Hugo von Ha gen,







KLINOMETER Copyright. . Hugo von Hagen. 1919.

Hugo von Hagen." '0987654321 PACHOMETER Copyright. . i<)i<).

member of President "American Graphological Society" and " " Societe Graphologique With illustrations including reproductions of writing from the earliest ages to the modern penmanship.D.. VON HAGEN. ROSS.D. M.Tn. NEW YORK ROBERT R. STUDENTS AND LAYMEN GRAPHOLOGY BY HUGO J. PH.HOW TO READ CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING Studies in Character Reading" A TEXT-BOOK OF GRAPHOLOGY FOR EXPERTS. showing the growth and progress made in the art of handwriting. PUBLISHER 1919 .

COPYRIGHT. All Rights Reserved. by Hugo von Hagen. . 1919.





privilege of reading this book in manuhave been greatly impressed with the simplicity of its arrangement. though not apparent at the time. a delineation of whose character from his handwriting you gave me. in thanking you for this token of friendship. I remember the case of that young clergyman charged with murder. In past years you have often pointed out tendencies toscript. I Having had the ward certain characteristics in individuals which. and. indicating that he would do . social and other walks of life. as through all my life I have been fascinated with the study of handwriting. You have been kind enough to dedicate to me your new book on Graphology. to the ultimate benefit of this branch of science. but what strikes me most forcibly is that the formation of written letters is so frequently symbolical of the physical and psychic characteristics of a writer. Every day there appear fresh proofs of the truth of your deductions. sooner or later became evident. This leads me to advise the student of Graphology to seek for peculiarities of this nature and thereby enlarge his own field of observation and deduction. and I feel sure it will be found by all readers to be of practical value in business. and I have never ceased to be astonished at the immense variety met with.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT MY DEAE DOCTOR. In particular. I wish to add that the subject is especially interesting to me.

4 January. Sincerely yours. With my it I am. BEEFFIT.and say certain ing his trial. The excellent tilings all of which actually occurred dur- examples you have reproduced of the earlier stages of the Art of Writing cannot fail to be of interest to all lovers of literature. GEOKGE W. earnest hope that your book will meet with the popularity deserves. New York City. 1919. .

1919. how they what they shall do. what they shall get. which will To the many friends who have so kindly. I have moreover added about fifty rare reproductions illustrating the history of the Art of Writing interest graphologists as well as others. which was so well received that a second edition was published in 1903. directly or indirectly.a subject finally induced me to launch the present book to fill the demand of a constantly growing number of students of graphology. The many requests by my friends for another volume on so interesting. Surely people must know themso few ever think about anything else. J. Yes.PEEFACE selves. Pn. or hardly ever. which also was soon exhausted." Guesses at Truth.D. contributed specimens of their handwriting. but never. " have. perchance now and then what they shall be. what they are. January. Entirely new illustrations are now used and the arrange- ment has been improved. VON HAGEN. N. THE SCIENCE OF READING CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING. J. IN 1902 I wrote a volume on GRAPHOLOGY. HUGO Atlantic City. . they think what they shall appear. making this book more helpful to the student and more interesting to the general reader. I express my hearty thanks and the hope that in this external analysis of self they will learn to detect unerringly the internal reality.

For your particular benefit. The period of instruction will cover about four months. is being prepared. The Publisher maintains a staff of expert Graphologists and would be pleased to receive requests from readers for CharacterDelineations to be made from specimens of handwriting. Letters etc. Students will also have the privilege of submitting their individual graphological problems. Y. This course will consist of written lectures and include practical work under the supervision of expert graphologists in making character delineations from specimens of handwriting. S. you are qualified to go further in the study of the Science of Graphology. a correspondence course. Ross. U. address Street... ROBERT R. consisting of twenty lessons. On completion of this course. This book is used as the text. A.WHEN you have read and studied this book. . N. Character-Delineations Vocational Guidance Credit-Character Analysis Disputed Signatures Identification of Documents Forgeries Anonymous For information as to terms. an examination will be held and students securing satisfactory grade will be awarded a certificate of proficiency by the American Graphological Society. 110 West 40th New York.

words and sentences. we were taught to make. by changing some letters either through the addition or the omission of strokes which. which is really done by the ever-active. in the school-room. thinking brain. our hand ceases to record our thoughts. We find just as many different kinds of handwriting as there are people. so no two handwritings are similar in every detail.GRAPHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF READING CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING A PERSON'S HANDWRITING IS A PHOTOGRAPH OF HIS CHARACTER As long as we are studying penmanship in school or at home it is a merely mechanical operation we simply follow . Through brain-activity we 1 express unconsciously in our . the active thoughts as they are formed. the copy-book or the blackboard letters written by the instructor. Our individual personality will therefore unconsciously form letters greatly at variance with the school copy-book. but after we have mastered the art of penmanship. Just as no two human beings in the world are exactly alike. Our hand then becomes the unconscious instrument of our brain and merely transcribes into letters. we become independent and write and form letters of the alphabet to suit our personal taste and ability. Having become used to writing the various letters of the alphabet.

when writing. such tendencies is Employers can. as it were. by a single analysis. If tried. if present.2 HOW TO BEAD we even handwriting. with greater accuracy assisted in their diagnoses and confidence. he can. success or failure. treat and possibly prevent an actual attack . for we cannot change our character overnight and a master of this science can easily detect. in one's self and in others in all his various relations with them. elimination of which cultivate the good. we could not do so. to conceal them. for upon it principally depend health or disease. characteristics. and the early revelation of To indispensable to parents. controlling influences that. guard against laziness. if a physician can detect in his patient's handwriting indications of a threatened nervous relapse. by its application. our desires and our will. deception. or an athletic heart. for an analysis of their handwriting will surely reveal these. the real thought. feeling or will-effort dictating its obvious counterfeit. revealing. Physicians and other healers also may be frequently a study of their patients' by handwriting. if not absolutely infallible. the culture or may be of vital importance in their young and growing future lives. from moment to moment. generous and noble qualities of children and to help them to guard against evil inclinations is a religious duty. Parents may thus discover in the handwritings of their children. Obviously. our feelings. corresponding to their nature and intensity. is at least most as a means of self-knowledge and self-develop- ment in business and in private life. lead to salutary development or dis cipline. by studying the handwriting of their employees. reliable Graphology. gambling and dishonest tendencies. happiness or misery for the home and its inmates.

kings and other rulers of men. . or occupation. by its engrossing its wide applicability to the details of daily and private and without regard to age. women and children of all nationali- ties.involving the nervous system. have unerringly and convincingly indicated the certain rules and methods of interpreting and reading character which have subsequently withstood successfully further exhaustive tests. nature and life. and are now therefore recorded and presented in this book for public use and approval. sex. ranging from emperors. amply repay the moments of profession habitual observation and analysis devoted to its pursuit public whether for pleasure or from a scientific point of view. through millionaires and pro- tagonists in all fields of human industry and achievement down to hod-carriers and criminals. the study of Graphology will. the heart. Lastly. or even produc- ing insanity. My more than thirty years' experimental and scientific analysis and study of over ten thousand specimens of the handwriting of men. classes and conditions.

The Roman historian Suetonius is supposed to be the first writer on record to have pointed out a handwriting peculiarity. 76 that the characteristics of the Emperor Augustus. indicates economy. in order to get the complete word on the line. This trait. and entered into general use. which historians all agree were two writes in A. the art of writing gradually ceased to be a monopoly of the professional writers of the Middle Ages." (How to judge the nature and character of a person from his letter).D. always word on a line. we find that a corresponding interest was taken in handwriting peculiarities. France came next in taking up this interesting subject and during the reign of Louis XIV a graphologist in Versailles gave readings of character from handwriting. or graphological sign. as indicated by a specimen of his hand4 . Suetonius Roman Emperor (Octavius) connected closely the letters of the last Augustus. Baldo of Bologna published a small book Doctor Camillo entitled "Trattato come da una lettera missiva si cognoscano la natura e qualita des-crittore. reach back into the first century.HISTORY OF GRAPHOLOGY IT may not be generally known that investigations for drawing conclusions as to character from handwriting. In the year 1622. Among these was a remarkable presentment of the gallant Grand Monarque. A translation of his book into Latin was published in 1664 in As Bologna. and a practical mind.

both French. Lavater. The German.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 5 writing furnished by a lady of his Court who was quite ignorant of its royal source. country. was for the first time worked A out by the year 1881. however. All these. which was much used in later years. fell short of laying down any fixed and definite system. " Figaro. however. practical system. Abbe Michon 's system did evolve a set of logical deductions in writing and as this was the first undertaking tions of the kind." in its literary columns. and in which the King's foibles and vices were so faithfully pointed out and identified that the graphologist was imprisoned for a time and even came near losing his head. wrote a pamphlet on a system of graphology. in 1820. he might. Adolf Henze. or method. published graphological . be regarded as the father of graphology. 1885. consisting of rules for deduc- from habitual peculiarities of handwriting. and in France today there are perhaps more graphologists than in any other On September 26. Nevertheless. the Paris paper. based upon psychical and psychological foundations. Goethe's intimate friend. The Poet Goethe. Abbe Michon and Crepieux-Jamin. wrote a small pamphlet on graphology. in About the same time the French Jesuit Martin. in which he discussed the more logical So did deductions of characteristics from handwriting. thusiasm on the subject started others. also wrote a booklet on graphological readings. was one of the best known graphologists and handwriting experts of his time 1860 but his delineations were more the result of intuito 1866 tion than of logical deduction. notwithstanding his many inaccuraHis encies. the Abbe Flandrin while Georges Sand also took much interest in the subject.

Meyer of Germany. Hans Busse of Bavaria. also have contributed largely to the success of graphology in Europe. . and J. J." which teach only graphology. keep up the general interest in this practical and useful science and train its members and students as handwriting experts and graphologists for the law courts.character-readings of the principal candidates for high office and these delineations greatly assisted its readers in making their selections. In the United States the "American Graphological Society" with headquarters in the "World Tower Build- ing" in New York City. and it is hoped that the society will soon have its own club house and graphological journal for the use of its members. In Paris the "Societe de Graphologie" and in Berlin the ''Bureau der Graphologie. has but recently been organized. Dilloo and L.

C. a klinometer. the is a graphometer numbers being the degrees above or below the line as the case may be. is a telemeter for measuring the height of the letters above or below the line. B. with its respective indication. Business letters. for measuring the slopes of letters. This book that a layman and beginner may written in a plain and simple manner so at once take up the study and in a short time be able to draw accurate deductions and make a complete analysis of a writer's character. to consider separately. after which to take a general view and consider them together as a single itself each one by unit. aside from their signatures. is used for measuring the slope of the lines.GENERAL POINTS ON GRAPHOLOGICAL CHARACTER DELINEATION writing to be analyzed should be preferably written It is better to have a specimen of which was not written expressly to be analyzed. To assist the beginner I give five readings 7 which show . and draw a general deduction covering is all character- istics. THE formal and official character. D. The diagrams in the frontispiece illustrate some of the appliances used by graphologists. It is desirable when analyzing. all the habitual peculiarities of the specimen. are not so good for the purpose. handwriting Intimate and personal letters are better than those of a in ink on plain paper. is a pachometer to measure the thickness of the strokes. A.

not openly Concentration Love of Family Life Love of Justice Love of Outdoor Life Memory. of the Salvation Army. In addition to these. characteristics. Queen of Roumania. one of the prime ministers of England. I give a character delineation of our martyred President. are nently The principal : Activity ^Estheticism Idealism Individuality Levelheadedness Aggressiveness Ambition Carefulness Cautiousness Clearness Common sense Combat iveness.8 the HOW manner TO READ of making analysis. and is of interest to the student of graphology. who can compare the historical sketch with the graphological reading and see how closely one resembles the other in the familiar characteristics of the great martyr President. ABKAHAM LINCOLN The graphological reading of Lincoln was made from the letter reproduced. The fourth is that of the late General Booth. which stand out promiin Lincoln's handwriting. The first is a handwriting of Emile Zola. good Mental depression Modesty Nobility of purpose Perseverance Persistence Plainness Courage of his convictions Deduction Diligence Eccentricity Prudence Reserve Resisting power. The third is the writing of Carmen Sylva. strong Sadness Sensitiveness Economy Energy Enterprise Exactness Faithfulness Simplicity . Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln. famous as poetess and author. critic and poet. the French author. specimen The second is the writing of Lord Rosebery.

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Economy was a pronounced trait. Wliile independent in affairs of the nation. added power adapt to his acts. with a determination not easily lessened. persevering. Lincoln had definitely decided what he should do regarding it. . for his long forceful t dashes extending far ahead of the t. especially when prompted by what he thought was duty. influential talker. Secretive to some extent and yet an able.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING Forethought Geniality Spirituality 9 Suavity Suffering Versatility Will-power. for the downward signature is an indication that he was inclined to depreciate his own achievements. He rarely changed his opinion and almost never expressed it until he had had time to think it over. that his versatility and ability himself to whatever conditions arose. There was little conceit in Lincoln. his writing shows sensitiveness and a tendency to shrink from any resemblance to an argument in personal matters. indicate not only energy. While Lincoln possessed and used a fair amount of logic. there are no fancy flourishes or unnecessary strokes. but deep thinking and precision. to be pessimistic. There was no pretension and almost no expression of enthusiasm. for word is shown by the various slants. strong Harmoniousness Humor Humility to we deduce. for long before his opponent had finished prethese From senting a matter. this seems to have been interlinked with his lack of independence in regard to unnecessary expenditure. of public interest. the immense amount of energy he applied. however. it was largely tion of the in each his "looking ahead" and not the quesimmediate future that decided his actions. pressure of the pen. enterprise and protectiveness.

Lincoln would have produced pleasing results. Decisive. Denies his own originally great. Merciless others. pledges to re- . GRAPHOLOGICAL. Curses the day on which he was born. and the latter he has been frequently by the choice of his nature. heart. Born in 1840 in Paris. Quarrels with God and Fate. eccentric and others. critic. but in his handwriting more than love of music. philosophical Highly idealistic Enthusiastic toward all noble. had there been any development along this line. Pities all people. Either desires to proud be immensely happy. mind. Refuses arbitration. or desperately miserable. allowed proud and above is either one way or the other.10 HOW TO READ Lincoln was keenly appreciative of music. Angry with himself. and undoubtedly. harmonious. Gifted. little A A Dependent upon beautiful nature. Clear observer. in others and : in nature. Oratorical gifts. beautiful and great thoughts in his own life. CHARACTER READING or EMILE ZOLA Author. remains angry. his biographers say. was musical inclination. steadfast in his own way. especially of all religious ideas. Many-sided brilliancy. nature which to escape him. son of an Italian engineer.

Is a collector of curios. unapproachable. Takes for granted that he will find in others absolute obedience and subservience. and all this from mere self-pity. High above others. full of hatred. fanatical. aggressive and cannot be scared when attacked. a God upon earth. makes sacrifices. British Prime Minister. Likes himself afi' patron and philanthropist.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING venge his fate. Coldly polite and courteous. stabs with doubly sharpened tongue. Obstinately nervous. Strategical. Woe to evildoers. Practical denies the means . sometimes losing control of his temper. perhaps on account of unreturned love. LORD ROSEBEEY Born in 1847 in London. farsighted. Looks after interests of his friends and servitors. polished in manners. Good investigator makes others follow him. diabolical. bitter. . always at the front. just because things did not occur ac- cording to his way of thinking. Son of Lord Dalmeny. fights in 11 sharp attacks. . Spendthriftily generous.

born in 1843 as Ottilie Luise Elizabeth. Poetical taste. Thinks and acts without caring for opinion of the world.12 HOW TO READ . Princess of Wied. Knows what impatient. Poetess. . he wants and must do. Will and nerve-power influence over others. logical reasoner. CABMEN SYLVA Queen of Roumania. and truth in order to obey. Determined equanimity and coolness. Willing to listen to others but Lives with a clear conscience. sense of the beautiful in Art and Nature. Works sincerely and with pleasure. Converses with his God. Rules a great world of thought and ideas. under name of Carmen Sylva. Needs room for his own expansion. critical. married 1869 to King Charles of Roumania. more than the end or aim. Seeks and uses light Clean.

but seems outwardly indifferent and Admires hercold. Artistic soul. Severe. desires . Never understood by others. Loves warmly and sincerely as long as she can be the only queen of the heart she loves at the time. himself. Desires to direct others and make them subservient to her. despotic. but comes down considerably when executing them. hard. Influenced by as she does not care to understand them. Wants to be admired and sought. Runs with head against wall and pities the wound thus made. self-loving. although most anxious to be found. Eternally desiring. Sighs dreamself. Pities herself in a rough. Pleased with power. Cannot adapt herself to circumstances but wants circumstances to adapt themselves to her. autocratic over earth. coarse world. ingly. nervous nature.13 Hothouse plant. Never gives up a wish or desire once made. feels his to climb still higher. never satisfied. and sentiments. Loves to be worshipped. Undertakes large and wonderful things in thought. Must be handled carefully impressions with gloves. very sensitive. demands perfection in others but cannot see faults in herself. self-justified. GENERAL WILLIAM BOOTH Salvation Army Head. Puts blame upon others. Hysterically inclined. Enforces her way in all seeming humility.

practical character. that is. Holds fast what he has. Always sees two yolks in his egg. . I would be as sounding brass or a tinkling ' ' cymbal. possessed with ideas. Sensational. Plays two numbers at same time. Shrewd and careful. but had not charity.14 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING Naked. Never has enough. pedanInventive mind. one-sided. Soul built up at cost of body and mind. tic. reserved. without taste and no harmony. never loses his place in argument. Afraid of his own real character. Rather narrow. loves intrigues. Does not let his right hand know what his left hand does. Likes himself in his position. constructive and executive power. Untiring nerve and working power. lost himself in it. "And if I talked with tongues of men and angels. he always has two strings to pull on same matter. Hard upon himself and others. Enlarges his successes.

in conjunction with the other signs. helping.THE GRAPHOMETER To make it is a thorough analysis of a specimen of handwriting well to use the simplified graphometer as illustrated L/NE of <Ju. to be change their handwriting accordingly.tlt. of a weak physical nature and will 15 and . w hen writing.rt*lccs 'of 5 here. a dry goods clerk. For example. which shows the various degrees by which the slant or leaning of letters or words can be judged. will generally assume the character of the individual they picture themselves r Hypnotized persons.ra. to form a complete index of the writer's characteristics.

**' r Normal writing of subject. he will always unconsciously put into the forged instrument some of his own habitual strokes or marks by which he can be detected and convicted. Graphology to discover and many other matters. write a strong. on being hypnotized. is.16 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING writing a thin. as in illustration Fig. as in illustration Fig. and told to assume the character of Napoleon I. No matter how careful a forger is. very useful in court proceedin libel cases. as it is easy for a graphologist from a sample of his usual handwriting whether a person has written a particular script. will. of course. weak hand. energetic hand. After being hypnotized. . 7. forgery of wills and other documents ings. 6.

There are margins. below. /&rw&fc^ Qv+^i- C t h fc- <& 17 . in order to utilize all the paper. on top. of course. a closefisted miser or stingy person always tries to save and economize space and further emphasizes this characteristic by writing his words and lines very close together. 8. one of the first peculiarities to be noticed is the margin the writer has left on each page.GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS MARGIN ON PAGE observing a specimen of writing. indicates great economy in the writer. to the left WHEN and to the right of the page. No matter how cheap' the paper used. This is really of more value to the handwriting expert than to the graphologist as not many psychological characteristics are found in the margin. No margin at all. as shown in specimen Fig.

9. they indicate persons who love careful order and precision and who pos- C/U^C^ TV?*- y$/0 ^^ f*^> to . therefore. namely: liberality and gen- C^f. indicate the opposite to the very narrow. erosity. between a formal business letter and a lyzing friendly and intimate note. when anaa specimen. also observance of social usage. will naturally differentiate. with tendency to waste and extravagance.18 HOW Very wide margins. The graphologist Very evenly kept margins are quite rare. TO READ like Fig.

we have great nervous unrest. carelessness. See the next which is the usual handwriting of a illustration. we can be sure that the writer wishes to control his natural tendency toward . 11. Very uneven margins. one of America's best living writers and poets. as in Fig. unevenness in thought and action. 12. indicate irregularity. especially on the left of the page. if extremely uneven and irregular. ^ If the left margin begins narrow and grows wider toward the bottom of the page. especially with the lines growing smaller and narrower. as in illustration Fig.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING sess great evenness of 19 mind and temper. 10. Sometimes. a changeable character and fickleness. charming gentleman. we have signs of a coming nervous breakdown and prostration. Fig. and if such exceedingly uneven margins are made suddenly by persons who previously never used them.

20 HOW TO READ generosity and spending. 13. but they are very "small" at home. they will spend thousands as "a good fellow" or in liberal charity to this last is The opposite . found in the space being very wide at the top of the page and then narrowing down to a very small or almost no margin at the bottom of the page. Such writers are likely to play "big" among outsiders. as in Fig. but that this tendency will break out sooner or later.

and then growing smaller again toward the bottom. 14 . Such writers are by nature careful and economical. but they actually suffer pain and are grouchy if forced to give a few pennies for their regular household expenses. Frequently we find the margin small at the top of the page. finding themselves in some way spending more than they ought. they reform and thus begin to save again and be- come thrifty. they think matters over and form new resolutions. they stop to consider. 14. as in Fig. widening toward the center.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 21 donations. Wives have hard work getting household allowances to pay grocery and butcher bills from husbands who write thus.

become rather over-careful. margin on the right hand side of the page is used up carefully. 15 however is an illustration of this style. intermittent economy is indiIf the /'7*~+ . display liberality. and again . on account of their natural tendency to do so then they remember perhaps their social or business standing. they start however to save.22 The opposite to the foregoing is seldom found. Fig. Such writers act outwardly quite liberally. as in Fig. cut down and economize. 16.

It is was afraid his money would The Roman Emperor Augustus wrote thus. suddenly becomes wealthy. very interesting to notice how a poor struggling person. through some change of fortune. while a spendthrift who is by circumstances forced to economize. unconsciously. at once. will simultaneously narrow down the margin of his letter. as it were. . who. just as if the writer not hold out.23 cated. enlarges the margin on the page of his letter in "sympathy" with his suddenly acquired riches.

as im- portant characteristics of the writer are found in the alignment of a page. there are persons who seem to be unable to write at all.LINES WHEN analyzing handwriting. except on lined paper. even if forced by circumstances to use lined or ruled paper. specimens are always preferred which are written on paper without lines. do not follow the printed lines but write above. nearly all such writers may down dependent natures." their . or with a heavily ruled paper underneath. Others again. Of course. between or below them. helpless and like to lean upon others for sup- port and advice. Such writers possess an independent character which enables them to cut out own way in life or to use an Americanism: "they paddle their own canoe. who at once be set as being rather weak.

hopefulness. word-endings and next illustration. 17. 19. and ambition. even without lined or ruled paper.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 25 Writers who always write a straight and steady horizontal line. when combined with strong. especially when in addition to downward They exupward or . similar to the in pen-strokes. Fig. We we ings. press the opposite psychic characteristic to the rising lines and strokes. as in illustration Fig. as in illustration Fig. confidence. laziness and cowardice. enthusiasm. when noticed throughout a whole page. are some of the characteristics of such writers. are as a rule steadfast characters who proceed on their daily way with an equanimity that is not disturbed by commonplace events they are generally trust. lines. pen-strokes or word-end- Such upward or rising tendencies. Psychic and physical depression. discouragement. lack of enterprise. Downward movements. anguish and weariness. worthy and sincere. activity. show courage and daring also. 18. are executed by the writer through centripetal movements. execute centrifugal movements in writing whenever make upward or rising lines. and well marked pen-strokes. especially indicate great diligence.

