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Chapter 11 Endocrine glands

Chapter 11 Endocrine glands

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Published by: Katrina Reyes on Apr 20, 2011
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CHAPTER 11 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: GLANDS AND HORMONES

Hormones
The endocrine system consists of a group of glands that produces specific regulatory chemicals on certain cells or organs called hormones. The effects of endocrine system occur more slowly and over a long period. They involve chemical stimuli only, unlike the nervous system which involves chemical and electrical stimuli in rapid actions. Hormones are released directly into tissues fluids, not through ducts, most diffuse into the bloodstream.

Target tissue is the specific tissue acted on by each hormone. change membrane permeability or affect metabolic reactions. Receptors are in the plasma membrane or w/in the cytoplasm.Hormones Hormones regulate growth. regulates protein manufacture. . thyroid hormone and insulin and others affect only specific tissues like pituitary hormone. reproduction. metabolism. and behavior and some affect many tissues like Growth hormone. Once a hormones binds to a receptor on or in a target cell. TSH or ACTH. it affects cell activities.

.Hormone chemistry Amino acid compounds ² all hormones except those of the adrenal cortex and sex glands fall under this category. Lipids. Prostaglandins also in lipid category.steroid hormones produced by adrenal cortex and sex glands.

thyroid releases less hormone and blood levels drop. Thyroid stimulating hormone released by pituitary gland stimulates thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone. i. W/ less TSH. .Hormone Regulation The amount of hormone that is secreted is normally kept within a specific range. as thyroid hormone level increase.e. Negative feedback ² is the method most commonly used to keep the amount of hormone within normal. they act as negative feedback messengers to inhibit TSH release from pituitary.

Negative Feedback .

Endocrine Glands and their hormones .

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Pituitary Hormones .

Endocrine Glands and their Hormones Anterior Pituitary GH ² promotes growth of all body tissues TSH ² stimulates thyroid to produce thyroid H. Oxytocin. At high concentration constriction of blood v.stimulates adrenal to produce cortical hormones PRL ² stimulates milk secretion FSH ²stimulates growth & hormone activity of ovarian follicles. LH ²development of corpus luteum at the site ruptured ovarian follicle LH. ACTH.causes contraction of uterine muscle. causes milk ejection .testosterone secretion in male Posterior Pituitary ADH (antidiuretic hormone) ² promotes reabsorption of water in renal tubules.

Calcitonin lowers calcium circulating by deposit to bone . blood and bones.increase Ca level in blood. PTH promotes Calcium release from bone tissue and causes kidneys to conserve Calcium. Triiodothyronine(T3) Parathyroids ² Parathyroid Hormones Increase metabolic rate. for normal growth. influence mental and physical activities Regulates exchange of calcium bet.The Endocrine Glands Thyroid ² Thyroxine(T4).

s. proteins and fats Aldosterones regulates water and electrolyte balance May influence secondary sex characteristic .Endocrine glands Adrenal medullaepinephrine and norepinephrine Adrenal cortexcortisols(95% of glucocorticoids)Aldosterone-(95% of mineralcorticoids) Sex hormones Increase BP & HR. activates cells influenced by sympathetic n. Aids in metabolism of carbohydrates.

Growth & development of sexual organs and secondary sexual characterisitcs .insulin glucagon Testes . glucose Stimulates liver to release glucose. for cellular metabolism of food esp.testosterone Transport of glucose into cells.Endocrine Glands Pancreatic islets.

Endocrine glands Ovaries. secondary sexual characterisitcs Prepares uterine lining for implantation of fertilized ovum. dev. tubes) and dev.estrogen progesterone Growth primary sex organs(uterus. of secretory tissue of mammary glands. aids in maintaining pregnancy. .

Endocrine Glands Thymus ² Thymosin Pineal ² melatonin Promotes growth of T cells active in immunity Regulates mood. sexual development and daily cycles in response to the amount of light in the environment .

asthma and cerebral edema.Hormones and Treatment Natural and synthetic hormones for treatment actions Growth Hormone Insulin. to strengthen bones and build body mass Glucocorticoids. For immunosuppression in organ transplantation. .for relief of inflammation as in rheumatic arthritis. lupus erythematosus.treatment of diabetes Mellitus Adrenal steroids- For children with deficiency of this hormone.

treatment of asthma and anaphylaxis Treatment of hypothroidism and replacement therapy after surgical removal .Hormones and treatment actions Epinephrine Thyroid hormones- Stimulation of heart muscle.

.Hormone treatment hormones actions OxytocinAndrogens(androstero ne and testosterone) Estrogen & Progesterone Cause uterine contraction and induce labor Aid in tissue building and promote ehaling for sever chronic illness Treat symptoms of menopause and for oral contraceptives.

Pregnancy test . Atria ²atrial natriuretic peptide increase sodium secretion by kidneys and lowers BP Placenta ² hormones causes changes in uterine lining.Other hormone producing tissues Stomach for digestion Small intestine produce hormones to stimulate production of digestive juice Kidneys ² erythropoietin produced when there is decreased oxygen in the blood.control pituitary hormones. later in pregnancy. Brain ² releasing and inhibiting hormones. and prepare breasts for lactation.

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