The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan 3-2-4 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0013, Japan

Copyright © 2002 by The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan Printed by Daikousha Printing Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval systems, transmitted in any form or by any means, electric, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Original Japanese language edition published by the Japan Ports and Harbours Association. Printed in Japan

PREFACE

Preface

This book is a translation of the major portion of the Technical Standards and Commentaries of Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan (1999 edition) published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association, stipulated by the Ordinance of the Minister of Transport, which was issued in April 1999. The translation covers about two thirds of the Japanese edition. Japanese islands have a long extension of coastline, measuring about 34,000 km, for the total land area of some 380,000 square kilometers. Throughout her history, Japan has depended on the ports and harbors on daily living and prosperity of people there. Japan did not develop extensive inland canal systems as found in the European Continent because of its mountainous geography, but rather produced many harbors and havens along its coastline in the past. Today, the number of officially designated commercial ports and harbors amounts to about 1,100 and the number of fishing ports exceeds 3,000. After 220 years of isolation from the world civilization from the 17th to 19th centuries, Japan began to modernize its society and civilization rapidly after the Meiji revolution in 1868. Modern technology of port and harbor engineering has been introduced by distinguished engineers from abroad and learned by many ambitious and capable young engineers in Japan. Ports of Yokohama, Kobe, and others began to accommodate large ocean-going vessels in the late 19th century as the Japanese economy had shown a rapid growth. Japanese engineers had drafted an engineering manual on design and construction of port and harbor facilities as early as in 1943. The manual was revised in 1959 with inclusion of new technology such as those of coastal engineering and geotechnical engineering, which were developed during the Second World War or just before it. The Japanese economy that was utterly destroyed by the war had begun to rebuild itself rapidly after the 1950s. There were so many demands for the expansion of port and harbor facilities throughout Japan. Engineers were urged to design and construct facilities after facilities. Japan has built the breakwaters and the quays with the rate of about 20,000 meters each per year throughout the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Such a feat of port development was made possible with provision of sound engineering manuals. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (formerly the Ministry of Transport up to January 2001) which was responsible for port development and operation, revised the basic law on ports and harbors in 1974 so as to take responsibility for provision of technical standards for design, construction, and maintenance of port and harbor facilities. The first official technical standards and commentaries for port and harbor facilities were issued in 1979, and published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association for general use. The technical standards were prepared by a technical committee composed of government engineers within the former Ministry of Transport, including members of the Port and Harbour Research Institute and several District Port Construction Bureaus that were responsible for design and construction in the field. Its English version was published by the Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute in 1980, but it introduced only the skeleton of the Japanese version without giving the details. The Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbor Facilities in Japan have been revised in 1988 and 1999, each time incorporating new technological developments. The present English translation endeavors to introduce the newest edition of 1999 to the port and harbor engineers overseas. It is a direct translation of essential parts of Japanese edition. Many phrases and expressions reflect the customary, regulatory writings in Japanese, which are often awkward in English. Some sentences after translation may not be fluent enough and give troubles for decipher. The editors in charge of translation request the readers for patience and generosity in their efforts for understanding Japanese technology in port and harbor engineering. With the globalization in every aspect of human activities, indigenous practices and customs are forced to comply with the world standards. Technology by definition is supposed to be universal. Nevertheless, each country has developed its own specialty to suit its local conditions. The overseas readers may find some of Japanese technical standards strange and difficult for adoption for their usage. Such conflicts in technology are the starting points for mutual understanding and further developments in the future. The editors wish wholeheartedly this English version of Japanese technical standards be welcomed by the overseas colleagues and serve for the advancement of port and harbor technology in the world. January 2002 Y. Goda, T. Tabata and S. Yamamoto Editors for translation version

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

-ii-

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Preface Part I General

Chapter 1 General Rules .................................................................................................................................................1

1.1 1.2 1.3 Scope of Application .............................................................................................................................1 Definitions ...............................................................................................................................................2 Usage of SI Units ...................................................................................................................................2

Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work .........................................................................................................4 Chapter 3 Maintenance ....................................................................................................................................................5

**Part II Design Conditions
**

Chapter 1 General .............................................................................................................................................................7 Chapter 2 Vessels ..............................................................................................................................................................9

2.1 2.2 Dimensions of Target Vessel ...............................................................................................................9 External Forces Generated by Vessels ...........................................................................................16

2.2.1 2.2.2 General .....................................................................................................................................16 Berthing.....................................................................................................................................16 [1] Berthing Energy..................................................................................................................16 [2] Berthing Velocity ................................................................................................................17 [3] Eccentricity Factor..............................................................................................................20 [4] Virtual Mass Factor ............................................................................................................21 Moored Vessels .......................................................................................................................22 [1] Motions of Moored Vessel..................................................................................................22 [2] Waves Acting on Vessel.....................................................................................................22 [3] Wind Load Acting on Vessel ..............................................................................................23 [4] Current Forces Acting on Vessel........................................................................................24 [5] Load-Deflection Characteristics of Mooring System ..........................................................25 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Post and Bollard..................................................................25

2.2.3

2.2.4

**Chapter 3 Wind and Wind Pressure ..........................................................................................................................28
**

3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 General..................................................................................................................................................28 Wind .......................................................................................................................................................29 Wind Pressure......................................................................................................................................30 General..................................................................................................................................................32

Procedure for Determining the Waves Used in Design.............................................................32 Waves to Be Used in Design ....................................................................................................32 Properties of Waves..................................................................................................................33 [1] Fundamental Properties of Waves .....................................................................................33 [2] Statistical Properties of Waves...........................................................................................37 [3] Wave Spectrum..................................................................................................................38 Method of Determining Wave Conditions to Be Used in Design .................................................40 4.2.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design ...........................................40 4.2.2 Procedure for Obtaining the Parameters of Design Waves ......................................................41 Wave Hindcasting................................................................................................................................42 4.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................42 4.3.2 Wave Hindcasting in Generating Area ......................................................................................42 4.3.3 Swell Hindcasting......................................................................................................................46 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data .............................................47 Transformations of Waves .................................................................................................................49 4.5.1 General .....................................................................................................................................49 4.5.2 Wave Refraction........................................................................................................................49 4.5.3 Wave Diffraction........................................................................................................................52 [1] Diffraction ...........................................................................................................................52 [2] Combination of Diffraction and Refraction..........................................................................69 4.5.4 Wave Reflection ........................................................................................................................70 -iii4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3

Chapter 4 Waves ..............................................................................................................................................................32

4.2 4.3

4.4 4.5

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

4.6

4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 5.1 5.2

[1] General .............................................................................................................................. 70 [2] Reflection Coefficient ......................................................................................................... 71 [3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners, near the Heads of Breakwaters, and around Detached Breakwaters ................................................................................... 72 4.5.5 Wave Shoaling.......................................................................................................................... 74 4.5.6 Wave Breaking ......................................................................................................................... 75 Wave Runup, Overtopping, and Transmission............................................................................... 80 4.6.1 Wave Runup ............................................................................................................................. 80 4.6.2 Wave Overtopping .................................................................................................................... 84 4.6.3 Wave Transmission .................................................................................................................. 90 Wave Setup and Surf Beat ................................................................................................................ 91 4.7.1 Wave Setup .............................................................................................................................. 91 4.7.2 Surf Beat................................................................................................................................... 92 Long-Period Waves and Seiche ....................................................................................................... 93 Waves inside Harbors ........................................................................................................................ 94 4.9.1 Calmness and Disturbances..................................................................................................... 94 4.9.2 Evaluation of Harbor Calmness ................................................................................................ 94 Ship Waves .......................................................................................................................................... 94

**Chapter 5 Wave Force ................................................................................................................................................. 100
**

General ............................................................................................................................................... 100 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall ............................................................................................... 100

General Considerations .......................................................................................................... 100 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves ..................................................................... 101 [1] Wave Force under Wave Crest........................................................................................ 101 [2] Wave Force under Wave Trough..................................................................................... 105 5.2.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves .......................................................................... 106 5.2.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks..................... 109 5.2.5 Effect of Alignment of Breakwater on Wave Force ................................................................. 110 5.2.6 Effect of Abrupt Change in Water Depth on Wave Force ....................................................... 110 5.2.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore........................................................111 [1] Wave Force at the Seaward Side of Shoreline .................................................................111 [2] Wave Force at the Landward Side of Shoreline ...............................................................111 5.2.8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson ..................................................................111 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks ................................................................................ 112 5.3.1 Armor Units on Slope.............................................................................................................. 112 5.3.2 Armor Units on Foundation Mound of Composite Breakwater ............................................... 117 Wave Forces Acting on Cylindrical Members and Large Isolated Structures ......................... 119 5.4.1 Wave Force on Cylindrical Members...................................................................................... 119 5.4.2 Wave Force on Large Isolated Structure ................................................................................ 121 Wave Force Acting on Structure Located near the Still Water Level........................................ 122 5.5.1 Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate near the Still Water Level .................................................... 122 5.2.1 5.2.2

5.3 5.4 5.5

**Chapter 6 Tides and Abnormal Water Levels....................................................................................................... 127
**

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7.1 7.2 7.3 8.1 8.2 8.3 9.1 Design Water Level........................................................................................................................... 127 Astronomical Tide ............................................................................................................................. 128 Storm Surge ....................................................................................................................................... 128 Tsunami .............................................................................................................................................. 130 Seiche ................................................................................................................................................. 133 Groundwater Level and Permeation .............................................................................................. 135 General ............................................................................................................................................... 138 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures .............................................. 138 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks against Currents ................................................. 140 General ............................................................................................................................................... 142 External Forces Acting on Floating Body ...................................................................................... 143 Motions of Floating Body and Mooring Force ............................................................................... 145 General ............................................................................................................................................... 148

Chapter 7 Currents and Current Force ................................................................................................................... 138

Chapter 8 External Forces Acting on Floating Body and Its Motions ........................................................... 142

**Chapter 9 Estuarine Hydraulics ................................................................................................................................ 148 Chapter 10 Littoral Drift .................................................................................................................................................. 154
**

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 154 10.2 Scouring around Structures ............................................................................................................. 161 10.3 Prediction of Beach Deformation .................................................................................................... 163

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CONTENTS

**Chapter 11 Subsoil ...........................................................................................................................................................167
**

11.1 Method of Determining Geotechnical Conditions .........................................................................167

Principles.................................................................................................................................167 Selection of Soil Investigation Methods ..................................................................................168 Standard Penetration Test ......................................................................................................168 Physical Properties of Soils .............................................................................................................168 11.2.1 Unit Weight of Soil...................................................................................................................168 11.2.2 Classification of Soils ..............................................................................................................169 11.2.3 Coefficient of Permeability of Soil ...........................................................................................169 Mechanical Properties of Soils ........................................................................................................170 11.3.1 Elastic Constants ....................................................................................................................170 11.3.2 Consolidation Properties .........................................................................................................170 11.3.3 Shear Properties .....................................................................................................................173 Angle of Internal Friction by N-value ..............................................................................................175 Application of Soundings Other Than SPT....................................................................................176 Dynamic Properties of Soils .............................................................................................................178 11.6.1 Dynamic Modulus of Deformation ...........................................................................................178 11.6.2 Dynamic Strength Properties ..................................................................................................180 11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3

11.2

11.3

11.4 11.5 11.6

**Chapter 12 Earthquakes and Seismic Force ...........................................................................................................182
**

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 General................................................................................................................................................182 Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities in Design ................................................182 Seismic Coefficient Method .............................................................................................................184 Design Seismic Coefficient ..............................................................................................................184 Seismic Response Analysis .............................................................................................................190 Seismic Deformation Method ..........................................................................................................192

**Chapter 13 Liquefaction .................................................................................................................................................195
**

13.1 General................................................................................................................................................195 13.2 Prediction of Liquefaction .................................................................................................................195 13.3 Countermeasures against Liquefaction .........................................................................................199

**Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure ...................................................................................................200
**

14.1 Earth Pressure ...................................................................................................................................200 14.2 Earth Pressure under Ordinary Conditions ...................................................................................200

Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil under Ordinary Conditions .......................................................200 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil under Ordinary Conditions ..................................................201 14.3 Earth Pressure during Earthquake .................................................................................................202 14.3.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil during Earthquake....................................................................202 14.3.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil during Earthquake...............................................................204 14.3.3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient ..................................................................................................204 14.4 Water Pressure ..................................................................................................................................205 14.4.1 Residual Water Pressure ........................................................................................................205 14.4.2 Dynamic Water Pressure during Earthquake..........................................................................205 14.2.1 14.2.2

**Chapter 15 Loads .............................................................................................................................................................207
**

15.1 General................................................................................................................................................207 15.2 Deadweight and Surcharge .............................................................................................................207 15.3 Static Load ..........................................................................................................................................207

Static Load under Ordinary Conditions ...................................................................................207 Static Load during Earthquake................................................................................................208 Unevenly Distributed Load ......................................................................................................208 Snow Load ..............................................................................................................................208 15.4 Live Load ............................................................................................................................................209 15.4.1 Train Load ...............................................................................................................................209 15.4.2 Vehicle Load ...........................................................................................................................209 15.4.3 Cargo Handling Equipment Load ............................................................................................209 15.4.4 Sidewalk Live Load .................................................................................................................209 15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4

**Chapter 16 Coefficient of Friction ................................................................................................................................210
**

16.1 General................................................................................................................................................210

**Part III Materials
**

Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 211

1.1 Selection of Materials........................................................................................................................ 211

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3

Safety of Structural Elements .......................................................................................................... 211 Materials ............................................................................................................................................. 212 Steel Meterial Constants Used in Design Calculation ................................................................. 212 Allowable Stresses ............................................................................................................................ 212

General ................................................................................................................................... 212 Structural Steel ....................................................................................................................... 212 Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles ................................................................................... 213 Steel Sheet Piles .................................................................................................................... 214 Cast Steel and Forged Steel................................................................................................... 214 Allowable Stresses for Steel at Welded Zones and Spliced Sections .................................... 214 Increase of Allowable Stresses............................................................................................... 215 Corrosion Control .............................................................................................................................. 216 2.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 216 2.4.2 Corrosion Rates of Steel Materials ......................................................................................... 216 2.4.3 Corrosion Control Methods..................................................................................................... 217 2.4.4 Cathodic Protection Method ................................................................................................... 217 [1] Range of Application........................................................................................................ 217 [2] Protective Potential .......................................................................................................... 218 [3] Protective Current Density ............................................................................................... 219 2.4.5 Coating Method ...................................................................................................................... 220 [1] Extent of Application ........................................................................................................ 220 [2] Applicable Methods.......................................................................................................... 220 [3] Selection of Method ......................................................................................................... 220 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7

Chapter 2 Steel ............................................................................................................................................................... 212

2.4

**Chapter 3 Concrete ....................................................................................................................................................... 221
**

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.2 General ............................................................................................................................................... 221 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method ....................................................... 221 Design Based on Allowable Stress Method .................................................................................. 223 Concrete Materials ............................................................................................................................ 224 Concrete Quality and Performance ................................................................................................ 225 Underwater Concrete ....................................................................................................................... 227 General ............................................................................................................................................... 228 Asphalt Mat ........................................................................................................................................ 228

General ................................................................................................................................... 228 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 228 Mix Proportioning.................................................................................................................... 229 Paving Materials ................................................................................................................................ 229 Sand Mastic Asphalt ......................................................................................................................... 229 4.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 229 4.4.2 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 230 4.4.3 Mix Proportioning.................................................................................................................... 230 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3

Chapter 4 Bituminous Materials ................................................................................................................................ 228

4.3 4.4

**Chapter 5 Stone ............................................................................................................................................................. 231
**

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7.1 7.2 7.3 General ............................................................................................................................................... 231 Rubble for Foundation ...................................................................................................................... 231 Backfilling Materials .......................................................................................................................... 231 Base Course Materials of Pavement ............................................................................................. 232 Quality of Timber ............................................................................................................................... 233

Structural Timber .................................................................................................................... 233 Timber Piles............................................................................................................................ 233 Allowable Stresses of Timber .......................................................................................................... 233 6.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 233 6.2.2 Allowable Stresses of Structural Timber ................................................................................. 233 Quality of Glued Laminated Timber ............................................................................................... 233 6.3.1 Allowable Stress for Glued Laminated Timber ....................................................................... 233 Joining of Timber ............................................................................................................................... 233 Maintenance of Timber..................................................................................................................... 233 6.1.1 6.1.2

Chapter 6 Timber ........................................................................................................................................................... 233

**Chapter 7 Other Materials ........................................................................................................................................... 234
**

Metals Other Than Steel .................................................................................................................. 234 Plastics and Rubbers ........................................................................................................................ 234 Coating Materials .............................................................................................................................. 236

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CONTENTS

7.4

**Grouting Materials .............................................................................................................................237
**

7.4.1 7.4.2 General ...................................................................................................................................237 Properties of Grouting Materials .............................................................................................237

**Chapter 8 Recyclable Resources .............................................................................................................................238
**

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 General................................................................................................................................................238 Slag ......................................................................................................................................................238 Coal Ash..............................................................................................................................................239 Crashed Concrete .............................................................................................................................240

**Part IV Precast Concrete Units
**

Chapter 1 Caissons .......................................................................................................................................................241

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 General................................................................................................................................................241 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................242 Floating Stability ................................................................................................................................242 Design External Forces ....................................................................................................................243

Combination of Loads and Load Factors ................................................................................243 External Forces during Fabrication .........................................................................................249 External Forces during Launching and Floating......................................................................249 External Forces during Installation..........................................................................................250 External Forces after Construction..........................................................................................250 [1] Outer Walls.......................................................................................................................250 [2] Bottom Slab......................................................................................................................251 [3] Partition Walls and Others................................................................................................253 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................254 1.5.1 Outer Wall ...............................................................................................................................254 1.5.2 Partition Wall ...........................................................................................................................254 1.5.3 Bottom Slab.............................................................................................................................254 1.5.4 Others .....................................................................................................................................255 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane ...................................................................................255 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5

1.5

1.6 2.1 2.2 2.3

**Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks ........................................................................................................................................256
**

General................................................................................................................................................256 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................256 Loads Acting on Members ...............................................................................................................257

General ...................................................................................................................................257 Earth Pressure ........................................................................................................................258 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.................................................................................258 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................259 2.4.1 Front Wall................................................................................................................................259 2.4.2 Footing ....................................................................................................................................259 2.4.3 Bottom Slab.............................................................................................................................259 2.4.4 Buttress ...................................................................................................................................260 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane ...................................................................................260 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3

2.4

2.5 3.1 3.2 3.3

**Chapter 3 Cellular Blocks ............................................................................................................................................261
**

General................................................................................................................................................261 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................261

Shape of Cellular Blocks .........................................................................................................261 Determination of Dimensions ..................................................................................................261 Loads Acting on Cellular Blocks......................................................................................................262 3.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................262 3.3.2 Earth Pressure of Filling and Residual Water Pressure..........................................................262 3.3.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.................................................................................264 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................264 3.4.1 Rectangular Cellular Blocks ....................................................................................................264 3.4.2 Other Types of Cellular Blocks................................................................................................265 3.2.1 3.2.2

3.4

**Chapter 4 Upright Wave-Absorbing Caissons ......................................................................................................267
**

4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 General................................................................................................................................................267 External Forces Acting on Members ..............................................................................................267 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................269 General................................................................................................................................................270 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................270

-vii-

Chapter 5 Hybrid Caissons .........................................................................................................................................270

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

5.3 5.4

**Design External Forces .................................................................................................................... 271 Design of Members ........................................................................................................................... 271
**

Section Force.......................................................................................................................... 271 Design of Composite Slabs .................................................................................................... 271 Design of SRC Members ........................................................................................................ 271 Design of Partitions................................................................................................................. 271 Design of Corners and Joints ................................................................................................. 271 Safety against Fatigue Failure ................................................................................................ 272 Corrosion Control .............................................................................................................................. 272 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6

5.5

Part V Foundations

Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 273 Chapter 2 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations ........................................................................................ 274

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 274 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground ..................................................................... 274 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground .................................................................... 275 Bearing Capacity of Multilayered Ground ..................................................................................... 276 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads ..................................................................... 277 General ............................................................................................................................................... 280 Vertical Bearing Capacity................................................................................................................. 280 Lateral Bearing Capacity .................................................................................................................. 281 Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity of Piles ..................................................................................... 284

General ................................................................................................................................... 284 Standard Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity............................................................................ 284 Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity of Single Piles...................................................................... 285 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Loading Tests ........................................... 285 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas ............ 286 Examination of Compressive Stress of Pile Materials ............................................................ 288 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Joints .......................................................................... 288 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Slenderness Ratio ...................................................... 288 Bearing Capacity of Pile Group .............................................................................................. 288 Examination of Negative Skin Friction .................................................................................... 290 Examination of Settlement of Piles ......................................................................................... 291 Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles ............................................................................................ 291 4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 291 4.2.2 Standard Allowable Pulling Resistance .................................................................................. 292 4.2.3 Maximum Pulling Resistance of Single Pile............................................................................ 292 4.2.4 Examination of Tensile Stress of Pile Materials...................................................................... 293 4.2.5 Matters to Be Considered for Obtaining Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles...................... 293 Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles ................................................................................. 293 4.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 293 4.3.2 Estimation of Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles ..................................................... 295 4.3.3 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Loading Tests ................................................................... 295 4.3.4 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Analytical Methods ........................................................... 295 4.3.5 Consideration of Pile Group Action......................................................................................... 301 4.3.6 Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles ............................................................................. 301 Pile Design in General ...................................................................................................................... 304 4.4.1 Load Sharing .......................................................................................................................... 304 4.4.2 Load Distribution..................................................................................................................... 305 4.4.3 Distance between Centers of Piles......................................................................................... 305 4.4.4 Allowable Stresses for Pile Materials...................................................................................... 305 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 306 4.5.1 Examination of Loads during Construction ............................................................................. 306 4.5.2 Design of Joints between Piles and Structure ........................................................................ 307 4.5.3 Joints of Piles.......................................................................................................................... 308 4.5.4 Change of Plate Thickness or Materials of Steel Pipe Piles................................................... 308 4.5.5 Other Points for Caution in Design ......................................................................................... 308 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 4.1.11

Chapter 3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations ............................................................................................. 280

Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundations ................................................................................................ 284

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

**Chapter 5 Settlement of Foundations ..................................................................................................................... 310
**

5.1 5.2 Stress in Soil Mass ........................................................................................................................... 310 Immediate Settlement....................................................................................................................... 310

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CONTENTS

5.3 5.4 5.5 6.1 6.2

Consolidation Settlement .................................................................................................................310 Lateral Displacement ........................................................................................................................312 Differential Settlements ....................................................................................................................312 General................................................................................................................................................314 Stability Analysis ................................................................................................................................315

6.2.1 6.2.2 Stability Analysis Using Circular Slip Surface Method ............................................................315 Stability Analysis Assuming Slip Surfaces Other Than Circular Arc Slip Surface...................316

Chapter 6 Stability of Slopes ......................................................................................................................................314

**Chapter 7 Soil Improvement Methods .....................................................................................................................318
**

7.1 7.2 7.3 General................................................................................................................................................318 Replacement Method ........................................................................................................................318 Vertical Drain Method .......................................................................................................................318

7.3.1 7.3.2

Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................318 Determination of Height and Width of Fill................................................................................319 [1] Height and Width of Fill Required for Soil Improvement ..................................................319 [2] Height and Width of Fill Required for Stability of Fill Embankment ..................................319 7.3.3 Design of Drain Piles...............................................................................................................319 [1] Drain Piles and Sand Mat.................................................................................................319 [2] Interval of Drain Piles .......................................................................................................320 7.4 Deep Mixing Method .........................................................................................................................322 7.4.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................322 [1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................322 [2] Basic Concept ..................................................................................................................323 7.4.2 Assumptions for Dimensions of Stabilized Body.....................................................................323 [1] Mixture Design of Stabilized Soil......................................................................................323 [2] Allowable Stress of Stabilized Body .................................................................................324 7.4.3 Calculation of External Forces ................................................................................................325 7.5 Lightweight Treated Soil Method ....................................................................................................326 7.5.1 Outline of Lightweight Treated Soil Method ............................................................................326 7.5.2 Basic Design Concept.............................................................................................................326 7.5.3 Mixture Design of Treated Soil................................................................................................327 7.5.4 Examination of Area to Be Treated .........................................................................................328 7.5.5 Workability Verification Tests ..................................................................................................328 7.6 Replacement Method with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ........................................................328 7.6.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................328 7.6.2 Physical Properties of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ...........................................................328 7.7 Premixing Method..............................................................................................................................329 7.7.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................329 [1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................329 [2] Consideration for Design..................................................................................................329 7.7.2 Preliminary Survey ..................................................................................................................329 7.7.3 Determination of Strength of Treated Soil...............................................................................330 7.7.4 Mixture Design of Treated Soil................................................................................................330 7.7.5 Examination of Area of Improvement......................................................................................331 7.8 Active Earth Pressure of Solidified Geotechnical Materials........................................................333 7.8.1 Scope of Application ...............................................................................................................333 7.8.2 Active Earth Pressure .............................................................................................................333 [1] Outline ..............................................................................................................................333 [2] Strength Parameters ........................................................................................................334 [3] Calculation of Active Earth Pressure................................................................................334 [4] Case of Limited Area of Subsoil Improvement .................................................................335 7.9 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Sandy Subsoil) .....................................................................336 7.9.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................336 7.9.2 Sand Volume to Be Supplied ..................................................................................................336 7.9.3 Design Based on Trial Execution ............................................................................................338 7.10 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Cohesive Subsoil) ...............................................................339 7.10.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................339 [1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................339 [2] Basic Concept ..................................................................................................................339 7.10.2 Strength and Permeability of Sand Piles.................................................................................339 7.10.3 Shear Strength of Improved Subsoil .......................................................................................339 7.10.4 Stability Analysis .....................................................................................................................340 7.10.5 Examining Consolidation.........................................................................................................341