19 Others write upward and downward on the same line. Many such writers carry themselves. Careful study 20 &L^ / / - 20a . with body bent forward. causing a "wavy" line. similar to Fig 20. even when Walking on the street.26 lines they write a HOW TO READ very thin round hand. weak way. in an unsteady.

but who will surely // lines are carry out and fulfill them. as in Fig. 21. 23. When 21 made in upward curves. 22. power of deception. no matter at what cost. indicate weakby ness. hypocrisy. as in Fig. but also adaptability. diplomatic ability. 22 // the lines form a downward half-circle that is. we have a character who may have to use great effort to start new undertakings or perform duties. which was written by one of America's foremost statesmen. evenpen-strokes. are not only cunning. open below as in Fig. we find characteristics opposite . Wavy lines when accompanied round.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 27 and weighing of other signs are necessary when analyzing such wavy-line writers. uncertainty and lack of independence. we can be quite sure that chief among the writer's characteristics. thin or w eak pen-strokes. r such wavy lines are written with regular. fine. smoothness and suavity of speech and manner.

love 23 A 24 always very busy. but in reality accomplish very in this class. 24. are Many their lines writers are so easily impressed that they write and word-endings upward when they have heard zs . but little real an denergy. little. They always begin with great amwill-power bition many more enterprises than they are able to com" hustlers" who seem So-called plete. interest and enthusiasm shown in matters of labor. passing and duty by such writers. see also Fig.28 HOW TO READ There is always much to those of the previous writer. enterprise.

the normal handwriting of the writer being quite different. . by a progressing tendency to write their lines and word-endings with a downward tendency. several days or even weeks before actual medical treatment. 25. The specimen of 25-a was the abnormal result of such a cause. Others. I ill have among my own friends a score of writers who have thus given premonitions of impending illness. have a tendency to change suddenly their usually even or upwardly slanted lines to a strong downward line when becoming or when facing a sudden sorrow or trouble.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 29 good news. especially of liver and kidney troubles. again. See illustration Fig. They unconsciously return to their former and usual style of writing after convalescence. and downward when bad news has been received. News of the sudden death of a dear one usually causes a temporary tendency to downward strokes and lines.

or penmanship specimen." 26 . Accordingly is A large a large. and small letters are narrow and short. "large" when both the capitals as well as the small letters are broad and It is called "small" or "fine" when both capitals long. elegant handwriting is frequently called "aristocratic. it may be considered "small.HEIGHT OR SIZE OF THE WRITING WE call a writing. and noble-minded men and women. 26-a and Fig. when not so. the aristocracy. 26. characteristic of royal and other personages. the specimen may be considered " large"." hand. similar to Fig. If the small letters are longer than usual. Fig. 26-b.

CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 31 26 B rich also develop a tendency to large handwriting soon after the turn of the wheel of fortune. which they manifest by a corresponding physical enlargement and elegance of handwriting. Fig. 27 was written by a mining man . Specimens of writing of such newly rich taken ''before and after" are most interesting to persons the graphologist. They seem all at once to be obsessed with a desire to employ The suddenly and exercise authority and power.

similar to illustration Fig. rather upon "luck" or bluff than upon real ability. The contrast between his old and his new life is most faithfully reflected by the respective specimens. 28 was written by him in a letter author after he had amassed a fortune of many millions of dollars. 28 Extremely large letters. This style of handwriting is also affected by so-called "over-educated" persons. and who depends for success in life. 29.32 HOW y TO READ in the to the when he was a " Captain" of a Prairie Schooner West. is often preceded . and extreme egotism bordering on and eventually developing into real insanity. w hile Fig. by many poetically inclined natures and by the affected and conceited writer whose estimate of himself far exceeds that of his acquaintances. are used frequently by fantastic persons.

love of power and Writers who use this style in a natural way gen- erally have a wide and broad horizon. large and at the same time an elegant hand.CHARACTER PROM HANDWRITING 33 and indicated by an enlarged and extremely sloped handwriting. 30. indicates a desire to be someone of consequence or importance. Those who are much preoccupied with . never caring much for details. Small writing. self-consciousness. naturally indicates the op- posite to the large. and it is A a mark glory. years previous to an actual outbreak. and look at life as a whole unit. as in Fig. of pride.

Small writing. from their fellowmen. stands for simplicity. like lacemaking and embroidery. a well de- veloped faculty of observation. for HOW TO READ example jurists. little desire for power. literary and art teachers and others who are habitually segregated critics. but as a complete analysis includes the consideration of all indicated characteristics it is easy to distinguish this condition. similar to specimen Fig. A sudden change from a large to a small hand may frequently indicate a tendency to affection of the brain. professors. modesty. Ladies whose handwriting is of this kind. vanity. delight in home work. Nearsighted persons often write a small hand. selfishness made prominent and obvious. so that the contrast is egotism. 31.34 details. but limited horizon. as do economical and parsimonious persons. preference for family life. when plain and without any loops and other fanciful unnecessary decorations. economy. and affectation will be surely found. often write a small hand. as in Fig. 32. . If only the capital or first letters of a word are very large but the other letters very small.

superiority are easily detected by this title to "earmark.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING Hence. snobs and creatures whose only is 35 limited to their own belief." 32 .

" published in 1902. 35 illustrates a backhand writing. the more sensitive. The correctness and value of the instrument have been repeatedly tested and finally established so that it is now used universally by graphologists as the acid test of the real inner. Fig. 33 shows a strong slanting hand". The graphometer (Fig. or soul-life of the writer. and Fig. 35 Graphologists have proved that the greater the slope or slant. 5) is taken from my book: "Graphology.THE SLOPE OR SLANT OF THE WRITING THE observation of the slope of handwriting is essential. nervous and irritable the . 34 an upright. " Illustration Fig. almost vertical writing. This feature is indispensable to experts in cases of forgery where abnormal variation of slope or slant in the forged instrument has convincingly proved the offense.

Suffragettes are no exception and even students of vertical handwriting incline toward slant- ing their letters. in fact. The above specimen. The nexi specimen. indicates great sensitiveness. a nervous irritability. 37. The psychological explanation to of this sex difference in handwriting consists in the fact that the female regard has the stronger and more sensitive feeling and generally temperament. Fig. indicates that the writer has a fair amount of sensitiveness. with a slant of about 30. 37 Women and girls as a general rule. Fig. 36. but little passion. write more slantingly than males.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING writer. 37 .

not only sensitiveness. which. If such slanting writing consists also of strong. The writer will not tolerate contradiction : his will must will prevail. followed by argument. finally ends in tears. ensueWhen the slope or the slant of the writing becomes less than 25 as in Fig. but a strongly passionate nature are indicated. or even blows and a pathological irritability. 39 then we look for sickly-soul conditions hard words.38 HOW TO READ intolerance of contradiction. as in the next specimen (illustration Fig. especially if the . regular and heavy pen-strokes. other- wise tears. 38).

CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 39 Such writers writing is very thin. 42 many angular. They reason deliberately and fully before allowing their hearts to run away with or even qualify their judgment. similar to that found in the next specimen. indicates politeness and courtesy to strangers and natural good heartedness. have no control over their feelings and change quickly with surroundings hysterically inclined persons are similarly characterized and indicated. almost vertical hand and Fig. They are cool natures who completely repress sentiment. Such writing is like Fig. 41 rather neat and round. without 4I . both in business and in private affairs. sharp and angular. as in specimen Fig. left and backhand strokes. An even. 40. make a rather straight slant say from 70 to 80. Writers who are able to keej cool and control their feelings. They make good business men and 40 business women.

. life with "histories" is These naturally become more distant and reserved. See Fig. as indicated not only in their writing but also by their facial expression.40 HOW TO READ frequently adopted by ladies in middle behind them. 43. 43 *.

conform to my graphometer.41 When the slant is backward as in Fig. . Such writers are untrustworthy and unreliable. found a single case of backhand writing where the writer did not. 43-a we may be sure of the writer's deceitfulness and hypocrisy. are those of two co-partners in a law firm. hypocritical cunning and willingness to stab their best friend in the back. sociable fellows under certain circumstances. sooner or later. yet both succeeded for several years. both pleasant. 45. 44 and Fig. I have never in my 30 years' graphological experience. the graphologist must always make due allowance for naturally left-handed writers and librarians who have perhaps honestly con- tracted a vertical style. When analyzing backhand specimens. written by a librarian of 30 years' experience. in business or in love. 46. Fig. See illustration Fig. with a streak of deceit. The above specimens. both smooth and overpolite when occasion demands. in deceiving their best friends with hypocrisy inspired by criminal selfishness.

anger and touchy . 47 a constant conflict between the heart and the brain is indicated. Many persons write thus who do not live under congenial conditions. then passion. in a writing. 49 and Fig. i 47 If the vertical letters of a script are more frequent than the slanting letters. letters of a line or of a to slanting word vary from backhand and straight as illustrated in the next specimen. Fig. JL. but if the slanting letters irri- more numerous. Fig. 50. 48. as shown in specimens Fig. it may be taken for granted that reason and are self-control are in the saddle .42 HOW TO READ If.

CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING tability 43 Exclamation-points and questionpredominate. marks must be similarly read. Quick-tempered and passionate persons generally slant these very much. as is shown in the third illustrated specimen. / 46 49-50 .

The last illustration. longer and larger toward the end of the wr ord than at the beginning. Fig. while their memory fails to serve them in regard to how they did things later in life. is that of a seven year old child. also elderly men and women with incipient dotage. especially one of two or more syllables. but narrow. the next two are those of 44 men over . Fig. 51. This simply means that the persons are in their second childhood. Simple-minded people write in this manner. 51. If we find such writing in cases of adults. some- what like the next specimen. able to reproduce with wonderful ac- curacy what they did in their early years.WOEDS WITH LARGER AND SMALLER ENDINGS Children will generally write the letters of a word. children will always resume this habit until it is outgrown. childish views and ideas. we may safely put them down as persons with small and backward minds who nevertheless are likely to have positive. In spite of the frequency or severity of correction.

a person of middle age or younger who thus writes. Fig. It shows strong individuality. wrote an even and correct hand. a dreamer. See Fig. it may be added. Forgetfulness has now become 52 52a Such writers are garrulous and tedious in company. 54. bordering en abandon. and a desire to overstep liberty and convention also a very active nervous system. self-consciousness and unconventionality. . when he was in his 28th year.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING seventy-five years of age who. will probably be a victim of paresis Or paranoia at no distant day. and who may seem bright. is taken from a letter written by Oscar Wilde. active and while cultured. loquaciousness and imagination. The next illustration. View the next specimen. to whom work is repugnant. a characteristic. or what the French call: "Une nature toujours vibrante. 45 when ten years younger. Fig. written by him ten years later and observe how the weak sides of his character have become . 52 and Fig. 52-a. 53." The script also reveals aesthetic sensuousness and a lack of resistancepower.

smart people and ' ' ' ' . vades the whole writing. most unconventional and unnatural. The opposite to the increasing is the diminishing endings of words and lines. Excitement perHis sensuousness has developed considerably with a strong propensity to abandon himself to his proclivities. cunning.4(5 HOW TO READ characteristics he more pronounced than the few strong evinced when he wrote the first letter. Shrewd.

as it were. we may safely include among the charac- . expressing them. of the last syllable of his words or the endings of his sentences. see Fig. 47 il- The next three specimens lustrate this point fully. and retain buried deep in their souls that which they profess to openly express. /^C^C^L^ 55 b 55 c words or syllables end with a horizontal dash or line uniformly and not here or there throughout the script. This means that they expressly conceal by their language. 55-b and Fig.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING many diplomats write thus. or conceal. Fig. This writing creates the impression that the writer actuated by the desire to retain possession. when 55 a. thoughts ostensibly parting with. that is. 55-a. If as in Fig. who is exemplify this constant effort to retain. This brings to mind the case of diplomats. 55-c. 56.

as in the case of worldly-wise tell all they know at one time.48 HOW TO READ 56 and ability to disguise Such real feelings with the mask of an outward smile. prudence teristics of the writer. as in Fig. people employ great cunning in their dealings. 57. 58. and who learn quickly through experience. // word-endings diminish only slightly and do not anywhere run out into a horizontal line. secretiveness *^* 57 and reserve are characters who never indicated. When we . find in the same specimen both increasing and diminishing word-endings. as shown in illustration Fig.

downward pen-stroke. rule trustworthy and upright. Such writers never stop to contemplate the consequences of their acts upon others. . 60. letters of we may always They are as a feel safe in giving the writer a clean bill of health as to morals and conscience. as in Fig.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING the writer is 49 reserved and secretive as well as open and conscientious. an even length growing neither larger nor smaller. which sometimes crosses the other letters of a word. 59. as in Fig. whom they hardly ever consider. indicate energy and < ambition. Whenever we find words with or height. thick. Larger growing word-endings finishing with a heavy. also violence and passion.

62. 62 60 . serene. cold tration. with smooth conversational ability and a peace-loving nature. smoothly flowing Conhand. 61 and hard-hearted would naturally make rather angular letters with person many sharp corners and points. Fig. 61. the energetic. somewhat like the next specimen. stern. It is easy for even a layman to understand that a jovial person of easy going habits. will write a round. Fig. like the following illusversely.ROUND AND ANGULAR WRITING All handwritings are either round or angular.

63. honest and good-hearted. they are the soul of justice and fairness. Such handwriting indicates persons who are generally most sincere.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING If handwriting of rounded 51 of thin. and curved letters consists weak pen-strokes with the lines having downward tendency. A ness distinct graphological sign of love of justice and fairis found in sharp or angular writings that end at each word with the last pen-stroke forming a right angle. and they generally express themselves with a frankness which is bordering on rudeness. we may safely analyze it who possesses as that of a very easy going and lazy person little or no physical or moral courage. similar to Fig. 64. . similar to the specimen Fig.

65. . I have examined per- *^*^^^^*^<A^^rv^ haps hundred specimens of the handwriting of prisconfined for murder. where all edges and corners of the various letters look like sharp. prickling thorns. as in Fig. and assault. When the final strokes of such writing are exceptionally sharp. All cruel natures write thus. rape. homicide. Very seldom did I find this characteristic missing in these cases. brutality HOW TO READ and animal instincts are expressed in angular handwritings. as in illustration Fig. five oners who were 65 a. tyranny and use of for cruel and selfish ends. 65-a. we have power Members of the female sex who habitually use very angular letters and no round or curved strokes at all are also great inconsiderateness. thick and large. perhaps in not more than 1%. manslaughter.52 Cruelty.

They must always have the last word. It is therefore advisable for both men and women to select as friends or life partners persons whose handwriting is composed of an equal number of round and angular letters or penstrokes. 66. for this proportion will insure the combination of the good. They seldom make or keep friends. adaptability and courtesy.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING best let alone. severe qualities with amiability. . They never tire of complaining that 'they have "such hard work to get along" with their neighbors and their family. sociability. whether right or wrong.) They invariably develop into undesirable spinsters or old maids and never into good wives or mothers. 53 (See specimen Fig.

They produce. &**^ -c <*0+^ ~^*<>-c Persons of a strong and powerful intellectuality generThey have no ally write a very plain and simple hand. Plain writing indicates clearness and level-headedness.PLAIN AND FANCY WRITING Plain writing consists of letters made without any unnecessary strokes or fanciful additions. See illustration Fig. 67. as a rule. while intermixed and interwoven letters and pen-strokes. 54 . clear. think of how they write but only of what they are time to writing. easily read chirography.

or the first letters of whose words throughout their writing are plain and pointed. as in Fig.55 like Fig. 68. tricky mind. 69. 9 fe tl . signify either a muddlehead or a cunning. Persons who write very plain. pointed capital letters. always have much love for art and the beautiful in nature. they see at once only the beauty and goodness of their environment before even noticing the unpleasant side.

if required. Fig. One's occupation is frequently very plainly indicated in his handwriting. when you find one. while others with delicate. the well-known pianist Many musicians make marks like violin bows or noteT . they rarely care much for outward show. clumsy or vulgar person cannot very well write an elegant hand. cultivate her. 70 is the signature of Paderew sky. 70 Musicians frequently indicate their profession in their handwriting by unconsciously making letters similar to musical notes and cleffs. is generally heavy and clumsy. thin tapering fingers. The writing of persons with large coarse hands. There are not many women of this class. but the heavy. generally write in daintier style.56 HOW They have good TO READ rect taste in general and a desire to be corand exact as well as plain in their daily life. make heavier strokes. The latter can. who are obliged to do manual labor.

73 and Fig. Figs. that of the violinist. just as employed when they are writing prescriptions. Caruso. Fig. 71 is the signature of the famous tenor. All plainly show their musical proclivities in their handwriting.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 57 keys as part of their signatures. Fritz Kreisler. 72 is the signa- ture of the opera singer. Professors and students of Latin. Fig. Greek and other dead or oriental languages frequently make in their writings letters that originated in the ancient alphabets and which are similar to Greek letters. Physicians and druggists often fashion certain of their letters to resemble chemical signs. 75. Illustration Fig. Geraldine Farrar. 76 and 76-a are . 74 is the signature of a professor of Latin and Greek.




specimens of chemists and assayers Fig. 77 that of a prominent and successful physician and Fig. 77-a of a student of








The same

characteristic holds

ers of mathematics


letters single

good with regard to teachand to accountants. They very often or combined with others that much re-



semhle figures. The signatures Fig. 78 and Fig. 79 are those of a railroad accountant and a comptroller.


<*./.;/ /kA/JL^

When one's writing, especially that of a female, shows sudden thickening of various down strokes, similar to Fig. 80, we may safely interpret this peculiarity as a yearning for someone to love. Many spinsters write thus, and the




life, the more do they emphasize sudden thickening of the downward strokes of one or more letters of a word. Such writers attach much importance to outward show and to etiquette. They love to fondle and caress little children and members of the opposite sex. Tendency to vanity and a desire to please are among their

further they plod through


cially in

write in
Fig. 81.)

Of course there are also many men, espeprofessional and student life, and widowers, who this style; friends often call them "fussy." (See


very plain copy-book hand, like Fig. 82 such as many clerks, bookkeepers and professionals write is of little value for analyzing character. It is better to get an intimate letter from such a person. If however, he always uses such a regular school-hand, even in his friendly and love letters,


we may deduce
that he has


or no originality, ingenuity

or intuition, nor should it puzzle never attains a higher position in


to explain why he than that of a clerk

or bookkeeper. There are "dirty" handwritings, like the specimen Fig. 83 that is to say, we receive such an impression with our


look at the specimen.

For instance

there are exceed-

ingly heavy penstrokes combined with ink-spots and fingermarks scattered here and there, just as if greasy fingertips impressed the paper; little or no care is taken to

preserve margin or space; all of which imparts to the whole letter a soiled appearance. Such writing we would of

course at once ascribe to persons of careless, even uncleanly habits, in their daily life; they frequently allow their clothing to be without buttons; their finger-nails and other parts of their person manifest an innocence of soap

and water, and they display indifference cleanliness, and order.

to comeliness,

SPECIMENS of handwriting which are regular throughout,
similar to Fig. 84, indicate a steady, constant character. Persons who love to pursue "the even tenor of their way"

whose views and thoughts and ideals are not changed quickly by any chance misadventure of the molife;


ment, write thus; their letters maintain from beginning end a uniform width and length.

Of course,


we happen

to find writings

where the regu-

larity of the letters, the margins on the left of the page, the distance between the lines, and especially the placing of






commas, periods and question marks and exclamationsimilar to points, seem rather systematic and deliberate
Fig. 85

we conclude

istics of the

that one of the principal characterpedantry, with scarcely any power of


Such a person must generally have


way who

There are others, again, now and then vary and make slight departures from their usually stiff and formal letters, as in Fig. 86. These people are at least open to conviction and are more considerate of other people. Whenever handwriting is irregular and varies as to the letters as shown in specimen Fig. 87, it indicates an eccenin everything or be


write a very regular hand, but

Fickleness in love affairs is frequently found in such writers like that of Fig. Their nature simply seemed to demand theless from the one to the other idol. in which case it may simply denote activity and love of change and diversion. absolutely in love with two persons of the opposite sex at the same time. who were each of them according to their viewpoint. 88 yet I have known several trie or fickle character. 88 persons of both sexes.64 HOW TO READ Such irregularity however may be very limited. but nevercharacter remained to preserve the worship enough a change of the old and first love. and who were actually true and faithful to both. .

65 Nervous. the writer others. 90. 89. is very easily influenced by . casually made and with- o 90 out any fixed plan. Observe specimen Fig. // such changeable handwriting is composed of very thin and fine pen-strokes. as in Fig. often make strong. irregular changes in their handwriting. whimsical people who have little or no sense of order or time.

These are writers we have indications of superficiality. especially in regard to laws of morality. and at the same time rather broad and very wide. but they are unmerciful in their denunciation of strangers late the moral law. 92.66 HOW When we TO READ find such a very irregular hand. who vio- and then we come upon handwriting where a certain forced irregularity of letters is very obvious and plain. similar to Fig. who are very indulgent in extenuating vices own pleasant and those of their immediate families. with frequent omis- sions their of strokes. 91 and Fig. Now . especially if thin and fine.

-/^L-^rtA/-\_ ~fa^L L~* ^ - J^L cu/.while the person was exerting all his will power in order to suppress bodily pain or nervous weakness so that he could do his duty or some task he had undertaken to do. 94. I have accordingly seen many notes written by wounded or dying soldiers and therefore under terrible nervous strain 94 if and yet their writing was far more regular and even than penned under normal conditions.) 67 Such specimens are written 4 LJL*^*. 93 and Fig. .CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING (See Fig.

generous for himself in his daily life.WIDE AND NARROW WRITING All writing at first glance. wide writing as that of a person. and more liberal and generous than of a person whose writing is smaller and tapers toward the S-^f end of each person. who needs more room Just as the liberal. 95 . is also v . seems to be either wide or narrow. line and page. It is easy to analyze the broad. freer with the use of a sheet of paper when writing in the same manner and to the same extent like Fig. free.

96. The careful. They leave no margin as a rule. these characteristics are an additional graphological symptom of egotism and selfishness. saving person. 98. Incidentally. 98. stingy. similar to Fig. will always make up for this by completely filling the right margin of the page. although compelled to conform to society's laws and leave a fair margin on the left side of the pages of his letters. to their v "" 98 CUtAMtJ <ht&S* * *~* ~ ~^ Sometimes we find a rather narrow handwriting like Fig. 97 and Fig.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 69 in the opposite direction does the close-fisted. Mean. make hardly any end strokes 97 words and use sharp and rather vertical letters. very economical person skimp in paper. avaricious and miserly people write still more skimpily. with rounded and curved pen-strokes. The writer while . somewhat like Fig. He crowds all letters closely together and he leaves hardly any space between the lines and seldom any margin.

which is never backhand- like Fig. the foregoing characteristic is combined with very irregular margins and extremely long end-strokes.70 thrifty. . written quickly and often at an angle. If however. and is entitled to be called generous in spite of thrift and economy. J^-^c found. HOW A TO READ economical and saving. 99 indicates liberality. as Fig. of 40 degrees or less. but the writing as a whole looks rather orderly and regular. is also generous. we may be safe in interpreting it as the writing of an over-liberal person. 100. often long end strokes are X? &*-<+&(. or words with letters very wide and large and round. round and wide hand. large.

somewhat like Fig. they have . such as is illustrated in specimen Fig.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 71 All spendthrifts write in this style and if bank-tellers and cashiers have a tendency to write thus. 101. it is always a safer to discharge them. broad hand. They often repent. 102 means that A A the writers live outside their own little world. to make amends or to to wipe out the stain and loss of character. such natural spendthrifts are very likely to yield. the right opportunity presents itself. wide and broad hand. strong. 'tis true. indicates liberality as well as adaptability. but only when too late and wiser course when (X "v^ns <^L AAjJ^Aj^ r^XT^ 101 \lf- to retrace their steps. undo the past. for sooner or later. with the temptation at hand.

and courteous to IQZ a. polite many-sided strangers.) . Such writers feel more at home when revolving in their own narrow circle than when thrown into general intercourse with their fellow-men. They have not what the French term A " savoir faire. they are more apt to be stiff and formal than free and easy. while at the same time courteous and respectful. 102A.72 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING interests. very narrow hand would naturally indicate none of the preceding characteristics but rather the opposite ones." (See Fig. are versatile.

As a mens written with spiritual-minded and passionless natures. 104 is a fair specimen of thin writing. Specipencil are of little value for estimating 73 . made without much pressure of the pen. while thin and fine down strokes. ing. thick or thin. hard. is called thin writing. while the fine hand is used more by the idealistic. write a thick hand. always ascertain when analyzing a specimen of writ- 103 general rule.THIN AND THICK WKITINO Heavy down strokes of the pen in letters is considered thick writing. Of and consider what kind of a pen whether fountain or stub. materialists who have strong passions. also what kind of ink. soft or sharp was used. graphologists. Fig. 103 illustrates thick writing and Fig. course.

