the country to defend it during the Gulf War • Corruption of the Saudi regime Iraq 105 Appendix A: Islam . is extremely conservative.Osama (Usama) bin Laden and Islam. bin Laden finds that it is not conservative enough. which are contrary to his purist concept of Islam. He thinks the following reasons. Saudi Arabia. Continued Bin Laden and Saudi Arabia Even though the country where he grew up.

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Appendix B Quick Facts on Iraq



Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq

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Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq

Quick Facts on Iraq


This short facts page covers a number of important subjects that will give you a clearer understanding of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, and the post-Saddam Hussein era. It highlights critical issues.

Deserts and Mountains

The Republic of Iraq located in southwest Asia, is bordered by Kuwait, the Persian Gulf, and Saudi Arabia on the south, Jordan and Syria on the west, Turkey on the north, and Iran on the east. The climate is dry, with cool winters and hot summer. Most Iraqis live in the area of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The north is mountainous; the south, desert-like.

Key Factors

Oil, which is the main export; Islam, particularly the division between Shias and Sunnis; and former Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein, are the key factors that have shaped Iraq today.

Size and Population

Area: 434,924 square kilometers or 167,924 square miles. Estimated population: @ 23,000,000.

Language and Ethnicity

About 80%+ are Arab. Chief language is Arabic. 23% of population is Kurdish, speaking a non-Arabic language; others are Turkish, Armenians, and Assyrians.


95% of people are Muslim. There are twice as many Shias as Sunnis. Small pockets of minority religions like Nestorian Christians.

Admin. Sectors

Country is divided into 18 provinces.
Continued on next page



Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq

important interior towns are Mosul and Kirkuk. Economic Sectors 95% of all revenue was from oil exports.odci.CIA site that has handbooks of countries of the world. 6% from mining and manufacturing.Quick Facts on Iraq. the port town of Basra.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index. 10% from agriculture. 30% of work force in agriculture.html -. Dates and cotton are the biggest crops. Additional Site http://www. Government/ Legal System The Interim Govern Council (IGS) of Iraq is tasked to draft a new constitution and to set up elections. Iraq 110 Appendix B: Quick Facts on Iraq . Politics Various political parties drawn from indigenous groups and from returned exiles vying for power. 40% of gross domestic product is from services. Continued Population Centers Principal towns include the largest. the capital Baghdad.

August 1990.August 2002 Iraq 111 Appendix C: Chronology of Events .Appendix C Chronology of Events.

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France proposes a peace plan which is accepted by Iraq but rejected by the US.Chronology of Events. they are affecting the Iraqi military only at the margins.S. Baghdad cut civilian rations for the second time since the rationing program began ." Although sanctions are hurting Iraq's civilian economy. have dealt a serious blow to the Iraq economy. the Iraqi army invades Kuwait. Aug 28 Sep 19 Sep 24 Nov 22 Nov 29 Nov 30 Dec 5 Iraq 113 Appendix C: Chronology of Events . The United Nations Security Council passes Resolution 660 condemning the Invasion and demanding Iraq's immediate and unconditional withdrawal... In addition.. Continued on next page Aug 12-15 Iraq offers two peace plans which are rejected by the US. Most expert witnesses to US Senate Armed Services Committee reject military option towards Iraq... . imposing comprehensive sanctions on Iraq and establishes a committee (the 661 or Sanctions Committee) to monitor the sanctions. Iraq accepts. Jordan proposes a peace plan which is accepted by Iraq but rejected by the US. In late November. Council passes Resolution 661. William Webster tells US Congress that ``economic sanctions and the embargo against Iraq . August 1990. services ranging from medical care to sanitation have been curtailed. U. Arab League calls for Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait.. Security Council Resolution 678 authorizes use of force against Iraq if it has not withdrawn from Kuwait by 15 January 1991.August 2002 1990 Aug 2 Aug 3 Aug 6 After months of tension. CIA director. proposes talks. Morocco proposes a peace plan which is rejected by the US.

UN mission to Iraq led by Sadruddin Aga Khan concludes that Iraq needs $22 billion that year to provide civilian services at pre-war levels. French defense minister Chevènement resigns in protest against scale of bombing. while Operation Provide Comfort carves out an autonomous zone in a large part of the Kurdish areas. Iran protests scale of bombing. Air war begins. deducting 30% for a Compensation Commission. Continued 1991 Jan 9 Jan 13 Jan 16 Jan 21 Jan 29 Feb 3 Feb. of which $900 million would be available for civilian needs. disregarding the Secretary General's request that the cap be raised. Ahtisaari Report to Security Council on humanitarian crisis in Iraq and Kuwait." No remedy to humanitarian need.6 billion over 6 months to be placed in escrow account. leaving less than 1/3 of the Report's recommended amount for humanitarian aid." Resolution 688 condemns "the repression of the Iraqi civilian population" in the ensuing civil war. Resolution 712 proposes that Iraq be allowed $1. August 1990. destroying much of Iraq's civilian infrastructure. establishes UN Special Commission on weapons. UK ambassador Sir David Hannay states in the Council that "it will in fact prove impossible for Iraq to rejoin the community of civilized nations while Saddam Hussein remains in power. UN Secretary-General's talks with Iraq fail.August 2002. extends sanctions by tying them to Iraq's weapons. Mid-Apr US. "without dealing with the underlying need for energy.Chronology of Events." Resolution 687 begins cease-fire. "…Most means of modern life support have been destroyed or rendered tenuous.6 billion oil sales over six months. Continued on next page Mar 20 Apr 3 Apr 5 Jul 17 Sep 19 Iraq 114 Appendix C: Chronology of Events ." War ends." "Sanctions in respect of food supplies should immediately be removed. UK and France organize a "no-fly" zone in northern Iraq.28 US-Iraq talks fail. plus UNSCOM and other international obligations. Aug 15 Resolution 706 acknowledges the Sadruddin Aga Khan Report and calls for oil sales not to exceed $1. Pope John Paul II rejects the claim that the war against Iraq is a "just war.