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

**Part VI Navigation Channels and Basins
**

Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 345 Chapter 2 Navigation Channels ................................................................................................................................ 346

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 General ............................................................................................................................................... 346 Alignment of Navigation Channel .................................................................................................. 346 Width of Navigation Channel ........................................................................................................... 347 Depth of Navigation Channel .......................................................................................................... 348 Length of Navigation Channel at Harbor Entrance ...................................................................... 348 Calmness of Navigation Channel ................................................................................................... 348 General ............................................................................................................................................... 350 Width of Navigation Channel ........................................................................................................... 350 Depth of Navigation Channel .......................................................................................................... 350 General ............................................................................................................................................... 351 Location and Area of Basin ............................................................................................................. 351

Location .................................................................................................................................. 351 Area of Basin Used for Anchorage or Mooring ....................................................................... 351 Area of Basin Used for Ship Maneuvering.............................................................................. 352 [1] Turning Basin................................................................................................................... 352 [2] Mooring / Unmooring Basin ............................................................................................. 353 Depth of Basin ................................................................................................................................... 353 Calmness of Basin ............................................................................................................................ 353 Timber Sorting Pond ......................................................................................................................... 354 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3

Chapter 3 Navigation Channels outside Breakwaters ....................................................................................... 350

Chapter 4 Basins............................................................................................................................................................ 351

4.3 4.4 4.5

**Chapter 5 Small Craft Basins ..................................................................................................................................... 355 Chapter 6 Maintenance of Navigation Channels and Basins .......................................................................... 355
**

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 355

**Part VII Protective Facilities for Harbors
**

Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 357

1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 General Consideration ..................................................................................................................... 357 Maintenance....................................................................................................................................... 357 General ............................................................................................................................................... 358 Layout of Breakwaters ...................................................................................................................... 358 Design Conditions of Breakwaters ................................................................................................. 359 Selection of Structural Types .......................................................................................................... 359 Determination of Cross Section ...................................................................................................... 362

Upright Breakwater ................................................................................................................. 362 Composite Breakwater ........................................................................................................... 363 Sloping Breakwater................................................................................................................. 363 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks ........................ 364 External Forces for Stability Calculation ........................................................................................ 364 2.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 364 2.6.2 Wave Forces........................................................................................................................... 365 2.6.3 Hydrostatic Pressure .............................................................................................................. 365 2.6.4 Buoyancy ................................................................................................................................ 365 2.6.5 Deadweight............................................................................................................................. 365 2.6.6 Stability during Earthuakes ..................................................................................................... 365 Stability Calculation........................................................................................................................... 365 2.7.1 Stability Calculation of Upright Section................................................................................... 365 2.7.2 Stability Calculation of Sloping Section .................................................................................. 369 2.7.3 Stability Calculation of Whole Section .................................................................................... 369 2.7.4 Stability Calculation for Head and Corner of Breakwater ....................................................... 369 Details of Structures ......................................................................................................................... 370 2.8.1 Upright Breakwater ................................................................................................................. 370 2.8.2 Composite Breakwater ........................................................................................................... 371 2.8.3 Sloping Breakwater................................................................................................................. 372 -x2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4

Chapter 2 Breakwaters ................................................................................................................................................ 358

2.6

2.7

2.8

.............................................1 4............379 [1] General..6.............................398 Details........3 5........................................388 Selection of Structural Type .........................................................................................................................................................5 Principle of Design ...................386 3.........2 5...............................390 General.........................................372 Breakwaters for Timber Storage Ponds and Timber Sorting Ponds ............................394 5...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................CONTENTS 2......................................................1 3..................1 General ...........................................4 Selection of Location .....5 5..............393 5...................................384 [2] Selection of Design Conditions ......................................8...................................................................384 [1] General..4 6................................................................................................................................................................................2...................................................................................................396 Design Conditions ..................................................................................................391 Group of Groins ............................380 [3] Determination of Dimensions for Wave-Absorbing Section ..........................................3..............2 Floating Breakwater ..............................................................................................................................................389 4...................................................2 Water Depth at Tip of Training Jetty ..........................................................................................380 [1] General................2 Selection of Countermeasures....................................................................................................................398 -xi- ......................................................................................................378 [2] Crest Elevation ..........................................390 Details of Jetty............................11 Storm Surge Protection Breakwater .......................4 4........................2 6.........................................................................2.......1 6.............389 External Forces and Loads Acting on Lock...............................380 3...............................................382 [2] Wave Force ............................................................................378 [1] General..............................................388 Size and Layout of Lock ............................................................................394 5.......................398 Determination of Cross Section ...........................................................................6 5..........................................................................................................................................2 5.....................................379 [2] Determination of Target Waves to Be Absorbed................................................1 Layout of Training Jetties ...........................................396 Structural Stability.......................................................................376 3...............................................2..................1 5................................................................377 General .........389 Lock Chamber.........382 [1] General.......381 Non-Gravity Type Breakwaters ......................................388 4......10 Breakwaters for Timber-Handling Facilities ..........................................392 5............................................................................................................................................389 Auxiliary Facilities ...................2 Chapter 3 Other Types of Breakwaters ..............................................................................................................................2 Selection of Structural Type .................9 Detailed Design of Upright Section ............................................................................3..2 4........................................................................................................................4 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks...................................................3 Chapter 4 Locks..............................................................................................2 Chapter 5 Facilities to Prevent Shoaling and Siltation ........6 Chapter 6 Revetments .....................................................................................................392 Training Jetties ..........................................................................378 [3] Wave Force ....................................................................................................................385 [3] Design of Mooring System ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................372 2...........................2 3....3 4....................................380 [2] Wave Force ..................................................................................................376 Gravity Type Special Breakwaters............................................................................393 Facilities to Trap Littoral Transport and Sediment Flowing out of Rivers ......................3......................................................4 Sloping-Top Caisson Breakwater.........................................................................................................................3 Wave-Absorbing Caisson Breakwater ................................................384 [3] Design of Piles .........394 5.........................................385 [4] Design of Floating Body Structure........................................................................................................................................................................................382 3.................1 2..............................................................................................................................10......4...............................................................................................................1 3.....................................................................................384 3.............372 Fences to Prevent Timber Drifting ..................................................................................................................................3 Structure of Training Jetty .............................390 Jetty ......................389 Gate .............................373 2.............................................................380 [5] Wave Force for Design of Structural Members ................................................12 Tsunami Protection Breakwater ...........389 Pumping and Drainage System ....2..........................................................................................................................................................4.......................................................................................4.....................................379 3.......................390 Layout of Jetty.....................................................................................3......................................................................................................1 Curtain Wall Breakwater ..............................372 2.......2.....................................396 6.........................................1 5......................................1 4...............................373 2........................393 Countermeasures against Wind-Blown Sand ....6.........................................377 Upright Wave-Absorbing Block Breakwater ....................................2........................................................10...........................................................................................................5 4..........392 5.....3 6........380 [4] Wave Force for Examination of Structural Stability .......373 2..............

.....................1 5.............................. 418 Cross Section of Sheet Piles ...................................................................... 415 General .......................................................................2 Design of Relieving Platform .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Chapter 6 Sheet Pile Quaywalls with Relieving Platform ................................................................................3 5................................................. 402 Chapter 3 Structural Types of Mooring Facilities .....2 Location of Anchorage Work ..............................................................................................................................................2 2.......................................1 5..............3............................................ 433 6................................1 6......................5....... 431 Earth Pressure and Residual Water Pressure Acting on Sheet Piles .... 415 5.....2.................................4 4.......3 6...................................................................................................................................................................2 2.................................................. 426 5..........................................5 4............................5......................................... 427 Detailed Design ................................................................. 432 Embedded Length of Sheet Piles .................TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Part VIII Mooring Facilities Chapter 1 General ....................................3....................................................3 2................................... 433 6...................... 405 Ship Clearance for Mooring Facilities ...............................................................8 5... 401 Length and Water Depth of Berths .......................................................................................................................................................................1 Tension of Tie Rod .......................................................................................................1 2...................3.....................3 Chapter 5 Sheet Pile Quaywalls ................................ 408 4.......................................................................................................... 411 Examination on Soft Foundation....5 2....................................................................................................................................................................8..................... 414 4..........................1 1..........3........................4.................. 415 Design of Sheet Pile Wall .............. 412 Effects of Backfill ....................................................... 425 Design of Anchorage Work .1 4..........................................................................................1 5............3................................................................................................................................................2 5...........8.......................................6 5........ 406 Ancillary Facilities ............................................................................5 6.....2 6................................................................ 417 Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ........................6....... 428 5........................................................................................................................2 4....................................8.......................................................5 External Forces to Be Considered....5 4......3 Tie Rod ................ 429 5. 410 Items to Be Considered in Stability Calculations .................................. 417 Setting Level of Tie Rod ...... 410 Examination against Sliding of Wall..................................................................... 434 -xii6................................... 410 Examination Concerning Bearing Capacity of Foundation .......................................................................... 408 Stability Calculations................................................................................................... 433 6.........................................6......................... 405 Protection against Scouring...........................................4 5..... 429 Special Notes for Design of Sheet Pile Wall on Soft Ground..............................................................................................................................2 Fitting of Tie Rods and Wale to Sheet Piles ..........................................2 4...............1 6................................3................................................................................. 429 5.................................................................................................................................................... 413 Detailed Design ................... 401 1........... 432 Design of Sheet Pile Wall .........................3... 425 Examination for Circular Slip ............................... 424 5....... 401 Maintenance of Mooring Facilities ................................................ 426 5..........1 Selection of Structural Type of Anchorage Work.....................3 Design of Piles .............2 ........................... 432 Cross Section of Sheet Piles ....................................................8.................... 402 Crown Heights of Mooring Facilities..................................................................... 431 Principles of Design ................................................................................................4 6........7 5............................... 408 External Forces and Loads Acting on Walls ............................................. 411 Stability Calculations of Cellular Concrete Blocks .........................2 Cross Section of Tie Rod........6 5..........3 Design of Anchorage Work.........................1 Coping .......................... 419 Consideration of the Effect of Section Rigidity of Sheet Piles ............................1 4.....................................6.................................. 407 Chapter 4 Gravity Type Quaywalls ...... 431 Scope of Application .................................................................4 2................................................ 431 Determination of Height and Width of Relieving Platform ...................................3 Principle of Design ..7....................................................................................................................... 426 5......9 6...... 424 5.................................. 419 Design of Tie Rods ............................... 433 Design of Relieving Platform and Relieving Platform Piles .....3.7........1 External Forces Acting on Relieving Platform .....................................................................3...............................................................................................3.........................................3 4................7..... 429 5............................................................................. 428 5.................................................................4 4..........................................................................................................................................................6 General Consideration ....................................................................5 5.... 424 Design of Wale .................................. 417 Bending Moment of Sheet Piles and Reaction at Tie Rod Setting Point .........................................................................................................................4....... 415 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall ................................................................................................4 5...... 411 Examination Concerning Overturning of Wall. 406 Chapter 2 Dimensions of Mooring Facilities.....................2 5.................................. 405 Design Water Depth .......................................................4 Fitting of Tie Rods to Anchorage Work..............................................

...................450 7.........2 Scope of Application ..........................................460 Layout and Dimensions ...................452 Principle of Design ...................440 7...........450 7...................................449 7...456 Embedded-Type Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls.........................11 Design of T-Shaped Sheet Pile .............449 7..2....2.........................................................................................3..................3..................................................................................................3...............................................................455 Layout of Cells and Arcs .436 External Forces Acting on Steel Sheet Pile Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywall ............................................................................455 Determination of Thickness of Steel Plate of Cell Shell ...................7 Examination of Displacement of Wall Top ..........................................................................................................................3 7......................................458 8................................................................3 Examination of Stability as Gravity Type Wall ........................................2................3 8...............................................................2.......................462 Size of Deck Block and Layout of Piles.......................................................................2 External Forces Acting on Embedded-Type Steel Plate Celluler-Bulkhead.........................................456 8.............................................3..................3 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ...................................465 -xiii9............................2 Calculation of Fender Reaction Force........462 Dimensions of Superstructure..........................1 9......3..............................................................5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground ..........................................................................................450 7........................3...............3 9..................................452 8......................................................................................9 Layout of Cells and Arcs .........................................................................438 Equivalent Width of Wall .......2 Structure of T-Shaped Sheet Pile ................................................................2 8.......4.........4 Chapter 7 Steel Sheet Pile Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ................................2 Virtual Ground Surface........451 Chapter 8 Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ...............464 9....................................................................448 7..............................................................................458 8.........................................................1 8....................................................3...........7 Examination of Displacement of Wall Top ......................5 8..455 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip......3...........................................................................................454 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground ..................................................................................................................................................3......439 Calculation of Resisting Moment.......................................................................................453 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole......................................................................2 7.........................8 7.......................................................3 9...........2.................................................456 Detailed Design............453 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ....................................................................................................443 7...................................3...................................................................................................1 7........................CONTENTS 6.............................452 Placement-Type Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ............10 Determination of Plate Thickness of Cell Shell and Arc Section..............................................11 Joints and Stiffeners...............2.............3.............................................................................3...........12 Detailed Design.......458 8....................................................................................1 Determination of Slope Inclination ........................438 7....................................7 8......................................................437 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ....................449 7.........458 8.............................464 Assumptions Concerning Sea Bottom Ground ........2................................................451 7...................................................................2....................................................439 Calculation of Deformation Moment................................3..........457 8..................1 8...........2..............4.........6 Examination against Sliding of Wall ..............434 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip..11........4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole...........464 9.....................................................................435 Principle of Design .458 8...............3...........................................................................................................................443 7........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................436 General .3 Chapter 9 Open-Type Wharves on Vertical Piles .458 8....................2 Principle of Design ...............................4 8.............................................................................................................................6 Examination against Sliding of Wall .....................................3..........1 General ....12.......................3........2.............................1 General ................................................................................................11.7 6........................8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip.........................448 7............................................................................1 Principle of Design .....4.................................463 9......463 9........................................................2 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction...................................................5 ...............2....................................................................................................458 8................................................................................................9 Layout of Cells and Arcs ...................................................................................................6 8......................443 7...........................................5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground ......448 7...............................3 Calculation of Subgrade Reaction and Wall Displacement..........460 9.............3........................10 Calculation of Hoop Tension................................2 7..............................................................................................1 7......452 External Forces Acting on Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead ....456 8................................................1 Design of Pile to Support Coping ..443 7..........463 External Forces Acting on Open-Type Wharf .......9 8.........4 9.......................451 7...................................2 9....................................12 Detailed Design............................................................................457 8......................4..........................8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip.................462 Arrangement of Fenders and Bollards ..2....................................................1 9.......459 8.....2 Design of Coping...4.....3.....459 8......................................................1 Design External Forces...4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole............12....465 Design of Piles ...8 8...............................................

...................5....................... 484 10.......1 Horizontal Force Transmitted to Heads of Coupled Raking Piles............. 478 9................................... 486 Ancillary Equipment .....................4 12...........6 9....3......... 484 10.................................................... 475 Design of Earth-Retaining Section .........................................................................................................................................7 9............................. 468 Examination of Earthquake-Resistant Performance ...........................................................1 Scope of Application ..5........................................2 11................................................ 469 9........................................ 486 11......... 485 11.......................................2 Calculation of Fender Reaction Force ........9 General ....................................................................... 487 12......3 External Forces Acting on Open-Type Wharf on Coupled Raking Piles ..........................................................3........................................................ 466 Member Forces Acting on Individual Piles..........1 Principle of Design ....................................................................................................................................3 Design of Pile Head ...................................5.........................2 9........ 481 10..............................................3.2 Virtual Ground Surface ............2 Principle of Design ................2 Gangways ...................................... 470 9..... 465 Virtual Fixed Point..3 Pushing-In and Pulling-Out Forces of Coupled Raking Piles .............................2 Examination Method of Earthquake-Resistant Performance...........5....................................................... 488 Dimensions of Pontoon................. 488 External Forces and Loads Acting on Pontoon ............................................................. 481 Arrangement of Fenders and Bollards......... 483 10...........................................3 Determination of Seismic Motion for Examination of Earthquake-Resistant Performance............. 481 10... 486 11.......4 ..........4................................................. 478 9.. 481 10..............2 Layout and Dimensions ...............................................................3 Chapter 11 Detached Pier .. 478 9..6...1 Determination of Slope Inclination ..................5............................................................................2..............5................................ 468 Change of Plate Thickness or Material of Steel Pipe Pile ............................................................................................3 11........................................................................................ 481 Size of Deck Block and Layout of Piles ...............................................................8 9.................................................5 Determination of Forces Acting on Piles and Cross Sections of Piles ............................................................................ 481 10........................................................................................... 488 Stability of Pontoon....................................................................................................................... 481 10...4 11................................................3 Design of Pontoon.................... 468 Examination of Embedded Length for Bearing Capacity ........................TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 9.. 470 9..................................................................3............................................................ 481 Dimensions of Supersutructure ......................... 483 10....6 9.............................................................. 488 12.....................6 Examination of Strength of Wharf in the Direction of Its Face Line .................4 9......................... 483 10.........................5..............................3........... 466 Cross-Sectional Stresses of Piles................5.. 485 Design of Piers .............................................................................9............................................................................................................................................................................. 486 11.............................. 488 Design of Individual Parts of Pontoon..........................................1 10.1 11.......5...........................................3 Design of Detached Pier ....................1 Superstructure ................. 484 10...................5..............................................1 9........4 Assumptions Concerning Sea Bottom Ground........................2 12...............................7 Embedded Length of Raking Pile ...9 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip ........... 468 Examination of Pile Joints.............................................................2 10... 481 10.............................5........................................................ 485 External Forces and Loads............................................................................................................................................ 478 9..........3.....................................................2 Principle of Design ...........................................3................ 487 12....10 Detailed Design ....................8 Design of Earth-Retaining Section ........7 9.................................... 486 Design of Girder.........................................................................................9........6.........5 9.........................................................4 Examination of Load Carrying Capacity Using Simplified Method........................................................ 481 10........................ 477 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip .........................5....................................... 473 9.............................1 Design External Forces ...................... 480 10.................2 Vertical Load Transmitted to Heads of Coupled Raking Piles ............................................................... 477 Detailed Design .........................3 12.................................. 490 -xiv12.................................................................................................... 484 10.............................................................5................9.........................................................................6.......................................3..... 484 10...1 12..........4...................................2............................................................................... 489 Design of Mooring System.............................................2 Calculation of Reinforcing Bar Arrangement of Superstructure ......................................................................5 Examination of Load Carrying Capacity Using Elasto-Plastic Analysis ............................................................................................8 9......3 9............................ 481 10...................................5 Chapter 12 Floating Piers ..............................................................6........................9 Chapter 10 Open-Type Wharves on Coupled Raking Piles ..................................................................5.........................................1 Scope of Application ..................6...........................1 Assumption of Cross Section for Earthquake-Resistant Performance Examination ............2.............................................................................................................................................................................3................................................ 486 Detailed Design .........................................1 Load Combinations for Superstructure Design..........................................................4 Cross-Sectional Stresses of Piles................ 480 10............................................................................................................................................................5..... 465 Coefficient of Horizontal Subgrade Reaction....................... 485 11...................................................... 481 10.. 485 11. 485 Layout and Dimensions .4 11............... 468 Examination of Embedded Length for Lateral Resistance................... 471 9......................................3.........

..................................508 Principle of Design .............................................................................................................499 14..........................................1 13.....................................................................1 12..........................................................................................................................................................................495 Pile Type Dolphins ..........................4 Principle of Design ....................................................................505 [4] Main Chain ..............................................................................................................................................................4 Front Wall and Pavement....497 Principle of Design ....................2...........................................1 Mooring Buoys ...................................................1 Quaywall of Wave-Absorbing Type ................................1..................................................1....................510 17......................................................................................................................................................................512 17.........................................................508 17..498 [3] Water Depth .........502 Principle of Design ..................1 16...................1 Principle of Design ......................................................................................................................................3 15.....2..............5 13........................................................................................................498 [4] Gradient of Slipway ......................................2 12.........................................................................5...................................3 Determination of Cross Section of Sheet Piles ...................4......................................................................5 Design 12................................................7 Detailed Design...............4......................................................494 External Forces Acting on Dolphins .............................................................................................497 [2] Slipway Length and Background Space..........................512 17..............................................................1 17.................................1..............499 14......2..................499 [2] Pavement .1 14......490 Design of Mooring Chain...497 Dimensions of Individual Parts.........................500 Location ......................................504 [1] Mooring Anchor ..................................................................502 16..................512 17............................................503 Design of Individual Parts of Mooring Buoy ..................................................................2 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall........................................................................................3 12................................1 15.............497 [1] Elevations of Individual Parts .......2 15...........1...........................................................................2...........................................................................................................................3 Sheet Pile Quaywall with Batter Anchor Piles ....................................................................................................................................509 17.....................497 14....... 511 17.......................................................504 [2] Sinker and Sinker Chain.....................................................................................507 16......................6 External Forces during Construction.......................................................494 13....504 [3] Ground Chain ..............490 [3] Diameter of Chain .................................490 [2] Setting of Chain....................................................................500 15..508 17.2 ........................6 Principle of Design .................................................................................................................................................3 13...................................................................................................2 12...............................................................3 Chapter 17 Other Types of Mooring Facilities.....................2 14.....................................2 Shallow Draft Quay ...............................................................2.......5.......................................................501 Chapter 16 Mooring Buoys and Mooring Posts .......2.....................................................................................................492 Dimensions and Inclination .......................................1................................................501 Dimensions of Individual Parts .....................................................3 Chapter 15 Air-Cushion Vehicle Landing Facilities ................................1 12..507 16....................................1................490 [1] Design External Forces .....................................................499 [1] Front Wall .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Principle of Design .................................4.............................................................5 Examination of Displacement of Sheet Pile Crown.....................................................................................501 Air-Cushion Vehicle Landing Facilities .......................................................494 Layout ...502 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Buoy ..................................................................................................................................1...............2.................508 Determination of Structural Form ........................................................................................................1 Slipways ...................................2 Cantilever Sheet Pile Quaywall ....................................................................493 Adjusting Tower .............................................................................................................................................498 [5] Basin Area.....................................................2 16......................... 511 17................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1.................................................................................................2 13.4 13.........................................512 -xv17..............492 Design of Access Bridge and Gangway.................................498 14.....................................................3 Mooring Method ......................................492 [1] Design External Forces ..................509 17................................................492 [2] Design of Mooring Anchor......................................................................................................496 Chapter 14 Slipways and Shallow Draft Quays ...............................1....................4 Determination of Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ..................................................................................................................492 of Access Bridge and Gangway ............................................................................... 511 17..................493 Chapter 13 Dolphins ...................497 Location of Slipway ...495 Steel Cellular-Bulkhead Type Dolphins .........................495 Caisson Type Dolphins ...........................CONTENTS 12.................................................................................................506 [5] Floating Body .....................................................................................................2 Mooring Posts ..........................................490 Design of Mooring Anchor..................................................................................................................................3...............................................................................................................5..................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................11................1 General ................................. 525 19...........................................................................................................................2 Arrangement of Fenders............................................3 17.......................................................................4............. 517 17...........................................................5................................... 527 19........5 Structure of Sign ...........................................................2 Lighting Facilities ............... 531 -xvi19.....11...................................8 Signs or Notices... 525 19...........5........................................................4 ............................................. 526 19...................................................................6.11............ 513 Sheet Pile Quaywall with Batter Piles in Front ....................8 Protective Fences .............................................. and Mooring Rings .....................................6....3 Fence and Rope .............. 525 19..........................................................................................................7 Fueling and Electric Power Supply Facilities ..................................................... 526 19.......10 Vehicle Ramp.............2 Mooring Equipment ....................................................1 18..............6................................... 530 19..............1 General .....................................................4 17.................. Bollards..........................9 Barricades......................................1 General .......................................................... 520 19........................... 516 17.......... 525 19.................................. 525 19.......... 521 Tractive Force of Vessel ....... 525 19................... 523 19................ 513 Determination of Embedded Lengths of Sheet Pile and Batter Anchor Pile......9 Curbing .......1 19..................................................................................... Notices and Protective Fences .......................... 522 19.............................................6 Detailed Design ................................... 526 19.....................................................1 General ........................................6............................................................ 516 17....................................................................................11.........................................2 Layout and Dimensions ..................5............................... 525 19....................................... 515 17.. 525 19.................................................. 527 19.......3...................................................... 527 19.................................................................................................... 530 19....... 527 19...................................3 Mooring Posts...................................6 Drainage Facilities .............................................................2 17..............................................................3..................................6...............4 Position of Sign..........................5..............................................................................................................3........................................................................................................2 External Forces Acting on Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ..................................................3 Facilities for Passenger Embarkation and Disembarkation ....... 527 19................... 525 19....................................................... 513 Detailed Design ........1 General .......................................................................................7 Maintenance and Management ...........................................4 Vehicle Ramp .................................................................... 527 19..............................................2 18.2 19........................ 521 Structure ..............3 19..................................................3.............................................3 Berthing Energy of Vessel .. 520 General ............8 Lifesaving Facilities ................ 519 18...........6 Chapter 18 Transitional Parts of Quaywalls ......................................................................................................................5 17........3 Design of Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ........................................................................3..............................................................................4........ Bollards and Mooring Rings..................... 519 Transitional Part Where Quaywalls of Different Type Are Connected .................4...................................................................2 Skirt Guard......................5..... 530 19............................ 513 Calculation of Horizontal and Vertical Forces Acting on Connecting Point .......................3......6................................4 Fender System .........................4 17............................................... 523 19.................... 513 Determination of Cross Sections of Sheet Pile and Batter Anchor Pile............................................................................................................................................. 515 17...................TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 17........................................................................................ 514 17................ 515 17..............................................................................................3 Design of Sheet Pile Wall ................................................. 520 Arrangement of Mooring Posts.........................................................................3............1 Principle of Design.................................................................................................................5 Safety Facilities .............................................11. 525 19.........5.........5.......7 Stairways and Ladders ......4....................................................3................................................................6...............2 Provision of Signs ............... 520 19.................................................................................................3 18..................................................................................................4 Design of Open-Type Superstructure ....4..5 Embedded Length ..................... 519 Chapter 19 Ancillary Facilities ........................................................ 516 Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ...................................11 Signs...............................................................................................4 Signs or Notices...4.....6 Service Facilities .................................................4 Selection of Fender.........................................................................................................................................................................................5 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall with Batter Anchor Piles .......4......... 520 19... 529 19.................................3...............................5.......................................................................................................... 514 17........................................11.11..........11..............11............................................................................................................................................... 519 Transitional Part Where Frontal Water Depth Varies ..............................................................................................................4............4.................................................................................. 517 17..... 523 19. 528 19.................................................................................. 527 19................................................ 519 Outward Projecting Corner ....5........ 528 19........3 Types and Location of Signs ......................................................................................................................5 Water Supply Facilities .. 522 19. 526 19...................................6........... 516 17...........6 Fire Fighting Equipment and Alarm Systems ........................................... 525 19................................................................................ 522 19...................................... 527 19....4 Principle of Design ......................................................................................................................5 Curbing .....................................................1 Principle of Design..........6 Materials ....................4....................................