74 HOW TO READ 105 .

thick hand. y and f./ 107 A very in sloping. Such writers will often take . which the loops of the erally closed or filled out with ink. g. and a fondness for the luxuries of " life. especially the pleasures of the table. sensuousness. Fig. t. 105. 107 illustrate these points. JJVs^ ^NJs^O^^oOUj. and Fig. like Fig. are genand where the i dots are ros 108 a heavy and set low. this indicates a strong passion for the other sex. b. 106 and Fig. 108. Specimens Fig." and little desire or ambition to stick to a job or position where discomforts and hard work are necessary.A. 108 letters 1.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 75 the thickness or thinness of writing.

110. 109. we detect great T sexual desire. y. with the lines running downward. if not X . They yield easily on account of this weakness and are apt to lapse into sexual excesses and degeneracy. Such writers have very little power of resistance to sexual excitement and temptation. even should the reward be only transient. but this they do hoping that at some future day they will be amply recompensed. affording no indication of energy. a dangerous passionateness which. // in addition to the preceding features we find very large and wide curving loops of the lower parts of the letters g.76 HOW TO READ trouble and even suffer great discomfort to please a friend.A**JL*J> . well illustrated in Fig. steadfastness or perseverance. which indicate great sensuousness. f and z. Such writing always inclines at a very sloping angle on the line. as show n in the specimen Fig. There are also thin handwritings.

as illustrated in Fig. 111. 113. cases in later Very energetic. as specimen Fig. \\\ On the other hand. the hesitating. 112. This /O~<^^ . generally intuitively. makes hardly any heavy strokes his pen just glides over the paper. . 77 may frequently lead to pathological and criminal life. 7 Then again we /z? ' and there a down stroke find specimens of handwriting where here is made very thick and heavy. diffident and bashful person.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING gratified. as in Fig. in striking contrast to the previous or subsequent strokes of perhaps the same letters. courageous sons often make both the and initiatively active perup and down strokes of letters in heavy and with even pressure.

114 a very strong passionate nature. thick hand which stands out in bold relief from the paper. and not too sloping similar to Fig. but no con- are Where the up and down strokes of the various letters made deliberately plain and distinguishable. It is also found that persons who write a strong. but have not completely suppressed or sub- dued them. interpret as characteristic of a person energetic inclinations at intervals. and the is strong. 116. generally like heavy.78 peculiarity HOW we can TO READ who has tinuity. whole hand 114 Strong-willed men and women of great force and desire write thus. on the other U5 . steady and even. bright and deep colors in their surroundings and. is indicated. somewhat like Fig. 115 and Fig. which is however always under control. They have acquired control of their feelings and desires.

l\7 .CHARACTER PROM HANDWRITING 79 J ff hand. thin hand always prefer light and delicate colors. persons who write a fine. like Fig. 117.

we can safely contend that the writer. yet loves loud. heavy and thick writing also shows common inharmonious forms. contrasting colors. and has little good taste in general. although a gourmet. . as in Fig 118.89 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING When strong. especially in its capital letters. glaring.

120. are practical. as in illustrations Fig. more set in their ways and harder to they convince than writers who disconnect their letters and keep and 81 . 119 and Fig. people who connect all their letters and sometimes even their words.SEPARATE AND CONNECTED LETTERS As a general rule indorsed by all graphologists. Such writers have good memoeasily seize and assimilate the ideas of others. but are stubborn. logi- 1 20 cal thinkers ries and reasoners.

In making analyses we. they posed as professors of the occult merely as a money-making business and their professional capital was strictly limited to a general knowledge of the rules of palmistry. 121 even divide the parts of each and sometimes These writers have 122. 123. them separate. of course. J2I or no logic. In such cases we must make our own deductions. as in Fig. I have often discovered little ceive and denounced palmists and astrologists as fakers and mountebanks because their handwriting gave no indication of intuitive ability. but are generally quite intuitive and perand apprehend quickly. Fig. Persons who are naturally inclined toward occultism. in .82 HOW TO READ and Fig. the connected and separated letters are equally divided. letter. come upon handwriting where letters are partly connected and partly separated. astrology and clairvoyance write their letters with separate strokes. as in the specimen illustrated here. If.

The writer has the ability to organize his 83 in ideal own ideas and thoughts into valuable units as well as to seize what is valuable in other people's ideas and utilize it. We have here idealism and realism. but lacks the logical or deductive ability to profit by comparing them. observation and judgment. He has his own ideas of matters likes now with this and now with that plan . Fig. we have a character equilibrium. occupy himself. 124. to or undertaking. adaptability as well as psychic independence. 123 When more letters are separated than connected. Practical persons generally connect more letters than . as in the next specimen shown. the writer is more intuitive &s 184 V / than deductive.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING number or quantity on a page.

A strong sense of the practical and useful has con- tracted. smooth talk or "slick" plans of designing perMany letters and even words are often connected or glib. but not entirely minimized." They are close observers and able to form correct judgment of persons and conditions. . as appears in the next illustration. as shown in specimen Fig. and they are often fooled by the sons. always keep the first letter of a rated while the rest of the letters of the word sepaword are connected. strung together. 127. who and they often do Writers who this quite intuitively. that is to say. in such writers their desire for speculation and theory. 127 " they are careful to pause and determine whether a bridge is safe or not before they attempt to cross it.84 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING they separate in their writing. as in Fig. 126. they are written in one penstroke. Fig. but they excel in adopting those of others and in even utilizing them more successfully than the originators. 125. They 12* write thus ha?e very little ability or initiative to originate ideas. have a fine sense of direction and locality.

There are many different ways of making the first stroke in writing or forming a letter of the alphabet. as a rule. . in argument. . they have therefore little love for preliminary details. others use a curved stroke. but start right in with the body itself of the letter. It is consequently not surprising to find that such writers are very efficient as fighters in war or business. in which case the formation is started at once with a downstroke. generally have a 128 positive nature thoughts quickly and grasp immediately the point they can. as in Fig. 128. He -may be depended and sharp writing. Some writers use a long straight line. still others use no first stroke at all. in debate or any matter in which the \vriter takes part. 129. which they generally consider unnecessary. indicate considerable spirit in opposition. concentrate their in question or at issue. Long lar horizontal initial strokes. similar upon to take the opposite view on every question and 85 is . Writers who do not make a first or initial stroke. when combined with angu- to Fig.

as in No. a milder form of opposition is indicated an opposition which is more born 130 rather of the social enjoyment of a discussion and a genuine desire for enlightenment. 130. difficile" '&*><s&---r^7**^ If these long initial strokes are found in conjunction with round and curved writing. 131 .86 HOW TO READ or hard to be on good what the French term terms with. If we find that the last stroke of letters is very sharp. than of pugnacity or coarseness.

easy-going. humor. the writer is inclined to be talkative and prefers a certain kind of rather desultory. acteristics a 132 In addition to the preceding large pen-strokes. as in Fig. Round and curved first strokes. wit and the ability to entertain. sanguine persons with fertile imaginations. consisting of big curves. especially strokes of letters are long and horizontal. and there is also a strong desire. 133. at the risk even of affecting sincerity of the writer and of sacrificing his honest convictions. frequently circles. somewhat like Fig. 131. many carefree. rest assured of discovering among the writer's charfirst pronounced inclination to oppose or contradict. and often the ability. especially make bows and half- when beginning their capital letters and signing their names.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING ending in a fine point. " small-talk " or social . // these curves and half-circles are very large throughout a writing. for effective general criticism. as in 87 where the we specimen Fig. 132 indicate jollity.

on and off the stage. is made by many actors. 135. like Fig. A more "witliin-itself" curved first stroke. well-defined curve of the A stroke of capital letters. 154 pleasing to the eye and not inharmonious. which does not require much mental endowment or first energy. like the specimen shown if in the next illustration.88 chat. the greater the eloquence. indicates oratorical ability. Fig. It denotes a J36 . generally beginning well under the letter itself. 134. 135 The more elegant the curve.

who have been disappointed in love or whose " course of true love" has not "run smooth. 136 and Fig.89 talent for imitating'. So do many others of both sexes. prospects or . is indi- Another kind of initial stroke which is generally seen combined with sinking lines. for mimicry and acting. avarice and envy cated. like that in the two illustrations. hopes have been blighted." A and Fig. write in this manner. If this initial line consists of several curves or circles within each other. jealousy brutality. Fig. sharp right-angled heavy hook. 138. is the 137 so-called "line-cut-through-life. illustrated in Fig. 136-a. similar to the specimen means a dangerous combination of envy. When the pen-stroke of the letters starts ." It more frequently occurs in capital letters. then a disposition for quarreling. 137. Persons who are depressed through misfortune or death or sorrow whose careers.

which is He is generally wise and careoften indicated by his habitual pose. Backward turned first strokes. like Fig. you may be sure of finding in the writer the ability to earn and to keep what he earns and to remem- 19* ber and use what he learns. looking 159 of deep thought. of pausing. when downward with an expression writing.90 HOW TO READ with a round point or period. 139. are gener- . 140. ful. and with his pen still in hand resting on the paper. as illustrated in the next specimen Fig. thus picturing deep consideration before action.

143." Double-tongued made by writers and double-faced persons use this stroke very often. They try to have someone past history public else "pull their chestnuts out of the fire. 141 and Fig. curved once within themselves. if they are well-rounded they are evidence of amiability and courtesy. they indicate flattery and the sort of amiability which looks forward to a reward of some kind. First strokes of letters. Combined with the foregoing round-point penstroke. Writers of this style yield very quickly to opposition and are easily influenced by others. 142 generally indicate a love of family and home life. as shown in Fig. especially capital letters. Business ability is always indicated by the curved hooks r (43 .CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING ally 91 who 'always endeavor to conceal their or private. Adaptability to circumstances is found in the softly made curves of the first stroke as shown in the next illustration. 142. Fig.

two specimens shown here. or letter enclosed within a capital K4 letter like the Fig. conceit. Fig. or circle. 143-a and 144.92 HOW TO READ of the first letters. Secretiveness. cated here. Self-praise. 145A. and and salesmen will be found to use them. cunning and shrewdness are often revealed by a small dot. many successful merchants somewhat like Figs. 145 and and egotism are also indi- .

146 to be builders of air-castles. 147 and Fig. Fig. 148. 147 .93 Dreamers. See the two specimens shown here. authors and artists use a very long and curved capital. such writers are inclined to soar into the upper air. like Fig. fantastic persons and many poets. 146.

this indicates thrift. Forgers are more quickly discovered by the end or last strokes of a letter or word than by the first or starting stroke of the pen.THE LAST OR END-STROKES OF LETTERS These end-strokes of letters. are however. 150A. like Fig. great lack of consideration for the feelings of others in self. as in Fig. in analyzing. while not absolutely necessary to form a letter. If the last strokes are very heavy and clublike. Of course. is indicated is a nature wrapped up This always more or less completely accom- panied by violence and brutality. 150 and Fig. Frequently there are no end-strokes at all. 149 . it should be said that we must not fail to consider all . of great importance to graphologists and handwriting experts. saving and economy.

^VE^l*v 150b Endings which gently curve upwards ness and an amiable nature. as an internal unhappi- ness and discontent which the writer tries to conceal. 95 we must not jump at conclusions based upon merely one or two of them. such 151 rounded endings of letters illustrated in Fig. symbolize courtesy. 151. like the ones shown if in the next illustration Fig. See also Fig. . 150-b. polite- On the other hand. 152.CHAEACTER FROM HANDWRITING characteristics . they indicate and words curve downward.

generally make a large end-stroke on the last word of each line.96 Little HOW TO READ hooks combined with a small curve of the last cate always stroke of a letter. and the whole of the handwriting is broad and 154 round. combined with writing that is. indimore or less egotism and also a love of flattery and praise. careful persons. as shown in the specimen Fig. in general. 153. 155. as in Fig. far M 153 Long. indicate liberality and generosity. straight end-strokes of words. wiseacres and those who are dis- trustful of others. as in Fig. provided all the words have such endstrokes. as though they feared ''55*156 i I u&^L T . large. 154.

up When all word-endings consist of short. they are careful to all available space. 158. Very long and sharp endings. they indicate exclusiveness. 157. 159. as shown in Fig. as in Fig. with rather pointed endings. To prevent this. 156. reserve and power of resistance combined with straight regular writing and even and horizontal lines. as shown in this illustration. horizontal strokes or dashes. these short horizontal dashes will indicate a love of fairness and justice. indicate a 159 . it indicates that the writer is inclined to be "a regular Tar- 158 tar" and tyrant at home and rather vain in small matters. Fig. and if . Whenever the last stroke of a word looks like a circle or curve turned inward.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING someone might write additional words on the line or 97 above fill their signature. 157 they are heavy. like Fig. they indicate concentration upon one idea single-mindedness.

namely. indicate the same as upward slanting lines. we have in addi- 161 perseverance. If these club- 5 162 . enthu- siasm and also more or less love of a life full of fun and joy. 160. finishes with a heavy we find energy. activity. 162 and violence.98 critical HOW TO READ mind and an inclination toward positive expression. sharp endings rise upward but end with a daggerlike point. when the ending of a letter runs into and tion. then we may add quarrelsomeness to the writer's characteristics. 161. with brutality club-like end-stroke. Whenever such long. When heavy clubs are added to the endstroke or rather. considerable "sticktoittiveness" and contrariness. as in Fig. similar to Fig. as illustrated in specimen Fig. Gsvv 160 All gently rising end-strokes. If the strokes end with small hooks.

depressed feeling in the writer. it merely indicates that the writer has little or no consideration for others but clusively. Fig. 163." This type of 165 . But if. 164. if il is a thin. it may be safely translated thus: "I am very busy and must not be disturbed. however. is inclined to always look out for himself ex- /- 163 weak-looking. it is heavy and strong. something like the end-stroke in the next illustration. as 99 shown in Fig.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING like end-strokes are small. as in Fig. fine stroke. 165. seems to A 164 indicate a certain sad. downward-curving stroke.

his characteristics. one (66 . and combative and pugnacious in all his undertakings. ^f Napoleon's signatures. 166. Gruffness and harshness alike to friend and foe. are also among Observe closely the illustration Fig.100 man is very persistent in the prosecution of his plans.

are longer than the parts of such letters below the base line. 167. 168. p. g. as shown in the next illustration Fig. this indicates in a general way that the writer possesses more psychic and spiritual inclinations and more mental ability than those who write the lower parts longer. has been generally adopted by graphologists is. after rigid testing. that if in a specimen of hand- The writing the upper parts of the small letters f. y. for athletics and bodily exercise. . as 167 in Fig.THE UPPER AND LOWER PARTS OF A LETTER rule which. The latter are supposed to have greater inclination for practical matters.

in which organizing and executive ability and physi- 169 cal activity are in perfect equilibrium with mental energy and achievement. 170. When upper or lower parts of letters do not stand out clear. but mix and jumble and run into each other throughout a page. as shown in the specimen Fig. 169.102 HOW TO READ Specimens of writing in which both upper and lower parts of those letters are fairly well and evenly balanced and developed. it is evident -cr ^t ^M-C_ . indicate a well rounded character. as in Fig.

and Persons who are very dependent upon the judgment and who have little or no initiative or exe- who hardly ever attain positions of con- sequence. are characterized by level-headedness and clear- 171 thinking. Those who carefully write down each word separately and whose letters do not slope too much or too little. of course. generally write a school-copy-book hand. no character. Their writing may look pretty and correct but it shows no independence. 172. and advice of others.CHAKACTER FROM HANDWRITING that the writer difficult to is 103 unable to think clearly and even finds it express himself clearly or correctly and cannot differentiate or decide quickly. cutive ability. 171. and differentiate. with ability to distinguish with aptitude for business. must. like Fig. like Fig. at the same time bear in We mind that this characteristic becomes emphasized in proportion to the increase in the mixed and jumbled condition mentioned. .



the lower parts of the letter are made extremely long, something like the next illustration, Fig, 173 we have an infallible indication of vanity and egotism



combined with a love of the practical and a liking for athand other sports. Self-praise and desire for the

praise of others are also indicated.






Wlien we
find periods

and commas frequently omitted, as

in Fig. 174, we may deduce forgetfulness, lack of concentrative power and sometimes carelessness. Carefulness in

o/ kt




all i dots, commas and periods and other punctuation signs, indicate order, system, promptness and attention to detail.

Characteristics can also be deduced

from exclamation

thin and very sloping writpoints and question marks. like Fig. 175 and Fig. 175A, as a whole, denotes sensiing,






which is pictured in bold relief by leaning and exclamation points, provided they are thin and fine. sloping Nearly all mediums, clairvoyants, psychics and occultists are indicated by such handwriting. Upright, strong, heavy exclamation points, such as are shown in the next illustration, Fig. 176, connote energy




When such heavy and strongly marked exclamation points are made sloping similar to those shown next, in Fig. 177 they add to the writer's characteristics, anger,
quick temper and explosiveness of speech under excitement.


persons add to their signatures every time they write them, unnecessary and superfluous strokes. These additions are sometimes straight, sometimes curved, as seen in the signatures Fig. 178 and Fig. 179. This habit



indulged in by kings and emperors and exalted personages in common with persons of humble station, such as laborers, and even by thieves and murderers. No satisfactory explanation has yet been discovered; nevertheless the various forms of these strokes can be safely inter107


the one


hand many men who have played most on the world's stage have not deigned thus prominent to adorn their handwriting, while on the other hand, just as many equally celebrated contributors to the historical


record of achievement have unhesitatingly and liberally adopted it. Among these are the Emperor Napoleon 1st, Fig. 180, Munkacsky the painter, Fig. 181, and President

Woodrow Wilson, Fig. 182. Some persons use one style

of signature for business or





style for social and intimate It is therefore better to make character readings

and another

from the




signature like Fig. 182A stands sponsor for

hypocrisy, deceit



plain signature without underlining or other penstrokes, and even without a dot at the end, shows great


independence or pride in natural endowments and gift of

mind and body.



A small, plain signature indicates modesty, and simplicity
of speech and demeanor, while frequently a very large and heavy signature reflects faithfully pride and vanity.


110 HOW ^3i TO READ y 186 oo. IS7 peiiod and dash placed behind the signature indicates is fairly freighted with precaution and carefulness. creating the impression of fear that someone may that the writer A 188 189 190 .

as well as their signature often so much so that those who make two or more periods behind are always suspicious of others and they easily slide into the practice of self-protection against 193 fraud by priority of use. . They thus become unscrupulous and dishonest. This 92 indicates still greater caution.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING add to Ms signature. 111 made after the date of a letter 191 Sometimes we find a period in front of a signature. Periods also indicate precaution. Such writers.

112 195 196 A straight line underneath the signature pride. . also egotism indicates family and a fondness for domineering.

cated by a straight line above the signature.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 113 197 The same characteristic. This may indicate diplomacy also. only more developed. is indi- 199 200 .

. and especially if the downward. aggressiveness. courage. downward-ending stroke to the signature indi- cates combativeness.HOW A TO BEAD if sharp. 201 Yours 20* If the lines run last stroke tends downward. we find depression and dis- couragement. however. especially the lines have a decidedly upward tendency. creating the feeling that the w riter fears that he and his work are not sufficiently appreciated.

also 203 204 Circular or coil-like loops are frequently attached to their signatures by men and women who are conscious of their charms. shrewdness. adaptability. and coquetry.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 115 A wavy and curved signature indicates much doubt of one's ability to succeed. secretiveness These loops also indicate. cunning. 205 206 .

Z07 curve around a signature.116 HOW TO BEAD upward slope proclaims ambi- A tion. also family A 209 pride and family egotism and fondness for protectiveness. signature with a strong aggressiveness and push. . similar to the next illustration. indicates a strong sense of family life.

also shrewdness underneath the signature indicates adaptaand humor.itj 210 A wavy line bility. 213 .

216 sharp used by many careful but also quick-acting.118 Several HOW TO READ greater wavy curves show humor and jollity. They always carry a chip on their point is A signature with a double line which returns with a shoulders." . and " aggressive persons.

to combine and interpret the specimen as a whole.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING Zigzag lines underneath signatures indicate violent and combative characters. after doing which. a study of which will be very interesting to the layman. and others. but from the whole writing. The following are reproductions of fifty signatures of and literary characters. it is of course understood that an opinion should not be formed from the signature alone. These specimens faithfully reveal the characters which correspond to the several graphological indications and which have been confirmed and verified by history. When analyzing a writer's character. . detecting and interpreting each and every mark and characteristic by itself. as well as to historical graphological students.


Observe his heavy. thick writing. Why? Look at the rawhide. whip-like dashes over their signatures.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 121 222 MAJOR HERMANN VON WISSMANN Both African explorers and travelers but unsuccessful in managing natives. 223 POPE LEO XIII Who could fathom the reserve and intrigue of the lines under his signature? // POPE ALEXANDER VI torians as the most brutal the other rulers of his age he is considered by hisand sensuous. all Of .

as if she wishes to take the whole world under her protection. 227 JOSEPH JOACHIM The celebrated violinist and composer. 226 CHOPIN The celebrated Polish composer. . with a violin bow under his signature. 228 QUEEN VICTORIA With the long stroke of the first letter.122 HOW TO READ EMILE ZOLA The noted French novelist.

. unassuming whose strategy won the War of 1870. ro- 230 FIELD MARSHAL COUNT VON MOLTKE Quiet.123 ALEX ANDRE DUMAS (PERE) noted French dramatic author and novelist The mantic and critical. 231 RICHARD WAGNER The celebrated operatic composer.

124 HOW TO READ 232 FELIX MENDELSSOHN BAKTHOLDY The distinguished composer and musician whose signature looks. 233 MUEAT of the leaders of the French revolution. whose cruelty . One 23+ ROBESPIERRE The celebrated French Revolutionist. stands out in his long sharp dash. like one of his symphonies. or rather sounds. whose brutality and cruelty are plainly expressed.

AMERICAN WAR Indecision and lack of energy well indicated here. show the nobility and frankness of his . A. A. S. MAJOR GENERAL U. S. SHAFTER. A. A who won . DURING SPANISH.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 125 235 WM. Wide-open character. remarkable signature of the old Indian fighter his way up from a private in the ranks. letters PRESIDENT U. GENERAL U. S. 237 NELSON A. R. McKiNLEY.236 WM. MILES.

HERNANDEZ The Venezuelan revolutionist who lost his right arm in ousting President Cipriano Castro. Collier in an attempt to block Santiago Harbor. 0-\ V~XA 239 ROBERT Louis STEVENSON Observe the small hand of the author of " Treasure Island. Y I . . CAPT. HOBSON Naval Officer who blew up the U." 240 JOSE M. RICHMOND P.126 HOW TO READ 238 The U. Merrimac S. S.

The German military attache in Washington. Observe his tapering signa- .CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 127 241 LEO TOLSTOY The famous Russian novelist and religious mystic. 243 CAPTAIN VON PAPEN pelled ture. who was exfrom the United States. and EMPRESS EUGENIE The beautiful Empress of France whose ambition made her an Empress and unmade her. social reformer.

128 HOW TO READ 244 GENERAL VON KLUCK OF GERMANY Who almost reached Paris. PERSHING. U. A. 245 MARSHAL FOCH OF FRANCE The strategical fighter who directed and won for victory. the battles Very truly yonre 246 MAJOR GENERAL JOHN with Marshal Foch. J. Our American "Black Jack" Pershing who cooperated . Scan well the hook at the beginning and end of his signature. S.

EDITH CAVELL. . 240 CARDINAL GIBBONS. THE BRITISH NURSE EXECUTED AS A SPY Written the day before her execution. OF BALTIMORE Shows the energy of this Roman Catholic prelate.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 129 247 EMPEROR NAPOLEON I A signature of Napoleon after the Battle of Waterloo showing much discouragement. the signature shows remarkable composure.

strong. S.130 HOW TO READ 250 ABRAHAM LINCOLN The martyr President getic. sincere and ener- J. WILKES BOOTH The signature of the man who shot Lincoln.5Z GEORGE WASHINGTON The signature of the first President of the U. 2. A. simple. .

z&s SAMUEL GOMPERS The signature of this leader of the American workingmen shows energy and persistency in the sharp strokes. THACKERAY An unusual signature of the celebrated English author. M.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 131 253 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN The signature of the American diplomat and witty and energetic. inventor- 254 W. .

now . VENIZELOS The Greek Statesman and revolutionary President of Greece. leader. Marines. 257 POPE Pius X in A remarkable given name signature of the Pope which he uses his in a confidential letter to a friend. 25ft E. S.132 HOW TO READ Major General Commandant* 256 MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE BARTLETT The fighting commander of the U.

one of the greatest business systems in the world. ARCHBOLD Mr. late president of the 261 W. of the British Premier a fighter and . LLOYD GEORGE The signature organizer. JOHN D. Rockefeller's associate and Standard Oil Company. ROCKEFELLER Signature of the organizer of the Standard Oil Company.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 133 259 JOHN D.