UK and France attack Iraq with aircraft and cruise missiles. U. Iraqi government and U. It has since been renewed mostly in six-month phases. In Operation Desert Strike.S. use in the northern governorates. replies: "I think this is a very hard choice. Continued on next page Iraq rejects 706 and 712." Iraq is no longer able to provide survival sustenance for its civilian population. U. in response to claims of half a million child deaths in sanctioned Iraq. August 1990. 13% of total available funds set aside for U." US. fires cruise missiles at Iraqi targets First oil sales start. Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright. reach agreement on implementing Resolution 986.N. Continued 1992 Feb 1 Feb 5 August 1993 Jan 13 1995 Jan UN Secretary General Boutros Ghali issues a report calling sanctions a "blunt instrument" Resolution 986 allows Iraqi government $2 billion in oil sales every six months. US and UK continue air strikes on January 17 and June 26. but the price . Apr 14 1996 May 12 May 20 Sep 3-4 Dec 10 Iraq 115 Appendix C: Chronology of Events . Sanctions Committee must review and approve all supplies purchased through escrow account.August 2002.Chronology of Events.we think the price is worth it. beginning the Oil-for-Food program. UK and France establish no-fly zone in southern Iraq US. Council declares that Iraq "therefore bears full responsibility for their humanitarian problems.N.S.

2000 a comprehensive report and analysis of the humanitarian situation". August 1990.N. Dec 15 1998 Dec 16-19 Operation Desert Fox air campaign by U.K. which in turn cannot be achieved solely through remedial humanitarian efforts. Iraqi government does not allow the team to enter its territory. Resolution 1284 offers improvements in Oil-for-Food.August 2002. weapons inspectors withdraw from Iraq due to impending aerial attacks by the United States and the UK.256 billion per six month phase. Compensation fund reduced to 25% from 30% of oil revenues with the additional resources targeted to vulnerable groups. Mar 30 Aug 12 Dec 17 2000 Resolution 1302 establishes a team of "independent experts to prepare by November 26. although less than those recommended by the Security Council panel. and U. Continued 1998 Feb 20 Dec Oil-for-Food oil sales cap increased to $5. 1999 Security Council panel report finds that Iraq had ``experienced a shift from relative affluence to massive poverty'' and predicted that ``the humanitarian situation in Iraq will continue to be a dire one in the absence of a sustained revival of the Iraqi economy. UNSCOM's credibility is undermined by evidence that staff members seconded to the agency by the United States have compromised the independence of the agency and engaged in espionage and covert action to overthrow the Iraq government. Continued on next page Jun 8 Dec 5 Iraq 116 Appendix C: Chronology of Events . Security Council rejects the alternative of a report based on UN agency information and other reliable external sources.Chronology of Events.'' UNICEF estimates that an additional half million children under five who would be alive under normal circumstances had died in Iraq between 1991 and 1998. and expresses its intention to suspend sanctions with the ``fundamental objective of improving the humanitarian situation'' in Iraq. Resolution 1330 further expands lists of humanitarian items. U. The oil sales cap is removed and some items are allowed into Iraq with automatic Security Council approval.S.

One month extension of Oil-for-Food under previous conditions. Iraq 117 Appendix C: Chronology of Events .August 2002.N. reports abound of plans for a large-scale U. Continued 2001 UK. as well as differences among Permanent Members blocks Council action. Secretary General Kofi Annan suggesting that Iraq may be ready to allow arms inspectors back into Iraq. Lacking agreement with Iraq.S. French. President George W.Food. but scepticism remains that inspections will resume The source of this chronology is at http://www. Iraq Foreign Minister Naji Sabri writes to U. Resolution proposes a Goods Review List to be adopted in May. five month extension of existing Oil-for. and Russian draft resolutions propose various new approaches.Chronology of Events. OIP Director Benon Sevan warns the Security Council of a "financial crisis" in the humanitarian program due to the dispute over oil pricing.globalpolicy. Thereafter. The UK proposes a Goods Review List of potential dual-use items and land-based border monitoring of Iraq trade. military attack on Iraq. Objections by Russia and by Iraq. May-Jun Jun 6 Jul 4 Nov 29 2002 Jan 29 Feb 26 May 14 Aug 1 U. Bush declares Iraq to be part of an "axis of evil" in his State of the Union message to Congress.S. Oil-for-Food program extended by six months in Resolution 1382. Resolution 1409 adopts Goods Review List.org/security/sanction/iraq1/2002/paper.htm#app1 . August 1990.

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