..................2 Standard Intensity of Illumination ............................................555 21..............................................................................2.........4 20.....547 20................................12...................548 20.............1 Principle of Design ...........................................547 Design of Asphalt Pavement ..................................564 -xvii1.........556 21..........................................2.7.........532 19......................................................................................531 [3] Standard Intensity of Illumination for Indoor Lighting ...3 ..........................................................................534 [2] Indoor Lighting..........................................4 Selection of Lighting Equipment.............540 Load Conditions ...............................................5 20........................................................2 General..3............................................................540 20..............................................................................................................1 20...................................................................................................554 21..........................................................................................................................1 Design Conditions ....................................................1 1..............................534 19................................................................................................................................................................1.....554 21..........................3 Selection of Light Source ...........540 Type of Pavement .................................................559 1........................................................................559 Scope of Application ................................................................................................2 External Forces Acting on Foundation .............12.........................1 Principle of Design ...........................................................531 [1] Definition .......................................................551 Design of Concrete Block Pavement..........................2 Type of Apron ......................................................532 19..................................................................2 Design Vehicles ...............................................................................................................................3 Joints..........................7...........................................................................2....................................................................3 Roadways and Lanes..537 [2] Cleaning and Repair..............................................541 20............7..............................................3 Joints...............................531 [2] Standard Intensity of Illumination for Outdoor Lighting ....................................................................................12.......................................................................3 20.......................................555 Bearing Capacity of Piles ..................................531 19........................540 Width .5....................556 21.....................2...................540 Gradient ......................2.....................................................................................................................................................................553 20......................................................................................537 [1] Inspections .....534 [1] Outdoor Lighting...................1 Design Conditions .....................................................531 19...................................................................................564 1.......................................552 20.....................................................................12.......................................6 20......................................7 Level Crossings.............6.....................................................................................................................................................................................5 Widening of Roads at Bends.................................12.......................................................................................................................................1 1.......................5..................................1 General ..............................................................................................................1 General ...........2.............................3 20....................................555 Concrete Beam .............................2 1........................................................................................................1 Design Conditions ..........6.............................561 1..................................................................................................................................................................................5.................2...................................................556 21....................5.....................4.....563 Car Parks ...........559 1..1 Examination of Effects on Wharf............................................................559 1..........................................................2.....................................................................5 End Protection...2.............................12.................................................535 19.......12 Lighting Facilities ..............................545 20..........................................................................................................................547 20.......1 General ............................4............................547 20....................................................................................................................2......................................................540 20...................................................................................................5 Design of Lighting ........................................559 1.............................2..................................................................542 20...551 20........................................................................................................................................................................4 Design of Foundation without Piles .............................2 Composition of Pavement ..........9 Signs ......2 Composition of Pavement ......2 Composition of Pavement ..............................................................................................................................8 Pavement .......................................................................................3..............................1 21...........................................................................3 Design of Foundation with Piles .......................................................................................559 Roads .........540 Countermeasures against Settlement of Apron...................554 21.........................................................559 Operation and Maintenance of Facilities for Land Traffic........................541 Design of Concrete Pavement .............................................................538 Chapter 20 Aprons ...............................2 20................................2.....................................2 Concrete Beam ...............................................................3 End Protection.............................2 Part IX Other Port Facilities Chapter 1 Port Traffic Facilities .560 1................................................6 Longitudinal Slope..................................6 Maintenance and Management.....................................................551 20.7 Chapter 21 Foundation for Cargo Handling Equipment ..........6........................................562 1.................................................561 1...............4 Clearance Limit ..........................................................541 20........3....5...................................................4 Tie-Bar and Slip-Bar.........559 1...................................................................................................................562 1.....................................................................................1...............................................................................................CONTENTS 19...............................................................................................

...................................5 2....................................................................................................................................................................................4........................ 573 Cargo Handling Equipment ........ 574 Operation and Maintenance of Cargo Handling Equipment ........................................................................................................4 Container Freight Station............4 General .....1 2..........................2 1..................................................................................... 576 Yards for Dangerous Cargo and Oil Storage Facilities ............................................................1 General ................................................................... 578 Ancillary Facilities ............... 570 1................................................................................................................................................................................................ 577 Facilities for Passenger Boarding ........2 Part X Special Purpose Wharves Chapter 1 Container Terminals ........................... 568 Access Roads ............. 576 General .......................................................................... 568 Structure and Length of Immersed Tunnel Elements ..................9 1.................6...........................................5 1....2 3........2 Size and Location ......................................1 2............... 571 1................ 578 Design of Facilities for Passenger Boarding....................................................................................................................................................................2 2................... 583 1...2 1...............................................................................................................3........................................................6..................................7................... 583 1....... 574 Timber Sorting Areas ................................................................................ 569 Design of Immersed Tunnel Elements... 583 -xviii1.................................................. 567 Depth of Immersion ....3 Structural Durability ........ 576 Other Storage Facilities ...................................................................................................7 3............................................7 Chapter 2 Cargo Sorting Facilities ........4 1.............................................................................................................7 1....................................................................................2 Design of Passenger Buildings...................................................5 1................................................................7......... 579 5.....................................3... 575 Sorting Facilities for Hazardous Cargo ........................ 583 1............................ 578 Structural Types.......4 1.............................................6 Railways ............ 573 2.1 1................3 2................................................................................................5 Maintenance Shop....... 571 1.........................................................................2................................................................................................3..................................................6........................ 573 Oil Handling Equipment .....10 1................................................................................................................................................................... 582 Fender System ..................................... 577 Water Supply Facilities .2 Container Cranes.............................6............ 569 Joints ........................................TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 1............................................................................................................. 578 5................................................ 583 1...... 575 2................................................3 5.......................................8 1.................................................. 569 Calculation of Stability of Immersed Tunnel Section ...................................................................6....................1 1........6..............6 1..............................3...................................................2.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 5.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 582 Length and Water Depth of Berths ...............................2......... 573 Quay Sheds .................................................................................... 583 1.............. 573 General .......2.3 1...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 577 Chapter 5 Facilities for Passenger ................. 567 Tunnels ...................................1 1................................ 576 General ................................................................................................4 Chapter 4 Facilities for Ship Services ...........................................2 Principle of Design ............................................................................7...................6.......................................................... 579 5. 581 Design of Mooring Facilities ........................................................................1............2 5.......1......................................................................................................2 Design Requirements ...........1 3........ 568 Ventilation Towers ......................6....4..........................2..................................... 579 5...................................................................................................................3 Ancillary Facilities ..................................................................................3 Container Yard....................................1 Apron ............. 567 Principle of Planning and Design....................................... 567 Heliports ................................................................................................................................3 4.........3 2.............................................................................1 Chapter 3 Storage Facilities ......................................................................... 582 Mooring Equipment........................................................................................... 578 Passenger Building .................................................. 581 1..................................1......... 570 Control and Operation Facilities ........................................................... 564 1...............3.7..........1 4......1.......... 579 5........................2 2.............................................6............................................................................................................................................................... 574 Sorting Facilities for Marine Products ........3.......................... 570 1.......................4............................4 Fender System ..........................................3 ..............2 5.... 570 1......................................................................................................6..............................1 General ........................ 567 General ......................................... 573 Cargo Sorting Areas ..................................................................... 578 General .....3 1......2........................ 570 Bridges ........................................................................................................... 583 Design of Land Facilities .6 2..................................................

.......................589 Chapter 2 Main Dimensions of Target Boats ...........................................................3....................................................................................................587 2.....596 Access Bridges .....591 Chapter 4 Protective Facilities ......................................................................3 General...........................................................586 2.................... Length....................................................1 Width......................................................................591 Navigation Channels ...............1 5.........588 2...........................................3............................................................................1 2......587 2................................................................................................................................................587 Design of Other Facilities ............................................................................................................................................................2...........587 2...........................................4 2.....................591 3......................................................5.................................................2 Chapter 6 Facilities for Ship Services..........................................................5 6..............................3........................................................586 Protection Works against Scouring ........595 Structure............................................1 6............................................................3 General...........................................2 Ancillary Facilities and Signs... Length................................................................. Gradient......5 Part XI Marinas Chapter 1 Introduction ...............1 Roads........ and Radius of Curvature .......................................................................................................................................................................................2 5..........................................................................586 2............................598 Land Storage Facilities .........................................................................587 2...................2...............................................598 Chapter 7 Land Traffic Facilities.......................................................................... Gradient.........................................................................596 Mooring Method .....................................................593 5.....................2 5.......................4 Passenger Terminals ................................................................................3......................................................................................................................................................................................599 INDEX -xix- ....................3..........................597 5...........................4 5............................................................588 2...................................586 2...................................................3 Design of Moving Parts ....................................................................4.......................585 Fender System......3...........................................................................................598 General...................................................583 Gates.................................................................585 Mooring Equipment .................................................................590 Chapter 3 Navigation Channels and Basins...................................................................593 Design Conditions for Mooring Facilities ..................................................................6 1...........................4 5...............597 Lifting / Lowering Frame Facilities ..............CONTENTS 1...................................................................5......................................4 2.........595 General ...................................................586 2...5..................................................................................................................................................5 5..2...............................................................1 5.........................583 Chapter 2 Ferry Terminals ......................................................................................... and Ancillary Facilities............................................................................................................................591 Mooring Basins ..........3...................................586 Design of Vehicle Ramp ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Design of Moving Parts ..................................................................................................................................................3..........................................................................2..................1 Width.............................................................................5...................................................................................595 Examination of Safety ............585 Length and Water Depth of Berths.............593 Floating Piers ....................................3.............................................1 3...............................................................................................................................................................1 2...............................3 5............3 2.................................................................................583 Ancillary Facilities..........6 5........584 Design of Mooring Facilities ...........4........................2 Principle of Design ..587 2.............................8 Administration Building..2 2.......3........................7 1............................586 Facilities for Passenger Boarding .....................................................................................................3..........................584 2....5......................................................596 Ancillary Facilities ....2 Passageways .............3..............595 Structural Design...........................................................2 3...............5 Safety Equipment..............3 2............................3 Car Parks ....592 Chapter 5 Mooring Facilities ....................

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN -xx- .

Part I General .

.

Accordingly the Technical Standards also apply to facilities like navigation channels.1 shows the statutory structure of the Technical Standards.1. With regard to matters for which there are no stipulations in the Technical Standards. hereafter referred to simply as the Notification). protective facilities and mooring facilities of the marinas and privately owned ports. maintaining or repairing of a particular individual structure of a port or harbor. which are found in outside of the legally designated port areas. This document is made up of the main items. but rather to the port and harbor facilities stipulated in Article 19 of the Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Order. specific examples of structures. regarding the items related to the Notification. In the case that the probability distributions of loads and structure strengths can be adequately approximated.1. constructing. basins. both of which have been issued in line with Article 56-2 of the “Port and Harbour Law”. the safety factors indicate values that are considered by experience to be sufficiently safe under standard conditions. Unlike the more traditional design methods in which safety factors are used. appropriate methods other than those mentioned in the Technical Standards may be adopted. according to the way of judging the safety of structures. which supplement the main items. there will be cases where the items shown in the Technical Standards may be inadequate for dealing with planning. [Commentary] (1) The Ministerial Ordinance and the Notification (hereafter collectively referred to as the Technical Standards) apply not to the port and harbor facilities stipulated in Article 2 of the “Port and Harbour Law”. (5) Design methods can be broadly classified into the methods that use the safety factors and the methods that use the indices based on probability theory. when executing actual design works. after confirming the safety of a structure in consideration using appropriate methods such as model tests or trustworthy numerical calculations (following the main items of the Technical Standards).1 Statutory Structure of the Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities (4) This document is intended to help individuals concerned with correct interpretation of the Technical Standards and to facilitate right application of the Ministerial Ordinance and the Notification. and other related materials. 1974. (3) Figure C. The sections marked Commentary mainly give the background to and the basis for the Notification. The texts in large letters are the main items that describe the parts of the Notification and the basic items that must be obeyed. In this document. it is possible to use a reliability design method. hereafter referred to simply as the Ministerial Ordinance) and the Notification stipulating the Details of Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities (Ministry of Transport Notification No. and maintenance of port and harbor facilities. (2) Since the Technical Standards covers a wide rage of facilities. C. Port and Harbour Law [Article 56-2] (technical standards for port and harbour facilities) Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Order [Article 19] (stipulation of facilities covered) Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Regulations [Article 28] (stipulation of facilities excluded from coverage) Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Order Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Regulations The Technical Standards The Ministerial Ordinance The Notification Fig. a reliability design method makes it possible to gain a quantitative understanding of the -1- . improvement. etc. it is determined through experience to compensate for the uncertainty in a variety of factors. 30.1 Scope of Application The Ministerial Ordinance stipulating the Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities (Ministry of Transport Ordinance No.PART I GENERAL Part I General Chapter 1 General Rules 1. Depending on the conditions. 181. A safety factor is not an index that represents the degree of safety quantitatively. The sections marked Technical Notes provide investigation methods and/or standards that will be of reference value. shall be applied to the construction.1.1. 1999. There is also possibility that new items may be added in the future in line with technical developments or innovations. it may be acceptable to lower the values of safety factors. designing. Rather. but when doing so it is necessary to make a decision using prudent judgement based on sound reasoning. along with reference sections marked Commentary and Technical Notes.

(3) Pleasure boat: A yacht. [Commentary] In addition to the terms defined above.2 Definitions The terms used in the Notification are based on the terminology used in the Ministerial Ordinance.000 t or more. with the aim of executing a smooth switchover to SI units. (1) Super-large vessel: A cargo ship with a deadweight tonnage of 100. 102. the Ministry of Agriculture. (2) Datum level for construction work: This is the standard water level used when constructing. With a reliability design method.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN likelihood of the failure of structure in question and then to keep the likelihood below a certain allowable value. 1992). (1) Dangerous articles: This term refers to those that are designated in the Notification stipulating the “Types of Hazardous Goods” for the “Port Regulation Law Enforcement Regulations” (Ministry of Transport Notification No. the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Construction have concluded to use the International System of Units in their public work projects starting from April 1999. (2) Passenger ship: A vessel with a capacity of 13 or more passengers. 1950)). the meanings of the following terms are listed below. 1979). May 20. the meanings of the following terms as stipulated in the law or notification are cited. the datum level for construction work shall be determined while considering the conditions of extremely low water level that may occur during a drought season. Formally speaking. motorboat or other vessel used for sport or recreation. in addition. in order to ensure the safe use of the port or harbor in question.3 Usage of SI Units [Commentary] In line with the provisions in the “Measurement Law” (Law No. in the case of port and harbor facilities in lakes and rivers for which there is little tidal influence. 1.000 t or more. 51. the limit state design method can be classified as one form of reliability design method. design is carried out by using the partial safety factors and reliability indices. except in the case of LPG carriers and LNG carriers. and is equal to the chart datum level (specifically the chart datum for which the height is determined based on the provisions of Article 9 (8) of the “Law for Hydrographic Activities” (Law No. improving or maintaining port and harbor facilities. However. 1. in which case the gross tonnage is 25. Forestry and Fisheries. -2- . 547.

001163W/(m•ºC) 1cal/(h•m2•ºC) ＝ 0.80665J 1erg ＝ 100nJ 1PS ＝ 735.3.80665 × 10-2MPa 1kgf/cm2 ＝ 9.80665N•m 1kgf/cm2 ＝ 9.80665 × 10-2N/mm2 1kfg•m ＝ 9.322kPa 1kgf/cm2 ＝ 9.80665 × 104Pa ＝ 9.1 Conversion Factors from Conventional Units to SI Units Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Quantity Length Mass Acceleration Force Moment of a force Non-SI units µ kgf•s2/m Gal kgf dyn kgf•m SI units m kg m/s2 N N N•m Pa 7 Pressure kgf/cm2 N/mm2 Pa Pa 9 Stress kgf/cm2 N/mm2 J J W J W•s W/(m•ºC) W/(m2•ºC) J/(kg•ºC) dB Conversion factor 1µ ＝ 1µm 1kgf•s2/m ＝ 9.18605W•s 1cal/(h•m•ºC) ＝ 0.18605J/(kg•ºC) 1phon ＝ 1dB 8 mHg 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Work (energy) Power Quantity of heat Thermal conductivity Heat conduction coefficient Specific heat capacity Sound pressure level kgf•m erg PS HP cal cal/(h•m•ºC) cal/(h•m2•ºC) cal/(kg•ºC) － -3- .80665kg 1Gal ＝ 0.80665N 1dyn ＝ 10µN 1kgf•m ＝ 9.1.01m/s2 1kgf ＝ 9.499W 1HP ＝ 746.80665 × 10-2N/mm2 1mHg ＝ 133.101W 1cal ＝ 4.80665 × 104Pa ＝ 9.001163W/(m2•ºC) 1cal/(kg•ºC) ＝ 4.80665 × 10-2MPa 1kgf/cm2 ＝ 9.PART I GENERAL Table C.18605J 1cal ＝ 4.

Infrastructure.) The difference in height between the chart datum level and the mean sea level is referred to as Z0. (2) International Marine Chart Datum The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has decided to adopt the Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) as the international marine chart datum. Here M2 is the principal lunar semi-diurnal tide. and Transport.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work [Commentary] The datum level for port and harbor construction work is the standard water level that shall form the basis for the planning. S2 is the principal solar semi-diurnal tide. The chart datum level shall be used as the datum level for construction work. and O1 tides). Japan. (In the case that the observation period is short. The LAT is defined as the lowest sea level that is assumed to occur under the combination of average weather conditions and generally conceivable astronomical conditions. design. tide levels for at least 19 years are calculated using harmonic constants obtained from at least one year’s worth of observations. [Technical Notes] (1) Chart Datum Level The chart datum level is set as the level below the mean sea level by the amount equal to or approximately equivalent to the sum of the amplitueds of the four major tidal constituents (M2. corrections for seasonal fluctuations should be made when determining the mean sea level. which are obtained from the harmonic analysis of tidal observation data. K1. but it is planned to meet the IHO recommendation by stating the difference between the LAT and the chart datum level in tide tables published by the Hydrographic Department of Maritime Safety Agency. Ministry of Land. in the case of Japan. however. and construction of facilities. the chart datum level is obtained using the old method described in (1) above (approximate lowest water level). There will be no switchover to the LAT in the near future in Japan. and issued a recommendation to this effect to the Hydrographic Departments in various countries throughout the world in June 1997. -4- . Note that the heights of rocks or land marks shown on the nautical charts are the elevation above the mean sea level. S2. and O1 is the principal lunar diurnal tide. In actual practice. K1 is the luni-solar diurnal tide. and then the lowest water level is taken as the LAT. However. which is the long-term average of the hourly sea surface height at the place in question.

while reflecting this aspect in the detailed design. it is necessary to give due consideration to the system of future maintenance and to select the types of structures and the materials used so that future maintenance will be easily executed. It is thus essential not only to give due consideration when initially designing the structures in question. (4) When designing a structure. (3) For basic and common matters concerning maintenance. in line with the specific characteristics of the port or harbor in question.• [Technical Notes] (1) The concepts of the terms relating to maintenance are as follows: Inspection / checking: • • • •Activities to investigate the state of a structure. Maintenance data kept in good systematic order is the basic information necessary for carrying out appropriate evaluation of the level of soundness of the facilities in question. it is a good idea to draw up a maintenance plan for each structure while considering factors like the structural form. and judgement of the necessity or otherwise of repairs etc. during which the functions demanded of the facilities must be maintained. Maintenance -5- . (2) Port and harbor facilities must generally remain in service for long periods of time. comprehensive maintenance including inspections. and executing their maintenance and repairs. (2) With regard to the procedure for maintenance. evaluations. and then to implement maintenance work based on this plan. inspections. At the same time the maintenace data is useful when taking measures against the deterioration of the facilities as a whole and when investigating the possibility in the life cycle cost reduction of the facilities. refer to the “Manual for Maintenance and Repair of Port and Harbor Structures”. etc. repair.) must be recorded and stored in a standard format. and reinforcement. Maintenance: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Activities carried out with the aim of holding back the physical deterioration of a structure and keeping its function within acceptable levels. repairs. Repair / reinforcement: • • Activities in which a structure that has deteriorated physically and/ or functionally is partially reconstructed in order to restore the required function and/or structure. the tendency to deteriorate and the degree of importance.PART I GENERAL Chapter 3 Maintenance In order to maintain the functions of port and harbor facilities at a satisfactory service level and to prevent deterioration in the safety of such facilities. checks. the situation regarding damage and the remaining level of function. but also to carry out proper maintenance after the facilities have been put into service. repair. etc. along with related administrative work: mainly composed of periodic and special inspections Evaluation: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Evaluation of the level of soundness based on the results of inspection / checking. shall be carried out. reinforcement work. evaluations. (3) A whole variety of data concerning maintenance (specifically. [Commentary] (1) “Maintenance” refers to a system consisting of a series of linked activities involving the efficient detection of changes in the state of serviceability of the facilities and the execution of effective measures such as rational evaluation.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN -6- .

Part II Design Conditions .

.

lifetime. The design conditions listed above are just those that have a large influence on port and harbor facilities. • Influence upon human lives and property if the facilities are damaged. the following criteria should be taken into consideration. and the social requirements for the facilities. for example the water depth of a mooring basin becoming insufficient owing to the increase in vessel size. (c) Lifetime The length of lifetime should be taken into account in determining the structure and materials of the facilities and also in determining the necessity for and extent of the improvement of the existing facilities. and construction cost of the facilities. service and construction conditions. the following matters should be taken into consideration. They are generally determined according to the results of surveys and tests. • Economic viewpoint of the facilities The number of years until the facilities become economically uncompetitive with other newer facilities (unless some kind of improvements are carried out). care should be exercised so that all functions of the facilities will be exploited fully.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Part II Design Conditions Chapter 1 General In designing port and harbor facilities. • Influence upon other facilities if the facilities are damaged. (b) Importance of the facilities The degree of importance of the facilities should be considered in order to design the facilities by taking appropriate account of safety and broad economic implications. design seismic coefficient. (1) Ship dimensions (2) External forces produced by ships (3) Winds and wind pressure (4) Waves and wave force (5) Tide and extraordinary sea levels (6) Currents and current force (7) External forces acting on floating structures and their motions (8) Estuarine hydraulics and littoral drift (9) Subsoil (10) Earthquakes and seismic force (11) Liquefaction (12) Earth pressure and water pressure (13) Deadweight and surcharge (14) Coefficient of friction (15) Other necessary design conditions [Commentary] The design conditions should be determined carefully. safety factor. functions. In the case of temporary structures. etc. the design conditions may be determined while considering also the length of service life. (a) Functions of the facilities Since facilities often have multiple functions. The design criteria influenced by importance of facilities are those of environmental conditions. • Impact on society and its economy if the facilities are damaged. In determining the degree of importance of the facilities. Thus. • Replaceability of the facilities. the environmental impacts. Lifetime of the facilities should be determined by examinig the following: • Operational function of the facilities The number of years until the facilities can no longer be usable due to the occurrence of problems in terms of the function of the facilities. the design conditions shall be chosen from the items listed below by taking into consideration the natural. the characteristics of materials. loads. the design conditions should be precisely determined upon full understanding of the methods and results of such investigations and tests. -7- . because they exercise great influence upon the safety. [Technical Notes] (1) In designing port and harbor facilities.