S. known throughout the world by the name of Buffalo Bill. W. GRANT General of the Federal forces at the close of the Civil War. a rather artistic hand 262 U.134 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 262 QUEEN ALEXANDRIA Great Britain's "queen mother" showing love for music and art. loyal to his friends and always courageous and without fear. . Generous to a fault. 264 BUFFALO BILL The signature of Col. Cody.

266 is a specimen of the handwriting of Lord Nelson. Fig. 135 the mouth by a man . Great Britain's naval hero. and the next illustration. shows a specimen of his handwriting after he had lost his right arm. 267.UNUSUAL WEITEKS Fig. 267 The next specimen was written with who was born without arms and legs. written with his right hand.

271 with her foot. with which she also paints her world-famous portraits. born without arms. 271 . 269 270 The portrait painter Aimee Rapin.136 HOW TO READ 68 bank director who writes equally well Handwriting with either hand and who wrote the next two specimens of a for me. wrote Fig.

.. Fig.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 137 The next signature was written for me by a very pleasant lady who used either hand equally well but who wrote habitually with her left hand. . 777 ^ Q 272 What can be done by unfortunate cripples is the two following specimens of a French soldier shown in who gave Z/ cu. t.*C> G //> Or AoJ (** ott^/ ' - '' V ^ <y^' l&a&mv 3* <*~ <AA4#T*c* 73 both arms to his country in the World War. 273 was written by him before he entered his country's service.

274 was written with his new artificial hand and seems to be clearer writing than his former penmanship.138 HOW TO BEAD Fig. 27* .

CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 139 Another unusual and very interesting handwriting is the following by a prominent railroad director who writes X e I 275 equally well and habitually with both hands. whichever more convenient for him at the time. is 275 a / .

A comparison afford an of the following specimens of handwriting interesting object-lesson to illustrate the accu- 27* / 277 140 ^ .

141 racy with which resemblances of character between members of the same family English in this case can be detected from an analysis of corresponding resemblances in their handwriting. He at the age of 64. now a Major in the British Army. 278 is their son's writing. Fig. It is very similar to that of his father. and Fig. 276 is the handwriting of the grandmother at the age of 87. 279. 277 that of the grandfather since deceased written at the age of 46. 4ATTM--/-*X 278 Fig. the son married the lady who wrote Fig. when 30 years . Their oldest son.

282. and Fig. 276 and Fig 277 are two sons. . 283 at 51 years of age. at 27 years of age. whose handwritings are here shown. HOW TO READ old. and their youngest son. wrote Fig. The sons' handwritings are Fig. and two daughters. 12 years wrote Fig. 281.142 old. 280. (LiLtfCUM *K></L Q 280 til The other children of Fig.

CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 143 263 / 264 285 286 .

sincerity and optimism. who married Fig. 285. whose son wrote Fig. The daughters' handwritings are x-^* t/3 267 Clearness. age 53 years. and Fig. 287. are shown in all these specimens. 284. a specimen years of the other daughter at the age of 48 years. 286. courtesy and refinement of characters.144 Fig. all corresponding exactly with the physical peculiarities of their handwriting. logic. which also reveal culture. . she being a spinster. written at 62 of age. love of order.

and to be able to classify and distinguish those characteristics which are merely transient indications of an embryonic formation of character.THE LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET No two persons write the letters of the alphabet alike. conceiving their own ideas. they begin limited variations of their own which is the introduction leading to that assertion of personality as it were. Furthermore. in school and at home. he makes his bow and retires from the stage of childhood to middle age man gradually becomes a definite and ultimate unit by the winnowing of the fleeting from the fixed. and it is therefore logically unsound to make a definite and final estimate of his character from partial indications derived from an isolated specimen of his handwriting. even should their copy-book. and as they commence to write letters without closely following the children As black-board or writing-book. school and teacher have been identical. life. having fully played his part. It is decidedly interesting to watch the development of a boy's handwriting. which gradually becomes fixed and permanent and develops an inter-relation of heart and hand which the author has elaborated and systematized into the science of graphology. from others that are fundamental and destined to become essential constituents of the until warp and woof of his real and permanent final self. grow older and begin to think independently. a graphologist must always weigh From 145 .

large and small. as it were. Following are the letters of the alphabet. . obvious and insistent.146 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING the majority of the indications found in an entire specimen of handwriting as a unit and not allow the suggestions of single letters to influence or prejudice him because they are. in many-sided variations. with indications as to the writer's characteristics. perhaps.

dishonesty. 147 . economy. and at the same time secretiveness. 6. 3. Closed secretiveness. loop and closed at top shrewdness and cunning. Inside loop open at top loquaciousness. Open at bottom hypocrisy. 5. deceitfulness. loquaciousness. Open frankness. 2. Inside 4. Second stroke pressed together exclusiveness.THE ALPHABET AND ITS GRAPHOLOGICAL SIGNS 3 288 1.

Second stroke pressed together exclusiveness. Connected with next letter activity with energy Long and logic. Open at bottom hypocrisy. loop and closed at top shrewdness and cunning. Inside loop and open at top loquaciousness. activity. Second stroke forming loop exaggeration. Open frankness. 8. Small with cross stroke originality. prevarication. prevarication. education. loquaciousness. and at the same time secretiveness. 10. economy. strokes and open imagination. 3. Second loop forming loop exaggeration. 6. and if frequent. Us z GL^ 3 &s 4 5 / 6 7 90 1. 7. and connected with other letters. Inside 4. 2. Closed secretiveness. deceitfulness. dishonesty. . professional life. .148 HOW TO READ T/~ 8 I ' 9 9 289 7. a 01. 5. 9. and if frequent and connected with other letters. Greek letter culture. 8.

order. taste. an Broad with bottom open artistic form. 5T 6 7 8 9 292 5. 6. originality. Loop to left good memory. 7. inclination to over- self-confidence. good taste. pleasantness. Upper loop closed ability to keep secrets. Typographical literary inclinations. elegance. Wide and broad generous. . good 8. fully formed deep inward 2. influence. 3. 9. conversationalism. epicure. First stroke very high ambition. 4. Narrow capital economy. Upper part bent though sorrow. suffering. Upper loop open talkativeness. faithfulness in keeping promises.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 149 B 291 1. a gastronome. meanness.

High and narrow bashfulness. generosity. a 94 strong. Wide strong. 5. conversationalism. Lower loop open frankness. though formed deep inward row. self-consciousness. 5. seclusive. 3. Wide With long under-stroke self -flattery. suffering. With long under stroke self-flattery and Sharp with angles persevering. 2. Upper part bent. C I i J 4 1. 2. self-praise. ^ 1 t 3 295 1. 3.150 HOW TO READ r 1. self-confident." perseverance. Sharp with angles economy. keep secrets. c ci cla. 6. self-contident. Upper loop open With loop at end talkativeness. reserve. 2. egotism. Knot or bow closed secretiveness. "close-fisted. 4. Upper loop closed ability to sor- 4. ^ / 293 -<r . . perseverance. 3. self-praise. approaching illness. modesty. High and bending over nervousness.

ought to be loop curved End 4. upward weakness in yielding to others. Open and large loop Gastronome. dependence. economy. Lasso at top monomaniac. Wide open great generosity.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING D 151 i i 3 4 296 1. 7. Closed at top and narrow carefulness. gourmet. 3. wild imagination. 9. Long loop upward fantastic ideas. of loop With turned down upper stroke selfishness. 5. 2. epicure. Open at top liberality. 12. vanity. Garrulous. narrowness. 10. leaning upon others. 6. frankness. Lower loop above line coquetry. contrariness." obtrusive. egotism. "Sir Oracle. gaudiness. under physician's care. Several loops and circles in upper stroke opiniated. 8. 11. Little hook at top criticism. . Very large fantasy.

conversationalism. With large backward loop imperious. Closed at top narrow economy. sorrow. stinginess. obstreperousness. Sharp under-stroke self-conceited. Plain up-stroke instead of loop individuality. 3. 5. Spread out and backward . First loop above line strong self-consciousness. Loop open Very frankness. Loop at top of stroke sharply upwards aggressiveness. 4. 14. Z99 1. affectation (if very marked. 2. Weak. " self " -flattering. culture. 17. avarice. small upper loop. windy. liberality. 15. secretiveness. first sign of impending 16. 6. talkativeness. Under loop open 7. logic. especially in unsteady writing sickness. arrogance. closed loop meanness. paranoia).152 HOW TO READ 298 13. Connection with next letter strong deduction.

taste. loquaciousness. leaning upon friends. form education. literary 6.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 153 J d 300 8. Loop formed on backward stroke despotism. 10. ought to be under physician's care. exclusiveness. . resistance. narrowness. Closed and sharp reserve. Long loop upward fantastic ideas. coldness. unrestrained intolerance of environment. artistic ability. Long end-stroke Well-formed Greek letter ability. garrulous. End loop curved 12. conversationalism. 5.ositiveness. self-admiration. 13. E 301 1. good culture. self-flattery. Wide open 2. Loop connected with next letter logic. dependence. symmetry. Hooks and loops on upper loop pretentiousness. averseness to strangers. Sharp vertical ending p. upward weakness in yielding to others. 3. 11. 9. Very large loop bordering on wild imagination. 4.

Wide open conversationalism. tact. good taste. 6. symmetry. 2. 8. 3. exclusiveness. literary Hooks and loops on upper loop pretension. 2. Greek letter form education. taste. other letters suspicious nature. self-flattery. 5. 7. culture. / 2 3 t4 4* 5 30E 1. Wavy under-stroke morality. reserve. resistance. diplomacy. loquaciousness. love of art. F 303 1. Closed and sharp 4. passionate nature. 3. perseverance.154 HOW TO READ t . opposition. With well curved harmonious end-loop harmony. . Middle stroke crosses back resistance. 4. reserve. artistic ability. Closed ability to keep secrets. 9. Middle stroke ending club-like stubbornness. Heavy end stroke Long end-stroke Well formed Smaller than self-admiration. artistic ability.

6. With large middle loops proud achievement. Long top-stroke protectiveness. opposition. Middle stroke ending club-like stubbornness. Well formed and harmonious love of art. love of art. Typographical culture. tact. secretiveness. 1. shrewdness. order. 8. humor. 2. 7. Wide open independence. 9. With well curved harmonious end-loop harmony and artistic ability. Both loops open conversational powers. 5. upwards 7.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 155 5. . Wavy understroke morality. self-confidence. 6. good judge of color and harmony in painting and music. diplomacy. 4. 3. simplicity. Under-stroke wavy. Both loops closed reserve. Selfmade. coldness. Middle stroke crosses back resistance. perseverance.





Under-stroke wavy upwards humor, shrewdness. With sharp curved under-loop self-willed, ceremoniousness, particularly about dress.


Well formed and harmonious love of art, good judge of color, and harmony in painting and music.



Closed at top



secretiveness, economy. stroke single concentrative power order.




With large under loop



Closed under-loop taciturnity. Lower loop bent and here and there with pressureillness, bodily and mental weakness. With lower loop ending horizontal domestic tyranny

and domineering.

Inner additional curve in upper loop of capital strong sense of domestic life.





Well rounded top-loop amiability and domestic Well rounded top-loop beginning with period seeking courtesy and amiability, hypocrisy,
tery, coquetry.




Curved beginning of loop
ness ideas.

mercantile ability, busi-




stroke with loops

combination of mer-

cantile sense with shrewdness, critical

mind and

love of family.

Well formed


love of harmony, color and en-


vironment. With small turned



small vanity and


Large lower loop

sybaritic, epicurean.

16. 17.

Broken or short under-strokes

athletic heart.

Upper loop open



adaptability, lack of

frankness, conversationalism power of re-


18. 19.



Closed and narrow economy, meanness. capital with stroke in middle impudence, arro-


gance, self-consciousness. Plain good common sense, plainness.


Fancy loops

gaudiness, petty vanity.

1. 2. 3.

Open at top frankness, openness, generosity. Closed at top secretiveness, economy. Upper loop open at bottom hypocrisy, dishonesty.
stroke single


concentrative power, precision,
sybaritic, epicurean, luxuri-


With large under-loop
ousness, gastronome.

6. 7.


Under-loop very long imagination. Closed under-loop taciturnity. Lower loop open frankness, versatility, conversationalism.


Lower loop long with heavy but uneven pressure

morbid passion.




Lower loop bent here and there with pressure
ness, bodily


and mental.


Lower loop ending

domestic tyranny


13. 14.

and domineering. Fancy sharp loop vanity, pride, self-consciousness, self-centered, and self-pride. Broken lines signs of heart failure. Broken lines with very long under-loop athletic




now and


then palpitation of heart, heart disease.


16. 17.

Closed and narrow

Very sharp

very cold

economy, meanness. and harsh nature.


good common sense, plainness.



With curved


stroke and dot

earning capacity.


First stroke above line

arrogance, insolence,


Middle stroke connected with next word and logic.






Middle stroke like knot power of resistance, perseverance and positiveness. Middle stroke like loop pride of family and achievement.
Strokes close together shyness, simplicity. Long downward end-stroke will-power, energy.


1. 2.

With curved first stroke and dot earning capacity. First stroke above line arrogance, insolence, selfconsciousness.


two strokes



physical weakness.


Turned back
as a "cat's



provident, to cover one's retreat

circumspect, precaution, the use of others


paw." Fancy and complicated loops vanity, affectation. Turned back first stroke into sharp loop disappointment, depression, unfortunate in love affairs.

4. 5.





more or

less selfish.


education, culture.

Sharp corners

1. 2.



Dot left out carelessness, forgetfulness. Dot exact over letter order, exactness, precision,
Dot Dot Dot Dot
promptness. before letter
after letter
carefulness, caution, forethought great enthusiasm, idealism. enterprise, enthusiasm, ambition.


5. 6.

rather high

energy, activity, versatility, extrava-

gance, liveliness.



Dot upward curved openness, frankness, generosity. Dot downward when combined with sign for hypocrisy, dishonesty, deceitf ulness and prevarication. Sharp and dot-like meanness, stinginess.








Round and dot high
amiability. Blot-like dash


good fellowship,


passionate and sexual nature.

stubborn and persistent comPlain. plainness. critical. order. Plain typographical self-control. shrewdness. 4. HOW ousness. and heavy and courage. Dot sharp dash criticism. shrewdness. but with hooks bined with amiability. passion. 3. Plain. With many bows and made in one penstroke cunning. K 1. TO READ materialism. a combination of ideas and plans. Dot sharp and behind letter active. sensupositiveness.162 12. deductive. 16. 2. energy Dot very heavy and low Dot club-like 13. z 313 1. 14. concentration. though amiable. plainness. Plain typographical self-control. sharp dealing. order. Dot connected with next letter prudence. . 15. but with hooks stubborn and persistent. concentration of thought and adaptation of ideas to talent. Connected with previous letter splendid. 2.

critical mind. 2. First loop above stroke line coquetry. 4. false 3. Loops closed reserve. frankness. combined with love of domestic life. Sharp strokes concentration. Large and with loops ideas. 8. 9. harshness. secretiveness. siveness. shrewdness. perseverance. Long sharp Long sharp idealism. reserve. affectation. sarcasm. exclu- . Turned in upper loop cunning. Plain and simple letter quiet sober nature. fantastic 7. snobbishness. Loops open conversationalism. coldness. little first last stroke stroke 6. Wavy main pride.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 163 1. vanity. 10. boasting nature. 5. self-con- sciousness. loud.

pride. nation. sarcasm. 6. Second stroke higher than modesty. independence. . critical mind. siveness. false 2. stroke affectation. First and second strokes of even height ness. First high leadership. subserviency. exclu- 7. Long sharp last Long sharp first stroke stroke harshness. snobbishness. No end-stroke perseverance. Loops closed reserve. secretiveness. 3. first stroke 2. 4. coldness. quick decision. M 1. Sharp strokes concentration. perseverance. 5. aristocratic. family-pride. Loops open conversationalism. frankness. evenness. Wavy main pride. inclination to despise others. subordicontented- 3.164 HOW TO READ 1. reserve. self-consciousness.

friendliness. Wavy lines of strokes artistic taste. Long. deceitfulness.7 I8 32* 13. 10. small step-like stroke bashfulness. 323 7. generosity. 11. Even strokes but with look at beginning first hypocrisy. strength. Last stroke very heavy energy. en- thusiasm. 5. 8. talkativeness. Bounded below and open like letter u u" great amiability. Down strokes looped easily. false pride. ambition and acquisitiveness. 6. m w 97? 13 * ( '6 . arrogance. combined with pride and sensitiveness. 12. makes friends . eccentricity. friendliness. Separate strokes activity. 9.165 4. Long ending loop underneath love of domestic life. amiability. First stroke starts with period love of possession. Second stroke higher than and third strokes imagination. liveliness.

. excitability. First stroke starts with period love of possession. Last stroke very heavy energy. subordiambi- 2. subservience. ambition and acquisitiveness. evenness. 15. Very round hypocrisy. Second stroke higher than first and third strokes- activity. closeness. at top 18. Separate strokes intuition. m 3 315 1. Closed and roof-like at top great reserve. Second stroke higher than nation. nervousness. 6. first modesty. deceit. First and second strokes of even height ness. strength. 3. imagination. Bottom tion. jollity. energy. Narrow and sharp in perseverance. 5. 17. 16. making friends. of stroke rising desire to rise in life.166 14. Wide. HOW TO READ Short first cross-stroke dry humor. 7. slow wit. liveliness. combined with selfishness. ambition and acquisitiveness. contented- 4. eccentricity. sybaritic. epicurean. difficulty stubbornness. broad and round frankness.

broad and rounded rean. 12. energy. Narrow and sharp perseverance. combined with pride and sensitiveness. 2. friendliness. energy. 11. All strokes wavy and wide affectation. . 326 Long. difficulty in making friends. jollity. eager to get what's ability to due. talkativeness. amiability. N 1. Wide. generosity. 9. Strokes of wavy lines thusiasm. concentrafirst Well curved tion. economy. vanity. stroke with club-like ending great earn and possess. artistic taste. co- quetry. Last stroke long and horizontal energy. sybaritic. ambition. small. Down stroke looped friendliness. enlike letter 10. stubbornness. epicu- 13. Rounded below and open "u" great ami- ability. 14.89 8. 3. Closed and roof-like at top great reserve. gen- erosity. frankness. step-like stroke baslifulness. 10 ii 12 (3 .



enterprise, ambi-

Long curved upward
Inwardly bent

tion, daring, imagination.




but also


First stroke very long and curved




Narrow and sharp

steadfastness, quick decision.











energy. energy, concentra-

Last stroke long and horizontal


All strokes

wavy and wide

affectation, vanity.


Long curve upward and end-stroke
bition, daring, imagination.




Inwardly bent



humor, but also



First stroke very long and curved




Narrow and sharp

steadfastness, quick decision,





Plain oval methodical mathematics.








Open above
Closed on top

clearness of expression, conversational

ability, frankness.

secretiveness, reserve.



or dash on capital


Open with ringed loop
Open below

disposition to rule, tyranny.


hypocrisy, deceitfulness, frequently dis-



in oval

egotism, inclination to insincerity.


Loops run together



at left

hypocrisy, deceit.




r -''f









Plain oval methodical thinking, reason, love of mathematics. Open above clearness of expression, conversational ability, frankness. Closed on top secretiveness, reserve.


Hook or dash criticism. Open with ringed loop disposition to rule, tyranny. Open below hypocrisy, deceitfulness, frequently dishonesty.

7. 8.


Looped in oval egotism, inclination Loops run together reserve. Open at left hypocrisy, deceit.

to insincerity.


First stroke or loop connected with upper loopaffectation, snobbishness.


Wide open

liberal spender,

fond of the


and of


Narrow with small



ness, strong desire to Consisting of several parts deceit, prevarication; desire to appear better than the writer really is.

upper first stroke bashfulearn and save money.



Last stroke rolled inwardly
Special last strokes


6. 7.


individuality good taste, order.

8. 9.

Looped first stroke Composed of two
Large long loop

moderate stubbornness.
special strokes


imagination, originality.


originality. order, method, plainness. Plain, like pointed letters Well formed and artistic love of art and music,


harmony. Twisted, mixed loops, first stroke short ity and versatility, diplomacy.

great activ-


Very long




1. 2.

Last stroke rolled inwardly secretiveness, hypocrisy. Typographical good taste, order.









Very long


liveliness, versatility.





Open on top

talkativeness, open-mindedness.


Narrow and sharp

narrow-minded, mean, stingy.


Open on top

talkativeness, open-minded.


Large and rounded

generosity, frankness.


Narrow and sharp

narrow-minded, mean, stingy.





1. 2.

Much shortened at end impatience, nervousness. Upward eccentric strokes individuality, looseness
of sense of moral obligation.


Bent, narrow

timidity, amiability, weakness.


Well looped cunning, vanity, clumsiness. Close and short quickness, rapidity in action, but
also superficiality.



culture, taste,

harmony, simplicity,


Connected with next





Wide and

broad, correct as per copy-book cious, conventional, circumventive.
culture, taste,





174 HOW TO BEAD S 338 1. End-stroke well looped ability to " keep one's coun- sel. 8. Long end-strokes eagerness little to protect. Close to copy-book dividuality. independence and no 5. Very sloping but other impulsiveness at trolled first letters more vertical is great which. symplicity. End-stroke turned back . de- 2." as well as ''cents." 6. especially of mind. 7. Plain wavy stroke culture. with. Connected duction. next letter method. 1. love of in- 4. carefulness. soon con- by reason. foresight. however. Typographical aesthetic taste. independence.

Sharp downward ness. connected with next letter of speech. cannot bear such scraping of pencil. rapid reasoning. sharp- . Sharp ending stroke caution. With very long and sharp upward first strokes good memory and sounds as door-hinges. Small and simple modesty last stroke in speech and dress. 10. quickness. excellent hearing. haste. Sharp steadfast character.CHAKACTEE FROM HANDWRITING 175 10 II 12. indepen- dence. rudeness. deduction. 11. Sharp corners at loops little adaptability. 15. 12. quick 14. 13. individuality. friction of rusty etc. shrewdness. Sharp lower stroke. 339 9.

7.176 HOW TO BEAD * 2 s 3 4 5 6/7'8 340 letter 9/io . 6. is soon controlled. de- 2. orderly. inde- pendence. methodical mind. method. Sharp ending stroke caution. simplicity. at 10. 11. End-stroke turned back carefulness. little 4. Very sloping but other letters more vertical great impulsiveness at first. which. Typographical aesthetic taste. . foresight. Sharp steadfast character. independence and no in- 5. Connected with next ductive. Like the figure 3 Close to copy-book dividuality. independence. rudeness. 8.11 1. especially of mind. 3. individuality. Antique or eccentric originality. 9. Plain wavy stroke culture. however. shrewdness. Sharp corners loops little adaptability.

to the left 6. etc. initiative. Sharp lower stroke. enthusiasm. 3. 15. sharpness. harmony. Dash Dash to the right (if enterprise. With long curved upper strokes humor. 14. indecision. good taste. T 342 1. jollity.CHAEACTER FROM HANDWRITING 177 '2- '3 13 a. Plain. haste. Sharp downward last stroke quickness. wit. Small and simple modesty in speech and dress. hesitancy. 14. Broken dashes mental depression. only two strokes music-critic. ment. disappoint- ambition 5. sounds as scraping of slate-pencil. art and 4. / is 341 12. connected with next letter quickness of speech. long). rapid reasoning. With very long and sharp upward first strokes good and excellent hearing cannot bear such memory 13. friendliness. . 2. deduction. Bounded end-stroke amiability.

pride in past successes. brutality. dashes in same writing varying changeable. friendliness. 8. Broken dashes mental depression. 9. Dash to the left ment. . and temper. strokes good taste. T. eloquence. hesitancy. Rounded end-stroke Plain. Typographical culture. upper part of letter open reserve. 8. Dash to the right amiability. t 1. conversational ability. enterprise. With long curved upper strokes 2. Dagger-like and sharp at end gossip.178 HOW TO READ 343 7. Dash is club-like at end great energy. harmony. indecision. wit. art fickleness. only 4. 5. energy 6. humor. two and musical critic. disappoint- ambition 7. (if long). but also vio- With long double loops 10. Small upper stroke. enthusiasm. modesty. jollity. good lence taste. initiative. 3.