1.1) 1) E1 = 1 ( 1 1 ¤ T 1 ) where L1： lifetime length T 1： return period L1 (1. (i) Construction period In the case that the construction period is stipulated. pp. topographical and soil conditions. L. the opening date and the natural conditions. -8- . • Physical property of the facilities The number of years until it is no longer possible to maintain the strength of materials composing the structures at the specified level due to processes such as corrosion or weathering of these materials. in order that it will be possible to complete construction work within the stipulated period.1) (e) Environmental conditions Not only the wave. titanium and new rubbers. (j) Construction costs etc. Proc. due consideration must be given to things like the structural type and the construction method. Construction costs consist of the initial investment costs and maintenance costs. construction works. atmospheric conditions and rising sea level due to global warming should be taken into consideration. and influence on the environment and landscape when selecting the materials. There is also a design approach that the facilities are put into service step by step as the construction progresses. bottom material. 1963. animal and plant life. seismic. The encounter probability E1 is obtained using equation (1. coal ash and dredged sediment have begun to be used. which have direct influences on the design of the facilities. structural type. (f) Materials It is necessary to consider the physical external forces. 89.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN • Social function of the facilities The number of years until the functions of the facilities that constituted the original purpose become unnecessary or until different functions are called for the facilities due to new port planning etc. The construction period is generally determined by things like the availability of the materials. When carrying out design etc. it is necessary to consider the early use of the facilities and to secure an early return on investment. Note also that the initial investment costs mentioned here include compensation duties. [Reference] 1) Borgman. the construction equipment. No. new materials such as stainless steels. (g) Construction method In order to carry out design rationally. In recent years. cost. (d) Encounter probability The encounter probability is intimately linked with the lifetime length.. while ensuring the safety of service / construction. ASCE. It is most important to ensure the reguired quality. All of these costs must be considered in design and construction. it is necessary to give consideration both to the design and the construction method. (h) Work accuracy It is necessary to carry out design considering the accuracy of construction works that can be maintained in actual projects. lifetime. and recycled materials such as slag. the degree of difficulty of construction.1. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the construction method. When doing this. E. since the construction costs will depend on these things. in addition to more traditional materials.1-35.: “Risk criteria”. WW3. Vol. deterioration. but also the water quality.

as stipulated in the “Law Concerning the Measurement of the Tonnage of Ships”. (c) Displacement tonnage The amount of water. (7) The mast height varies considerably even for vessels of the same type with the same tonnage. Note however that there is also the “international gross tonnage”. the relationship between the two is stipulated in Article 35 of the “Enforcement Regulations for the Law Concerning the Measurement of the Tonnage of Ships” (Ministerial Ordinance No.1. Clause 2 of the Ministerial Ordinance stipulates that the “target vessel” is the vessel that has the largest gross tonnage out of those that are expected to use the port or harbor facilities in question.2.1. [Technical Notes] (1) Article 1. the principal dimensions are listed separately for “long distance ferries” and “short-to-medium distance ferries. it is necessary to carry out a survey on the mast heights of the target vessels. There will also be vessels that have a tonnage greater than that of the target vessel listed in the table.2).2.” (6) Since the principal dimensions of Japanese passenger ships tend to have different characteristics from those of foreign passenger ships. but still have principal dimensions smaller than those of the target vessel. which. the principal dimensions of the target vessel may be determined by referring to Table T. 1981). the principal dimensions are listed separately for “Japanese passenger ships” and “foreign passenger ships”. use the principal dimensions of that vessel. (2) In the case that the target vessel cannot be identified in advance.1. and so when designing facilities like bridges that pass over navigation routes. -9- . the principal dimensions of this vessel should be used.1. (8) In the case that the target vessel is known to be a small cargo ship but it is not possible to identify precisely the demensions of the ship in advance. and they mainly represent the 75% cover ratio values for each tonnage of vessels. For each type of vessels. T.2.2. equation (2. the tonnages (usually either gross or deadweight tonnage) are used as representative indicators.1. but in the case of such small vessels there are large variations in the principal dimensions and so particular care should be exercised when using Table T. in line with the provisions in treaties etc.1.2.1) shows the relationship between the deadweight tonnage (DWT) and the gross tonnage (GT) for the types of vessels that use the deadweight tonnage as the representative indicator 1). Accordingly. use appropriate principal dimensions determined by statistical methods. (10) For the sake of consistency.2. The values in Table T.1 lists the “principal dimensions of vessels for the case that the target vessel cannot be identified” by tonnage level. expressed in tons. (2) In the case that the target vessel cannot be identified..PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 2 Vessels 2. (4) Table T.1 has been obtained using the data from “Lloyd’s Maritime Information June ’95” and “Nihon Senpaku Meisaisho” (“Detailed List of Japanese Vessels”.2. These values have been obtained through methods such as statistical analysis 1).1.1. (b) Deadweight tonnage The maximum weight. such as in the case of port and harbor facilities for public use.2 have been obtained using the same kind of procedure as those in Table T. In this table.1 Dimensions of Target Vessel (Notification Article 21) The principal dimensions of the target vessel shall be set using the following method: (1) In the case that the target vessel can be identified.1. (5) Since the principal dimensions of long distance ferries that sail over 300km tend to have different characteristics from those of short-to-medium distance ferries. Accordingly. the equation may be applied if the tonnage is within the range shown in Table T. is also used as an indicator that represents the size of a vessel.1.2.1.2. (9) Tonnage The definitions of the various types of tonnage are as follows: (a) Gross tonnage The measurement tonnage of sealed compartments of a vessel. of cargo that can be loaded onto a vessel.1.1. (3) Table T. in the case that the target vessel can be identified. displaced by a vessel when it is floating at rest. there will be some vessels that have principal dimensions that exceed the values in the table. The values of the “gross tonnage” and the “international gross tonnage” can differ from one another. The definitions of principal dimensions in the table are shown in Fig. 47. expressed in tons.1. The “gross tonnage” is used as an indicator that represents the size of a vessel in Japan’s maritime systems. for any given tonnage. but mainly for vessels that make international sailings.2. the principal dimensions of “small cargo ships” can be obtained by referring to Table T.2. 1995 edition).

3 32.0 13.3 36.3 to T-2.000 10.000 55.1 16.880DWT GT = 0.541DWT GT = 0. which were analyzed by the Systems Laboratory of Port and Harbour Research Institute (PHRI) using the data from “Lloyd’s Maritime Informations Services (June ’98)”.6 16. Cargo ships Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 1.000 ton 40.000 3.6 11.9 21.8 19.2 8.000 18.6 27.000 90.000 12.9 5. Length overall Load water line After perpendicular Length between perpendiculars Fore perpendicular 64748 (2.2 m 32.000 30.1 14.000 60.8 -10- .1) Moulded breadth Moulded depth 1.7 14.6 6.000 40.1.5 Full load draft (d) 11.000 5.9 32. bulk cargo carriers. container ships.3 44.9 Molded breadth (B) 30.9 m 4. T.000 ton 2.0 11.5 8.000 Length overall (L) 218 m 244 266 286 Length overall (L) 67 m 83 94 109 137 144 161 185 200 218 233 249 256 286 Fig.2.5 29.000 2.1 Definitions of Principal Dimensions of Vessel Table T.808DWT (11) Tables T-2.2.000 50.9 m 13.2 13.7 15.6 list the frequency distribution of the principal dimensions of general cargo ships.1.000 70. Container ships Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 30.3 32.1 39.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Cargo ships: Container ships: Oil tankers: Roll-on/roll-off vessels: where GT ： gross tonnage DWT ： deadweight tonnage GT = 0.1 Principal Dimensions of Vessels for the Case That the Target Vessel Cannot Be Identified Molded breadth (B) 10.1.553DWT GT = 0. and oil tankers.1 m 12.000 150.6 9.1.8 12.0 23.9 13.3 Full load draft Full load draft (d) 3.1.3 38.000 100.

4 32.7 m 28.7 3-B Long distance ferries (sailing distance 300km or more) Gross tonnage (GT) 6.0 30.000 18.4 18.000 25.000 4.500 5.5 20.000 5.500 4.000 Length overall (L) 70 m 94 114 130 165 184 200 Molded breadth (B) 11.000 10.8 6.3 5. Roll-on/roll-off vessels Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 400 ton 1.5 21.000 ton 4.8 m 5.3 7.000 13.2 27.5 30.4 Length overall (L) 142 m 167 185 192 192 200 Molded breadth (B) 22.500 2.9 Full load draft (d) 11.4 6.000 5-B Foreign passenger ships Gross tonnage (GT) 20.4 Full load draft (d) 4.8 6.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 3.2 Full load draft (d) 8.0 Full load draft (d) 3.6 8.000 20.3 Full load draft (d) 3.0 8.7 18.6 Length overall (L) 75 m 97 115 134 154 182 Molded breadth (B) 13.000 6.000 20.8 m 15.000 ton 30.9 5.3 35.8 6.7 6.3 m 25.9 25.000 Length overall (L) 50 m 63 72 104 136 148 Molded breadth (B) 11.7 22.000 12.0 32.4 3.8 m 13.0 7.000 10.0 8.0 m 3.5 27.1 m 4.000 ton 10.0 m 4.5 14.6 23.8 21.2 28.6 5.6 6.000 30.000 50.0 m 8.5 6.0 Length overall (L) 83 m 107 130 147 188 217 Molded breadth (B) 15.000 23.0 5.0 8.000 6.7 18.0 m 6. Ferries 3-A Short-to-medium distance ferries (sailing distance less than 300km) Gross tonnage (GT) 400 ton 700 1.2 Full load draft (d) 6.6 m 18.7 5.000 16.6 m 16.2 28.000 7.2 23.8 7.5 Length overall (L) 180 m 207 248 278 Molded breadth (B) 25.000 70.7 4.500 3.3 21. Pure car carriers Gross tonnage (GT) 500 ton 1.000 5.000 2.3 28.8 9. Passenger ships 5-A Japanese passenger ships Gross tonnage (GT) 2.000 10.2 -11- .2 27.6 6.

6 14.9 5.5 6.000 3.0 m 4.000 70.2.000 5.0 41.2 Principal Dimensions of Small Cargo Ships Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 500 ton 700 Length overall (L) 51 m 57 Molded breadth (B) 9.2 32.8 23.6 25.8 20.4 Table T-2.000 90.1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 7.9 15.Full load draft @ -12- .000 10.Length overall L (b) DWT .8 29.6 13.3 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of General Cargo Ships (a) DWT .000 15.9 8.6 10.000 ton 2.0 Table T.3 16.2 m 12.3 38.1 Full load draft (d) 4.000 Length overall (L) 61 m 76 87 102 127 144 158 180 211 235 254 Molded breadth (B) 10.000 30.Breadth * (c) DWT .000 20.9 9. Oil tankers Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 1.5 Full load draft (d) 3.4 7.000 50.3 m 3.1.9 12.0 m 9.

Length overall L (b) DWT .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Table T-2.4 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Bulk Cargo Carriers (a) DWT .Full load draft @ -13- .1.Breadth * (c) DWT .

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T-2.Breadth * (c) DWT .TEU -14- .5 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Container Ships (a) DWT .Full load draft d unknown unknown (d) DWT .Length overall L (b) DWT .1.

Length overall L (b) DWT .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Table T-2.6 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Oil Tankers (a) DWT .1.Full load draft @ -15- .Breadth * (c) DWT .

the mooring method and the properties of the mooring system. [Commentary] (1) The following loads acting on mooring facilities should be considered when a vessel is berthing or moored: a) Loads caused by berthing of a vessel b) Loads caused by motions of a moored vessel When designing mooring facilities.2 External Forces Generated by Vessels 2. statistical methods.ö C e C m C s C c è 2 ø In this equation.0) [Commentary] In addition to the kinetic energy method mentioned above. and the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system. -16- .2.1) E f = æ -----------. C e . and C c represent the following: E f： berthing energy of vessel (kJ = kN•m) M s： mass of vessel (t) V： berthing velocity of vessel (m/s) C e： eccentricity factor C m： virtual mass factor C s： softness factor (standard value is 1. should be considered. along with the influence of things like the winds. the data necessary for design are insufficient and the values of the various constants used in the calculations may not be sufficiently well known. (3) As a general rule. Then the impact forces and tractive forces on the mooring facilities due to the motions of the moored vessel.0) C c： berth configuration factor (standard value is 1. In particular. (2) As a general rule.2) 1) may be used to give the relationship between the deadweight tonnage (DWT) or the gross tonnage (GT) and the displacement tonnage (DT)..2.2.2. the structure of the mooring facilities. or a berthing beam equipped with fenders. the berthing force must be considered first. waves and tidal currents. the berthing method and the berthing velocity. the berthing forces acting on the mooring facilities should be calculated based on the berthing energy of the vessel and using the load-deflection characteristics of the fenders. the tractive forces and impact forces generated by the motions of a moored vessel should be obtained by carrying out a numerical simulation of vessel motions taking into account the wave force acting on the vessel.1 General The external forces acting on the mooring facilities when a vessel is berthing or moored shall be determined using an appropriate method. Thus. which are caused by the wave force. 2. of those installed in the open sea or harbor entrances such as offshore terminals. the wind force. the kinetic energy method is generally used. the energy absorbed by the fenders (i. the current force. methods using hydraulic model experiments. However. C m . Clause 1) It shall be standard to calculate the external force generated by berthing of a vessel with the following equation: MsV2 (2.e. the influence of the wave force acting on a vessel is large and so due consideration must be given to the wave force. where f = C e ´ C m ´ C s ´ C c . there are also other methods of estimating the berthing energy of a vessel: for example. V. a quaywall. when a vessel is berthing at a dolphin.2 Berthing [1] Berthing Energy (Notification Article 22. However. and methods using fluid dynamics models 3). and of those in the harbors where vessels seek refuge during storms. the berthing energy E f of the vessel) will become E s ´ f considering the various influencing factors. (2) The vessel mass M s is taken to be the displacement tonnage (DT) of the target vessel. E f . In the case that the target vessel cannot be identified. M s . with these alternative methods. equation (2. considering the dimensions of the target vessel. C s . for the cases of the mooring facilities in the ports and harbors that face out onto the open sea with long-period waves expected to come in. then the kinetic energy E s is equal to ( M s V 2) ¤ 2 . wind force and current force. [Technical Notes] (1) If it is assumed that a berthing vessel moves only in the abeam direction.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 2.

2) [2] Berthing Velocity The berthing velocity of a vessel shall be determined based on the measurement in situ or past data of similar measurements. -17- . the vessel may line up perpendicular to the quay.657 ＋ 0.4).332 ＋ 0. the berthing velocity is usually less than 10 cm/s for general cargo ships. (4) According to the results of surveys on berthing velocity 5).550 ＋ 0. but little research has been carried out to determine it. (2) Special vessels such as ferries. The energy that must be absorbed by the fenders is thus reduced.2.388 ＋ 0.2.2. It is thought that the effect depends on things like the berthing angle. the majority berth at the velocity of less than 10 cm/s. T. the position and structure of the mooring facilities.000DWT)： Cargo ships (10.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Cargo ships (less than 10. This effect is considered when determining the berth configuration factor C c .915 ＋ 0.2.2.026 ＋ 0.913 log (DWT) log (DT) ＝ 0. T.6). 64444744448 (2. then the berthing velocity tends to be lower. the berthing velocity must be set high if the mooring facilities is not sheltered by breakwaters etc. in tons.365 ＋ 0.2. paying attention to the type of berthing method employed by the target vessel. one notices that such vessels come to a temporary standstill. the extent to which the vessel is loaded. When there is a strong wind blowing toward the quay.909 log (DWT) log (DT) ＝ 0. meaning that the under-keel clearance is large.341 ＋ 0. a berthing method different from that for larger vessels described in (1) may be used.2. roll-on/roll-off vessels. (3) Figure T. it has been prepared based on the data collected through experience. meaning that the under-keel clearance is small.588 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 0. When such a berthing method is adopted.2).683 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 0. It was also clear from the above-mentioned survey results that the degree to which a vessel is loaded up has a considerable influence on the berthing velocity. the lower the berthing velocity becomes. They are then gently pushed by several tugboats until they come into contact with the quay. If there is a ramp at the bow or stern of such a vessel.981 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 0.904 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 0.000DWT or more)： Container ships： Ferries (long distance)： Ferries (short-to-medium distance)： Roll-on/roll-off vessels： Passenger ships (Japanese)： Passenger ships (foreign)： Car carriers： Oil tankers： log (DT) ＝ 0.2. moreover. Even for ferries which berth under their own power. (4) When a vessel berths.511 ＋ 0. displaced by the vessel when fully loaded) GT： gross tonnage DWT： deadweight tonnage (3) The softness factor C s represents the ratio of the remaining amount of the berthing energy after energy absorption due to deformation of the shell plating of the vessel to the initial berthing energy. It is thus necessary to determine berthing velocities carefully based on actualy measured values. weather and oceanographic conditions. the under-keel clearance.2.956 log (DWT) where DT： displacement tonnage (amount of water.506 ＋ 0. The berthing velocity only occasionally exceeds 10 cm/s for large oil tankers that use offshore terminals (see Fig.891 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 1. such vessels may berth while actually being pulled outwards by the tugboats. This figure shows that the larger the vessel. lined up parallel to the quaywall at a certain distance away from it. whereas if it is lightly loaded. and small cargo ships berth under their own power without assistance of tugboats. there are a few cases in which the berthing velocity is over 15 cm/s and so due care must be taken when designing ferry quays (see Fig.953 log (DWT) log (DT) ＝ 1. T. then the berthing velocity tends to be higher. In other words. In these cases. and the berthing velocity. considering the type of the target vessel.3).0. but there are a few cases where it is over 10 cm/s (see Fig. it is common to set the berthing velocity to 10 ~ 15 cm/s based on past design examples.899 log (DWT) log (DT) ＝ 0.1 shows the relationship between the vessel handling conditions and berthing velocity by vessel size 4). and the availability or absence of tugboats and their sizes. if a vessel is fully loaded. the shape of the vessel’s shell plating. the mass of water between the vessel and the mooring facilities resists to move out and acts just as if a cushion is placed in this space. [Technical Notes] (1) Observing the way in which large cargo ships and large oil tankers make berthing. Nevertheless. It is generally assumed that no energy is absorbed in this way and so the value of C s is often given as 1.

T.6 (10.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Difficult exposed Difficulty of handling vessel / mooring facilities being shelterd or not Good berthing exposed Easy berthing exposed Difficult berthing sheltered Good berthing sheltered Berthing velocity (cm/s) Fig. T.000 tons) Fig.6 (tons) Fig.2 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for General Cargo Ships 5) Berthing velocity (cm/s) Displacement tonnage .2.1 Relationship between Vessel Handling Conditions and Berthing Velocity by Vessel Size 4) Open type quay Wall type quay (sheet pile.2.2.2.6 (tons) Fig.4 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for Longitudinal Berthing of Ferries 5) -18- . gravity types) Berthing velocity (cm/s) Displacement tonnage .2.2.2.3 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for Large Oil Tankers 6) Stern berthing Bow berthing Berthing velocity (cm/s) Displacement tonnage . T.2. T.

000 class 50.2. It can be seen that the highest measured berthing velocity was 13 cm/s. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS According to the survey by Moriya et al. the lower the berthing velocity tends to be.2.41 cm/s and the standard deviation s is 2. Consequently.6 4.2.exp ( V 1.5 5.5.0 N=738 Poisson distribution m = 3 Poisson distribution m = 4 Weibull distribution Normal distribution N Cargo ships Container ships Pure car carriers V (cm/s) Dead weight tonnage (DWT) V (cm/s) Fig. the berthing velocity is generally higher than that for larger vessels.3) From this equation.000 class 10.1 3.6 All vessels 8. T.000 class 5. If the data are assumed to follow a Weibull distribution.4 4.000 class 15. The highest berthing velocities observed were about 15 cm/s for vessels under 10.8 where V： berthing velocity (cm/s) (2.4 5.9 4. For small vessels in particular. (6) Small vessels such as small cargo ships and fishing boats come to berths by controlling their positions under their own power without assistance of tugboats.2. This survey also shows that the larger the vessel. or in the case of berthing of small or medium-sized vessels under influence of currents. and in some cases it can even exceed 30 cm/s.000 DWT.2.2.6 Frequency Distribution of Berthing Velocity 10) (5) Figure T.2 4.2 Container ships 7.7 4.000 DWT or over.2. considering the ship drift velocity by currents.000 class 30.2. The relationship between the deadweight tonnage and berthing velocity is shown in Fig. Application of the Weibull distribution yields the probability density function f ( V ) as expressed in equation (2.5 cm/s becomes 1/1000.1 7. the average berthing velocities for cargo ships.7 5. (7) In cases where cautious berthing methods such as those described in (1) are not used.6 shows a berthing velocity frequency distribution obtained from actual measurement records at offshore terminals used by large oil tankers of around 200.2. the probability of the berthing velocity exceeding 14.1 3.2.000 DWT and about 10 cm/s for vessels of 10. it is recommended to carry out design works based on the design standards for fishing port facilities and actual states of usage.2.0 4. (8) When designing mooring facilities that may be used by fishing boats. it is necessary to carefully determine the berthing velocity based on actually measured values etc.2 5.3): V f ( V ) = -----.1 6.000 class All vessels Berthing velocity (cm/s) Cargo ships 8. The mean µ is 4..8 7.5 3. container ships. The offshore terminals where the berthing velocity measurements were taken had a design berthing velocity of either 15 cm/s or 20 cm/s 7).08 cm/s.1 Deadweight Tonnage and Average Berthing Velocity Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 1.5 Relationship between Deadweight Tonnage and Berthing Velocity Fig.6 4. -19- . Table T.0 Pure car carriers 4.9 3. and pure car carriers are as listed in Table T.6%.2.4 5. T. it is necessary to determine the berthing velocity based on actual measurement data etc. then the probability of the berthing velocity below the value 13 cm/s would be 99.1.2..2.3 4.25 ) 0.

2.2.2. this is related to the moment of inertia I z around the vertical axis of the vessel by the relationship Iz = M s r 2 L pp： length between perpendiculars (m) C b： block coefficient.7 Relationship between the Radius of Gyration around the Vertical Axis and the Block Coefficient (Myers.2.2.5.8 Vessel Berthing L 2 = 0.2.5.2. The amount of energy used up by rolling is small compared with that by yawing and can be ignored. F1 keLpp cos θ eLpp cos θ A P Radius of gyration in the longitudinal direction (r) Length between perpendiculars (Lpp) F2 A Lpp B αLpp B G θ Q Block coefficient Cb Fig. T.4) thus only considers the amount of energy used up by yawing. When k = 0.19C b + 0. T. Alternatively.2.2. l is taken to be L 1 when k ＜ 0.5) r = ( 0.5a ek )L pp cos q (2.2. one may use the linear approximation shown in equation (2. (2.11 )L pp where r： radius of gyration.7 8). it is not aligned perfectly along the face line of the berth. This results in some of the vessel’s kinetic energy being used up.8.2.2. 1969) 7) Fig.2.4). d: draft (m)) (3) As sketched in Fig.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [3] Eccentricity Factor (Notification Article 22. Clause 2) The eccentricity factor shall be calculated by the following: 1 C e = ------------------2 æ lö 1+ è rø (2.2.7) -20- . when a vessel comes into contact with the fenders F1 and F2 with the point of the vessel closest to the quaywall being the point P. Equation (2. This means that after it comes into contact with the mooring facilities (fenders). T. l is taken as whichever of L 1 or L 2 that gives the higher value of C e in equation (2. B: moulded breadth (m).2.5) .5 and L 2 when k ＞ 0. T. the distance l from the point of contact to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured parallel to the mooring facilities is given by equation (2.6) (2. it starts yawing and rolling.7).6) or (2.5 a + e ( 1 k ) L pp cos q L 1 = ( 0. C b = Ñ /( L pp Bd) ( Ñ : Volume of water displaced by the vessel (m3).4) where l and r represent the following: l： distance from the point where the vessel touches the mooring facilities to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured along the face line of the mooring facilities (m) r： radius of gyration around the vertical axis passing through the center of gravity of the vessel (m) [Technical Notes] (1) When a vessel is in the middle of berthing operation. (2) The radious of gyration r relative to Lpp is a function of the block coefficient C b of the vessel and can be obtained from Fig.2.

280 log (GT) Oil tankers： log (Lpp) ＝ 0. the vessel (which has mass M s ) and the water mass surrounding the vessel (which has mass M w ) both decelerate.6 ＋ 0.1 Dimensions of the Target Vessel.2. k varies between 0 and 1.349 log (DWT) Passenger ships (Japanese)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.964 ＋ 0. the moulded breadth and the full load draft 1).10) -21- .310 log (DWT) Cargo ships (10.. the actual values of the target vessel are used for the length between perpendiculars ( L pp ).679 ＋ 0.00596GT) Ferries (short-to-medium distance. but it is generally taken at k = 0.359 log (GT) Passenger ships (foreign)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.2C b B 64748 Ñ C b = -------------L pp Bd (2. one may use the principal dimensions given in 2.2.5. 64444744448 Cargo ships (less than 10.401 log (GT) Roll-on/roll-off vessels： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.8) corresponds to M w ¤ M s in equation (2. 13.322 log (DWT) (2.8) where Cb. The virtual coefficient is thus defined as in equation (2. But when one of the standard ship sizes is used.401 log (DWT) Ferries (long distance.2.787 ＋ 0. Clause 3) It shall be standard to calculate the virtual mass factor using the following equations: d p C m = 1 + -------. [4] Virtual Mass Factor (Notification Article 22.´ -.9).9).000 DWT or more)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0. and d represent the following: C b： block coefficient Ñ： volume of water displaced by the vessel (m3) L pp： length between perpendiculars (m) B： moulded breadth (m) d： full load draft (m) [Technical Notes] (1) When a vessel berths. the inertial force corresponding to the water mass is added to that of the vessel itself.2.2.285 log (DWT) Container ships： log (Lpp) ＝ 0. Ms + M w C m = -------------------Ms where C m： virtual mass factor M s： mass of vessel (t) M w： mass of the water surrounding the vessel (added mass) (t) (2.793 ＋ 0.2. this varies according to factors like the type of vessel. which give the relationship between the deadweight tonnage (DWT) or the gross tonnage (GT) and the length between perpendiculars for different types of vessel 1).516 ＋ 0.000 DWT)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0. Regression equations have been proposed for the relationships between the deadweight tonnage. It is also possible to use equations (2. but is generally in the range 1/3 ~ 1/2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS where L 1： distance from the point of contact to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured parallel to the mooring facilities when the vessel makes contact with fender F1 L 2： distance from the point of contact to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured parallel to the mooring facilities when the vessel makes contact with fender F2 q： berthing angle (the value of q is set as a design condition.2. and the block coefficient etc.8) based on the results of model experiments and field observations.2.10).330 log (GT) Car carriers： log (Lpp) ＝ 1. k： parameter that represents the relative location of the point where the vessel comes closest to the mooring facilities between the fenders F1 and F2 .000 GT or less)： log (Lpp) ＝ log (94.046 ＋ 0. and the full load draft (d). Accordingly. Lpp.840 ＋ 0. The second term in equation (2.Ñ.9) Ueda 8) proposed equation (2. 6. B.613 ＋ 0. as measured in the longitudinal direction of the vessel. (2) As a general rule.867 ＋ 0. the moulded breadth (B). to the length between perpendiculars a： ratio of the length of the parallel side of the vessel at the height of the point of contact with the fender to the length between perpendiculars. it is usually set somewhere in the range 0 ~ 10º) e： ratio of the distance between the fenders.000 t or less)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.

etc. one may obtain the displacement of and loads on the mooring system either by using frequency response analysis for regular waves or by referring to results of an motion analysis on a floating body moored at a system that has load-deflection characteristics of bilinear nature 11). the wind force. [Commentary] (1) Vessels moored at mooring facilities situated in the open sea or near to harbor entrances. the motions of a moored vessel should be analyzed through numerical simulation. considering the type of vessel and the wave parameters. the kinetic energy due to such motions can exceed the berthing energy. a nonlinear fluid dynamic force that is proportional to the square of the wave height acts on the vessel (see 8. (2) As a general rule. with consideration given to the random variations of the loads and the nonlinearity of the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system.03 t/m3) 2. -22- . or at mooring facilities inside harbors for which long-period waves are expected to come in. with the wave force acting on the vessel. while the latter can be expressed as a damping coefficient divided by velocity 12). [Commentary] The wave force acting on a moored vessel is calculated using an appropriate method. In such cases. for example the strip method. 12) (a) Wave force of regular waves acting on the hull The wave force acting on the hull is taken to be the summation of the Froude-Kriloff force and the force by the waves that are reflected by the hull (diffraction force). being set appropriately. the wind force. The wave exciting force due to incident waves is the wave force calculated for the case that motions of the vessel are restrained. the wave force can be obtained by taking the vessel to be either a floating body with a rectangular cross section or a floating body of a rectangular prism. (3) For vessels that have a block coefficient of 0. allowing an approximate evaluation of the wave force 13).7 ~ 0. the former can be expressed as an added mass divided by acceleration.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (3) The volume of water displaced by the vessel Ñ is determined by dividing the displacement tonnage DT by the density of seawater (1. it is thus advisable to give full consideration to the tractive forces and impact forces caused by the motions of vessels when designing bollards and fenders 10). the external forces generated by the motions of a vessel should be obtained by carrying out a numerical simulation of vessel motions. or when the vessel is moored at a system that is considered to be more-or-less symmetrical. when such a numerical simulation of vessel motions is not possible. Specifically. etc. [Technical Notes] (1) As a general rule. [2] Waves Acting on Vessel The wave force acting on a moored vessel shall be calculated using an appropriate method. along with vessels moored during stormy weather. are liable to be moved under the influence of loads due to waves.8 such as large oil tankers. In some cases. However. the most common method used for vessels is the strip method. the source distribution technique. currents. (2) The total wave force acting on the hull of a vessel is analyzed by dividing it into the wave exciting force due to incident waves and the radiation force that is generated as the vessel moves.3 Moored Vessels [1] Motions of Moored Vessel (Notification Article 23) As a general rule. The radiation force is the wave force exerted on the hull when the vessel undergoes a motion of unit amplitude for each mode of motions. and the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system. the ship hull can be represented with an elliptical cylinder. based on the factors such as the wave force acting on the vessel. The radiation force can be expressed as the summation of a term that is proportional to the acceleration of the vessel and a term that is proportional to the velocity.2. the current force due to currents. the current force due to water currents. or the finite element method.2 External Forces Acting on Floating Body). [Technical Notes] (1) Wave Force by the Strip Method 11). winds. the boundary element method. In addition. the external forces generated by the motions of a moored vessel shall be calculated by carrying out a numerical simulation of vessel motions. (4) For box-shaped vessels such as working craft.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (b) Froude-Kriloff force The Froude-Kriloff force is the force derived by integrating the pressure of progressive waves around the circumference of the hull..2. C Y . one may refer to regression equations 1). it is taken to be the summation of the force of the incident waves and the force of the reflected waves from the quaywall. This velocity is referred to as the “equivalent relative velocity”.2. it has a block coefficient C b of 0.2. using the drag coefficients C X and C Y in the X and Y directions and the pressure moment coefficient C M about the midship.2. and the motions of the vessel are considered to be very small. As an estimate.13) (2) It is desirable to determine the wind force coefficients C X .r a U 2 A L L pp C M 2 where C X： drag coefficient in the X direction (from the front of the vessel) C Y： drag coefficient in the Y direction (from the side of the vessel) C M： pressure moment coefficient about the midship R X： X component of the wind force (kN) R Y： Y component of the wind force (kN) R M： moment of the wind load about the midship (kN•m) r a： density of air.11) ~ (2. it is acceptable to use the calculation equations for wind force coefficients 14). (4) For the front projected area above the water surface and the side projected area above the water surface. this change in the pressure field can be replaced by the radiation force (the wave making resistance when the vessel moves at a certain velocity through a calm fluid) for the case that the hull is moved relative to fluid. which depend on the cross-sectional form of the vessel. For standard vessel sizes.15) that are based on wind tunnel tests or water tank tests that have been carried out in the past. there are no reflecting structures such as quaywalls behind the vessel.e. In the case of a moored vessel in front of a quaywall. (c) Diffraction force The diffraction force acting on a vessel is the force that is generated by the change in the pressure field when incident waves are scattered by the vessel’s hull. r a = 1.r a U 2 A L C Y 2 1 R M = -.r a U 2 A T C X 2 1 R Y = -. and C M through wind tunnel tests or water tank tests on a target vessel. (5) Since the wind velocity varies both in time and in space.2.12) (2.8). the wind velocity should be treated as fluctuating in the -23- .13).23 ´ 10 3 (t/m3) U： wind velocity (m/s) A T： front projected area above the water surface (m2) A L： side projected area above the water surface (m2) L pp： length between perpendiculars (m) (2. [Commentary] It is desirable to determine the wind load acting on a moored vessel while considering the temporal fluctuation of the wind velocity and the characteristics of the drag coefficients. (3) The maximum wind velocity (10-minute average wind velocity) should be used as the wind velocity U.7 ~ 0. 1 R X = -. the vessel may be represented with an elliptical cylinder and the wave force may be calculated using an equation based on a diffraction theory 13). Since such experiments require time and cost. It is assumed that the velocity of the vessel in this case is equal to the velocity of the cross section of the hull relative to the water particles in the incident waves. [3] Wind Load Acting on Vessel The wind load acting on a moored vessel shall be determined using an appropriate calculation formula. (2) Waves Forces by Diffraction Theory 13) In the case that the vessel in question is very fat (i. it is desirable to use the values for the target vessel. [Technical Notes] (1) The wind load acting on a vessel should be determined from equations (2. (d) Total force acting on the hull as a whole The total wave force acting on the hull as a whole can be obtained by integrating the Froude-Kriloff force and the diffraction force acting on a cross section of the hull in the longitudinal direction from x = L pp ¤ 2 to x = L pp ¤ 2 .11) (2.

2.ö ý è bø b î þ 2 (2. it is considered that K r = 0. whereas the resistance to currents coming onto the side of a vessel is predominantly pressure resistance. in practice it is difficult to rigorously separate the two resistances and investigate them individually. It is thought that the resistance to currents coming onto the bow of a vessel is predominantly frictional resistance. (2. m is taken to be 2 in the case of a storm. (2.2.14: Rf where R f： rw： g： t： S： = rw gl { 1 + 0.0043 ( 15 t ) }SV 1.í 1 + æ -.003 is appropriate.856 -------------.2.2. Equation (2.14) 64748 (2. [Technical Notes] (1) Current Pressure Force Due to Currents Coming onto the Bow of Vessel The current pressure force on the vessel due to currents coming onto the bow of a vessel may be calculated using equation (2.03.0014SV 2 where R f： current pressure force (kN) S： wetted surface area (m2) V： flow velocity (m/s) (2) Current Pressure Force Due to Currents Coming onto the Side of Vessel The current pressure force due to a current coming onto the side of a vessel may be calculated using equation (2.17).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN analysis of the motions of a moored vessel.15) æ U 10 aö z 2m a 1 b = 1. Davenport 16) and Hino have proposed the frequency spectra for the time fluctuations of the wind velocity. over the ocean.17) R = 0.18) . respectively.15).14) and (2.2.03) gravitational acceleration (m/s2) temperature (ºC) wetted surface area (m2) -24- (2.16) is a simplification of the following Froude equation with r w = 1.2.16).2.16) R f = 0.169 ´ 10 3 ç -----------. 64748 5 ¤ 6 X2 2 f S u ( f ) = 4K r U10 --------------------------(1 + X2 )4 ¤ 3 X = 1200f / U 10 K r U10 ì f 2ü S u ( f ) = 2.2. The frequency spectra proposed by Davenport and Hino are given by equations (2. t = 15ºC and l = 0. [4] Current Forces Acting on Vessel The flow pressure force due to tidal currents acting on a vessel shall be determined using an appropriate calculation formula. a： exponent when the vertical profile of the wind velocity is expressed by a power law [ U µ ( z ¤ 10 ) a ] z： height above the surface of the ground or ocean (m) m： correction factor relating to the stability of the atmosphere.÷ æ -----ö è K r ø è 10ø where S u ( f )： frequency spectrum of wind velocity (m2•s) U 10： average wind velocity at the standard height 10 m (m/s) K r： friction coefficient for the surface defined with the wind velocity at the standard height.825 current pressure force (N) specific gravity of seawater (standard value: rw = 1.2.03 t/m3) C： current pressure coefficient V： flow velocity (m/s) B： side projected area of hull below the waterline (m2) (3) The current pressure force due to tidal currents can in principle be divided into frictional resistance and pressure resistance.5r 0 CV 2 B where R： current pressure force (kN) r 0： density of seawater (t/m3) (standard value: r 0 = 1. However.2.

T.9 may be used for reference purposes. (5) Regarding the wetted surface area S and the side projected area below the waterline B.5 7.17) varies according to the relative current direction q.000 ＜ GT ≦ 2.2. it shall be standard to assume that the tractive force stipulated in (1) acts horizontally and a tractive force equal to one half of this acts upwards simultaneously.000 3. fenders.0 Relative current direction G( ) Fig.2. the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system (mooring ropes. Table 2.000 1. etc.500 -25Tractive force acting on a bollard (kN) 150 250 250 350 350 500 700 1.2. it shall be standard to assume that the tractive force stipulated in (1) acts in all directions.) is generally nonlinear. (2) In the case of a mooring post.000 2. 2.2.000 ＜ GT ≦ 10. one may use values obtained from a regression equations 3) that have been derived by statistical analysis.000 ＜ GT ≦ 20. Current pressure coefficient + Water depth draft @ D = 1. (3) In the case of a bollard.2. Appended Table 12) Gross tonnage (GT) of vessel (tons) 200 ＜ GT ≦ 500 500 ＜ GT ≦ 1.000 1.000 ＜ GT ≦ 5. with regard to the load-deflection characteristics of a fender.13783 for a 250m-long vessel) (4) The current pressure coefficient C in equation (2.000 20. fenders.000 ＜ GT ≦ 50. the values obtained from Fig.2.1 Tractive Forces of Vessels (Notification Article 79.000 .1 as the tractive forces of vessels acting on mooring posts and bollards.) shall be modeled appropriately.000 10. they may show hysteresis.000 5. and so it is desirable to model these characteristics appropriately before carrying out the motion analysis of a moored vessel.000 Tractive force acting on a mooring post (kN) 150 250 350 350 500 700 1. T.4 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Post and Bollard (Notification Article 79) (1) It shall be standard to take the values listed in Table 2.2.1 1.2. etc.000 ＜ GT ≦ 3.14741 for a 30m-long vessel and l = 0. [Technical Notes] The load-deflection characteristics of a mooring system (mooring ropes. Moreover.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS V： flow velocity (m/s) l： coefficient (l = 0.9 Current Pressure Coefficient C [5] Load-Deflection Characteristics of Mooring System When performing a motion analysis of a moored vessel.

in addition to the wind pressure. [Technical Notes] (1) It is desirable to calculate the tractive force acting on a mooring post and a bollard based on the breaking strength of the mooring ropes possessed by a vessel arriving at the berth. on the other hand.000 tons and there is no risk of more than one mooring rope being attached to a bollard that is used for spring lines at the middle of mooring facilities for which the vessel’s berth is fixed. and the force due to motions of a vessel 9). 11).2.000 tons. the mooring posts can withstand the tractive force under the wind velocity of up to 35 m/s. although there are stipulations concerning synthetic fiber ropes in the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai with regard to nylon ropes and type B vinylon ropes (both of which are types of synthetic fiber rope). with the assumption that the mooring posts are installed at the place away from the wharf waterline by the amount of vessel’s width and that the breast lines are pulled in a direction 45º to the vessel’s longitudinal axis 17). (5) When determining the tractive force from a small vessel of gross tonnage no more than 200 tons. the structure of the mooring facilities.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Gross tonnage (GT) of vessel (tons) 50. in the case of berths for which the mooring vessels use only nylon ropes or type B vinylon ropes. The tractive force for a bollard that is used for spring lines and is installed at the middle of a berth.3 Mooring Posts. (3) The tractive force due to a vessel whose gross tonnage is no more than 200 tons or greater than 100.000 tons. corresponds to the breaking strength of one mooring rope. For a small vessel of gross tonnage up to 1. the required safety factor has been set large owing to the factors such that there is little data on the past usage of such ropes and their abrasion resistance is low.. are installed close to the waterline of the mooring facilities so that they may be used for mooring. and so both the required rope diameter and the breaking strength are large. Alternatively. a vessel that is not covered in Table 2. The tractive force so obtained corresponds to the breaking strength of one to two mooring ropes. 2. Bollards. the berthing situation. close to the both ends of a berth so that they may be used for mooring a vessel in a storm. 19.000 tons (i. see Part Ⅷ .e.6 kt in the transverse direction. with the assumption that the ropes at the bow and stern are pulled in a direction at least 25º to the vessel’s axis. Accordingly. The tractive force on mooring facilities at which vessels are moored even in rough weather or mooring facilities that are installed in waters with severe meteorological / oceanographic conditions should also be calculated by considering these conditions. the structure of the mooring facilities. and the dimensions of vessels. either on or near to the mooring facilities. (4) The tractive force acting on a mooring post has been determined based on the wind pressure acting on a vessel in such a way that a lightly loaded vessel should be able to moor safely even when the wind velocity is 25 ~ 30 m/s. and Mooring Rings. past measurement data on tractive force.1 Length and Water Depth of Berths. The tractive force so obtained corresponds to the breaking strength of one mooring rope for a vessel of gross tonnage up to 5.18). (2) Regarding the layout and names of mooring ropes to moor a vessel. where the breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai. where the breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai.000 [Commentary] (1) “Mooring posts” are installed away from the waterline. etc. the tractive force acting on a bollard may be taken as one half of the value listed in Table 2.000 Tractive force acting on a bollard (kN) 1. see Part Ⅷ .2.000 Tractive force acting on a mooring post (kN) 2.1. berthing. (2) In the case that the gross tonnage of a vessel exceeds 5. where the breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai. for which the vessel’s berthing position is fixed. (3) Regarding the layout and structure of mooring posts and bollards. etc. it has been assumed that there are tidal currents of 2 kt in the longitudinal direction and 0. “Bollards”. In the above-mentioned tractive force calculations. it is also possible to determine the tractive force acting on a mooring post and a bollard in accordance with (2) ~ (6) below. and if necessary also considering the force due to a berthing vessel. or unberthing a vessel in normal conditions. Note however that.000 tons and two mooring ropes for a vessel of gross tonnage over 5. it is not possible to apply the stipulations in (2) above.000 ＜ GT ≦ 100. it is desirable to consider the type of vessel. the wind pressure on a moored vessel. the meteorological and oceanographic conditions at the place where the mooring facilities are installed.1) should be calculated by considering the meteorological and oceanographic conditions. The tractive force acting on a bollard has been determined based on the wind pressure acting on a vessel in such a way that even a lightly loaded vessel should be able to moor using only bollards in a wind of velocity up to 15 m/s. During actual -26- .

Supplement to Bulletine No. because the wind pressure-receiving areas of such vessels are large. Tech. Isherwood: “Wind resistance of merchant ships”. September 1998. of ASCE. J. caution should be exercised in using Table 2. Eijiro OOI: “On the design of fending systems for mooring facilities in a port”. A. Quest. 8) Myers. pp. Vol. Note of PHRI. 4) Baker. 12) Shigeru UEDA. Note of PHRI. 16) Davenport. Vol. Rome. energy of the ships”. 910. No. Kensei SUGIHARA: “A study on the berthing impact of the big tanker”. No. [References] 1) Yasuhiro AKAKURA. No.I. No. or passenger ships. No. M. Takashi NAKAMOTO: “Statistical analysis of ship dimensions for the size of design ship”. 11-34. No. 111-142. 1982 (in Japanese). Vol. Satoru SHIRAISI: “Method and its evaluation for computation of moored ship’s motions”. Takeo KATAYAMA: “Standardization of mooring posts and bollards for wharf”. 12. 18) Iaso FUKUDA. 4. pp. Hironao TAKAHASHI. Proc. Tech. Sect II.: “Gust loading factors”. container ships. 5) Masahito MIZOGUCHI. 170. Tadahiko YAGYU: “Tractive force on mooring posts and bollards”. Rept. 15) Shigeru UEDA. (PIANC).PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS design of mooring posts and bollards for vessels of gross tonnage no more than 200 tons. Note of PHRI. Proc. Tech. Tadashi SASADA: “Theoretical and experimental investigation of wave forces on a fixed vessel approximated with an elliptic cylinder”. 176. Tatsuru ICHIKAWA. 169-209 (in Japanese). Congr. 22. Tanekiyo NAKAYAMA: “Studies on the berthing velocity. -27- . 2.R. 1984 (in Japanese). 45. 504. 1983 pp. No. No.1. 10) Shigeru UEDA.: “The impact of ships when berthing”. Technical Note of P. 1981. pp.H. 20. Note of PHRI. Satoru SHIRAISHI. No. 1993 (in Japanese). 17) Hirofumi INAGAKI. 596. 1953. 11) Shigeru UEDA: “Analytical method of motions moored to quaywalls and the applications”. 427. L. Tech. 1994. of PHRI. Kouhei ASANO. 327-338. Hiroyuki OSHIMA: “Proposal of equation of wind force coefficient and evaluation of the effect to motions of moored ships”. (6) When calculating the tractive force in the case of vessels such as ferries. 1967.. 1969. Note of PHRI. 13) Yoshimi GODA. No. Tech. Note of PHRI. Tech. Koichi YAMAGUCHI. No.: “Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering”. Rept of PHRI. A. of PHRI. Note of PHRI. 1972. Int’l Navig. Shigeru UEDA. it is standard to take the tractive force acting on a mooring posts to be 150 kN and the tractive force acting on a bollard to be 50 kN. 1992 (in Japanese). G. Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. 23-74 (in Japanese). 6) Hirokane OTANI. Note of PHRI. 1987 (in Japanese). Tech. Tech. 9) Shigeru UEDA. No. 2) Yasuhiro AKAKURA and Hironao TAKAHASHI: “Ship dimensions of design ship under given confidence limits”. Note of PHRI. pp. 181-218 (in Japanese). Satoru SHIRAISHI: “On the design of fenders based on the ship oscillations moored to quaywalls”. ST3. 760.2. 1974 (in Japanese). L. 1970 (in Japanese). 1984. Tech. 14) R. 1973 (in Japanese). Rept. 102. 7) Shigeru UEDA: “Study on berthing impact force of very large crude oil carriers”. 4. Bulliten of the Royal Inst. 729. McGraw-Hill. 2. Naval Architects. 3) PIANC: “Report of the International Commission for Improving the Design of Fender Systems”. pp. New York. 1998 (in Japanese).

rainfall.1. b.1.1.(Fujita’ formula) 1 + (r ¤ r0 )2 (3. it is necessary to determine the intensity of rainfall both for the case where the amount of runoff increases very rapidly and for the case where the runoff continues for a prolonged period. and also decreases the productivity of port and harbor facilities.2) p = p c + Dp exp æ ----ö (Myers’ formula) è rø where p： air pressure at a distance r from the center of typhoon (hPa) r： distance from the center of typhoon (km) p c： air pressure at the center of typhoon (hPa) r 0： estimated distance from the center of typhoon to the point where the wind velocity is maximum (km) Dp： air pressure drop at the center of typhoon (hPa). (4) Fog is a factor that is an impediment to the navigation of vessels when they are entering or leaving a harbor.1. (2) Wind is a factor that governs the generations of waves and storm surge. n: constants (4) With regard to snow load acting upon port and harbor facilities.1) r0 (3. (3) Rainfall is a factor that determines the required capacity of drainage facilities in ports and harbors. (6) Air temperature affects the stress distribution within structures of port and harbor facilities and may lead to the occurrence of thermal stress in these structures. snow load is considered as a static load acting on port and harbor facilities. air pressure. [Commentary] The effects that meteorological factors exert on the design of port and harbor facilities are as follows: (1) Air pressure and its distribution are the factors that govern the generations of winds and storm surge. Dp p = p ¥ ------------------------------. see 15. and rain can also disrupt port and harbor works such as cargo handling.2 Wind.3. (3. (2) With regard to wind. In the case of sewage planning whereby the intensity of rainfall during a thunderstorm is a problem.1) or Myers’ equation (3. (3) Rain is generally divided into the rain of thunderstorms that have heavy rainfall in a short period of time and the rain that continues for a prolonged period of time (rain by a typhoon is a representative example of the latter). the constants in the chosen equation are determined based on actual air pressure measurements in the region of typhoons. (5) In some cases.4 Snow Load.2).3) (3. it exerts external forces on port and harbor facilities and moored vessels in the form of wind pressure. and air temperature should be considered. Dp = p ¥ p c p ¥： air pressure at r = ¥ (hPa).1. Sherman’s formula or Talbot’s formula is used. p ¥ = p c + Dp The size of a typhoon varies with time. snow depth. When designing drainage facilities. and so r 0 and Dp must be determined as the functions of time.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 3 Wind and Wind Pressure 3. meteorological factors such as winds.1. see 3.1 General When designing port and harbor facilities. [Technical Notes] (1) In calculations concerning the generation of storm surge or waves due to a typhoon. a (Sherman’s formula) R = --tn a (Talbot’s formula) R = ---------t+b where R： intensity of rainfall (mm/h) t： duration of rainfall (min) a. fog. and it can disrupt port and harbor works such as cargo handling. it is common to assume that the air pressure distribution follows either Fujita’s equation (3.4) -28- .

with all necessary corrections having been made for the heights of measurements. w = 7.2. negative for an anticyclone) (g/cm2/s2) ¶r r： radius of curvature of isobars (cm) w： angular velocity of Earth's rotation ( s 1 ).1) gives a negative value and so the absolute value should be taken. and an air pressure of 1.67 50º 15º 0. The relationship under the average conditions is summarized in Table T.2.2.60 30º 18º 0. in the case of an anticyclone.2. ¶p -----： pressure gradient (taken to be positive for a cyclone.2. radius of curvature of isobars.2 Wind (Notification Article 3.2. the sea surface wind blows at a certain angle a to the isobars as sketched in Fig. [Technical Notes] (1) Gradient Winds (a) The velocity of the gradient wind can be expressed as a function of pressure gradient. T. In the northern hemisphere. measurement units should first be converted into the CGS units listed above.2 Wind Direction for a Cyclone (Low) and an Anticyclone (High) (3) When selecting the design wind velocity for the wind that acts directly on port and harbor facilities and moored vessels. and air density as in equation (3. it is necessary to make appropriate corrections by comparing estimations with actual measurements taken along the coast and values that have been reported by vessels out at sea (the latter are written on weather charts).2.1 Relationship between Sea Surface Wind Speed and Gradient Wind Speed Latitude Low High 10º 24º 0. the wind velocity is V = ( ¶ p ¤ ¶r ) ¤ ( 2r a rw sin f ) .1).1) is infinite) is called the geostrophic wind. It is known that the relationship between the velocity of gradient winds and that of the actual sea surface wind varies with the latitude.0 hPa is 10 3 g/cm/s2. latitude.e. However.3.64 40º 17º 0. one should estimate the extreme distribution of the wind velocity based on actual measurement data taken over a long period (at least 30 years as a general rule) and then use the wind velocity corresponding to the required return period. their radius of curvature in equation (3.. (2) The velocity of the wind acting on port and harbor facilities shall be set based on statistical data for an appropriate period in line with the characteristics of the facilities and structures. equation (3. Table T.3. T. It is standard to take the wind parameters to be the direction and velocity. -29- .51 20º 20º 0. Note that 1º of latitude corresponds to a distance of approximately 1.3.2.2.1) where Vg ： velocity of gradient wind (cm/s).1. Moreover.29 ´ 10 5 ¤ s f： latitude (º) ra： density of air (g/cm3) Before performing the calculation. the wind around a cyclone blows in a counterclockwise direction and inwards. In this case. this is no more than a guideline.11 × 10 7 cm. (b) A gradient wind for which the isobars are straight lines (i.70 Angle a Velocity ratio V s ¤ V g Fig. Clause 1) It shall be standard to set the wind characteristics for wave estimations and the wind characteristics as the cause of an external force on port and harbor facilities as stipulated in the following: (1) When calculating the wind velocity and wind direction used in estimations of waves and storm surges.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 3. etc. (2) The actual sea surface wind velocity is generally lower than the value obtained from the gradient wind equation. although the direction of a gradient wind is parallel to the isobars in theory.3. with the wind direction being represented using the sixteen-points bearing system and the wind velocity by the mean wind velocity over 10 minutes. when estimating sea surface winds. æ ¶ p ¤ ¶r ö Vg = rw sin f ç 1 + 1 + ----------------------------÷ r a rw 2 sin 2 fø è (3. whereas the wind around an anticyclone blows in a clockwise direction and outwards. either the actual wind measurements or the calculated values for gradient winds are to be used.