11. but intolerance of others' opinions. 14. Connected with next letter logic. Zigzag dash irregular character. 10. Upward dash combativeness.5 9. enthusiasm. Double triangle. ** Claw-like hooks at each end of dash contrariness. energy. 15. stubbornness. 18. Dagger-like and sharp at end gossip. 13. 17. easily angered and quick-tempered. temper. weakness. perseverance. 19. 12. 20. despotism. With long double loops pride in past successes. sadness. maliciousness. a/ 346 16. . Two plain separated strokes executive ability. but also violence. brutality.179 /* IS 34. thin easily depressed. Hook at end of dash perseverance. Triangular upward dash individuality. dash rounded mischief. Downward dash. Dash club-like at end great energy.

32 35 348 32. 34-7 25. political ability. will- 23. love of domi- 29. little power of resistance. and energy. Short and thick dashes concentration. Dash low on letter obedience. Sharp erding dashes prone to indulge will-power 24. HOW Downward convince. culture. club-like TO BEAD ending stubbornness. humor. power. Dash high above letter high neering. irrita- bility. hook activity. Dash left out with thin writing lack of energy.180 21. Heavy curved dash . Knots Typographical good taste. perseverance. 31. in dash persistence. 30. 33. 27. decision. Rounded-off dash and connected indecision. 28. ideals. wit. Long Little thin dashes 26. Dash in centre and short subservient humility. hard to 22. attached to letter nervousness.

clearness. Narrow and sharp Plain strokes liberal spender. close in money matters. Long Long simplicity. generosity. sion and argument. stroke with sharp letter first sition. 4. 3. reserved. 3 4. and argument. love of discusspirit of oppo- simplicity.u u ' 2. 3. Wide and round liberal Narrow and sharp close Plain strokes spender. "Wide and round 2. first stroke with round letters love of discusspirit of oppo- sion 5. . clearness. in money matters. Long first stroke with sharp letter sition. generosity. 2. Long first stroke with round letters 5. u 350 1. 5 349 1. 4. reserved.

3. upward. Sharp and narrow closeness. sharp end-stroke prise. ambition. envious.182 HOW TO BEAD Vv v ' w l *^k *3 351 1. criticism. 6. enter- 2. enter- 2. Long. 3. coquetry. tr y y4 2 3 1 352 1. Round and broad liberality. Wavy down-strokes hypocrisy and deceit. protection. 7. upward. 5. amiability. Round and broad liberality. 4. ambition. pride. Club-like end-strokes desire for power. amiability. Fancy loops vanity. Long. sharp end-stroke prise. changeable. quietness. . criticism. Hook on top of last stroke aggressiveness. Sharp and narrow closeness. Hook on top of last stroke aggressiveness. 4. quietness. protection.

. 6. to protect. loquaciousness. love of Hook on first stroke Wide open liberality. 5. Wide open liberality. 4. eagerness protect. Very small and narrow stinginess. 3. Sharp and narrow economy. family Hook on first stroke selfishness. Rounded fancy ness. forgetful- 7. order. order. reserve. reserve. 3. eagerness family pride. w a 354 1. Very small and narrow stinginess and meanness. Plain strokes simplicity. family pride. family 2. Long end-strokes life. 3456 to Lond end-strokes life. 4.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 183 W 3S3 1. love of 2. Sharp and narrow economy. frankness. strokes circumlocution. 5. selfishness. 6. meanness. Plain strokes simplicity. frankness. loquaciousness.

cereSpecial monious. x 356 1. Break in lower loop nervousness. 355 1. close-fisted. heart-trouble. pleasure-lover. 3. oc * In cross strokes precaution. simplicity. Narrow . In loop-strokes talkativeness. 2. curve in lower loop eccentricity. 2. 6. good taste. bothersomeness. In loop strokes talkativeness. Large under loop good-eater. decision. Regular form plainness.184 HOW TO READ X ' 2. Typographical-border. 5. annoyance. 2. 1. 4. In cross-strokes precaution. narrow-mindedness.

Second stroke curved to left egotism. Shortened lower stroke rapidity in thought and act. 4. Z Z 357 1. 2. Capital letter in inside of osity. good taste. orderly. heart-trouble. Made of two strokes 2. Large underloop good-eater. narrow-mindedness. 6. activity. Typographical order. eccentricity. geniality.2345 356 1. gener- . pleasure-lover.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 185 . Break in lower loop nervousness. 5. ceremonious. Special curve in lower loop eccentricity. 6 B 3. Regular form plainness. word originality. enthusiasm. 5. decision. 4. Narrow close-fisted. artistic sense. sim- 3. simplicity. Typographical plicity.

. 3.186 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 355 1. geniality. 4. orderly. 2. Second stroke curved to left egotism. Shortened lower stroke rapidity in thought and act. Typographical artistic sense. eccentricity. Made of two strokes enthusiasm.

J3 3S9 1*1 360 4H-4- 3 . mathematicians.SOME SPECIAL LETTEKS OF THE ALPHABET Methodical. such as teachers. and other professional men frequently write letters which look like figures. sober-minded and imaginative persons.p 3 361 2 362 187 . making it easy to diagnose their characteristics.


This particular specimen of hieratic writing was probably written by an Egyptian priest during the time of the builders of the Pyramids and records the regrets of an old man that times are not what they once were.HIERATIC WRITING ABOUT 2500 B.C. PARIS THIS specimen is from the ''Oldest Book in the World. 189 . BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE." The Egyptians used the most elaborate system of hieroglyphics but at the same time developed a script which could be easier written than the pictures of the hieroglyphics.


for 191 . The writing was executed with some sharp instrument on brick-clay. The story is told by Ut-Naphistim and seems to have set at rest many of the doubters of the Bible version of the Deluge.ASSYRIAN TABLETS 750 B. BRITISH THESE MUSEUM most extraordinary lot of tablets belong to the all documents of the rare treasures in the British Museum. They are year 750 B.C. after which it was baked. enth tablet of the famous Babylonian creation-epic The Story of the Deluge (Gilgamesh).C. they were inscribed in about the and the specimen reproduced here is the elevold. This accounts for the splendid state of preservation in which these tablets were found.


" has long ago Its passed into proverbial speech in China. and intimately connected with writing. It it written on native paper. demanding a similar skill and power in the use of the brush. China. The Chinese Script is. so we have no means of knowing how it was spoken or pronounced in ancient times. It is unique . when it is considered that the phrase: "A picture is a voiceless poem. When we bear in mind that the Chinese painter insists upon his picture suggesting a poetic idea rather than upon reproducing material objects. Painting being the most prominent art of China. As an almost invariable rule. in the Province of Yunan. indeed. however. is recorded concerning the evolution of the Chinese language. A VERY curious age is unknown. writing originates in symbolic representations of speech. as the lawyers say sui generis. similar to that used in Thibet. Very little. and even from Oriental languages. Chinese differs from European. In China. the development of spoken and written speech began at a very early day to diverge and differ.BRITISH MUSEUM reproduction of a Chinese book of picture writing from Moso. we will easily understand how it happens that in the origin of writing. it is positively fascinating even 193 when . it is not to be wondered at that the latter should also be deemed a fine art. indeed.

these original pictographs survive. as we view him so engaged. yet in Chinese alone of all living languages. is manipulated by the hand of the humble.. of a bird's claws upon the sand.C. . The former explanation seems to be the more probable. have a feelingsomewhat akin to the charm and admiration that we feel for another artist. patient. while they were at a very early stage of evolution. Do we not.194 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING the brush. There are one or two myths current with the Chinese concerning the origin of their script. 3000 B. first transformed into hieroglyphics and ultimately absorbed into the alphabet of other existing languages. industrious celestial laundryman. who wields his brush on the canvas? Has the present-day Chinaman not come honestly by this talent? It is his by inheritance. Another origin of script is assigned to a tion sort of demigod. two of which may be One origin is ascribed to a appropriately mentioned. Fu-Hsi. for although the universal rule derives all writing from pictures. who is said to have been inspired with the idea of a system of written characters by the marks on the back of a dragon-horse a legend which induces one to suspect an ingenious attempt thus to account for the adoption of the dragon as an imperial emblem. a being of fabulous powers whose inspirawas derived from the "foot-prints" so to speak. instead of the usual pen. mythical emperor.

Those which are actually dated range between 275 B. and A. but we are chiefly indebted to Egypt for other discoveries.C. 680. a period of more than 900 years.. consisting of about fifty rolls of papyrus. on the site of the Serapeum. Written in demotic character on a long sheet of papyrus attached to the deed of sale of a piece of land.TAX RECEIPTS FROM THEBES 210 B. BRITISH MUSEUM THIS specimen is of very early origin. The first Egyptian discovery of Greek writing was in 1778. after which there was no find of any consequence until 1820. discovery of Greek papyri was made during the excavation of Herculaneum in 1752. documents were found at Memphis.C. but not of the First Century. These discoveries have given us a very fair knowledge of the writing of the Second and Third Centuries B.D. Subsequently came the period of literary papyri dating from the last book of first 195 The .C. and we have an abundant and almost uninterrupted series of documents for the first 250 years of the Christian Era. son of the collector of taxes in Thebes. being one of the collection of Greek writing on papyrus recovered in Egypt and is for the payment of tax on land and was issued by Hermocles.C. when the well-known Second Century B.


and some parts of the Gospel of St. called the Bankes Homer in 1821. M. Matthew and of classical authors and covers the first seven hundred years of the Christian Era. taken from mummy-cases found in the Necropolis of Fayum This find was important in that it supplied . there was a third change characteristic also of the ruling element and distinguishable as the Byzantine style of writing. Paris. . down to the conquest by the Arabs A. thus extending our knowledge of ancient Greek writing to another period. Flinders Petrie Berlin. in 1889-90. the most interesting of which is that of W. samples of writing of the Third Century. The Ptolemaic style is clearly marked mies from 323 to 30 question. 640. large and extensive discovery of papyri was made during the excavations in the later part of the Nineteenth Century. which includes the specimen in Then followed the period of Roman rule dating from Augustus and extending to the reign of Diocletian A.. in the writing practiced during the PtoleB. There have been other smaller groups of discoveries.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 197 Homer's Iliad. The changes that occurred from time to time in the Greek writing in Egypt. 284. when Egypt was placed under the Byzantine administration. during excavations conducted by Grenfell and Hunt for the Egypt Exploration Fund at Behnesa the ancient Oxyraynchus. . down to the funeral oration of Hyperides discovered in 1856. Lastly. Oxford and A The greatest and most important find however occurred in 1896-97. which is characterized by the distinctive Roman hand.D.C. The material recovered here amounted to several thousands of papyri and includes the Logia or Sayings of our Lord. correspond with the changes in the political administration of the country. all of which are now in London.D.


paid by Petantis. they were not in a sound condition. and evidently of a receipt in A COPY a late date the Byzantine period. 199 . although the documents were abundant.D. Unfortunately. and by the minuscules or small letters. running from the earliest specimens to the Ninth Century. and extends to the Fifteenth Century. The period covering the history of Greek writing begins with the Second Century B. The most fruitful source of Greek papyri from Egypt are the excavations which were made near the end of the last century. These are even now in progress. Pethis and Maries.A. 20). 30 BRITISH MUSEUM Greek for produce of land. from the Ninth Century to the discovery of printing.C. writing passed through two stages. to Chaeremon. exemplified by the uncial or large letters. Written in rough uncials of generally normal shapes. as rent in kind. As far as we are able to discover from the Greek MSS. being fragmentary and not of a literary of character. which have survived. dated the 30th of the month of Caesarius (September) in the eighth year of Tiberius (A.D. but a large find was uncovered in 1877 on the site of Arsinoe. farmers.


THE OLDEST GREEK BIBLE. This questioning of authority led to the introduction of three 201 new versions . we are indebted for the Septuagint. This version was accepted as Scripture by the Jews about the First Century A. EXTANT FOURTH CENTURY A. The word "Septuagint" was intended to apply only to the Pentateuch. each 10 Yz by 10 inches. Christian Church. the earliest Greek Bible. on fine vellum in triple columns of 42 lines and on 759 leaves. To the Hellinistic Jews of Alexandria. ROME THIS Bible has been in the Vatican Library at Rome since 1448.600 years old. but was afterwards extended in its application to the other books as they were translated.D. that arose between the Christians and early disputations the Jews. It was written.D. which had been established by Rabbi Akiba and his school. It when it was also accepted as such by the was not long however before the authority of the SepThis resulted partly from the tuagint was questioned.. but principally from the disagreements that arose between it and the Hebrew version. probably in the Fourth Century. for it is entered in the Catalogue compiled by Pope Nicholas VI. BIBLIOTHECA VATICANA. It is well preserved for a handwritten book 1.

Aquila's version was favorably accepted by the Hellenistic Jews and soon superseded the old Septuagint. but unfortunately no trace of it has come down to us. .). The only part of the Septuagint* version which has been preserved is a manuscript of the Book of Daniel. Aquila and Theodotion (Second Century A.D.202 HOW TO READ Symmachus.

? AK - . . i f t GREEK LETTER .CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 203 v gfe f r^^^. i .^'^t .

hides. cursive hand in mixed uncials and minuscules.GREEK LETTER 350 A. written in Greek. measuring 9% by 4 inches. is from Actius to his "lord and brother" about a shipment of a supply of corn. oil and It was on papyrus. 204 . BRITISH MUSEUM THIS letter. written in an upright.D.

205 .

m. It was in the form of a roll. it would seem. in strong contrast to the stiffness and rigid linking of the Ptolemaic hand.D. early in the Seventh Century. finds something of a parallel in the development of the curving charter-hand of the Fourteenth Century from the rigid hand of the Thirteenth Century. In this grant to the Church at Ravenna. d. x. i. Curves take the place of straight strokes in the individual letters and even ligatures are formed in pliant sweeps of the pen. but stand out separately. Roundness of style is characteristic of Greek cursive writing in the papyri of the first three centuries of the Christian Era. following. or groups of hands. however much individual hands. Some letters are is medium-sized Roman cursive. might vary. The five feet four inches long and twelve inches wide. which was during the period of Roman rule.GRANT TO THE CHURCH OF RAVENNA SEVENTH CENTURY A. but b. are never joined. written on papyrus. LIBRARY OF THE EARL OF CRAWFORD AND BALCARRES THIS document. shows a part of a grant from Captain Johannes to the Church of Ravenna. writing joined to those following. the writing is characterized by roundness of style. This transition from the stiff to the flexible. n. w. h. the natural law of relaxation. 206 .

CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 207 After the Third Century of the Christian Era. The characteristic features of the new style are its large scale and its formality a deliberate calligraphic effort which culminated in the bold or artificial hand of the Sixth and Seventh Centuries. there appears to have been a reform of the Roman hand which marks the entry of Greek writing into the new phase of the Byzantine period. if we may judge from the meager material that has been recovered. .


THE KORAN EIGHTH CENTURY BRITISH THIS is MUSEUM Eighth Century A. was called "Kor'an" or "recitation" at hence the familiar term applied to the book. but at different times and in different pieces or "revelations.D." One of these pieces. like the entire collection. who had led austere and ascetic lives. through the services of others at writing It is believed that 209 . whose nervous systems therefore had been made acutely sensitive and responsive to an emotional and imaginative temperament. part of a page from a fragment of a manuscript copy of the Koran made in the It is written on vellum in an easy. Like other oriental visionaries. flowing style." to the effect that they deceivers. The part reproduced here tells of the advice Mohammed gave to "the faithful. and that this "sending down" was not done at any one or of the The principal feature any particular time. must beware of poets as Koran may be said to be Mohammed's claim that it was sent down to him by God." Mohammed never recorded anything in but that he had. Mohammed was thoroughly qualified for spasmodic visits from angels bearing to him messages from Heaven and commanding him to reveal them as the "word of God.

who again bequeathed it to his daughter Hafsa. committed to one of the prophet's amenuenses. We have in some parts pious moral reflections. and the arraignment and judgment of the world on the "last day. the tortures of Hell. These three manu- . potence. This copy. however. The Calif-Abu-Bekr under the persuasion of Omar. His inspired messengers and especially in Mohammed. the goodness in At the time of Mohammed's death." Other parts of the book are devoted to laws for the regulation of various religious and social ceremonies. dictating to three associates that the Calif Othman from the copy he had previously made. From him it descended to Omar.210 HOW TO READ Mecca. not neglecting to prove to and convince the unbeliever that "Allah is Allah and Mohammed is His Prophet. the Koran existed in different pieces of material which were widely scattered. though more primitively expressed. started the written record of his "revelations. where the art of writing was more widely practiced than at Medina. was not received with entire favor so (A. the compiler a canonical edition of the work. in which Mohammed's harem is included. interlarded with the detailed manifestation of the omni- and righteousness of God in Nature. and the unfaithful." Nor does he fail to propound large instalments of religious and moral instruction accompanied by solemn warnings and threats to sinners. Zaid. Then there are vivid pictures of celestial paradise. 650-651) intrusted this work to of the former collection. his successor. the task of collecting these parts into one whole. not very unlike those of Marcus Aurelius. of which he wrote a fair copy and gave it to Abu-Bekr." The subject matter of the Koran varies widely. and he prepared Zaid. one of the widows of the Prophet.D.

Basra. but they have all been derived from these four. Kufa and Damascus. .CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 211 scripts. according to tradition. were sent as standard copies to the metropolitan cities. There have been other manuscripts. and a copy was retained at Medina.

tttrrajft: fec-e & ' *"* I V :$&.^<5me^ (pa mm gemfe ' on fco/i BEOWULF . p.212 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING " ' ' nt eii i mp ^ I l.

. daring and literature. went over to Denmark and delivered its king from the ravages of a terrible monster. and is a remarkable relic of old English This poem. tells of the prowess. that rendered his hall uninhabitable. Beowulf. Beowulf receiving a fatal wound. inexperienced in arms.D. with eleven chosen warriors. 213 . The dragon Episodes are introduced which have no relation whatsoever to the hero. skill of physical accomplishments of Beowulf. apparently for the purpose of including and preserving Germanic myths and traditions. a Scandinavian hero who. a mere youth. goes forth. and gives battle. This work is obviously a poetical blending of fact and fable of myth and history of the mythical Beaw with the historical Beowulf. the former a Scandinavian fiction. his country is ravished by a fiery dragon. saves him.BEOWULF A. Beowulf returns to his native land and becomes its king. . is killed.D. Grandel. Beowulf is almost overpowered when Wiglat. with fourteen companions. written about 1000 A. construction and for the vivid imaginative and narrative power of its author. 1000 BRITISH THE Epic MUSEUM of Beowulf forms parts of a single MS. After reigning many years. the latter an English personage. which is remarkable for its lucidity. in spite of his now being an aged monarch.

but the prevailing opinion is that it was transcribed from an Anglican that is. .214 HOW existing TO READ The MS. from a Northumbrian or Mercian original. is written in the West-Saxon dialect.

CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 215 p^ ^\ \JJ o __ \** vx> >. 2 ~~n r ^ ^ rr- ? "^ ^ .

It however was frequently invoked as testimony in the middle ages. used for this purpose but with no appeal from its record. second. at this day." written on The handwriting changes frequently in a single where several scribes made their entries. EXETEE LIBRARY vellum. to which circumstance its name 316 . This record contained not only the names of the new landholders. but an estimated annual valuation of all the land subject to assessment first. on this account it is unintelligible to all but the archaeologist. narrow cramped hand with last strokes drawn to a point and also rounder forms of writiDg with shorter vertical strokes. at the time when the Norman successors received it. On account of its very early date.DOMESDAY BOOK 1086 A. and. the "Domesday" is not generally interesting except as a relic of the past. A as a The Domesday Book no doubt suggested itself to William means of ascertaining and determining the King's fiscal rights after such a political upheaval as the Norman Conquest and the wholesale confiscation of estates that resulted from it. at the time of King Edward's death. showing a page. PART of a page of the "Exon Domesday. and is. third. at the time when the survey was made.D.

CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 11 217 Domesday" or " Doomsday" is due. Another interesting register is feature connected with this ancient that it records the list of landowners by their Christian names only. thus failing to serve the pretentious claims of families whose "origins" date from the Conquest. .


219 . a lexicon of the Tironiaii shorthand signs. partly ideographic and partly Tiro. arbitrary.TIRONIAN LEXICON TENTH CENTURY BRITISH MUSEUM THIS plate represents the Notae Senecae. as invented by Marcus Tullius This Tironian system was apparently partly alphabetic. the freedman of Cicero.


There were two sources in England for the derivation of a national hand the Irish monasteries in the north and the Roman these missionaries. This style of hand prevailed in the north. The next stage. from MichaelPipe. mas 1129 to Michaelmas 1130. The first stage of English writing was the round hand of which there were two kinds bookwriting of a very beautiful character of which the Lindisfarne Gospels or "Durham Book" is a fine specimen. 1130 the Great Roll of the Exchequer. with many large letters. 221 .D.PIPE ROLL A. national hand in the progressive changes of the pointed can be easily traced in the Facsimiles of Ancient style Charters in the British Museum and in the Facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon MSS of the Rolls series. guided by ruled lines. i. when the foreign minuscules became a controlling element From this time the evolution of the in English writing. was reached about the Eighth Century. or Roll of the for the thirty-first year of Henry I.e. Britain and was finally adopted as the national hand after receiving the distinctive marks as such from the English scribes. and continued during the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. In the south a less pretentious and plainer style was employed. that of the more con- venient pointed hand. Written in a bold official PART of hand. who taught their style of writing in The former prevailed throughout monasteries. many of which are stilted.

222 .

Caedmon. Upon awaking. but was compelled to obey.THE ANGLO-SAXON POEM OF CAEDMON ELEVENTH CENTURY BODLEIAN LIBRARY PAGE of the poems in Anglo-Saxon which bore Caedmon 's name. alleging inability. Having failed. tongue without losing much of all its the verses of the poem that 223 beauty. The Saxon minuscules are rather square but change toward the end. no poem can be rendered in a foreign . Baeda has given a prose paraphrase of this song. It was probably executed by Ailfivine. to comply with a request. and found himself uttering verses that he had never before heard. from lack of ability.D. not the words themselves nor their arrangements in fact. of course. he went to bed and fell asleep. "The Venerable Bede. to sing to the harp." who informs us that Caedmon was a herdsman and that he All that of tian poet. not the poetry. which was made upon him on a particular occasion. but tells us that it represents the sense only." He objected. Caedmon had sung in his . the earliest English Chrisfrom Baeda. A 1035. He then had a dream in which some one appeared to him and requested him to sing " of the beginning of created things. Abbot of New Minster or Hyde Abbey at Winchester A. because. is derived we know received his call as a poet in a dream.

It is the only one of his abundant works that can be identified with certainty. of the sweetness of Heaven and of the mercies and judgments of God. The Immaculate Conception. The song which Caedmon is said to have composed in his dream. The Coming of the Holy Ghost' and The Teaching of the Apostles. She tested him by proposing certain portions of sacred history for poetical treatment. where thenceforth the learned monks expounded him scripture history and Christian doctrine. The Resurrection. fulfilled his task and took up his abode at the monastery. He complied. now called Whitby. is still extant and is preserved in the poet's own dialect in a MSS. He also wrote many songs of the terrors of the coming judgment. The Departure from Efiypt and The Entrance into the Promised Land. to TO BEADHe told dream came all this to his which he made additions. The Ascension of the Savior of Mankind. of the horrors of hell. employer. who thereupon took him to a neighboring monastery at Streanaeshalch. The Passion. to . He reproduced The Creation and The Fall of Man. all of which he rendered into exquisite poetry. where the Abbess discovered that Caedmon had received the divinus afflatus from Heaven.224 HOW to him. of the Eighth Century.