p = cq where p： wind pressure (N/m2) q： velocity pressure (N/m2) c： wind pressure coefficient (3. for some structures the mean wind velocity over a shorter time period or the maximum instantaneous wind velocity may be used.3. in which case it is necessary to gain an understanding of the relationship between the mean wind velocity over a certain time period and the maximum wind velocity. the expected wind velocities with the return periods of 5. The velocity pressure q is defined as in equation (3. one should conduct observations for at least one year and then conduct a comparative investigation on topographical effects in order to make it possible to use the aforementioned estimation results.3. when attempting to use such observed values to estimate sea surface winds.2 to 1.5 times the standard wind velocity (ten-minute mean wind velocity at a height of 10 m). it may be set by referring to the Article 87 of the “Enforcement Order -30- . one should refer to 2. Clause 2) The wind pressure shall be set appropriately.2.. Statistical data on wind velocity usually consider the ten-minute mean wind velocity. (4) Regarding the wind velocity used in estimating storm surges and waves. and so in current design calculations for all kinds of structures. the wind pressure may be calculated using equation (3. i. in the case that the elevations of the structural members are considerably different from 10 m.3.3.r a U 2 2 where q： velocity pressure (N/m2) r a： density of air (kg/m3) r a = 1. the wind direction. under the assumption that wind velocity follows a double exponential distribution. [Technical Notes] (1) When calculating the wind pressure acting on a moored vessel. 100 and 200 years for 141 government meteorological offices have been estimated from the ten-minute mean wind velocity data of about 35 years. and it is common to use a value of n ≧ 1/7 out to sea.e. (3.1) expresses the wind pressure.2) q = -. (2) In the case that there are no statutory stipulations concerning the wind pressure acting on a structure. The wind pressure coefficient varies depending on the conditions such as the shape of the member or structure. 50.3. a value of n = 1/10 ~ 1/4 is used.3. and also the characteristics of the gust factor.1).2.23 kg/m3 U： design wind velocity (m/s) The design wind velocity should be taken at 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN In the Meteorological Agency’s Technical Observation Notes No. With the exception of cases where it is determined by means of the wind tunnel experiments. the force due to the wind per unit area subjected to the wind force.3 [3] Wind Load Acting on a Vessel. The vertical profile of the wind velocity is generally represented with a power law. This is because the maximum instantaneous wind velocity is about 1. The wind velocities obtained at government meteorological offices are the values for a height of approximately 10 m above the ground level. it is necessary to correct the wind velocity with respect to the height.2) 3. 20. However. h n U h = U 0 æ ---.1) Equation (3. a power law is simply used: i. 1 (3.2).. For locations with topographical conditions different from that of the nearest among the above-mentioned meteorological offices. 10.1) multiplied by the area of that member or structure affected by the wind in a plane perpendicular to the direction in which the wind acts. In structural calculations on land.2 to 1. 34. Accordingly.e. giving due consideration to the situation with regard to the structural types of the facilities and their locations. it is standard to use the value at a height of 10 m above sea level.5 times the ten-minute mean wind velocity.3 Wind Pressure (Notification Article 3. The total force due to the wind acting on a member or structure is thus the wind pressure as given by equation (3. and the Reynolds number.ö è h 0ø where U h： wind velocity at height h (m/s) U 0： wind velocity at height h 0 (m/s) The value of the exponent varies with the situation with regard to the roughness near to the surface of the ground and the stability of the atmosphere.

338. it is generally required to consider the wind direction that is most unfavorable to the structure. -31- .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS of the Building Standard Law” (Government Ordinance No. 1950) or the “Crane Structure Standards” (Ministry of Labor Notification). with the exception of cases where it has been verified that there exists an overwhelmingly prevailing direction of winds. With regard to wind direction.

depending on the purpose. diffraction. number of working days 3) Transport energy of incoming waves 4) Others 2) Storm waves Design deepwater waves Wave transformation Parameters of design waves 1) Significant wave 2) Highest wave 1) Wave force acting on structures 2) Amount of waves overtopping at seawall and revetments 3) Others Fig. shoaling.4. deepwater waves.e. The waves that are obtained by statistically processing data based on either actual measurements or hindcasting are generally deepwater waves that are unaffected by the sea bottom topography. -32- . it may be necessary to convert significant waves into other waves such as highest waves and highest one-tenth waves. T. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the irregularity of the waves and to treat the waves as being of random nature as much as possible.1 Procedure for Determining the Waves Used in Design (Notification Article 4. Wave data 1) Actual measurement data 2) Hindcasting values Statistical analysis 1) Ordinary waves Wave occurrence rate of deepwater waves Wave transformation Wave occurrence rate at the place of interest 1) Harbor calmness 2) Net working rate. and so they are used in wave hindcasting.1. Nevertheless. Wave characteristics shall be obtained by carrying out necessary statistical processing and by analyzing wave transformations owing to sea bottom topography and others. waves that occur in storm conditions: these are required when estimating the wave force acting on structures).1 Procedure for Setting the Waves to Be Used in Design 4. T.1 General 4.2 Waves to Be Used in Design Significant waves. and once the waves reach to the water depth about one half the wavelength. It is also known that the period of a significant wave is approximately equal to the period at the peak of the wave spectrum.. Significant waves have the dimensions that are approximately equal to the values from visual wave observations. and breaking. highest waves. significant waves have been commonly used to represent wave groups. Because of such advantages.1. [Commentary] The waves used in the design of structures are generally “significant waves”.1. reflection.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 4 Waves 4. It shall be standard to carry out the wave hindcasting using a method that is based on an appropriate equation for representing the relationship between the wind velocity and the wave spectrum or the significant wave parameters. as well as the examination of the degree of calmness of navigation channels and basins shall be set using wave data obtained from either actual wave measurements or wave hindcasting.1. Deepwater waves propagate towards the coast. In the above-mentioned procedure for setting the wave conditions to be used in design.e. “Wave transformation” includes refraction. In order to determine the wave conditions at the place where wave data is needed (for instance the place where a structure of interest is located). [Technical Notes] A sample procedure for setting the wave conditions to be used in design is shown in Fig. The significant wave is a hypothetical wave that is a statistical indicator of an irregular wave group. The setting of the wave conditions to be used in design should thus be carried out carefully. waves that occur in ordinary conditions: these are required when estimating the harbor calmness or the net working rate of cargo handling) and “storm waves” (i. The setting of wave conditions should be carried out separately for “ordinary waves” (i. they start to experience the effects of topography and transform with the result of wave height change. [Commentary] The size and structural form of facilities are determined by the factors such as the height and period of the waves that act on them. Clause 1) The waves used in the investigation of the stability of protective harbor facilities and other port and harbor facilities. it is necessary to give appropriate consideration to such wave transformations by means of numerical calculations or model experiments.4..1. equivalent deepwater waves and others shall be used in the design of port and harbor facilities.

1) 4. it is thus necessary to incorporate in advance the special conditions of the place in question. mean period T ) The wave whose height and period are equal to the mean height and period of all of the waves in a wave group. which depend on the water depth at that place.4 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data). into the deepwater waves for the place in question. which depend on the planar topographical conditions at that place. planar topographical changes are not taken into consideration.)”. In order to clearly specify the length of the observation period. when one wishes to clearly state that one is referring to the significant wave for the largest wave that occurred during a stormy weather.3 Properties of Waves [1] Fundamental Properties of Waves Fundamental properties of waves such as the wavelength and velocity may be estimated by means of the small amplitude wave theory. The equivalent deepwater wave height at the place for which design is being carried out is given as follows: H0 ¢ = Kd Kr H0 where Kr： refraction coefficient for the place in question (see 4. (e) Deepwater waves (deepwater wave height H0 and deepwater wave period T0) The waves at a place where the water depth is at least one half of the wavelength. namely the effects of planar topographical changes (specifically the effects of diffraction and refraction). it is advisable to refer to the maximum wave such as the “maximum significant wave over a period of one day (or one month. the wave parameters are expressed with those of the significant wave at this place. The “maximum wave height” is the maximum value of the significant wave height during a certain period. (2) Maximum Wave The largest significant wave within a series of significant wave data that was observed during a certain period (for example. T1/10) The wave whose height and period are equal to the mean height and period of the highest one-tenth of the waves in a wave group. etc. it is expressed with the significant wave height.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] (1) Definitions of Wave Parameters (a) Significant wave (significant wave height H1/3 and significant wave period T1/3) The waves in a wave group are rearranged in the order of their heights and the highest one-third are selected. However. (b) Highest wave (highest wave height Hmax and highest wave period Tmax) The highest wave in a wave group. (f) Equivalent deepwater wave height (H0¢) A hypothetical wave height that has been corrected for the effects of planar topographic changes such as refraction and diffraction.5. this is different from the definition of the “highest wave height”.3 Wave Diffraction) (4.1. -33- .5. (d) Mean wave (mean wave height H . The deepwater wave height obtained by correcting the effects of diffraction and refraction with their coefficients is called the “equivalent deepwater wave height”. and those by diffraction and refraction. or one year) is called the “maximum wave”.1. the significant wave is then the hypothetical wave whose height and period are the mean height and period of the selected waves. thus adjusting the deepwater waves into a form whereby they correspond to the deepwater incident wave height used for the experiment or theoretical calculation. (3) Significance of Equivalent Deepwater Waves The wave height at a certain place in the field is determined as the result of transformations by shoaling and breaking.2 Wave Refraction) Kd： diffraction coefficient for the place in question (see 4. the height of breaking waves and the runup height shall be estimated while considering the finite amplitude effects. the term “peak wave” is used (see 4. one day. However. Moreover. in hydraulic model experiments on the transformation or overtopping of waves in a two-dimensional channel or in two-dimensional analysis by wave transformation theory. one month. one year. When applying the results of a two-dimensional model experiment or a theoretical calculation to the field. (c) Highest one-tenth wave (H1/10.

(a) Surface elevation (displacement from still water level) (m) 2p 2p H -x -t h ( x . ----. and water depth.t ) = --. ----. period.sin æ ----. with regard to the coordinates.tanh --------2p L where h： water depth (m) g： gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (c) Wave velocity (m/s) gT 2ph C = ----.----------------------------------.1.---------------------------------.sin æ ----.ö 2 èL T ø 2ph dt T sinh --------L where du -----： component of water particle acceleration in the x direction (m/s2) dt dw ------： component of water particle acceleration in the z direction (m/s2) dt 644474448 (4.= ------------.2) (b) Wavelength (m) gT 2 2ph L = -------.5) (e) Water particle acceleration (m/s) 2p ( z + h ) cos h ---------------------2p 2p L 2p 2 H du -x -t ----.ö èL T ø 2ph T sinh --------L 2p ( z + h ) cosh ---------------------2p 2p L pH -t -x w = ------.----------------------------------.1.tanh --------.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) Small Amplitude Wave Theory The fundamental properties of waves are expressed as the functions of the wave height.3) (d) Water particle velocity (m/s) cosh 2p ( z + h ) ---------------------2p 2p L pH -t -x u = ------.6) -34- .ö 2 èL 2ph T ø dt T sinh --------L 2p ( z + h ) cos h ---------------------2p 2p L 2p 2 H dw -t -x -----.1.sin æ ----.ö èL 2 T ø where h： H： L： T： surface elevation (m) wave height (m) wavelength (m) period (s) (4. Various characteristics of shallow water waves as obtained as a first approximation by small amplitude wave theory are listed below.tanh 2ph --------2p L (4. Note that. the positive x direction is taken in the direction of wave travel and the positive z direction vertically upwards with z = 0 corresponding to the still water level.cos æ ----.1.4) (4.ö èL T ø 2ph T sinh --------L where u： component of water particle velocity in the x direction (m/s) w： component of water particle velocity in the z direction (m/s) 644474448 (4. ----.---------------------------------.= ------------.cos æ ----.1.= 2p L gL ----. ----. ----. The water depth h is assumed to be constant and wave characteristics are assumed to be uniform in the transverse direction (y direction).

Various characteristics of deepwater waves may be obtained from the equations of small amplitude wave theory by letting h/L ® ∞ . When carrying out calculations using finite amplitude wave equations.÷ 1ç L n = -.10) (4.05 × 103 kg/m3 for seawater) (g) Mean energy of wave per unit area of water surface (J) 1 E = E k + E p = -.8) (4. L0 ＝ 1.56T (m/s) CG＝ 0.sin æ ----. One of the finite amplitude effects of waves appears on the crest elevation hc relative to the wave height. and group velocity for deepwater waves depend only on the period and are independent of the water depth. the ratio increases as the wave height increases.÷ 2ç 4ph sinh ---------÷ è L ø (2) Characteristics of Deepwater Waves and Wavelength (a) Deepwater waves Waves in water with the depth greater than one-half the wavelength (h/L > 1/2) are called the deepwater waves. one should refer to “Handbook of Hydraulic Formulas” published by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. It shows the ratio of the highest crest elevation obtained from each observation record to the highest wave height Hmax in that record as the function of relative wave height H1/3/h. with Ek = Ep.11) (4.ç 1 + -------------------.1.13) (3) Consideration of Finite Amplitude Effects The equations shown in (1) are not always accurate for general shallow water waves having a large height. wave velocity.12).12) (4. Nevertheless. The definition of the crest elevation hc is shown at the top of Fig. The amount of the errors in calculations that arise from the use of the small amplitude wave theory varies according to the wave steepness H/L and the ratio of water depth to wavelength h ¤ L . Note that the units of period T are seconds (s). This figure was drawn up based on wave profile records from the field. the wavelength.52T (kt) ＝ 2.1.7) As expressed in equation (4.2. the error in wave parameters is usually no more than 20 ~ 30% with the exception of the horizontal water particle velocity u.56T 2(m). (h) Mean rate of energy transported in the direction of wave travel per unit time per unit width of wave (N • m/m/s) W = CG E = nCE CG = nC where CG： group velocity of waves (m/s) 4ph ö æ --------.1.1. wave velocity.1. and so it is sometimes necessary to use equations for finite amplitude waves.1. C0 ＝ 1. T4. ----.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (f) Pressure in water when wave acts (N/m2) 2p ( z + h ) cosh ---------------------2p 2p 1 L -t -x p = -.78T (m/s) ＝ 1. (b) Wavelength of long waves Waves for which the wavelength is extremely long compared with the water depth (h/L < 1/25) are called the long waves. and group velocity for long waves thus become as follows: L = T gh (m) C = CG = gh (m/s) (4. The wavelength. wave velocity C0.1.r 0 gH ---------------------------------.r 0 gH 2 8 where Ek and Ep are the kinetic and potential energy densities respectively. -35- .1.01~1.81T (km/h) (4. The wavelength L0. Various characteristics of long waves may be obtained from the equations of small amplitude wave theory by taking h/L to be extremely small. and group velocity CG for deepwater waves thus become as below.1.9) (4.ö r 0 gz èL T ø 2ph 2 cosh --------L where r0： density of water (1.

ö æ ---------. Errors become large. (c) Rise and drop of the mean water level The mean water level gradually drops as waves approach the breaking point and then rises within the breaker zone toward the shoreline.14) a 1.1.43 1. With Relative Wave Height H1/3/h the exception of solitary wave theory. however. they are only applied to a limited number of fields such as those discussed below.03 0. On the Standard other hand.1.4.1.2. A number of researchers have proposed several approximate series solutions. and the equations from solitary wave theory are used when the water depth to wavelength ratio is small. with the cnoidal wave theory. convergence of the series becomes extremely poor as the water depth to wavelength ratio decreases.5 Wave Shoaling).5 0. then the wave profile and water particle velocity can be obtained with good accuracy right up to the point where the wave breaks.25 0.2 Relationship between Maximum theory. and others.7 a 0.10 0. cnoidal wave theory. as can be calculated from the theory of nonlinear interference between waves and currents. and the wave profile is represented as a series of (ηc)max Hmax trigonometric functions. there are still a large number of unknowns. This mean water level change is taken into account for the calculation of the wave height change due to random wave breaking (see 4. in which a cnoidal wave is approximated as an H1/3 / h expansion of hyperbolic functions. Table T.14 (4. If Dean’s stream function method 1).4.97 h/L 0.25 0. the cnoidal wave theory or hyperbolic wave theory may be applied to this phenomenon (see 4.05 0.2 Coefficient a for Calculation of Maximum Horizontal Water Particle Velocity h/L 0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (4) Types of Finite Amplitude Wave Theory The finite amplitude wave theories include the Stokes wave theory.1 + a æ --. In addition to these two theories. (a) Maximum horizontal water particle velocity umax at each elevation below the wave crest This information is vital in the estimation of the wave force on a vertical structural member.4.5. the cnoidel wave theory is obtained by a perdeviation Number of turbation expansion method with the water depth to data points wavelength ratio assumed to be extremely small.2 0.50 1. In the former. (5) Application of Finite Amplitude Wave Theories to Structural Designs Nonlinear theories.50 1. In this theory. the wave steepness is assumed to be relatively low. -36- .1. The equations from the Stokes wave theory are used when the water depth to wavelength ratio is large. Alternatively. the equations in all of these finite amplitude wave theories are complicated. however. which is the asymptotic case of the cnoidal wave Crest Elevation (hc)max/Hmax and theory when the wavelength approaches to infinity.ö ----------------------------------------------------è hø è h ø T sinh [ ( 2ph ) ¤ L ] where the coefficient a is given as listed in Table T. An approximate calculation may be carried out using the following empirical equation 3): H 1 ¤ 2 z + h 3 i cos h [ ( 2p ( z + h ) ) ¤ L ] pH u max ( z ) = ------. This means that the theory cannot be applied if the water depth to wavelength ratio is too small.3 0. meanMean ing that it is valid when the water depth to wavelength ratio is small. making them very inconvenient to handle. the equations contain elliptic integrals. are applied to a wide variety of coastal engineering fields. T. which occurs as the water depth decreases. when the water depth to wavelength ratio increases. may be calculated using a long wave theory that includes nonlinear terms. meaning that calculations are not easy. there are also the hyperbolic wave theory.27 (b) Wave shoaling Wave shoaling. In particular. which include finite amplitude wave theories. and the solitary wave Fig. 2) is adopted. However. and so.07 0. in the case of design at present.68 0.5.49 0.6 Wave Breaking).

1. [Technical Notes] (1) Expression of Rayleigh Distribution The Rayleigh distribution is given by the following equation: ì p H 2ü pH .1 ～ 1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (d) Air gap of offshore structures When determining the amount of air gap of offshore structures above the still water level.60H (4. Problems thus remain with regard to its applicability to ocean waves for which the frequency band is broad.12. however. so long as the waves are defined by the zero-upcrossing method.3 )T (4. One can thus envisage the method in which a wave height (Hmax)m with m = 0.05 or 0. it shall be standard to consider the statistical properties of the waves with regard to wave heights and periods and to use the Rayleigh distribution for the wave heights of an irregular deepwater wave group. waves with the heights greater than the breaking limit begin to break and that their heights are reduced.exp í -. [Commentary] The assumption behind the theory of Rayleigh distribution is a precondition that the wave energy is concentrated in an extremely narrow band around a certain frequency.5772 (4. it is only possible to give its occurrence probability.1.1 is used.1. the highest one-tenth wave height H1/10. where (Hmax)m is set such that the probability of the value of Hmax exceeding (Hmax)m is m (i.706 æ l n N + --------------. the Rayleigh distribution can be applied to ocean waves as an acceptable approximation. Nevertheless.p ( H ¤ H ) = -. is given as follows: 0.16) (4.0 )H 1 ¤ 3 The periods are related as follows: T max ≒ T 1 ¤ 3 = ( 1. (2) Occurrence Probability of the Highest Wave Height The highest wave height Hmax is a statistical quantity that cannot be determined precisely.ö ý è ø 2H î 4 H þ where p(H/H)： probability density function of wave heights H ： mean wave height (m) According to the Rayleigh distribution. [2] Statistical Properties of Waves In the design of port and harbor facilities.. Thus a simple use of Hmax as the design wave might place structures on a risky side. but in general it may be fixed as in the following relationship: H max = ( 1.1.20) H max = 0.e.27H 1 ¤ 3 H 1 ¤ 3 = 1.21) .706H 1 ¤ 3 l n æ ---------------------------------ö è l n [ 1 ¤ ( 1 m ) ]ø -37- 678 (4. the significance level is m). the significant wave height H 1 ¤ 3 . it is advisable to consider the relative increase in the wave crest elevation due to the finite amplitude effect such as exhibited in Fig. and the mean wave height H are related to one another by the following equations: H 1 ¤ 10 = 1. these relationships agree well with the results of wave observations in situ. then the expected value Hmax of Hmax .1. Thus it is not possible to use the Rayleigh distribution for the wave heights within the breaker zone.---.ö H 1 ¤ 3 è 2 l n Nø It should be noted. it has been pointed out that.1. If the wave height is assumed to follow a Rayleigh distribution. when a large number of samples each composed of N waves are ensembled.1.6 ～ 2.15) On average.17) It should be noted however that as waves approach the coast. The highest wave height Hmax is difficult to determine precisely as will be discussed in (2) below.. there will be a considerable number of cases in which Hmax exceeds Hmax.æ ---. that when Hmax is obtained for each of a large number of samples each containing N waves. T-4.18) (4. The value of (Hmax)m for a given significance level m is given by the following equation: N ( H max ) m = 0.

the value of Hmax / H1/3 varies greatly with N and m. q ) = S ( f )G ( f.q) are m2•s.1. S ( f ) = 0.6 ~ 2.06H1/3 2.03H1/3 2. q ) dq = 1 (4.1.1. The term S in equation (4.0) H1/3 by neglecting the very small or large values in the table.24) is a parameter that represents the degree of directional spreading of wave energy.23) (4. q ) where f： frequency q： azimuth from the principal direction of the wave S(f.47H1/3 [3] Wave Spectrum In the design of port and harbor facilities.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T.1. Table T. The frequency spectrum of equation (4.91H1/3 2.68H1/3 1.39H1/3 5% significance level (Hmax) 0.81H1/3 1.q)： directional spectrum In the above.63H1/3 1.12H1/3 50% significance level (Hmax) 0.05T 1 ¤ 3 ) If the units of H1/3 and T1/3 are meters and seconds respectively.4 Relationship between Highest Wave Height Hmax and Significant Wave Height H1/3 Number of waves N 50 100 200 500 1.q). q ) = G 0 cos 2S -2 where G0 is a constant of proportionality that satisfies the following normalization condition: i (4.257H 1 ¤ 3 T1 ¤ 3 f exp [ 1.q) is a function that represents the distribution of the wave energy with respect to direction.1.23) is called the Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu spectrum. G(f.1.000 5.03 ( T1 ¤ 3 f ) ] q G ( f. then the units of S(f. -38- (4.000 10.26) f S = S max æ ----ö è f mø 5 : f ≦ fm where fm is the frequency at which the spectrum peak appears.40H1/3 1. while equation (4. The functions expressed in the following equations may be used for S(f) and G(f.00H1/3 2. [Technical Notes] (1) General Form of Wave Spectrum The general form of the wave spectrum is usually represented as in the following equation: S ( f.02H1/3 2.61H1/3 1.10H1/3 2. it is called the “frequency spectrum”.24) òq qmax min G ( f.58H1/3 1.31H1/3 2.39H1/3 2.19H1/3 Mean (Hmax) 1.05H1/3 2.22H1/3 2.95H1/3 2.72H1/3 1.1. It is given by the following formulas: f 2.4.1. Because Hmax is not a definite value but rather a probabilistic variable. it is appropriate to use Hmax = (1.25) where qmax and qmin are respectively the maximum and minimum angles of deviation from the principal direction.94H1/3 2. considering the facts that the wave height only approximately follows a Rayleigh distribution and that the wave pressure formula has been derived while containing a certain scatter of experimental data.27) .1.14H1/3 2.76H1/3 1. it is called the “directional spreading function”.14H1/3 2.50H1/3 1.1 1.5 1.22H1/3 2.86H1/3 1.1.12H1/3 2.94H1/3 2. due consideration shall be given to the functional form of the wave spectrum and an appropriate expression shall be used.86H1/3 1.000 2.84H1/3 1.22) 2 4 5 4 (4.24) is called the Mitsuyasu type spreading function. However.1.95H1/3 2. S(f) is a function that represents the distribution of the wave energy with respect to frequency.19H1/3 10% significance level (Hmax) 0.05 1.46H1/3 1.76H1/3 1.52H1/3 1.4 lists the values obtained from this equation. It may be represented in terms of the significant wave period T1/3 as in the following equation: f m = 1 ¤ ( 1.85H1/3 1.000 Mode (Hmax) mode 1.5 : f > fm S = S max æ ----ö è f mø 64748 (4.4.30H1/3 3.

When a diffraction calculation on irregular waves is carried out using waves that have been refracted. S max (αp)0 h/L0 Fig. At the very least.1. Judging by the value of wave steepness. it is thus very important to consider such changes in the directional spreading function. Figure T. In the case of swell considering the process of wave decay and others.1.4. T. In the figure. (4) Improved Model for Frequency Spectrum If waves are generated in a laboratory flume using the Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu spectrum expressed by equation (4.1. Goda and Suzuki 4) have proposed using as the standard values Smax = 10 for wind waves. S ( f ) = 0. the spectral density at the peak is about 18% higher.4. the angle between the principal wave direction and the line normal to the depth contours.28) for the target spectrum in hydraulic model experiments..4.1. it is advisable to use the spectral form expressed by equation (4. (ap)0 is the incident angle of the principal wave direction at the deepwater boundary. The reason for such a deviation is that the original equation (4. then the relationship between the mean wave height H and the zeroth moment of the wave -39- . it is appropriate to take a value of 20 or more.1.1. and overall the spectrum is shifted towards the low frequency side. but this is replaced with the significant wave period T1/3 by using equation (4.1.5 shows the values of Smax after waves have been refracted at a coastline with straight and parallel depth contour lines.5 Graph Showing the Change in Smax Due to Refraction Fig. Figure T.23).PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (2) Value of Directional Spreading Parameter It is standard to take a value of 10 for the maximum value Smax of the directional spreading parameter in the case of wind waves in deep water. Goda 54) has thus proposed the following standard spectral form for which the significant wave period of the generated waves does not deviate from the target significant wave period.4 Graph Showing Estimated Values of Smax against Wave Steepness (3) Change in Smax Due to Refraction The form of the directional spreading function changes as waves undergo the refraction process.e.4 shows a graph of approximately estimated values of Smax against wave steepness.1.1.28) is about 8% lower than that for equation (4. the significant wave period of the generated waves often deviates from the target significant wave period. i.28) The peak frequency for equation (4.27). Smax = 25 for swell during initial decay. it can be seen that Smax< 20 for wind waves.1. T. This graph may be used in order to set an approximate value for Smax. and Smax = 75 for swell that has a long decay distance.23) is given in terms of the peak frequency fm.4.75 (T1 ¤ 3 f ) ] 2 4 5 4 (4. (5) Relationship between Wave Spectrum and Typical Values of Wave Characteristics (a) Wave spectrum and typical value of wave height If the probability density function for the occurrence of a wave height H is assumed to follow the Rayleigh distribution.1.205H 1 ¤ 3 T1 ¤ 3 f exp [ 0.23).

6 Frequency Distribution of the Ratio of Mean Period Tz by Spectral Calculation to Actually Measured Mean Period T (6) Spectrum for Long-Period Waves The above explanation concerns the spectra for wind waves and swell components that have a relatively short period. 4. In the case of wave data from the shallow waters where the wave height is large. the mean values obtained from wave profiles tend to be about 20% greater than those calculated from the moments of spectra. in due consideration to the functions of the port and harbor facilities and the characteristics of the structures. -40- .832 Standard deviation .1.0 m 0 is satisfied.0. [Commentary] (1) As for actual measurement data. The values of Tz / T are distributed in the range 0.4. 0. 0. (b) Wave spectrum and typical value of period When waves are defined using the zero-upcrossing method.0 m 0 (4. mn = H = ò0 f n S ( f ) df 2pm 0 ≒ 2. (2) When hindcasted values obtained from meteorological data are corrected using actual measurement data.29).8 Long-period Waves and Seiche.83.2 Method of Determining Wave Conditions to Be Used in Design 4.31) and calculate the significant wave height from the spectrum. it is often the case that the best relationship is H 1 ¤ 3 = 3. the mean period Tz is given by the following equation according to Rice’s theory. hindcasted values that have been obtained using at least about 30 years’ worth of meteorological data should be used.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design (Notification Article 4.8 m 0 .2. Fig. For long-period wave components that have a period of tens of seconds or more.1. there is a very strong correlation between H 1 ¤ 3 and m0. a relatively long period of measurements (10 years or more) is desirable. the waves are highly nonlinear and so the relationship H 1 ¤ 3 = 4.1. In other words. with the mean being 0.33) Figure T. However.30). see 4.6 shows a comparison between the mean periods T obtained from actually observed wave profiles and the mean periods Tz estimated from spectrum calculations.30) Using the relationship H1/3 = 1. However. It is thus acceptable to use equation (4. it is necessary that the measurement data should cover the period of 3 years at the minimum and contain a considerable number of cases of large storms.32) N = 171 data Mean . The deviation from Rice’s theory is thought to have been caused by the presence of second order nonliner components in the high frequency range of wave spectra.072 Calculating the mean period using the BretschneiderMitsuyasu type spectrum gives the following relationship: T z = 0.1. Clause 2) The duration of statistical wave data used in setting the deepwater wave conditions for investigating the stability of the structures of port and harbor facilities etc. one arrives at the following relationship between the significant wave height and the spectrum.60 H . shall be determined appropriately.1. T. where the n-th moment of the wave spectrum is defined as in equation (4. when there is a lack of such actual measurement data.1. In either case.4.31) According to the results of actual observations.1. the observed values may be used to obtain the design deepwater waves.1. with these being corrected by means of the available data of actual wave measurement. H 1 ¤ 3 ≒ 4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN spectrum m0 is given by equation (4.74T 1 ¤ 3 (4.6 ~ 1.1.1.5 m 0 ¥ (4. if waves were recorded during an extraordinary weather that only occurs once every a few tens of years and the values for these waves exceed all the hindcasted values. Tz = m0 ¤ m2 (4.29) (4.

importance and return on investment of the structure.2. it is considered that this wave record has been affected by wave breaking. diffraction.5 Transformations of Waves. Here. it is neccessary to take into account the fact that the measured wave height has been affected by refraction and shoaling.2.2. there can be cases where the wave force becomes largest when the water level is low. disturbances from externally reflected waves or an increase in wave height due to concave corners). Then. it is also necessary to consider changes in the wave direction. and other factors. although the directions for which the wave height is small and their effects on the structure are readily judged as negligible may be excluded. in other words.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design. However. it is advisable to sufficiently investigate the magnitudes of past typhoons and the courses that they followed.2 Procedure for Obtaining the Parameters of Design Waves First. In this case. Since the wave force acting on the structure in question will not change greatly when the wave direction changes by only a few degrees. and to even include an investigation on the occurrence probability of such a typhoon.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (3) If there is absolutely no actual measurement data at the site of interest. the waves that have the most unfavorable effects on the structure in question or facilities in the hinterland shall be used as the design waves. the “encounter probability” means the probability that waves with a height larger than the return wave height for a given return period occurs at least once during the lifetime of the structure in question. the record of such an event should be taken into consideration. (2) If the location in question is subject to special conditions (for example. the way in which the encounter probability is interpreted will depend on the functions. the parameters of the deepwater waves should be estimated by means of wave hindcasting. in order to determine the parameters of the design waves at the design location. deepwater waves shall be determined by following 4. and so it is not possible to determine it for the general case. (10) It is standard to set deepwater wave parameters separately for each direction of the sixteen-point bearings.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design. (7) If the significant wave height obtained from actual measurement data is more than one half of the water depth at the measurement location. [Technical Notes] The parameters of the design waves are determined according to the following procedures: (1) The effects of wave transformation such as refraction. it is necessary to examine the external forces on and past damage of existing structures adjacent to the structure under design. and breaking shall be evaluated. in a previous decade). Thus the wave height of the deepwater waves should be corrected by dividing the measured height by the refraction coefficient and the shoaling coefficient. it is acceptable in design to represent the wave direction using the sixteen-point bearing system. With such wave data. diffraction. (9) When determing the deepwater waves that will be used in design. shoaling. In this case. (4) According to the various conditions related to wave actions. and so investigations should be carried out for all conceivable water levels. significant waves for the measurement location should be estimated as described in 4. these should also be taken into account. shoaling. NOWPHAS (Nationwide Ocean Wave Information Network for Ports and Harbors) data may be used. measurement data for a neighboring place with similar natural conditions may be used. Finally. and breaking are applied to the deepwater waves determined by following 4. the principal direction. or if the only measurement data available is for extremely limited conditions. Note however that. (6) When estimating deepwater waves using actual measurement data. and a comparison with the actual measurement data should be carried out. It must therefore be determined independently for each individual case by the judgement of the engineer in charge. (5) When hindcasted values for a hypothetical typhoon are used. transformations due to refraction. The deepwater waves for which the wave action is largest or for which the effects on the structure in question or facilities in the hinterland are most unfavorable are chosen as the design waves. -41- . (3) The wave force and other wave actions on the structure in question such as overtopping are determined for the waves obtained above. (5) The above calculations are carried out for each possible direction in which the deepwater waves may come in. with regard to the hindcasted deepwater waves. (8) It is advisable to determine the deepwater waves that will be used in design with consideration of the encounter probability based on the return period and the lifetime of the structure in question. 4. (4) If it is known that an extraordinary storm event occurred in the area before the period for which wave hindcasting using meteorological data is carried out (for example. The wave direction hereby refers to the direction of the irregular wave component that has the highest energy density.

It is thought that the accuracy of the supposed equilibrium spectrum itself affects the results greatly. since the accuracy of wave hindcasting depends greatly on the accuracy of estimating ocean winds. development of waves are treated as the overall result of strong nonlinear effects and a kind of similarity mechanism is assumed with introduction of a few parameters. 4. However. meaning that the calculation is such that the significant wave height does not change very much even if the spectral form itself changes somewhat. it is necessary to investigate the validity and accuracy of hindcasted results by comparing them with observation values (examples of such comparisons are given in references 6)~11)). the spectrum methods and the significant wave methods are recommended as standard methods. and it is characterized by four parameters: wind velocity. Nevertheless. fetch length. Determination of the duration of hindcasting for each case. it should be noted that even for the same wave hindcasting model. and wind duration. Calculations are carried out by formulating and solving the equations that govern the development and transformation processes of waves using the parameters. Estimation of the sea surface winds by empirical formulas and data of measurement.3.3.10). Preparation of the wind field chart. Calculation of gradient winds from the surface weather charts. With the former. results can vary by 10 ~ 20% due to differences in the matters like the calculation mesh. This is because the significant wave height is proportional to the square root of the integral of the directional spectrum. Accordingly.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. at present it is reasonable to believe that the accuracy of spectral methods is comparable to that of significant wave methods. the wave development and attenuation should be calculated by using the most appropriate hindcasting method for the wind field conditions. and the parameteric methods that are based on the idea that the development and decay of a wave spectrum can be described by a certain small number of parameters 8). [Technical Notes] The wind field is to be set according to the following procedures: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Collection of surface weather charts and meteorological data. [Commentary] The reliability of the results of the wave hindcast should be examined through the comparison with the wave measurement data. an equilibrium spectral form is assigned as the limit of wave development in the current spectral methods. With the latter.3 Wave Hindcasting 4. wind direction.9). -42- . the boundary conditions or empirical constants. [Technical Notes] (1) Spectral Methods (a) General Spectral methods can be classified into the spectral component methods that have been developed by assuming that the components of the spectrum for each frequency and direction develop independently until some equilibrium state is reached 6). Where the wind field is set. [Commentary] (1) Wave hindcasting should be made in the following two steps: (a) Setting of the wind field (b) Calculation of wave development and attenuation.1 General Wave hindcasting shall be carried out by using an appropriate hindcasting method. In particular. The spectral methods have the following advantages over the significant wave methods. (2) The field where waves are generated and developed is called the fetch (or wind field). The accuracy of wave hindcasting by spectral methods has not been sufficiently investigated yet. and so it is a good idea to investigate the accuracy with regard to the functional forms of frequency spectrum or the directional spectrum.2 Wave Hindcasting in Generating Area For the hindcasting of waves in the generating area. the development of waves is described in terms of the influx of energy from the wind into the component waves that make up the spectrum and the weak nonlinear interaction between component waves. and so it is considered that the most rigorous way of carrying out evaluation is to examine the spectral form.7).

U )： linear amplifying factor in Phillips’ resonance theory 15) b ( f. t. Of the wave height obtained from the wind velocity and that from the wind duration. x )： energy density of a two-dimensional wave spectrum a ( f. U )： exponential amplifying factor in Miles’ theory 16) F 3： energy dissipated due to wave breaking F 4： energy loss due to internal friction during wave propagations etc.3. (4. q. t.37 1 --------------------------------------------------5 2pU ì gF 1 ¤ 3 æ ----.4.1) ¶t where E ( F. U ) + b ( f.1 has been drawn based on the relationships by equations (4.3.004 è ----.3. q： component wave frequency and angle t： time x： position vector C G ( f )： group velocity vector U： wind velocity Ñ： differential operator (2) Significant Wave Methods (a) S-M-B method ① General 19).2) (4. it is a good idea to make hindcasting again using a spectral method. Figure T. gH 1 ¤ 3 1 -------------.81 m/s2) t： minimum duration (hr) -43- .4) where H 1 ¤ 3： significant wave height (m) T 1 ¤ 3： significant wave period (s) U： wind velocity at 10 m above sea surface (m/s). Isozaki and Uji’s MRI model 7).ø ý 2 U î þ gT 1 ¤ 3 1 ------------.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ① The effects of the variations of wind speed and direction on wave development are physically well described.7) Wave forecasting methods by mean of wave spectrum have been developed by many researchers since the 1960s. F： fetch length (m) g： acceleration of gravity (m/s2) (= 9. and Yamaguchi and Tsuchiya’s model.3. x ) + a ( f. if the results of hindcasting using a significant wave method seem dubious. t. The height and period of deepwater significant waves are estimated from the wind velocity and wind duration in the fetch and the fetch length using Fig. q.3.1.20) The S-M-B method is used when the wind field is stationary. T. U )E ( F. t.= 1. (b) Details 6). which were rewritten by Wilson 21) in 1965. ② Appropriate estimation results on wave heights and periods are obtained even when the wind field moves together with wave propagation.ö ü í 1 + 0.2).= 0. q.3.3.3) F dF = -----------------------ò 0 gT 1 ¤ 3 ¤ 4p i F dF (4.3) and (4. namely Collins 12). x ) + F 3 + F 4 + F 5 (4. Cavaleri 13). Golding 14) and Yamaguchi et al.008 è 2ø ý U î þ t = -----ò 0 CG i (4. F 5： energy exchange due to the nonlinear interaction between component waves f. likewise for the period. spectral methods have been researched and developed while primarily focusing on deepwater waves.3. ③ Wind waves and swell mixed sea conditions can be reproduced in one calculation.4. There are only a few studies concerning shallow water waves. q. Those developed by Japanese reserchers include Inoue’s model 6). Accordingly.4).3. Incidentally. the lower one is adopted as the hindcasted value.30 1 --------------------------------------------------2 2 1 ¤ 2ü U ì æ gFö í 1 + 0. The basis of these models is the following energy balance equation: ¶ ----E ( f. x ) = C G ( f ) ÑE ( f.

3. (Note however that this applies only for wind waves within the fetch area.86 H 1 ¤ 3 where H 1 ¤ 3： significant wave height (m) T 1 ¤ 3： significant wave period (s) (4.2. while the development of the significant wave height and period are traced in the H1/3-t plane and T1/3-t plane.3.3. It includes improvements that it can be applied even to a moving fetch. 23) Wilson’s method is an extension of the S-M-B method. respectively.3. for example in the case of a typhoon.4. It is known from experience that the significant wave period and the significant wave height satisfy the following relationship.3) and (4. T.5) 22) when hindcasting is made. in a long bay). the energy loss due to friction with the sea bottom) include the Sakamoto-Ijima method.3.) T 1 ¤ 3 = 3.3. If the distance to the opposite shore varies greatly when the direction is changed only slightly. (4. This figure has been obtained by calculation based on equations (4. T . SF i cos q i F eff = ----------------------S cos q i where F eff： effective fetch length (km) F i： distance to opposite shore in the i-th direction (km) q i： angle between the direction of Fi and the predominant wind direction (º) (b) Wilson’s method 21).2).e.3.3. it is advisable to use the effective fetch length defined by in equation (4.4). Using the H1/3-t-F-T1/3 graph shown in Fig.5) -44- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Wind Speed Fetch ( H 1 3 T 1 3 ) 2 = const. the fetch length is determined by the distance to the opposite shore. (c) Hindcasting for shallow water waves Methods that consider the influence of the water depth on wave development (i. the propagation of waves is traced in the F-T plane.4. t (h) H 1 3 (m) T 1 3 (s) Fig.1 Wave Forecasting Diagram by the S-M-B Method ② Handling of the effective fetch length When the fetch width is small relative to the fetch length (for example..6) 2 (4.

With use of such a graph it possible to carry out the hindcasting of shallow water waves in a variable fetch.3.3 H1/3-F-CG Graph for Shallow Water Waves (Sakamoto-Ijima Method) -45- .3.4.3. T. T.3. resulting in an H1/3-t-F-CG graph such as shown in Fig. with water depth (m) in brackets Fig.4.4. (A) Note: The numbers on the graph show wind velocity (m/s). the ideas in Wilson’s method for deep water waves have been incorporated into the case for shallow water waves. T.2 H1/3-t-F-T1/3 Graph (from Wilson's equations (1965)) In the Sakamoto-Ijima method.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Fig.

the minimum fetch length Fmin is equal to the actual fetch length.4. and so the hindcasting accuracy is lower than that for waves in the generating area. With the Bretschneider method.4.4 Swell Hindcasting Diagram The term Fmin in the diagram is the minimum fetch length. the wave height and period of swell are hindcasted from the parameters of the significant wave.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4.3 Swell Hindcasting When swell hindcasting is necessary. no distinction is made between waves and swell in the generating area. If a significant wave method is used in the hindcasting of waves in the generating area. [Technical Notes] In the Bretschneider method. Note however that the amount of reliable observation data that has been obtained for swell is insufficient. D is the decay distance of the swell. The time t required for waves to propagate over the decay distance D is calculated from the following equation: 4pD D t = ---------. then Fmin is the fetch length corresponding to that wind duration and wind velocity. HF and TF are the height and period of the significant wave at the end of the fetch respectively. swell hindcasting is carried out by using Fig. With spectral methods as mentioned above. With the P-N-J method. and it is advisable to use them only after carrying out a comparative investigation with actual measurement data.4.3. T. Accordingly. If the significant wave height and period are determined by the wind velocity and the fetch length in the S-M-B method. it is standard to use the Bretschneider method. the swell parameters are obtained by estimating the effects of the velocity dispersion and directional spreading of spectral components. [Commentary] Swell hindcasting methods include the Bretschneider method 24). with calculations for the component waves at all of the different frequencies being carried out simultaneously. it is necessary to treat swell hindcast values as representing no more than approximate values. and HD and TD are the height and period of the significant wave at the swell hindcasting point respectively. If the wave development is governed by the wind duration.3.3. it is necessary to hindcast swell. and spectral methods.3. Fig. numerical calculations are used. which is relatively simple and easy to use. in which case it is standard to use the Bretschneider method.= ---------gT D C GD where C GD：group velocity corresponding to T D (m/s) -46- (4. generally. and the results being the significant wave parameters for the combination of wind waves and swell. the P-N-J method 5). T.7) .

(2) It is standard to represent the height of waves used in the design of protective facilities as the “return wave height” for the return period of the “peak waves” using data over a long time period (at least 30 years as a general rule). and then use the data as the annual maximum wave.54 0.).4 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data (1) Wave characteristics shall be expressed as joint distributions of wave height and period by wave direction using the monthly. are the wave (generally the significant wave) at the time for which the wave height becomes largest during the process of wave development and decay under a certain meteorological condition.1) (k = 1. etc. and annual wave data. If observation data are not available. seasonal.1 are used. The values used for the Gumbel distribution were determined by Gringorten 25) in such a way as to minimize the effects of statistical scatter in the data. N ] = 1 ------------N+b (4. it is necessary to gain a sufficient understanding of the local wind characteristics. In either case.64 0. the theoretical distribution function of the return wave height is not known.46 0. and the normal distribution (in the last case.37 The values used for a and b in this equation depend on the distribution function.1) Table T.N.42 0.N is calculated using the following equation: ma P [ H ≦ x m. it is possible to use the time series of data for which the peak waves exceed a certain threshold value during the period in question. and the Hazen plot corresponds to the case a = 0. The values used for the Weibull distribution were determined by Petruaskas and Aagaard 26) using the same principle. and then the wave period is determined appropriately based on the correlation between the two. the wave heights are rearranged in the descending order.85) (k = 1.5) (k = 2.1 Parameters Used in Calculating the Probability not Exceeding a Certain Wave Height Distribution function Gumbel distribution Weibull distribution “ “ “ “ “ “ (k = 0.75) (k = 0.4. and so it is standard to use hindcasting. it is possible to obtain the maximum value of the “peak waves” for each year.47 0.53 0.4. and so one should try to fit several distribution functions such as the those of the Gumbel distribution and the Weibull distribution. then the probability P that the wave height does not exceed xm. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the effects of swell. find the functional form that best fits the data.4. It is commented that the Thomas plot often used in hydrology corresponds to the case a = 0. (4) With regard to the wave period corresponding to the return wave height. basic data for estimating the return wave height. When estimating the return wave height.48 0. Since waves in ordinary conditions are often affected by the local wind.42 0. and so it is standard to use such data. values such as those in Table T.44 0. and the probability of each value of wave height not being exceeded is calculated.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 4. b = 1.59 0.0) a 0.4.0) (k = 1.25) (k = 1. it is thus necessary to take due care in appropriately selecting the hindcasting method and to closely inspect the hindcasted results. There is generally not much observation data available for the wave direction. (3) The peak waves.39 b 0. 100 years. -47- . When drawing up the data set of peak waves using wave hindcasting. The accuracy of the resulting estimated values depends largely on the reliability of the data used rather than on the statistical processing method. The distribution functions used in hydrology include the Gumbel distribution (double exponential distribution). Alternatively. the data must first be transformed appropriately). then hindcast data is used. Specifically. it is not well known which distribution function is most suitable. If there are N data and the m-th largest wave height is denoted with xm.12 0. [Commentary] (1) The wave distribution characteristics for ordinary conditions are expressed separately for each wave direction as a joint distribution of wave height and period. Since the data on peak wave heights have not been accumulated over a prolonged period of time. Observation data are often available for the wave height and the period. Since there are only a few places at which observation data extending over such a prolonged time duration are available.4. and the extreme wave heights shall be expressed in terms of the return perid. It is thought that sampled peak waves are mutually independent in statistical sense. (2) Storm wave data shall be sorted by the peaks-over-threshold method so as to yield the data set of extreme wave heights for extreme statistical analysis. the relationship between the wave height and the wave period is plotted for the data of peak waves (which have been used in estimating the return wave height).50 0. the logarithmic extreme value distribution. b = 0.44 0. [Technical Notes] (1) Estimation of Return Wave Height During statistical processing.5.51 0. and then extrapolate it in order to estimate the return wave heights for a number of different return periods (say 50 years. generally hindcast data must be used.