. 14 ^^i -4*1 ^ t^T ^ ff ' ' Pf^-v.^^ ^ <5 >j v> t i !. T*-* ^> . fc^rl^- . & : 1 .CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 225 rA v.

when it was superseded by the foreign element resulting in this pointed style of the national hand. which. with plenty of capitals and flourished letters. was reached in the Eighth Century and developed during the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. I 1189 BRITISH THIS document certain lands in is MUSEUM of from the charter King Richard the First and confirms to his steward Alured de S. The deed is written in court hand.RICHARD A. as has been stated in the preceding article on the Pipe Roll of the Exchequer. A. This is a specimen of the second stage in the evolution of the British national handwriting. Martin Eleham and Bensington in Oxfordshire. 226 .D.D. 1130.

227 . Lord of and Alianora.GRANT TO MARGAN ABBEY A. in the Twelfth Century. in b.D. distinct and clean-cut. vertical strokes. It is dated at Hanley. which had been introduced into England after the Norman Concharacterized quest. formal book-hand of the Middle Ages. h. his wife. howto the same laws of organic development With regard to the court-hand or charter-hand. 18th of February. in a court a specimen of the English cursive. Written hand of transitional character. 1329). angular style. it is exaggeration in the strokes above and below the line by a legacy of the old Roman cursive. subject that governed the evolution of the book-hand. cursive styles of handwriting were started in the various countries. and is written on vellum. as. From the Twelfth Century. charterwas developed side by side with the more hand. The changes in the cursive hand were. to Margan Abbey of cerMargan. ever. and these styles can be easily identified with corresponding politiis This that cal periods.D. THIS is tain lands. in the third year of the reign of Edward III (A. measuring 11 by 8 inches. There is also a tendency to form the tops of tall. 1329 TALBOT CHARTER a grant from William la Zouche. advancing from the round toward the later.

228 O .

a very delicate fine-stroked hand comes into use. and early in the Thirteenth Century. and the cleft tops begin.1. This style remains the writing John and Henry III. and the branches formed by the cleft falling in a curve on either side. the clearing of the tops being now a regular system. though often rugged. Towards the latter part of the Thirteenth Century. and irregularity sets in. of shed the branch on the left. the letters grow rounder. however. . there is generally more contrast of light and heavy strokes. the regular formation begins to give way. with a notch or cleft. In the Fourteenth Century the changes thus introduced make further progress. and the to round letters and single-branched vertical strokes become normal through the first half of the century. As the century advanced the long limbs are brought into better proportion. Then. as it were. The letters are well made and vigorous.


consisting only of ancient fragments of a still more ancient literature. 231 . and the smaller s-mala (to the The former is for the use of the living. .D. Jewish and Pagan constituents. and left hand). in Howaiza on the Tigris in the year 1329.MANDAEAN PRAYERS A. doctrines Siouffi in 1880. 1329 BODLEIAN LIBRARY WRITTEN on paper about 5 by 4 inches. but we have recent accounts of their manners and customs derived from a converted Mandaean and published by M. or St. A most interesting. Sabians or Nasoreans. John's Christians not to mention. as well as remarkable. the larger of which is called yamina (to the right hand). M. fact concerning the Mandaeans. Our knowledge of the Mandaeans dates only from the first Christian missionaries among them in the Seventeenth Century. This is the oldest dated Mandaean Manuscript in Europe or America up to the present time. by which they are also known is the only surviving composite of Christian. oriental theosophy and that their religion is speculative Christianity. The largest of these is the Sidra Rabba (Great Book) comprising two parts. called Gnosticism. is Our knowledge of their religious obtained entirely from their sacred books. based upon the amalgamation of Greek philosophy.

who . the origin of all things is Pira. In the religious system of the Mandaeans. They have a peculiar death-bed rite. are not older than the Sixteenth Century." is the Mandaean God. the feet directed to the north and the head to the south facing the pole star.232 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING the latter contains only prayers for the burial service of the priests. but the MSS. with whom are Ayar ziva rabba "the great shining ether" and Mana rabba "the great spirit of glory.000 families. The date of these books may be fixed as early as 600 and 900. begins by invoking him.200 souls.D." Mana rabba called into being the highest of the between A. consisting first of a warm bath and afterwards a cold one the body is clothed in a shroud of seven pieces. . and every prayer. as well as every section of the sacred books. The number of Mandaeans existing in the Eighteenth Century was about 20. but at the present day there are only about 1. aeons properly so-called Hayye Kadmaye "Primal Life.

' ' heart began to tremble so violently that the least pulses of my body shook therewith.DANTE A. who for thirteen years was his beacon light and whose death in 1290 was the purification of his later life and the inspiration of his poetic revelations of Paradise.D. The document is written in set Italian minuscules. He first met her when he was only nine years moment. . he says." Beatrice. married another Simone de' Bardi. by whom he had two sons and two daughters. ' ' At that age. daughter of Marietta Donati. I saw most truly that the spirit of life which hath its dwelling in the secretest chamber of the old and she of the same ' . regular at first but more or less carelessly written toward of the end. This must have caused him to recover from the shock of her death for in 1292 he married Gemma. consoled himself by reading the Book of Boetius and Tully's treatise on friendship. 1379 BRITISH MUSEUM THIS is part of one of the pages of the Divina Commedia Dante with interlinear glosses. but whom he never mentions in his Divina Commedia. however. when a prisoner and an exile. for which Dante. The pivot upon which the life of this immortal poet turned was the love of Beatrice Portinari. It was written at Ferrara.

opeww. . .234 HOW TO READ .n Kcti cittto co tmttx* ft >^<l^-Vt *^ir-+ ^ rewind DANTE . ^ ) CWM? find tv^ UttnC^d?crbt(b*avo trjtTv* t v*<'k-wi tn*w* ***" l~cv'^c* r btftae Invon i?gmt.

Dante was charged with "baratteria" or corrupt robbery and speculation while in public office. he has an "intuitive vision of Deity and the comprehension of all Mysteries. Not appearing he was fined 5000 L. as against the Neri or Blacks two political factions who contended for power in Florence in the Thirteenth Century. and. This was the dream of the poet. where Beatrice appears and leads him through the various spheres of which Heaven is composed to the Empyrean or Seat of God. The charge was preposterous because of his well-known poverty. 1302." The writing in the manuscript indicates. times. He held public office and became one of the leaders of the Bianchi or Whites. for an instant. should do the work for which they were best fitted and thus promote their welfare and happiness. sick with the petty quarrels of the contending factions. illustrating the "conversion" from the sinful life. and the poem ends. so far as his mother country was concerned. especially in the marginal references. was fully realized 500 years after in the United Italy of modern Dante's great epic. the judgments and punishments for sin and path to earthly Paradise. but the sentence was not formally reversed until 1494 by the Medici. the Divina Commedia. much intuition and vision. combined however with logic and humor. his will is wholly blended with that of God. and sentenced to be burned alive if found. where. bolical . is symfrom commencement to end. eagerly looked for the coming of a universal Monarch who should unite all men and countries under institutions best suited to them. Ultimately Dante.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 235 Dante soon after commenced to take part in politics. The Blacks were victorious and on January 27th. a dream that lasted to the end of his days.

uiijid fern wui/cts t^iirc ft(2fi)|c as WYCLIFFE'S BIBLE .236 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING <^DT'O i ftuimtous pet mitm t .

WYCLIFFE 'S BIBLE A. youngest son of Edward III. to a prose-writing" entirely question agitated between Church and State. The inventory of his goods contained this Bible. dogmatic but the political policy of the papacy that came under the lash of his criticism in his treatise De Civili fore. and ultimately developed into a systematic attack upon the " whole established order in the Church. title of "founder of English due to political causes.D. not the domino. the question of the jurisdiction and power of the Church over man's civil rights and its right to receive and hold temporal endowments." It therewas. Wycliffe 's Bible prose is the earliest classic middle English." In this propaganda he for the first time boldly and bpenly proclaimed that "righteousness is the sole indefensible title 237 . 1390 BRITISH MUSEUM THIS is a part of the earliest Wycliffe translation of the Bible. or "civil lordship. and was owned by Thomas of Woodstock. which were Wyckliffe's claim to the is directed against the folly and corruption of the clergy. who was put to death by Richard II in 1397. Duke of Gloucester. It is written in bold English Minuscules. Two serious but futile attempts were made to punish Wyckliffe for his political writings.

raised his. and inaugurated the institution of his poor or "simple" priests to preach his doctrines throughout the country. and that the decision as to whether the property of ecclesiastics should be taken away. together with the translation of his other works of the same character. . that an unrighteous clergy has no such title. even writing.238 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING to dominion and to property. of their dependence upon God alone. This. through the effort of his celebrated disciple. Wyckliffe can be justly credit of having convinced his countrymen. and. fully entitle him to the claim as the founder of English prosethis. requiring no mediation of priest or sacrament of the Church. rests with the civil power." Wyckliffe's agitation and propaganda had hitherto been rather academic. at least. and he undertook the translation of the Vulgate * ' ' ' version of the Bible into English. to the dignity of a national religion in Bohemia. John Huss. In addition to awarded the more than this. He determined to make it popular. of having. Wyckliffe's doctrine.

D. such as that of d and v are on the whole thicker than vertical downstrokes and the head of b. The earlier. This last tendency brings about an increase in the thickness of the downstrokes which gradually become angular letters.. The handwriting employed in this letter the ' ' wedge-shaped while the writing as a whole increases in 239 size . especially in the tail of g and s. 1400). Strokes are much emphasized and thickened. curved form of handwriting was replaced by a smaller hand. ary 20th (A. I and h show an increasing tendency to split and to become floreated. 1500. namely the "Caroline Minuscule of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries and is found in English documents from the conquest 1066 to A. and in marks of abbreviation. but compact and upright.D.D. Written in an dated Februcourt-hand with is derived from same source as the more leisurely and formal bookhand used in copying MSS. somewhat oblique. 1400 BRITISH MUSEUM official A LETTER in Latin of Henry IV of England.LETTER OF HENRY IV A. Diagonal downstrokes. Both types acquired their distinctive features about the Tenth Century. the court-hand attaining its greatest grace and beauty about the latter half of the Thirteenth Century and deteriorating rapidly during the next two centuries.

.240 i "i ^ - * * '] I Hi I'll if w/ ^""""^3 ? f^v *K ^-.

the writing becomes both rounder and clumsier.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 241 towards the end of the Thirteenth Century. giving it a much neater appearance : the wedge- shaped downstrokes persist but gradually come to be floreated or split at the top. As time goes on. the single i being now quite usually so marked. horizontal strokes disappear and the writing at first becomes more Sumpsimus for Mumpsimus is vertical. especially in those with looped heads and this forms the transition to the writing of the following century. In the Fourteenth Century. . The old story of M a case in point. the middle of the century a certain angularity begins to appear in the letters. a plain hook being substituted. The accent which preceded the dot is more regularly placed over the i. so that a bad hand of this date is sometimes superAfter ficially like a bad hand of a hundred years before. the exaggerated. Particularly characteristic of this period is the "S" with a greatly enlarged tail and a very small head more or less resembling an and very easily mistaken for it.

242 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING -=5 ^h* feQ j <* . ** ' ttv T tfvg-!S''5 *^y ^T^ ' KT *J ** ^^ J ** S i -i^ t^ p ~ m 1 '*$ :** 5 ka .

Adrian II. Constantine. Pope Nicholas I sent for the brothers but when they arrived at Rome the Pope was dead. received them warmly and accepted 243 their trans- . His successor. fearing the influence of the Latin missionaries. written on vellum. Rostislav of Moravia.D. one of whom. The Emperor sent two brothers for the purpose. This attempt to set up the Slavonic liturgy was strongly opposed. not only taught letters and the Gospel. philosopher and linguist. The ecclesiastical history of this period plays an important part in tracing the evolution of the Slavonic script and language. It illustrates the uncial and cursive forms of the Cyrillic Russian Alphabet.SLAVONIC GOSPELS FIFTEENTH CENTURY BRITISH MUSEUM THIS reproduction is part of a page of the Fifteenth Century copy of the Gospels in Slavonic. He and his brother Methodius. We know that in 861 A. He was a scholar. This early Russian script was used almost exclusively for ecclesiastical purposes. changed his name to Cyril. applied to Byzantium for teachers who might preach the Gospel in the vulgar tongue. but translated the necessary liturgical books. for it is simply the record of the means by which the Slavonic nations became converted to Christianity.

and Methodius was tried and im- prisoned by the German Bishop." But we do not know for certain who invented Cyrillic. the language we call the people used his dialect Old Church Slavonic. Poland and Croatia. Wiching. It lingered in Moravia until the Magyars overran the latter. ultimately prevailed in those places and thus became permanently separated from the orthodox Bulgarians. "translated at any rate a Gospel lectionary. In spite of this expulsion. HOW TO READ Constantine died. a German. a manual of the canon law and further liturgical matter. . it does not appear that the Slavonic Liturgy was suppressed in the West. . The Pope openly supported him and restored to him his archbishopric in 880. liberated him and permitted Slavonic service. and it appears to have secured a foothold during the ministration of Methodius in Bohemia. Subsequently Pope John VIII. in 873. or the date of Cyril's earliest translations. however. some part of the Old Testament.244 lations. succeeded him and through the aid of the new Pope Stephen VI. Upon the death of Methodius in 886 his suffragan. The Latin Church. It would seem therefore that Cyril did invent a Slavonic alphabet. perhaps the psalter and the chief service-books into a Slavonic dialect and it seems that Methodius translated the epistles. or what that is. Russians and Servians. the Slavonic service-books and those that used them were driven out and took refuge in Bulgaria.

^ _ ^^ TV 5 i ^V I .?^>f J rf t t K * f t It ^ * U ** Iv^. J v* I '^^M f i vT\ .i.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 245 V 1 ( -^t .^l >< c r F jS \ A o v. : >- ^4.4 r -* i k r^ t - | ^v -v .

The Oldest Slavonic writing to be found is a Cyrillic inscription of the Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria. which has survived in places where the Roman Church : liturgy prevails. 246 . and in Montenegro.THE CHURCH SLAVONIC ALPHABET ABOUT BRITISH 1700 A.D. the Cyrillic. and their alphabet has been adopted by other Slavonic peoples who use Latin letters. The Slavonic languages employ three alphabets. Peter the Great caused a version of the Cyrillic alphabet to be made for Russian use. This alphabet was the basis of the alphabets adopted by the Russians. A. 993. The first among the Slavs to adopt an adequate system of writing were the Czechs. Bulgarians and by the Illyrian division of the Slavs. and the Glagolitic or form used in old Slavonic documents. which is also largely employed by Bulgaria.D. MUSEUM VERY curious document. in the form of a roll of paper 16 feet 6 inches long and 8% inches wide. which is used by the orthodox Slavs and is simply the liturgical Greek uncial of the Ninth Century with certain ornamentations. It originally contained A 48 symbols. It gives the various cursive forms of the Church Slavonic Alphabet with ornamental variations. corresponding to three respective religious rituals the Latin for those requiring Latin services.

BRITISH MUSEUM THIS letter was written by Montaigne while Mayor of Bordeaux to the Marechal de Matignon. He is credited with having perfected a style all his own. After a life of mixed activity as a courtier. contemplation and learned ease at Chateau Montaigne. 1585. he retired to a life of study. It is even said that the delightful and fanciful method was employed of waking him by the ''concord of sweet sounds" and soft music. and noon on February 28th.M. He appears to have been the subject of great solicitude and care. a counsellor of parliament and a soldier. It may be safely con- 247 . This celebrated French essayist was born at the Chateau Montaigne near Bordeaux (as he is very particular in informing us) between 11 A. We however always bear in mind that almost all that we know about Montaigne has come from himself. both as to his health and his education. dated Bordeaux. and he was provided not only with a German tutor but with servants who were skilled Latinists. 1533. He was put out to nurse with strong. His fame rests upon his essays. also a novel and mechanical arrangement for teachmust ing him Greek was tried but without success. robust peasant women. May 22nd.

248 HOW TO READ * <* 3 < *4 Hx* V V* \>SX Sfe^ fc&lfc v y * v .

His style and language are modelled after Plutarch.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 249 tended that the essay. or ancient prototype. has no modern predecessor. but with an inde- pendence that makes him perfectly original in his ease and flexibility. . such as he originated and perfected.


It was left for Pope Julius to select Michelangelo and therefore to detect in him the abnormal. artistic ability for the execution of the greatest scheme of painting perhaps ever conceived. and perhaps fortunate for posterity that genius often at first to realize. It is fails its di from Michelangelo in Buonarroti Simoni. thereby forcing upon others the opportunity of doing for some that which they had seemingly been unable to do for themselves namely detect the particular excellence or greatness for which nature has destined them. Indeed it is well known that his " natural inclination turned his attention and efforts origiliving proof of his excellence in this nally to sculpture. A who was striking example of this is the case of Michelangelo easily the protagonist among the matchless painters who flourished during the revival of learning in the Fifteenth Century. A he is also said to have confessed that painting was not his "business" not his "metier" as the French term it. the existence of greatest natural adaption. or even to suspect." Again. Lodovico was written in June 1508. Such a work was the series of fresco-paint251 ." field is his colossal statue of "David the Giant.MICHELAGNIOLO BUONARROTI DATE BRITISH Rome 1508 MUSEUM letter THIS plate shows part of a to his father.

was subsequently enlarged to the more ambitious effort of reproducing the whole of the Mosaic Cosmogony and Fall of Man from the Creation to the Flood. limitless. together with the accessory personages of prophets and sibyls dreaming on new dispensation of Christ. in bold human destiny. transcendentalism and piety combined with philosophical speculation concerning We are now concerned with the made to stand out. originally confined to the apostles. an imagination. It was not without much misgiving and lack of lish the ceiling of the Sistine ings with which confidence that Michelangelo entered upon the undertaking. personal characteristics that are relief. Spiritual grandeur. in Michelangelo 's These are: imagination. nobility. enthusiasm. power and character. handwriting. The whole was to be inclosed and to be divided by a framework of painted architecture with a multitude of nameless human shapes supporting its several members or reposing among them. .252 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING Pope Julius. by decree. the shapes meditating. sublime. daring. between the features of the inanimate framework and those of the great and prophetic the scenes themselves. exalted. as it were. intended to embelChapel at Rome and which he intrusted to the magical brush of the great Florentine painter. especially as the scheme.

MARTIN LUTHER DATE BRITISH 1509 MUSEUM THIS letter. splitting into three parts. which raised the question of the Pope's supremacy in spiritual matters. the natural revolt against Rome the Lutheran movement had been organized and was spreading rapidly and peaceably. The natural movement then became an ecclesiastical one. Luther thus became the champion of the ortho- dox priesthood which led to his excommunication and the opening of the first Diet at Worms in January. His first point of attack was the sale of Indulgences. gave birth to those doubts which ultimately crystallized and conflicted with the scholastic theology of his early days. a noted German Reformer. Soon after taking holy orders and commencing to lecture. the careful thinking imposed by his spiritual obligations. in Latin. 1519. November 8th. the Evangelical churches. when interrupted by the Peasants' War. It is dated Wittenberg. was written by Martin Luther to his friend Georgius Spalatinus. of one of which. Luther became the leader. the Diet of Speyer (1529) deprived the Protestant churches of any share of the 253 . This was crushed by the ruling classes and with Luther's active aid one of the few mistakes of his life. 1521. In the course of the conflict. Though Luther suddenly disappeared.

254 HOW TO READ U H. U U H n < j-r n n n n ttr - rtr trr rrr SLAVONIC ALPHABET .

We must. even his sermons often contained unsavory expressions. a devoted husband and father. It must be admitted that he was fond of liquor and extremely convivial. 1 1 : and writing was frequently vulgar. he died on the 18th. he regarded as God's best an earnest exhorter and promoter of cheergifts. Luther was. that intemperance was habitual and treated with indulgence. frolicsome companion. the retirement of Luther. Roman but devoted himself to the Curia from regaining its grip on his country. the League of Protestant Princes. Luther has been accused of profligacy and intemperance in eating and drinking. bear in mind that the standard of behavior and of morality in those days was very low." This was on February 14th. He was assisted in this by the Evangelical Princes. the succession of Melanchthon. however. and stories. resulting in the cortinued effort to crush Protestantism.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 255 revenues of the Medieval church. and the reorganization of Luther now suffered task of preventing the ill-health. Although fulness. Then followed the conference of Luther with Zwingli. which accounts for his sanctioning the bigamy of Philip of Hesse." It is also true that his conversation. and found his greatest happiness in his serene and peaceful that conversation home which. thereby becoming historically known as Protestants. He nevertheless devoted him- . with his loving wife. he was himself subject to frequent fits of depression and melancholy. but I am too weak and I must close here. In 1546 he went to Eisleben. however. and that other offences were immune from condemnation. While there in a sermon he stated This and much more is to be said about the Gospel. his lectures. regarding which they protested. the Evangelical Church. so much so that he has been described as a "joyous.

unremitting attention and courage. and with such indifference to personal sacrifice as to indicate a striking and fearself to the less personality. .256 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING enormous labors of his life with great fervor.

At this handsome and he was already famous. indeed. young. but they never came. He became a man with a most auspicious young start in life. Tragedia del Signor Torquato." It is an autograph copy in a vellum binding.D." He was born in 1544 in 1552 he was attending a school kept by the Jesuits at Naples. Success and happiness seemed certain. with the latter of whom there brilliant 257 . In their stead he found only disappointage 8 years brilliant ment. insanity and It is true that for a short premature death. handsome. He was then. time from 1565 to 1570 he enjoyed the only happy period of his existence. 1588 BRITISH MUSEUM THIS reproduction is from a volume entitled. accustomed to the society of the great and learned. ill-health.TORQUATO TASSO A. illustrious by his published works in verse and prose and he had become the idol of the most Court in Italy the Court of Cardinal Luigi d'Este. destined to be for him the scene of a short-lived happiness and of much suffering. where his precocious intellect and religious fervor attracted attention and admiration. accomplished. an " infant prodigy. It was there that he became on terms of familiar association with the Princesses Lucrezia and Leonora d'Este. Tasso was. "Torismondo.


if . but it appears that his most excellent work had been given to the world and with it went his last days of sunshine and good fortune. his mind yielded to delusions and he was in constant fear of being denounced by the Inquisition and of being poisoned. His poem was laid aside. Instead of publishing his poem as he had conceived it instead of launching it upon the world with the touch of his genius upon it. His health began to fail. and it is therefore a matter of regret that he should have allowed a certain tactless freedom of speech to betray It him was at this time that he into a difference with his patron. theories of others. he deliberately sacrificed himself to the critical From this time his troubles began. Nevertheless. It would seem as if some malign influence led him into error from which his judgment should have recoiled. produced his "Aminta" and only about 31 years old.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING was 259 the old. Of course they differed and he unfortunately played directly into their hands. with whom he had quarreled. the Duke of Ferrara. He actually sent manucopies of his famous poem to a number of literary script notables for the purpose of securing their criticism and suggestions. old story of love." He was they should differ from him. invited him to return to his court provided he would consent to a course of medical treatment for his malady. Both sisters however undoubtedly wielded great influence in the promotion of his interests. In if not actually insane fact Tasso was now so far mentally deranged that he was of no service to himself and was a burden to his friends. Tasso accepted this friendly welcome and at first improved but his malady reappeared and he again went away and after wandering hither and . which he expressed his willingness to follow completed his "Gerusalemme Liberata.

where he wrote "Torrismondo. Anna. at the intercession of Vincenzo Genzaga. He died at Rome shortly after the laurel crown was con' ' his confinement he asylum at St.260 thither. allowed to leave St. where he wrote his "Gerusalemme Conquistata" in which he reconstructed his previous poem. Duke of Mantua." Then he went to Naples. In six months seven editions of it were issued. composed numerous philosophi- ferred upon him by the Pope. Anna in 1586. Tasso was. depriving it of its chivalrous and mystical elements. . Posterity has however reversed his decision. but he soon after went away to Rome feeling himself neglected by the Duke and thence he took up his residence at Mantua. but little poetry. he was finally sent to a lunatic During cal and ethical dialogues. Part of his " was also Gerusalemme published. and his fame now rests securely on the work of his early life. and shortly afterwards the whole poem.

December 4th. which conwith his father's plans for his son's career. music. a when he suddenly manifested religious life flicted so strong inclination for and actually joined the much novitiate. Galileo was occupying the chair of Mathematics of the University of Padua. makes Galileo an unpremeditated listener at a court lecture which causes him to aban261 . Galileo was making rapid and brilliant progress in his studies at the Florentine monastery of Vallombrosa. or any other of the arts or sciences.GALILEO GALILEI DATE BRITISH 1609 MUSEUM PART of a letter from Galileo Galilei to Michelangniolo Buonarroti the younger. It is dated. the world's list of remarkable astronomers would have been seriously curtailed and the Roman hierarchy correspondingly enriched. when he wrote this letter. a natural aptitude in various intellectual directions that undoubtedly would have brought him to the forefront in painting. nephew of the painter. Padua. If it had not been for an attack of opthalmia. the . when he was only 18 years old. Here he displayed same phenomenal talents a versatility. 1609. as a reason for withdrawing Galileo from the monastery and entering him at the University of Pisa. invention. Again accident interposes. that the former turned to account a somewhat severe in- flammation of the eyes.


boldly went to Rome and with his wonted enthusiasm and eloquence presented his views to the pontificial court. and his claim that the earth revolved daily on its own axis." . soon relieved by the invention of the telescope which was really due to the genius of Johannes Lippershey. so that within three years after leaving the university he writes a treatise on the "Center of Gravity in Solids/' which brings him the appointment of lecturer on mathematics at the university and the of ''The Archimedes of his time. an optician of Middleburg. Its employment in the study of the heavens.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 263 don the pursuit of medicine." It will title and reputation be remembered that at this period the Copernican theory of the solar system was not popular but this did not deter Galileo from adopting it. was not to be silenced. and in the dissipation of many hitherto well-established theories in astronomy. declaring his statement. reinforced by Galileo's courage of conviction. publicly declaring the fact. Its theologians rejected them. that the earth revolved around the sun as an immovable center to be "absurd in philosophy and formally heretical" because expressly contrary to Scripture. From this restraint he was. brought to a head. the long suspected conflict between the new theories of our solar system and Scripture that had up to this moment been only hinted at and carefully avoided. though he refrained from . as a question of open and deliberate discussion. to be "open to the same censure in philosophy and at least erroneous as to faith. And so he Galileo. however. and follow the calling of Euclid and Archimedes. for which his father had destined him. From this moment his progress is one of uninterrupted success. however.

and this consisted in his being the first to "grasp the idea of force as a mechanical agent and sale apply to the physical world the principle of the invariability of the relation between cause and effect. The sum and substance of Galileo's astronomical work consisted in aiding to establish mechanics as a science. and as such." which induced him to believe that the papal decree of 1616 would be revoked. but he took with him from tificate to the effect that of. to ' ' . for it would be difficult to find a work that could pretend to be its rival in respect of "animation and elegance of style combined with strength and clearness of scientific exposition. or at least ignored. the Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo. Of course its was immediately forbidden and Galileo was summoned to appear at Rome by the Inquisition when he was condemned as "vehemently suspected of heresy. a flagrant flouting of the papal decree of 1616 and a violation of Galileo's pledge of conformity. teach or defend the condemned doctrines " to which he promised obedience. Rome a written cer- "no abjuration had been required or penance imposed upon him." This only added to its offence." and sentenced to imprisonment. forcible and persistent reassertion of Copernican principles.264 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING . throughout Europe and with good reason. for it was an undisguised. It was received with universal praise. It was therefore with no apprehension or fear as to his future that he wrote and published his famous. but ill-fated work. By papal decree Galileo was enjoined not "to hold.

and ample opportunity he tells us that he was "a great lover and praiser of himself." 265 Thomas Carew buzzed in the writer's ear Ben had barreled up a great deal of knowlseemed he had not read the Ethics. yet it other precepts of morality. for which we are indebted to the hospitality of the great Scottish poet. who states that during a the poet's house supper spoiled the relish of the feast where the host had almost by vilifying others and mag- nifying himself. cerebrated from the House of Fame by the most absolute in all States and titles. with her honorable ladyes. which among . Queene of Great Britayne.. a contemner and scorner of others. forbid self-commendation. that ''though edge. 1609. etc." Further confirmation of this leading feature of Jonson 's character at is furnished by Howell. 2. who entertained Jonson during his visit to Scotland in 1618 of which The host had here an visit Conversations is a record. of studying his guest's character. Anne.BEN JONSON DATE BRITISH 1609 MUSEUM 1 THIS is part of a manuscript by Ben Jonson entitled: 'The Masque of Queenes. at White Hall. William Drummond of Hawthornden. Feb." Ben Jonson is best remembered by his play Every Man in his Humor and he still lives in his Conversations.

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which hardly coincides with his strong disposition for likes and dislikes. him stand out prominently among the mastermakes writers of his age. and that he well deserved this reputation both quite consistent with his ever-present self-consciousness and sense of excellence over others. . He was however proof against flattery. which again may be received as evidence of excellence and no doubt accounts for his utter indifference to. His grave is in Westminster Abbey. still less of malice in Jonson. in which polish and simplicity predominated. and dissatisfaction. invariably found co-existing with selfwas Jonson's most salient characteristic. if not contempt of. It is also tial in his His literary style was classical. provoke a quiet expression of his Happily this habitual self-abandonment to to the indulgence of prejudices acted as a safety-valve. Nearly the whole of his early life was an unbroken succession of quarrels. claimed on Jonson's behalf that he was imparopinions.267 Combativeness. It is therefore not strange that he was very anxious to be esteemed for his honesty. as Drummond's. and on his monument England tersely expresses its judgment of him in the inscription : Rare Ben Jonson. public opinion which he certainly was This independence at no pains to cultivate or consult. This pugnacity was of course but too well calculated to irritate such a gentle and peaceful temperament conceit. so that there was no residue of bitterness.


1659. Further confirmation of his personal worth is contributed by his actors." February 15. 1665. marrying his own daughter and of insulting the King. The nature of the calumnies with which his critics and other enemies assailed him. Dated January 25th. 1664. who indignantly repelled the effort of certain older companies to entice them away from him. It is 269 . that. They declared that they would always share his fortunes." November 18.BRITISH THIS is MUSEUM part of a Notary's Certificate concerning the dis- position of the goods of Franchise Rouseau and signed by Moliere and others. Moliere was not the first nor the only one among prominent censors of public morals to pay the inevitable penalty was of gibbeting the social infirmities of his day. and by his "Le Festin de Pierre. in which year the celebrated comedian was 44 years old. independently of the disproof of direct testimony. Especially this the case when his success as the first true comic satirist of contemporary foibles was immediate and immense with the production of his "Les Precieuses Ridicules. were disposed of finally by the King's acting as godfather to his child and the King's adoption of Moliere 's company as his servants and pensioning them. offending the Queen-mother and corrupting virtue charges. amply He was accused of attest the effectiveness of his satire.

without even a stone to mark his resting-place. and next to Shakespeare in modern drama. something new and even offensive for a playwright to substitute the real refinement of a real civilization for the mock refinement of a false civilization and to "subject to its influence the eternal passions and senti- This Moliere did. "Unknown is the grave of Moliere. while scrupulous honor and refinement run a close second place. "Le Misanthrope" has been considered his masterpiece. he burst a blood-vessel in a fit of coughing and died within an hour after. While playing the title role in his "Malade Imaginaire". while he enjoyed the patronage of a great prince. the charm of endearing manners. It was. Moliere 's successful career true that and position were already well assured. ments of human nature". his company "sincerely loved him". followed by great generosity and gentleness." . A profound detestation of hypocrisy is perhaps the dis- tinguishing feature of Moliere 's character. He has been pronounced the greatest of all social comedy writers as ranking among the foremost in the literature of France. high sense of honor and nobility of character. Moliere 's death furnished a striking coincidence.270 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING when this occurred. was denied all priestly ministration in his last moments and buried without any religious ceremony. as La Grange. Hence. He . True it is that it was not popular nor as well received by the public as by the critics but the reason is obvious. his friend and comrade tells us. but this was reinforced by his rare genius. and was therefore more successful with the critics than with the public. In our day the case would be reversed. at that time.

Newton's achievements were those of a purely philosophic genius. but the incessant. which is not only confined to his purely scientific writings but also beautifies and adorns even his theological treaties. session of his scientific revelations secure in the posfor in these are rooted an unparalleled industry and perseverance that have filled the human mind with a corresponding confidence and faith. William on his "Theory of Vision". His was not the inventive faculty nor the from Sir Isaac Newton intuitive perception of the poet. so much so. Cambridge.SIR ISAAC NEWTON 1682 DATE BRITISH PART of a letter MUSEUM to Dr. nor by the rapid succession of his discoveries. Newton was highly favored at birth with a rare and infallible combination: the faculty of lucid simplicity and simple lucidity of statement combined with speculative profundity. 1682. Dated Briggs commenting Trinity College. that certain over-enthusiastic 271 . patient and persevering study and labor of the philosopher. The world has consequently felt itself . June 20. His mental qualities therefore must not be determined by the early period of life at which he plucked Nature's secrets from her repository. Naturally enough then we find observation and experiment playing an important part in Newton's method of investigation.

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but his intellectual endowments. inductive research was employed by many distinguished predecessors of Bacon in the philosophic field. diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary. indicate genius. He was always "modest. his to modesty and his philosophic sincerity and dignity forbade made it impossible. whose example was also adopted and recom- mended in the No rum Organon. but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore. suiting himself to every company and speaking of himself and others in such a manner that he was never even suspected of vanity. in fact ered before me." . whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovthis. but. candid and affable.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 273 worshipers at Bacon's shrine have ascribed Newton's discoveries to the application of the Baconian method of induction." The key to Newton's character as a man and as a philosopher is furnished by those memorable words uttered by him a short time before his death: "I do not know what I may appear to the world. Newton might have cultivated with some of those eccentricities success and credit which are believed by not a few. truth to tell. Newton therefore merely followed in the wake of Masters.

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It must be remembered that chief among these contempo275 . they do not touch or concern the author in his early life. The only contemporary source of interest that is open to us is Pope Addison 's enemy who is not remarkable for a scrupulous regard for truth when wielding his trenchant satiric pen to describe an opponent or a foe. Addison is one of the few men of letters of the Eight- eenth Century It is therefore who faithfully reflect the spirit of their day. October 14. unfortunate that he furnishes such limited materials for biography. Steele and Pope are amply provided for in this regard. but of Addison hardly any record can be found that gives any account of his life and character. Dated. notwithstanding: the fact that he was naturally very shy and reserved in his demeanor. Johnson. Such light as is shed upon him.nent. written while he was on the Contitagu.JOSEPH ADDISON DATE BRITISH PART of a 1699 MUSEUM letter from Joseph Addison to Charles MonEarl of Halifax. his letters and his masterpiece the Spectator are highly polished formal dissertations. 1699. conduct or intercourse. reveals a man that commanded the respect and admiration of his contemporaries. Paris. Addison 's own writings afford no help. .

Episcopalianism had been supplanted by Pres- hyterianism and the whole population had been torn and riven asunder by Civil War. . It was these. authority. to absorb into itself intellects that were "haughty and cynical. however. moral and artistic. since it predominated so largely as to almost completely obscure his other characteristics. plished this must have been indeed great.276 HOW TO READ raries were such men as Steele. It is. in matters. which are only a summary of the apparently unsurmountable difficulties under which Addison. seems like the great Gothic Cathedrals. upon his intellectual power to fascinate other Addison 's great achievement consisted in his having been the "Chief Architect of public opinion in the Eighteenth Century" a public opinion which "in spite of its durable solidity." the individuality of the architect." The task was a great The recent Civil Wars had overthrown constituted one. doubtful if Addison could have accom- plished the great wo'rk that distinguished his life from that of the shining lights of the Eighteenth Century. if he had been compelled to rely merely upon elegance and refinement as a writer. Pope all of whom have "left their mark" upon their age and were altogether unlikely to have respected and admired any one unless he at least had attained the same level of excellence as they had in all essentials of mind and energy of character. restored order out of the chaos of conflict. with the instrumentality of the Spectator. Swift. religious. which prevailed in the period between the Restoration and the succession of the House The individuality of the man who accomof Hanover.


D. quoting the Koran." There are no capital letters in Arabic and : nothing marks the beginning of a sentence as in English. A BEAUTIFULLY illuminated manuscript of extracts from Persian and Arabic authors.EXTRACTS IN PERSIAN AND ARABIC FROM THE KORAN 1734 A. The first line reads "Wealth does not escape the hands of an experienced man. 278 .


Dated. Voltaire and Rousseau were so equal in crime that "it would self-conceit. in which he expresses his admiration for the freedom of living in England. such genuine and effective social reformers as Voltaire. F. variety." evil that such a critic does is in proportion to the extent to which he discredits. Nothing so adequately measures the genius. January 16. the all-inclusive universal intellectuality. Foremost among them were orthodox sectarians.. the mental less intrepidity taire's assaults energy. 1760.FRANCOIS MARIE ARONET DE VOLTAIRE DATE BRITISH PART of a letter in 1760 MUSEUM English from Voltaire to George Keats. the man so utterly encased in the impenetrable armor of be prejudiced beyond conceding the possibility of fallibility in himself or merit in others in whose opinion infallible of course. 380 . the telling force of Volupon the ''persecuting and the privileged ness and malice of his the orthodoxy" of his time." Next we see him attacked by the inevitable type of censor. the fearand earnestness. as the embodiment of "Satan. who described him as "hell- sprung". of fancied self-superiority.S.R. as the virulence. bittercritics. as to be difficult The to proportion the inequality between them. sin and death. in the opinion of the average man.

nor even the church as such that Voltaire inveighed tolerance or religious prejudice." There Intellectually considered." in that beinfidelity. and indeed this evil was incorporated in the corrupt and monstrous system that prevailed everywhere. the charge in fact which includes all those others that are laid at Voltaire's doorinfidelity. But after all. absurdities. eternal.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 281 The principal charge then. He rather sought to destroy tyranny and the superstition that disgraced the church. a system all the more dangerous because rooted in the conventional orthodoxy that was all powerful in his day and crushed under its iron heel all opposition to its tyranny and oppression. necessary." no God. This proceeds from either ignorance and in- True that Voltaire attacked with bitter and crushing force. against. but this is quite a different matter from attacking It was not religion religion. It was this monster not God. His true title to fame. is no department of literary work that he did not touch not only to adorn but to make it breathe forth his own living originality. more important than anything that Volno matter how excellent was taire ever thought or wrote what he did." "The wise man attributes to God taire's no human affections. Voltaire stands well-nigh alone. which he always respected." but Volown recorded words utterly refute the accusation of For example "I believe in God. "one finds difficulties. the popular beliefs of his day. which animates all Nature. He recognizes a power. to the remembrance and . "In the belief that there is lief. not Christianity that he described in the phrase that recurs constantly throughout all his works even in his private letters ecrasez 1'in fame "Crush persecuting and privileged orthodoxy. not Christ.

is. and of worshiping God as he wills. to speak.282 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING gratitude not only of his country but of the world. to act. according to the dictates of conscience. . that he was chief among those who helped to earn freedom for man a freedom to think. a freedom that imposes no limit or restrictions other than those of protecting and assuring to our neighbor his rights.

which regard increases as time goes on. about a settlement of expenses incurred in Holland. A March 23. Passy. we may well adopt and benefactor to the human lived When we bear in mind that Franklin's life was . Dated. upon sums up the many the viewpoint of "friend race. predominated. goodness. clear idea of his spiritual excellence is afforded by the fact that although surrounded by intolerant A religious sects who bitterly attacked each other. of soul.BENJAMIN FRANKLIN DATE BRITISH 1784 MUSEUM LETTER from Benjamin Franklin. from the limelight of the world that his own and subsequent generation have with cordial unanimity given him an abiding home in their hearts. as it and above all others were. great man as he was. even of human 283 . He could have done this only by virtue of a soul that recognized in fellow creature. 1784. If we wish to put our the feature which over finger accurately. even grandeur." first to last in sidedness of Franklin's character. the presence of the same Eternal every Principle in spite of opinions and beliefs. to Captain and Commodore Paul Jones. then ambassador to France. he yet lived at peace and even in friendship with them all. we can hardly fail to be convinced that.

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scrupulous honesty.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING frailties 285 and errors. and the latter only that explains Franklin's criticism that the " popular belief in the divinity of Christ was a beneficial error. His was in fact that godlike tolerance of the spirit of Christ which enabled him to spread wherever he went among his fellow men while at the good same time he served them in public life with unremitting energy." Consistently with this philosophic indifference to orthodox intolerance. He was also plentifully endowed with strong common sense. at their worst. Franklin had all. visited upon Franklin is obviously inseparable from that narrowness. The severest blame perhaps which has been ficial. repressed. and distinction. another man in whom and public honors had would indeed be difficult to self-love was so completely . This unparalleled distinguished find human tolerance was emphasized by an utter absence of vanity by a simplicity and modesty that after success It him even crowded thick upon him. we find in him independence of and social and political liberality. Domestic purity and affection. in matters of religion or forms of faith. conversational charm. and a devotion to the practical and the useful in preference to the purely ornamental and superficial. It was the latter. can see no difference between impiety and philosophic tolerance. firm faith in a Divine omniscience and thought. bigotry and intolerance which. Of course. plentiful humor and wit. cheerfulness. faults he was only human after but these faults were. a wonderful talent of homely ridicule of vice and prejudices. These were groSsness and vulgarity. . essentially super- and so habitually indulged in his day that they hardly created a ripple on the moral surface. philanthropy.

286 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING omnipotence and in man's immortality all these round out a fulness of character in which the owner plainly declared " dedicate himself to virtue and the his life's purpose to public good." .

He was aglow with a poetic fervor that made luminous every feelhis every sentiment. which was most harmoniously blended with the most delicate sensibility to beauty not alone the beauty of the female form divine. simplicity and sincerity lie therefore on the surface of Burns' character. indeed. but of nature in all her moods and ing. 1787. but Burns has so minutely. he was most richly endowed. that in them. such obvious anxiety to declare and establish the truth. move and have A being" in his thoughts. creations and expressions. in "wearing his heart upon his sleeve. John Moore telling about his own life. such unselfconsciousness. All writers reveal themselves to a greater or less extent in their works. breathing author.ROBEET BURNS DATE BRITISH 1787 MUSEUM LETTEK from Robert Burns to Dr. be said to "live. With whatever qualities were necessary to constitute a great lyric poet." Spontaneity. dated Mauchline. He was warm-hearted but at the same time saved from sentimentality by a robust manliness. which are poured forth with such simple sincerity. so completely unfolded his inner self the real man in his writings. everything in fine that was human. as it were. that he succeeds. we seem to have ever present the living. He may. 287 . every experience. August 2.

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nor could he boast claimed for himself scholarship. 289 She was as dear to him as the ''ruddy drops that sometimes visited his sad heart. As he himself says in one of his letters "My beloved household Gods are independence of spirit and integrity of soul. skilled in the rapid reading of human thought and character.things." but above all . hidden motives and sagacious and shrewd in judgment of conduct. "Many poets have been poorer than Burns no one was ever prouder. specimens of God's creative skill came in for a share "common-blooded affinity of his rich human heart." The rock upon which Burns split was the indulgence of his impetuous passions and "jovial compotations in the Globe tavern at Dumfries. as Carlyle informs us." Burns possessed the strong common-sense." confirming which Carlyle remarks. this quality was very much at a discount in the literary world of Scotland." Not only woman's tear- ful eye. he certainly never even was. and no doubt intended to endear him to his countrymen at a time when. and as a result he was "strong in thought and intense in emotion.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING aspects. silent. he possessed great honor and nobility of character. Patriotism is also one of Burns' virtues. Burns shared very largely with Goethe what has been termed "a great zest of life." His was not the idealistic or contemplative quality of poetic of the temperament. ' ' . the physical and mental robustness of his countrymen. but the sufferings of the dumb. in penetrating to the innermost recesses of secret. however. . or melting voice." which naturally accounts fo:: He his social success "the universal charm of his social inter- course.


beauty and freedom harmonized completely. Judged by this standard Schiller undoubtedly well deserves his fame and name as a poet. we have an ade- quate explanation of his popularity. literary reputation which Schiller enjoys is almost entirely due to the standard that Germany adopts in deter- The mining the merit and rank of her men of letters. She does not estimate them according to the general extent of their influence upon the domain of literature. was his cheerfulness and hopefulness in spite of suffering and poverty. letter from Schiller to one of his warmest friends and confidants. dignified presence. a fond husband and father. When we give due weight to the unlimited extollation which he received from his countrymen. historian and dramatist. Schiller was blessed with a noble. but according to the degree in which they have incorporated themselves with and molded the literary life of the German people.FRIEDRICH VON SCHILLEE DATE 1802 PART of a July 5. Another element that contributed very largely to his popularity. Karl Theodor Koerner. He was also a model of the domestic virtues. 291 . and what may be called his artistic conscientiousness which despised mercenary motives. Dated Weimar. with which his devotion to truth. and a firm and loyal friend. 1802.

Regarding Madame It happened. a rare interpreter and exponent of the national instincts and ideals." Goethe in his Epilogue. . as a poet. The former praises his virtues which were "as admirable as his talents. It does not require a very profound analysis to discover that Schiller did not possess those sublime creative qualities that constitute poetic greatness such as would entitle him to a place among poets of the first rank. Nor is he entitled to extraordinary praise for his meditative philosophy and artistic conscientiousness as compared to certain others. and to which the hearts of strangers were not attuned. confirms and reinforces this eulogy which unwittingly led to a war of words as to the respective genius and accomplishments of Schiller and of Goethe himself. The truth appears to be that he was.292 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING Schiller." and his conscience which was his "muse. as poet. If we* exclude from our considertion the struggle with ill health that he was forced to make during his life. there remains nothing that justifies any substantial claim to heroism. indeed. exalted somewhat above therefore. almost canonized as a saint. that Schiller was doubtless his natural and just deserts and. and that he awoke in the hearts of his countrymen vibrations which were largely independent of the poet. we have extravagant eulogies from de Stael and from Goethe.

It is obvious that we cannot determine the condi- under which we are born. The truth is that greatness in every field of human effort. and in Goethe himself. ex- We traordinary though they were. atmosphere prevailing in Germany during the latter part of the Eighteenth Century. 1811. the mightiest oaks require the richest soils to attain full growth. the conditions of time and place. the qualities of mind and heart indispensable for the production of his "Werther. depends upon opportunity. August 4. are as a rule too much disposed to exaggerate the part that innate gifts play in human evolution as compared to environment and opportunity. but we can utilize them we can enrich them to an extent commensurate with our natal endowments and with our susceptibility to development. we easily detect in the tions . Selecting Goethe for illustration. Similarly the natural birth-gifts of Goethe." 293 Simi- . As has been often said. dated Weimar.JOHANN WOLFGANG DATE VON GOETHE 1811 THIS is part of a letter from the German poet Goethe about returning a manuscript. could neither have produced the intellectual phenomenon that he became. had he lived anywhere else than on German soil. and external influence as well as upon inborn qualities.


he loses himself and character. he lives in the unreal realm of fancy and of dreams. Having done this we arrive at this summary which has been made by those who knew him best. we are confronted with the realization that we have not done justice to Goethe by our failure to still add the negatives of all that is highest and best in human char- acter and thus completely and faithfully reproduce his seemingly contradictory nature and personality. the idol of a home where peace and happiness are mingled with the worship. He creates a Faust who barters his soul for mortal love and sensual delight. 295 Weimar and led intellect an apparently accidental meeting with the Duke of furnished Goethe with a fresh field of opportunity to the full revelation and expression of his mighty This evolution resulted in an unparalleled combination of every human element and accounts for his apparently extraordinary contradictions in conduct and achievement. They conclude . but at the same moment abandons both to a mocking and triumphant Mephistopheles.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING larly. Thus we may run through the long list of Goethe's virtues and achievements to find that we have failed to include the philanthropist. his imagination attains the highest flights of poetic excellence. love. busy men and in their practical activities. competes with the surgeon and the jurist in their respective fields. and homage which he receives from the cultivated and the enlightened. the tender and self-sacrificing friend. as well as from those that are near and dear to him. and hardly yields precedence to a Talleyrand or a Rochefoucauld in knowledge of the world and in ability to penetrate the hidden thoughts and motives of men. And even after supplying in the throngs of On the other this omission. On the one hand. hand he rivals a Newton in scientific achievement.

and physical perfection a man whose physical life fully retained its independence and thoroughly permeated the spiritual all this uniting in such striking proportions as to impress those who knew him with the fact that they had never before met such a being. was the most humane of men.296 that he CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING . with highly developed powers of soul. .

It is dated Furnival's Inn.CHARLES DICKENS DATE BRITISH THIS letter 1835 MUSEUM to from Charles Dickens Thomas Fraser was in reference to writing a series of articles for the Evening Chronicle. whom work was more sin- in fact. January 20. The that he secret of Dickens' universal literary popularity is was endowed by Mother Nature with a combination of qualities of mind and heart which demanded neither the tempering of experience. These qualities seemed in to attain their fullest develit opment him simultaneously. for example. nor the evolution of labor and of years. the nobilities. making predominating one. 1835. the joys and sorrows of the human race? In what corner of the globe would we look for a mortal whose mental or physical eye is as keenly sharp and observant. sphere of or in cere any other man in his human achievement who was more consummately love and devotion to that adapted to his special work by special natural endowment. must we delve to unearth another human heart that pulsated more completely in sympathy with the frailties. consuming? Among what records. shall we find almost impossible to single out the Where. the aspirations. is as acutely microscopic in detecting and revealing all that serves to make up humanity in both its private and 297 .


manifestations and pleasures. the daily. felt with their heart thus exemplifying the dramatists characterization of ''Two souls with but a single thought. exuberant. . sublime. that he may be truly said to have spoken with their tongue. mirth. delight in the enjoyment of home and family. so that he actually succeeded in revealing to them a new world of their own better than that they were familiar with. in the mysteries of its purpose and destiny? Nor must it be forgotten that in accomplishing wonderful work. wild imagery. as well as grotesque. fantastic. intense sympathy with every human emotion and aspiration. and in even inspiring them with a higher purpose. of conduct and experience. an almost superhuman keenness of observation of human character. actual enemy. with an innate genius for penetrating and sympathizing with the joys and sorrows. On the so completely has Dickens identified himself with contrary. humble folk. frolicsome. mannerisms. domestic and intimate life of poor. uncultured. he has not sacrificed a single friend. cheerful. laughter and fun. two hearts that beat as one." We therefore find in this remarkable man. written with their pen. peculiarities of conduct and behavior. his fellow-creatures of all sorts and conditions. the following prominent characteristics boundless imagination exalted.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING . 299 public relations in all its complexities of character. his wounded a human being or made one . good-hearted capacity for full and exhaustive enjoyment of life in all its moods. open. : noble.


Kensing- May.WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY DATE BRITISH 1849 MUSEUM to A LETTEE from ton. Tennyson. Thackeray was endowed with the power of acute observation and used his eyes to such good purpose that he stored up a rich fund of experience which. 1849. it was natural that he should seek refuge in the harbor of literature. His detestation of the genus "snob" also came to the surface at the same stage of his career. with no employment to fall back upon. 301 .dth his close association with such men as Liddell. and increased as time ran on. combined \. his patrimony dissipated. Thus equipped. ' ' Thackeray the Printed Books in the British Antonio Panizzi. Dated. Kinglake and Monckton Milnes. carried off the Chancellor's prize at Trinity College. Although no laurels crowned his labors at school or col- lege. ' ' Thackeray's earliest manifestation of literary talent was Timbucktoo. Tennyson. Cambridge. Keeper of Museum. Fitzgerald. a burlesque of the poem with which his contemporary and life-long friend. As Trollope says . he was laying the foundation for his subsequent successes by omnivorous reading of the romantic literature of the day. which was the mental pabulum for which Nature had richly prepared and adapted his brain. could not fail to help furnish him with the necessary equipment for his subsequent successes.

Thackeray was not only diffident but qualities that can be easily mistaken for fact also sensitive pride and brusqueness. He has been accused : to his of the very offense that he gibbeted so fiercely snobbery. and are reconcilable with the that he was essentially a composite of the sentimentalist and the cynic. It must be admitted that irony is his . he can commence his trade as a It is " literary man. no special education. a chair. this charge for. toadying to the great and repelling his inferiors. whose censure proceeded from the heart rather than the head for he was profoundly sincere. so much so that he did not hesitate to make this confession: "One of Dickens' immense superiorities over As we should me great fecundity of imagination. pomposity and involved sentences." Accordingly Thackeray entered this field armed with his romantic pen and the irresistible charm and power of that breeding and nobility which are the hall-mark of the English university. simplicity was one of the characteristics of the man whose pet aversion was leading snobbery. a pen. If a man can command a table. His diction religiously avoids bombast. Not a few of his friends and admirers Charlotte Bronte for example regarded him as a social reformer. and satire were habitual with him. no training.302 CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING a profession that requires no capital. expect to find. paper and ink. He was also utterly lacking in conceit." and yet he himself had a liberal amount of imagination. . Garbages" of Grub Street is concerned. In so far as objecting to the familiarity of the "Bob Bowstreets" and "Tom is no doubt true. but only as an aid moral purpose of regeneration.

He did example.BRITISH SPECIMEN reproduced is MUSEUM part of a letter in French from Victor Hugo to the publisher Charles Griffin in which he declines to correct the proof of the sketch of his life in the "Dictionary of Contemporary Biography. have been some purpose in it possibly human progress and development through Victor Hugo's genius. March 1. disappointment. That such an entity should ful life have survived. indeed. this. in his Feuilles d'Automne (Autumn Leaves). that he should have developed into a phe- nomenal protagonist in the loftiest field of man's intellec- tual achievement. There are few men of note whose inmost nature has been more difficult to reach. sightless. There must. sadness." Life. for 303 . appeared about to erase from its book a child "whose short day of existence seemed destined to pass into night without a morn. grief." These are Victor Hugo's own words his description of himself as he entered upon his long and eventfrom 1802 to 1885." Hautville House. 1860. voiceless It is dated We are told that Victor Hugo came into the world "colorand so poor a weakling that all despaired of him except his mother. suffering. less. indeed. published in 1831 a work breathing throughout. for the reason that he has no doubt unintentionally mystified us in this respect. is convincing proof that nothing is impossible. melancholy.

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The true psychological explanation is not discoverable in his career his external life and can be found only in his inherent. happy. complaint Forster. tenacity what he invariably was. when domestic peace and happiness were his that he should. and Legouve. amusing. When in his house you felt at home. have sounded a note so . simple yet full of color. free." unaffected. with all the hopeful- and courage of a character that knew not or despair." De Banville also expresses his admiration for Hugo's modesty and urbanity and adds that he was of Hugo as being "in private life full of "affable. of an ardent enthusiasm.his private secretary speaks of the "charm of his conversation which was easy. Lesclide. at this glorious springtime of his accumulating greatness. coincide precisely in praise ness. he fought bitter enemies. save an exquisite politeness and familiar courtesy. full of welcome. thinking of everyone. although he was but 29 years of age when the whole world was before him when he had just published one of his greatest works "Notre Dame de Paris" . and warmed by a pleasant atmosphere of affection and tenderness with hospitality of the right kind. .CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 305 That Hugo should at this period of his life. . forgetful of himself and retaining no trace of his aristocratic breeding. at ease. when his physical and mental forces were at their highest. the author of a "Life of Charles Dickens". when his fame and name were already established and had brought him distinction and hosts of perfervid worshipers. and when he was animated. anecdote and pleasantry. temperamental sadness. plaintive a touching wail of his departed youth is indeed strange. French Academician. Even in later years M. political persecution. and it does not matter even if in middle life and up to its close. : .

while his benevolence and good will extended beyond the sacred walls of home to all without its gates. gentle." Victor Hugo was essentially great in every sense of the itself to his family." It is a wonderful contribution to the solution of four problems. There. gay and at all times gracious and good. pontiff. and its phenomenal success. companion and confidential comrade of his sons. Miserables. its productiveness." In 1864 Victor Hugo returned to France. and one can easily gauge the congeniality of his labor. and atrophy of the child through night. was revealed the aesthetic side of his character. kind. For example. and during his and residence at Guernsey. and social asphyxia through ignorance and misery. His house there was really a part of himself as was Abbotsford of Sir Walter Scott. He was kindness and ever indulgent to them." particular. genial. faithful. Hugo's home was plentifully adorned and embellished. the 'kindly relation. and complicating destiny with an element of human fatality. their equal in alertness and activity radiant.306 It HOW TO READ nobility. in his public relations." he was the "man. the fall of woman through hunger. word. old oak and tapestry were practically unknown. that he published his greatest works. . at a time when blue china. still the same. simple. the friend. filled with profound convictions for which he was ever ready to fight and to suffer. open record of his abhorrence of the "social damnation creating artificial hells in the midst of civilization. king. Victor Hugo's works give a clear insight into his moral " Les in is an exile degradation of man through proletarianism. "the was after he had reached middle life. and as each he was most lovable. He was something even more and greater than "master. loyal friend. in private life.


If Longfellow had never written a line of poetry. the publisher. February 1. tenderest and noblest of men. the noblest of poems. he would have transmitted to posterity a fame in no degree less lustrous than that which has actually been accorded him. 1864. and caused them to cherish him as one of the sweetest.HENEY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW DATED 1864 BRITISH MUSEUM a letter from Longfellow dated Cambridge. affection and tender remembrance. transparent humanity almost every that no man ever lived more completely in the light than Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. To specifically describe his character would be merely sum up almost all that is divine in human nature. and the greatest tribute that can be paid to his memory is to say that his life itself to is was the best. not only of his countrymen." commonly considered the best of his poems. and the highest praise that can be bestowed upon him as a poet. to Hiram Corson.. It is indeed difficult to name a single human virtue that THIS is was not revealed in Longfellow." and for a copy of which Longfellow thanks him. and "Tine Song of Hiawatha" won for him the admiration. . ' ' 308 . who issued the edition of Chaucer's "Legende of Good Women. kindest. "Evangeline. but of his friends in foreign lands. Mass. It therefore sufficient to conclude with the statement that he virtue "united in his strong.

It was later published in " Letters and Social Aims" in 1876. and in the very citadel of puritanism. in which he protested against the unquestioning acceptance of the personal authority of Jesus. he came under the influences of such distinguished con309 . when from the pulpit he declared his rejection of the orthodox acceptance of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. Here we have a fearless demonstration of uncompromising. spiritual independence and sincerity of character. thus affording further convincing proof of that independence.RALPH WALDO EMERSON DATE BRITISH 1867 MUSEUM REPRODUCTION of part of the original manuscript of an address read before the Phi Beta Kappa Society. He viewed this as intended merely as a token of spiritual remembrance and he therefore dropped the material elements associated with it. Harvard University. Not long after. Starting with this strong mental and moral equipment. he expressed himself sincerely in his address to the graduating class of the Divinity School at Cambridge in 1838. July 18. This was obviously an attack upon historical Christianity as well as Unitarianism. self-reliance and sincerity that were the foundations of Emerson's character. Emerson sounded the keynote of his character at a very early period of his career. 1867. by Ralph Waldo Emerson.


and serene expression. It therefore follows that the knowledge of self. Swedenborg and Coleridge. to all that characterized these other eminent persons. Briefly described. Theodore Parker. r nature. It is true that purpose of life is most exalted of all fads and extravagancies marked Emerson's Concord School of Philosophy. some- thing that turned the point of all glance harmless from him. earthly restriction and limitations. productions as poet.CHARACTER FROM HANDWRITING 311 temporaries as Carlyle. and more or lass compromised such distinguished colleagues and followers many Bronson Olcott. Then there was his cheerfulness and trustful repose all indicating that placid he had found the inner "kindly light" leading him to the spiritual freedom that completely emancipated him from all conventional. resulting in the rare. which leads to the revelations the God in Man. something which seemed superior as Doctor Ripley. mystic and optimist. philosopher. MarHenry Thoreau but while this philosophy identified Emerson with them and subjected him to the derision that was indulged at their expense. marked by imperturbable calm. garet Fuller and . unique. weapons and made them This was the impenetrable Emerson's most unique personality the very atmosphere of his personal presence. his Doctrines crystallizing into the philosophy known as Transcendentalism. finished. armor of . this philosophy taught that man contained within himself all evil and all good that the spiritual man has its material counterpart in the external w orld or . there was in him something peculiar.


part of the original manuscript of the Epilogue King." and he straightway went into the woods and carved upon a rock He was then only 15 years old.LORD ALFRED TENNYSON DATE BRITISH THIS is 1873 MUSEUM to "Idylls of the Victoria. and a drama in ' ' ' ' : blank verse at fourteen. for by this time Tennyson had become very productive prematurely so having already written an epic of 6. proclaimed him a finished genius.000 lines at twelve. Afterwards. and before he was permitted to leave the paternal roof and enter Trinity College." "voluptuous pomp of imagery" and "wonderful melody. his father compelled him to recite from memory the odes of Horace. Queen "When the news of Byron's death reached Tennyson. his "Poems Chiefly Lyrical/' brought out in 1830 when he was only 21. His volume of poems published at the time. Tennyson was a great poet at 24 years of age. Tennyson's intimate friend. it was for him "a day when all the world seemed darkened. Cambridge. by no means a task. 313 . Byron is dead. So much for the impression that Byron had made upon him." addressed to her Majes'ty. revealed "amazing magnificence of fancy." The death of Arthur Hallam.

He was. gentle and sweet. is perhaps the most prominent of all his qualia simplicity that despised convention. ever. howties. With Tennyson's marriage in June. affectionate and shy. to Emily Sarah Ellwood." Another happening enfeebled Tennyson's health and blunted his pen. . death of Wadsworth. came the turning-point in his worldly fortunes and domestic affairs. although his friend Henry Hallam caused Sir Robert Peel to relieve him personally with an annual pension of 200. especially Homer and Virgil. and even in his old age he added to his popularity and greatness by his Holy Grail. extremely sensitive." "Ulysses" and "Sir Galahad.314 HOW TO READ for a time seriously threatened his health and his work. he became poet laureate and devoted himself almost exclusively to the study of ancient literature." which finally gained for him the title of leading poet of his age. this title being coincident with the publication in 1842 of a two-volume edition of his poems. Through the persuasion of a promoter he was induced to invest all he possessed and a part of his brothers' and sisters' fortunes in a Patent Decorative Carving Company which collapsed and left him penniless and a victim of nervous prostration. 1850. Milton was also a favorite. From the effects of this he never recovered completely. including "Locksley Hall. With each succeeding year Tennyson continued laurels to his to add crown until he reached the summit of success with his Idylls of the King in 1859. On the other hand it caused him to "devote his whole soul to the art of poetry. with a tendency to sadness and melancholy. It brought him ample compensation for On the the affliction and misery of his previous years. and was Simplicity keenly alive to the influence of beauty.

. the secret of his popularity being in the fact that he was.CHARACTER. first of all. PROM HANDWRITING England. 315 Tennyson certainly ranked among the foremost poets of He achieved the maximum of excellence with the minimum of imperfection. an artist.


These characters are much alike in appearance but they are so utterly different in meaning that the Japanese to-day find it more difficult to learn Chinese than English or French. that is they their system of writing from the borrowed rather the characters. 317 .JAPANESE DIAEY THE Japanese borrowed Chinese.

131. 301(5) Egotism. 199. 8. 84 Contentedness.297(11). 326(9). 296(5). 21. 111. 62. 69. 338(6). 337(1) Economy. 290(8). 326(7) Cowardice. 346(20) Diligence. 32. 97. 139 318 . 18. 159. 340(5) Affectation. 18. 43 (a). 22. 299(7). 328(2) 317(4). 44. 162. 298(17). 18 Conventional. 161. 315(4). 308(10). 55(b). 83 Cautiousness. 352(4) Ambition. 336(4) Closeness. 306(10) Artistic taste. 182 (a). 323(6) Adaptability. 311(18) Combativeness. 65. 305(7) Disappointment. 293(6) Elegance. 299(3) Constancy. 191. Aristocratic 26. 173 Athletic heart. 344(4) Cruelty. 296(3) Common sense. 290(4) Deceitfulness. 30. 32. 326(9). 342(5) Discouragement. 149. 21. 137. 312(1) Eccentricity. 349(3) Clumsiness. 40. 169. 300(13). 189 Carelessness. 19. 26 (b). 138. 319(1) Courage". 301(2) Commercial tendencies. 314(1) Clearness. 314(3). 315(5) Envy. 345(10) Business ability. 128. 330(6). 308(10) 324(18) Deduction. Dishonesty. 128. Activity. 324(16) Coldness. 21. 101. 326(8) Boastfulness. 42. 196. 11. 325(3) Contrariness. 62. 293(1). 65. 323(10). 19 Criticism. 344(2) Energy. 67. 314(5) Cunning. 21. 293(5). 14.INDEX TO CHARACTERISTICS to 250 of the characteristics found in the specimens reproduced in this book. 325(2) Amiability. 288(1) Education. 299(6). 68. 309(15). 18 Diplomacy. 137 182 (a). 111. bearing. Bashfulness. 312(3) Despotism. 142 Covetousness. 326(10) Argumentative . 319(6) Brutality. 168. 299(6) Conversational ism. 288(6) Domineering. 292(7) Eloquence. 323(1). 322(3). 291(3). 55(c). 204. 59. 316(13) Courtesy. 65 Culture. 349(4) 26 (a). Confidence. 145 Concentration. 323(8). 136. 112. 311(13) Avarice. 18. 298(16). 314(2) Aggressiveness. 322(1) Arrogance. 40. 290(8). 322(5) Artistic Inclination. 28. 301(1) Coquetry. 31. 307(2)." 297(10) Can-fulness. 346(17) Conceit. 326(9). 97. 342(4) Enthusiasm. 43(a). The number immediately following each characteristc is the corresponding number illustrated. 326(13) Enterprise. 326(9) Athleticism and sport. 97. 326(7) " Butters-in. 143 jEsthi-ticism. 297(13) Earning capacity good. Many more may be found by the reader. 294(3).

69. 68 Mercantile ability. 136 Impudence. 346(19) Inactivity. 307(3). 95. 324(15) Exactness. 339(12> Mentality weak. 101. 134. 131 Geniality. 307(6). 347(24) Hypocrisy. 326(12) Love of music. 182 (a) Idealism. 123. 301(2) Extravagance. 301(5) Liveliness. 109 Importance. 19. 328(6) False pride. 9. 322(1) Level-headedness. 305(6). 65. 321(1). 98. 138 Jollity. 109 Laziness. 123. 288(2). 95. 288(2) Love of admiration." 324(13) Good taste. 67. 119. 323(10). 293(3) Insincerity. 97. 312(2). 296(2). 31. 43 (a). 20. 64. 87. 345(12) Narrow-mindedness. 289(10). 311(11) Heart trouble. 300(8). 306(10) Mischief. 52. 52. 307(7) Love of justice. 236. 315(6) Intrigue. 91 of independence. 323(6). 300(10) Fickleness. 325(5) Immoderateness. 340(8) Frankness. 289(7) Excitability. 157 Gaudiness. 161 Love of pleasure. 297(9). 9. 154 Gossip. 304(8) Hopefulness. 346(19) 319 290(5). 309(15). 03 Leadership. 291(6). 338(7) Individuality. 308(14) Luxuriousness. 304(6) Love of good eating. 357(1) Generosity. 315(3). 325(5) Logic. 305(7) Musical inclinations. 308 (11) Morality. 309(21) Love of flattery. 44. 326(11) " Good mixer. 343(8) Literary interests. 99. 313(2) Intolerance. 132. 311(13) Humor. 315(2) Exaggeration. 307(5). 324(14) Humility. 291(4) Literary ability. 121. 65. 292(9). 326(12) Faithfulness. 54. 345(12) Maliciousness. 9. 309(21) Harmoniousness. 311(10) Imagination. 332(11). 345(12) Materialism.INDEX Epicurean. 344(5) Flattery. 332(12) Love of luxury. 126. 65 (a). 348(33) Independence. 322(5). 322(2). 339(14) Money-maker. 163 Indecision. 307(5). 53. 141. 315 (8 f Liberality. 315(9) Memory good. 307(3) Malice. 32"6(12) Friendliness. 292(9). 308(10) Methodical. 122 Insolence. 18 House tyranny. 82. 309(19) Impulsiveness. 306(10) Harsh nature. 326(10). 303(4). 153 Love of family life. 169 " Exclusiveness. 109 Executive ability. 9. 311(17). 338(1). 108. 153 Forgetfulness. 170 Inconsiderateness. 64. 315(5) Illness. 288(5). 316(12) Meanness. 315(1) Lack Lack of courage. 330(7) Love of dress. 289(7). 64. 53. 182 (a) Intuition. 132. 65. Jealousy. 322(1) Inner sorrow. 296(2). 11. 300(10) . 343(6) Mental vanity. 154 Forethought. 21. 319(3) Heart control. 326(10) Fun-loving. 171 Liar. 308(14) Love of outdoor life. 338(3) Modesty. 312(3) Loquaciousness. 324(12). 296(5) Love of art. 311(10) Mental depression. 183. 291(5). 325(4) Fantastic ideas.

299(6) Order. 126 Reserve. 325(1) Superficiality. 19 Weak character. 8. 57. 323(9) Sensuality. 54. 293(5). 90 Suspicion. 296(1).320 Nervousness. 21 Subserviency. 348(32) . 17. 156. 109 Will-power. 36. 204 ( 1 Selfishness. 109. 347(30) Plainness. 65 Tact. 326(12) Reasoning power. 322(1) Self-control. 159 Quick temper. 192 Vanity. 53. 322(2). 298(15) Simplicity. 60 Snobbishness. 109 ) Wavering. 185. 173. 336(3) Thrift. ) Originality. 10 Pretension. 145 (a). 31. 109 "Windy" talkers. 307(6) Secretiveness. 336(7). 110. 303(1). 308(13) 323 ( 7 Strength. 297(11). 326(13) Persistence. 324(15). 111. 324(13) Temper. 304(9) Sincerity. 311(13). 317(1) Self-praise. 173. 177. 60 Tyranny. 65. 311(9) Sensuousness. 294(2) Self-confidence. 315(8) Pride. 169 INDEX Sexual desires very strong. 235 Obedience. 300(9) Sadness. 289(9). 109. 326(14) Suavity. 336(6) Will-power. 346(18) Satire. 56. 314 (2) 319(2). 317(3) Shyness. 300(8) Precaution. quick. ) Stubbornness. 324(13) Sorrow. 54. 100 . 301(6). 355(1) Precision. 294 ( 1 Steadfastness. 303(2). 291(4) Organization. Unscrupulousness. Spirituality. 343(9) Timidity. weak. 29. 315(2) Protectiveness. 9 324(14) Sarcasm. 296(5) Versatility. 192. 38. 55. 191. 311(15) Passionateness. 315(8) 356(6) Positiveness. 156. 65. 14. 59. 188. 210 Prudence. 300(9). 340(7) Palpitation of heart. 288(4) Sharp dealing. 312(5). 13. 291 (1 Spendthrift ways. 108. 99. 176. 68. 149 Trustworthiness. 312(6) Sickness. 17. 343(9) Wastefulness. 114. 292(7). 290(1) Self-admiration. 191. 316(11) Severity. 310(1) Opposition. 139. 322(2). 314(6) Shrewdness. 17. 311(12) Self-consciousness. strong. 132. 302(9) Prevarication. 20. 301(3) Self-centered. 167 Stinginess. 305(7) Talkativeness. 30. 145 Sensitiveness. 150. 322(1) Promptness. (14). 347(24) Suffering. 56. 302(6) Sybaritic. strong. 288(1). 299(7) Wit. 346(18) Whimsicality. 101. 74. (15). 332(13) Violence. 37. 326(14) Resisting power. 322(1) Sociability. 32. 291(1). 110. 97. 309(20). 54. 291(3). 288(7). 347(27) Openness. 301(4). 89 Nobility. 345(14) Symmetry. 339(9) ) . 80. 128. 311(18) Poor health. weak. 114 Perseverance. 62. 132. 97. 10. 57. 145. 319(4) Scolding person. 302(7) Pride of family. 316(16) Quarrelsomeness. 302(3) Resisting power. 293(3) Subordination. 315(6).


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