4. a = 0.4.10) (4. (a) Addition of the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution to the candidate distributions The Fisher-Tippett type II distribution is given by the following equation.0 (four preset values).27 k b = 0. In place of the values listed in Table T. 1.ö ý è A ø î þ (Gumbel distribution) (4.33. a ＝ 0. 1. and the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution function with k = 2. 1.4.0 and 10.4. 1. the distribution function that best fits the data on any particular data set is then selected as the extreme distribution for that data set.2) or (4.4.4. rv = ln { ln P [ H ≦ x ] } rv = [ ln { 1 P [ H ≦ x ] } ] 1¤k (Gumbel distribution) (Weibull distribution) (4. respectively.4. The parameters A and B are determined using the method of least squares. namely the Gumbel distribution function (equation (4.4.1.3).4.44.6) ^ ^ where A and B are the estimated values of the parameters A and B in equation (4.4. we thus introduce the method whereby one tries fitting eight distribution functions.75. the “non-exceedance probability” (probability not exceeding a certain wave height) P is transformed into the variable r v ( = ( x B ) ¤ A ) using equation (4. which is a revised version of the method introduced above. 3.3) perfectly.4. Accordingly. the following equations are used for a and b in equation (4.4.2) ì x B kü (Weibull distribution) (4. the Weibull distribution function (equation (4.85.11 ¤ k -48- (4. The return period Rp of the wave height H is related to the non-exceedance probability P (H ≦ x) as in the following: 1 R p = K -------------------------------N 1 P ( H≦ x ) £ · or K P ( H ≦ x ) = 1 --------NRp where K： number of years during the period for which analysis was carried out N： number of data of peak waves (4.6).2) or (4.4.20 + 0.4.20 + 0.5) If the data fit equation (4.12 0. 1.1.4.23 k For the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution.1): For the Gumbel distribution.52 ¤ k b = 0.4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Following Petruaskas and Aagaard.0 (four preset values).4.0.4.12 For the Weibull distribution.ö ý è A ø î þ In order to fit the data to the distribution function.4.7) (2) Candidate Distribution Functions and Rejection Eriteria Goda has proposed the following method 51) ~ 53).2)). the data are assumed to follow the linear relationship shown in equation (4.5.4. 0.0.4) or (4. a = 0.4.3)) with k = 0.11) .5 and 2.4) (4.0.4.4 and 2. 1.2)) and the Weibull distribution function (equation (4. ì xB ü P [ H ≦ x ] = exp exp í æ ----------. ^ ^ x = A rv + B (4. 5. b ＝ 0.44 + 0.5).3)) with k = 0. thus giving an equation for estimating the return wave height. P [ H ≦x ] = exp [ { 1 + ( x B ) ¤ ( kA ) } ] k (4.4.8) The following nine functions are employed as the candidate functions to be tried for fitting: the Gumbel distribution function (equation (4. then there will be a linear relationship between x and r v .3) P [ H ≦x ] = 1 exp í æ ----------.4.25.9) (4.75.

the waves to be considered to exert actions on port and harbor facilities shall be the waves that are most unfavorable in terms of the structure stability or the usage of the port and harbor facilities. The second is the DOL criterion. respectively.4. while C G1 ¤ C G2 represents the change in wave height due to the change in water depth.5.5.1) where CG1 .1) If waves are obliquely incident on a straight boundary where the water depth changes from h1 to h2. This is due to the change in local wave velocity caused by the change in water depth.1 General (Notification Article 4.5. Suppose that the wave ray width. b2： distances between wave rays at water depths h1 and h2.4. which is b0 for deepwater waves. breaking. Clause 3) As a general rule. The refraction coefficient Kr is given by the following equation: Kr = b0 ¤ b -49- (4. The function for which the ratio of the residual of the correlation coefficient of the sample to the mean residual for the fitted distribution is lowest is judged to be the best fitting distribution function.5. [Technical Notes] (1) Refraction Calculations for Regular Waves (a) Refraction phenomenon and refraction coefficient (see Fig. b 1 ¤ b 2 represents the change in wave height due to refraction. the function in question is rejected as being inappropriate. CG2： group velocities at water depths h1 and h2. Next. respectively (m) In the equation. The first is the REC criterion. T.5. which include refraction. appropriate attention shall be given to wave transformations during the propagation of waves from deepwater toward the shore.5 Wave Shoaling). If the change in the wave ray width is not so large.---. If other sources of energy loss such as the friction along the sea bottom are ignored. This criterion takes into account the fact that the mean of the residual of the correlation coefficient relative to 1. 4. that function is rejected as being inappropriate.C G2 b 2 (4.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (b) Selection of the best function through introduction of rejection criteria Inappropriate functions are rejected by means of two sets of criterion. 4. diffraction. but rather according to the MIR criterion.= H1 C G1 b 1 --------. the best function is selected not simply according to the value of the correlation coefficient.2 Wave Refraction The phenomenon of wave refraction occurs in intermediate depth to shallow waters. T. If the residual of the correlation coefficient exceeds this threshold value for a distribution function when the extreme value data is fitted to that distribution function. waves are refracted at the boundary due to the change in wave velocity caused by the change in water depth. In this consideration. The ratio of the wave height after the change to the original wave height in this case is called the “refraction coefficient”. shoaling. Using the shoaling coefficient (see 4. then the continuity in the flux of energy transport results in the change of the wave height H1 at water depth h1 to the wave height H2 at water depth h2 as given by the following equation: H2 -----. The changes in wave height and wave direction due to refraction shall be considered.5.0 will vary according to the distribution function. where Ks1 and Ks2 are the shoaling coefficients at water depths h1 and h2. it can be assumed that no wave energy flux cuts across the wave ray and flows out. respectively (m/s) b1 . Suppose that the distance between wave rays changes from b1 to b2 as a result. If this value is below the 5% or above the 95% level of the cumulative distriburion of dimensionless deviation of the distribution function being fitted. The maximum value in the data is made dimensionless using the mean and standard deviation for the whole data. and others.5.1 Schematic Diagram of Wave Refraction . For the residual of the correlation coefficient for each distribution function. the 95% non-exceedance probability level is determined in advance. changes to b due to the refraction phenomenon.2) Fig.5 Transformations of Waves 4. C G1 ¤ C G2 can be water depth h1 water depth h2 represented as C G1 ¤ C G2 = K s2 ¤ K s1 .

Parallel Depth Contours Fig.4) Here. T. for example. Nevertheless. the change in the wave direction and the refraction coefficient can be calculated using the following equations: 2ph sin a = sin a 0 tanh --------L Kr = cos a 0 -------------cos a (4.4.5.3) (4. swell-type waves and tsunamis.2 and T. comparing the graphs showing changes in the refraction coefficient and wave direction for regular waves and irregular waves at a coast -50- .5.4. the angle of incidence of the wave at water depth h. and the angle of incidence of the wave in deep water. Parallel Depth Contours (2) Range of Application of Refraction Calculations Using Regular Waves Based on the principles behind calculations for regular waves.3 show the refraction coefficient and the wave direction.4) and (4. a and a0 denote the wavelength at water depth h.4.5. Fig. such calculations are applicable for waves for which there is little directional spreading and the frequency band is narrow.5.5.3). T.4. it is necessary to carry out refraction calculations for irregular waves. and the numerical wave propagation analysis methods 27) in which surface wave equations are solved by computers using finite difference schemes. L.5. as calculated using equations (4.5. respectively.3 Graph Showing the Change in the Wave Direction of Regular Waves at Coast with Straight. Note however that for a coastline for which the depth contours are straight and parallel to one another.2 Refraction Coefficient of Regular Waves at Coast with Straight. For waves like wind waves for which there is much directional spreading and the frequency band is broad. respectively.5. An appropriate calculation method is chosen in accordance with the situation. Figures T.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (b) Refraction calculation methods Refraction calculation methods for regular waves include the wave ray methods in which calculations using a computer are made possible.

with the principal direction of deepwater waves (ap)0 as the parameter. parallel depth contours Figures T. it is acceptable to use the component wave method. T.5. (3) Refraction Calculations for Irregular Waves (a) Calculation methods Refraction calculation methods for irregular waves include the following: ① the component wave method. and so the results of refraction calculations using regular waves can be used as a good approximation. the wave spectrum becomes generally different from a standard form that has been assumed initially. This means that the technique is basically the same in both cases. (c) Diagrams of the refraction coefficient and angle for irregular waves at a coast with straight. (b) Effects of diffraction When deepwater waves have been diffracted by an island or a headland. However. On the other hand. parallel depth contours. Parallel Depth Contours -51- .4 Refraction Coefficient of Irregular Waves at Coast with Straight.5 show the refraction coefficient Kr and the principal wave direction ap. with the energy balance equation method. The direction (ap)0 is expressed as the angle between the wave direction and the line normal to the boundary of deepwater.1. Fig.5. parallel depth contours. Thus it is necessary to use the spectral form after diffraction when performing the refraction calculation.4. When determining the refraction coefficient for irregular waves. This means that when the topography of a coastline is monotonous to the extent that the depth contours are considered to be straight and parallel to the shoreline. refraction within a small but finite region is calculated.4. meaning that the refraction coefficient does not become infinite even at a point in which two regular wave rays may converge. the mild-slope wave equation method is a strictly analytical method. Smax is the maximum value of the parameter that expresses the degree of directional spreading of wave energy (see 4. when intersections of wave rays occur during a refraction calculation for a component wave. whereby the directional wave spectrum is divided into an appropriate number of component waves.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS with straight. and then the refraction coefficient for the irregular wave is evaluated by making a weighted average of the component wave energies. respectively.4. for irregular waves at a coast with straight. the difference between the results of refraction calculations for regular waves and irregular waves is usually only slight. which involves the linear superposition of refraction coefficients for regular waves and is thus simple and convenient.4 and T. ② methods in which the wave energy balance equation 28) or the mild-slope wave equation is solved directly using a computer with finite difference schemes. it can be seen that there is only a little difference between regular waves and irregular waves in this case. a refraction calculation is performed for each component wave. As with the component wave method.3 [3] Wave Spectrum). the energy balance equation is derived by assuming that wave energy does not cut across wave rays and flow out. the energy balance equation method may be used for practical purposes with the exception of the case that the degree of intersection is large. but it is difficult to apply it to a large region. However.5.

T. [Technical Notes] (1) Diffraction Diagrams for Irregular Waves Figures T. and 75.5 Change Due to Refraction in the Principal Direction ap of Irregular Waves at Coast with Straight. and 8 for irregular waves with Smax = 10. (4. Figures T.5. If there are large variations in water depth within the harbor. and 75. 2. In other words. the diffraction diagrams for irregular waves with regard to a semi-infinite breakwater or a straight breakwater that has just one opening have been prepared.4. The ratio of the wave height after diffraction to the incident wave height is called the diffraction coefficient Kd.4. It is the most important phenomenon when determining the wave height in a harbor. in which case it is advisable to investigate the wave height in the harbor by means of either hydraulic scale model tests or else numerical calculation methods that also take refraction into account. 4. the diffraction coefficient Kd is given by the following equation: Kd = Hd ¤ Hi where Hi： incident wave height outside harbor Hd： height of wave in harbor after diffraction Diffraction diagrams and diffraction calculation methods assume that the water depth within the harbor is uniform. 25. the errors will become large. Parallel Depth Contours (4) At places where the water depth is no more than about one half of the deepwater wave height.4. This means that refraction calculations for wave directions and refraction coefficients can only be applied to the water where the depth is at least one half of the deepwater wave height.5.3 Wave Diffraction [1] Diffraction The wave height in regions in which waves are anticipated to be greatly affected by the phenomenon of diffraction caused by obstacles such as breakwaters or islands shall be calculated using an appropriate method. The irregularity of waves should be considered in a diffraction calculation. For a harbor within which the water depth is assumed uniform.10) -52- . 4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Fig.6 (a) ~ (c) show the diffraction diagrams by a semi-infinite breakwater for irregular waves with the directional spreading parameter Smax = 10.5.5. waves exhibit the characteristics of flow rather than those of undulations.6 (a) ~ (l) show the diffraction diagrams through an opening of B/L = 1. 25.5. [Commentary] Diffraction is a phenomenon whereby waves wheel into a region that is screened by something like a breakwater.

Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Wave direction Fig.6(a) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 10 -53- .5. T .4.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ---.

5.Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Wave direction Fig.6(b) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 25 -54- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN ---. T .4.

5.6(c) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 75 -55- .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ---.Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Wave direction Fig.4. T .

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.0) for Smax = 10 -56- .5.4.7(a) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1. T .

T .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.4.5.7(b) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1.0) for Smax = 25 -57- .

7(c) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1.4. T .0) for Smax = 75 -58- .5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.

0) for Smax = 10 -59- .7(d) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2. T .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.4.5.

4. T .0) for Smax = 25 -60- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.5.7(e) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2.

7(f) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.0) for Smax = 75 -61- .4. T .5.

5. T .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.7(g) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.4.0) for Smax = 10 -62- .

5.7(h) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.0) for Smax = 25 -63- . T .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.4.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.7(i) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.0) for Smax = 75 -64- .4.5. T .

4.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.0) for Smax = 10 -65- .7(j) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8.5. T .

4.5.0) for Smax = 25 -66- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction eriod ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig. T .7(k) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.4.0) for Smax = 75 l -67- .5. T .7(l) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8.

These tables are used to obtain the direction q ¢ of the axis of the diffracted waves.4. When this is not possible.8) varies slightly from the direction of incidence q. (a) Determining the axis of the diffracted wave When waves are obliquely incident to a breakwater that contains an opening.7 (a) ~ (l).0 4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Treatment of Obliquely Incident Waves When waves are obliquely incident to a breakwater that contains an opening.5.0 Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q 15º 53º (38º) 46º (31º) 41º (26º) 30º 58º (28º) 53º (23º) 49º (19º) 45º 65º (20º) 62º (17º) 60º (15º) 60º 71º (11º) 70º (10º) 70º (10º) (a) Smax = 25 B/L 1. T-4. T.0 2.5. the following approximate method may be used instead.4.0 4.4. The diffraction diagram is then copied and taken to be the diffraction diagram for obliquely -68- .5.5. or when the diffraction diagram is only required as a rough guideline.1 Angle of Axis of Diffracted Waveθ¢ (4. and then the virtual aperture ratio B¢/L corresponding to q ¢ is obtained from the following equation: B¢ ¤ L = ( B ¤ L ) sin q¢ Table T.1.5.0 Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q 15º 41º (26º) 36º (21º) 30º (15º) 30º 45º (15º) 41º (11º) 36º (6º) 45º 55º (10º) 52º (7º) 49º (4º) 60º 66º (6º) 64º (4º) 62º (2º) Note: Angle in the parentheses is the angle of deflection relative to the angle of incidence Principal direction of diffracted wave Principal direction of incident wave Fig.4.8 Virtual Aperture B¢ and Angle of Axis of Diffracted Wave θ¢ (b) Fitting of a diffraction diagram Out of the diffraction diagrams of normal incidence in Figs. Tables T.0 Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q 15º 49º (34º) 41º (26º) 36º (21º) 30º 52º (22º) 47º (17º) 42º (12º) 45º 61º (16º) 57º (12º) 54º (9º) 60º 70º (10º) 67º (7º) 65º (5º) (a) Smax =75 B/L 1. This diffraction diagram is next rotated until the direction of incidence matches the direction of the axis of the diffracted waves as determined from Table T.5.4. the diffraction diagram that has an aperture ratio nearly equal to the virtual aperture ratio is selected. it is advisable to obtain the diffraction diagram by means of a numerical calculation.0 2. T.11) (a) Smax = 10 B/L 1.1 (a) ~ (c) list the direction of the axis of the diffracted waves as a function of the aperture ratio B/L and the direction of incidence.0 4.5. the direction q ¢ of the axis of the diffracted waves (see Fig.0 2.

-69- . (5) Studies Using Hydraulic Model Experiments Thanks to improvements in multidirectional random wave generating devices.5. it is possible to carry out refraction and diffraction calculations separately. In this case. in terms of the diffraction coefficient. and then estimate the change in wave height by multiplying together the refraction and diffraction coefficients obtained. Diffraction calculation methods include Takayama’s method.1 in the absolute value. [Commentary] (1) When the water depth within a harbor is made more-or-less uniform by say dredging (this is often the case with large harbors). In order to determine the wave height in the harbor in this case.5. can be used for the diffraction calculation for the area within the harbor. The diffraction coefficient is obtained by dividing the significant wave height in the harbor by the significant wave height at the harbor entrance averaged over at least two observation points. There are also literatures in which other calculation methods are explained. However. wave refraction must also be considered. it is easy to reproduce waves that have directional spreading in the laboratory nowadays. Takayama’s harbor calmness calculation method. the wave height at a point of interest within the harbor is expressed using the following equation: H = Kd Kr Ks H0 where Kd： Kr： Ks： H0： diffraction coefficient at the point of interest within a harbor refraction coefficient at the harbor entrance shoaling coefficient at the harbor entrance (see 4. and the wave height is simultaneously measured at a number of points within the harbor. the effects of diffracted waves will be large. it is acceptable to first carry out a calculation considering only refraction and breaking from the deepwater wave hindcasting point to the harbor entrance. (4) Directional Spreading Method When the length of an island or the width of the entrance of a bay is at least ten times the wavelength of the incident waves. (3) Method for Determining Diffraction Coefficient in a Harbor The diffraction coefficient within a complex shape of harbor is generally estimated by numerical computation with a computer.5 Wave Shoaling) deepwater wave height (4. whereby diffraction solutions for detached breakwaters are superimposed in order to obtain the change in the wave height of irregular waves within the harbor due to diffraction and reflection. an opening in the harbor model is set up within the effective wave making zone. the maximum error may amount to around 0. which involves linear super position of analytical solutions for detached breakwaters.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS incident waves. [2] Combination of Diffraction and Refraction When carrying out diffraction calculations for waves in waters where the water depth varies greatly. Calculation methods that allow simultaneous consideration of refraction and diffraction of irregular waves include a method that uses time-dependent mild-slope irregular wave equations. if the point of interest is just behind an island or headland. and the multicomponent coupling method of Nadaoka et al. and so the directional spreading method cannot be applied.12) The energy balance equation method or the improved energy balance equation method in which a term representing dissipation due to wave breaking is added is appropriate as the refraction calculation method for the open sea. a method in which the Boussinesq equation is solved using the finite difference method 29). the latter is called the directional spreading method. and calculation methods that use the Green functions. there will not be a large difference between the wave height estimate by the direct diffraction calculation and the estimate using the amount of directional wave energy that arrives directly at the point of interest behind the island or in the bay. The errors in this approximate method are largest around the opening in the breakwater. a diffraction calculation for the area within the harbor is carried out. If ignoring wave reflection and just investigating the approximate change in wave height. Next. it is necessary to simultaneously consider both diffraction and refraction within the harbor. the refraction of waves after diffraction can be ignored. provided there are no complex topographic variations within the harbor. (2) When there are large variations in water depth even at places screened by a breakwater (this is often the case with relatively small harbors and coastal areas). When carrying out a model experiment. taking the incident wave height to be equal to the calculated wave height at the harbor entrance. meaning that diffraction experiments can be carried out relatively easily.

when the wave directions of various wave groups differ.4 0. I is assigned to the wave group with the shorter period and Ⅱto that with the longer period.7 wavelengths away from a reflecting boundary.16) (4.8 ≦ RT ＜ 1 0.20) 2 2 H 1 + H2 + ¼ + Hn 2 2 2 (4..13) (4.5.5.5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. the differences in the wave directions of various wave groups must be considered. if the wave action varies with the wave direction.8 0.5. and multiple-reflected waves from quaywalls can cause agitations within harbors.1 ≦ RT ＜ 0.5.6 ì 13.15 ln R T ì 0.5. Regarding the diffraction and/or refraction of waves for which wave direction is an important factor.08 ( ln R T ) 2 0. The calculated wave height is valid for places that are at least about 0. equation (4. in the above equations. investigations shall be carried out onto the effects of reflected waves from neighboring structures on the facilities in question and also the effects of wave reflection from the facilities in question on neighboring areas. ¼ Hn: significant wave heights of wave groups Note however that.0 R H = ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) II R T = ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) II : : : : 0.121Aln ( RH ¤ m) a = 0. [Technical Notes] (1) Composition of Reflected Waves and Incident Waves The wave height Hs when incident waves and waves reflected from a number of reflective boundaries coexist (a train of incident waves and those of reflected waves from reflective boundaries are termed the “wave groups”) can be calculated using the following equation: Hs = where Hs: significant wave height when all of the wave groups are taken together H1.33 ln RT A = í î 10. H2.97 + 4. respectively (m) (T1/3)I. respectively (s) Note that.144 ln RT m = í î 0. An acceptable alternative is to determine the spectrum for each wave group. Then the composite wave height is calculated by putting these significant wave heights into equation (4.19) (4.18) (4.e. (H1/3)II : significant wave heights of wave groups I and II before superimposition.5.632 + 0.0 + a ( R H ¤ m ) 0.5. (2) Composition of Periods The significant wave height to be used in calculating the wave force when two wave groups of different periods are superimposed may be determined by the energy composition method (i. -70- .5. add these spectra together in order to calculate the spectral form when the wave groups coexist. [Commentary] It is necessary to take note of the fact that waves reflected from port and harbor facilities can exercise a large influence on the navigation of vessels and cargo handling.5.1 ≦ RT ＜ 0.13)).17) (4. The significant wave period T1/3 may be determined using the following equation 30): ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I + ( H 1 ¤ 3 )II T 1 ¤ 3 = k -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) I + ( H 1 ¤ 3 )II ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 )II where k = 1. (T1/3)II : significant wave periods of wave groups I and II before superimposition.5. For example. waves reflected from vertical breakwaters can cause disturbances in navigation channels.4 Wave Reflection [1] General In the design of port and harbor facilities. and then perform direct diffraction and/or refraction calculations using this spectrum.4 ≦ RT ＜ 1 (4.13).15) (4. the significant wave height is determined separately for each wave group by carrying out whatever calculation is necessary for that wave group.14) (H1/3)I.

(b) Simple method by means of diffraction diagrams Explanation is made for the example shown in Fig. the refraction of reflected waves cannot be calculated. since it is the energies that are added. -71- .4 in the previous example.9. representing the incident. there will be large errors if it is applied to the diffraction of waves by thin structures such as breakwaters.68 with a value of 1. the virtual breakwater also becomes a semiinfinite breakwater in the opposite direction. it is sufficient for practical purposes if the lengths of the sides between convex corners are at least about three times the wavelength of the incident waves. The method by Goda et al. Next. and past data. (a) Poligonal island reflection method In this calculation method.68.21 represents the mean value of the wave height ratio around the point A. [2] Reflection Coefficient Reflection coefficients shall be determined appropriately based on the results of field observations.9.7 wavelengths of the detached breakwater. The range of of Reflected Waves influence of the reflected waves is represented by means of the diffraction diagram for the virtual breakwaters with the opening. however.5.5.4. it is desirable to use irregular waves as the test waves. the direction shown by the dashed arrow in Fig. that this value of 1. if the reflection coefficient of the detached breakwater is 0. Accordingly. T4. It is not advisable to use this method for points within 0. then the wave height ratio with respect to the incident waves at point A is obtained by combining this value of 0. In this case.4. such as shown with dashed lines in Fig.0 representing the incident waves. In general. [Technical Notes] (1) Approximate Values for Reflection Coefficient It is desirable to evaluate the value of reflection coefficient by means of field observations. T.4 ´ 0. the wave height ratio becomes 1 + 0. the reflected and the scattered waves. This calculation method can also be applied to the reflection of irregular waves by means of superposing component waves. T. Instead of the detached breakwater. It should be noted.68 2 = 1.68 ) 2 = 1. it is assumed as a precondition that the lengths of the sides between convex corners are at least five times the wavelength of the incident waves.4. and so the diffraction diagram for a semi-infinite breakwater is used. and draws the diffraction diagram for the Fig. supposing that the diffraction coefficient at point A is read off as being 0. it is standard to estimate reflection coefficient by referring to the results of hydraulic model experiments. hydraulic model experiments. Since another assumption is made such that the water depth is uniform.9). respectively. the theoretical solution that shows the wave transformation around a single convex corner is separated into three terms. one considers the situation whereby waves are incident on the virtual opening from both the wave direction of the incident waves and the direction symmetrical to this with respect to the detached breakwater (i.4. when it is difficult to carry out observation or when the structure in question has not yet been constructed.21 . The term for the scattered waves is progressively expanded to obtain an approximate equation. When the reflection coefficient of the front face of the breakwater is less than 1. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (3) Methods for Calculating the Effects of Reflected Waves Calculation methods for investigating the extent of the effects of waves reflected from a structure include the poligonal island reflection method and a simple method by means of diffraction diagrams. When there are a number of convex corners. it is supposed that there are two semi-infinite virtual breakwaters with an opening.0 due to wave-absorbing work for example. the diffraction coefficient should be multiplied by the reflection coefficient before being used. the wave height ratio at the point A becomes 1 + ( 0.5.04 . T. 31) may be used for the analysis of irregular wave test data. For the case of wave reflection by a semi-infinite breakwater.e. For example. Although the wave diffraction problems can also be analyzed with this calculation method..9).5. However. It is necessary to take heed of the fact that errors may become large if the sides are shorter than this.5. so that the convex corners do not interfere with each other. because the errors due to a phase coupling effect will be large. so that the method can be applied to the case where there are a number of convex corners.9 Sketch Showing the Effect opening (dashed lines in Fig. The wave height at a point A on the front face of an upright detached breakwater is estimated when waves are incident on the detached breakwater at an angle a.

[Technical Notes] (1) Influence of Wave Irregularity When the wave height distribution near a concave corner or the head of a breakwater is calculated for regular waves. the wave height becomes larger than the normal value of standing waves owing to the effects of diffraction and reflection. because the effect of waves reflected from the wing breakwater extend even to places at a considerable distance away from the concave corner.4. Calculation using regular waves thus overestimates the increase in the wave height around concave corners and the heads of breakwaters. The length l1 is that of the main breakwater. this is only the case when the wave-absorbing work extends along the whole of the breakwater. the undulated form of the distribution becomes smoothed out. near the Heads of Breakwaters. However.05 ~ 0. In the diagram.6 Precast wave-dissipating concrete blocks: 0. Upright wall: 0. Kd is the ratio of the wave height at the front face of the main breakwater to the wave height of the incident waves. -72- . This increase in wave height shall be investigated thoroughly. that with the upright wave-absorbing structure.4. l2 is that of the wing breakwater. which implies a narrow directional spreading. and around Detached Breakwaters Around the concave corners of structures. the irregularity of waves shall be considered in the analysis. If the breakwater is long.6 Natural beach: 0.3 ~ 0. when wave irregularity is incorporated into the calculation. The same can be said for the influence of the main breakwater on the wing breakwater.10. and b is the angle between the main breakwater and the wing breakwater. Moreover. It has been assumed that waves are completely reflected by the breakwater. and the peak value of the wave height becomes smaller. the reflection coefficient varies with the wavelength. The irregular waves used in the calculation has a spectral form with Smax = 75. a distributional form with large undulations is obtained. T. and the shape and dimensions of the structure. and around detached breakwaters. It should be noted.7 Rubble mound: 0. the approximate calculation method may be used. (3) Wave-Height-Reducing Effects of Wave-Absorbing Work When a wave-absorbing work is installed in order to suppress the increase in wave height around a concave corner and if the wave-absorbing work is such that the reflection coefficient of the breakwater becomes no more than 0. excluding the region within one wavelength of a concave corner.2 With the exception of the upright wall.0 (0. [3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners. The long dash-dot line in each graph shows the distribution of the maximum value of the wave height at each point as obtained using an approximate calculation.7 ~ 1. However. When it is not easy to use the calculation program. This figure may be used to calculate the wave height distribution near a concave corner.7 is for the case of a low crown with much overtopping) Submerged upright breakwater: 0. it is quite acceptable to ignore the increase in wave height due to the presence of concave corner. (2) Graphs for Calculating Wave Height Distribution around a Concave Corner Wave height distributions for irregular waves near a concave corner are shown in Fig. This figure exhibits the form of the distribution of the maximum value of the wave height.5 Upright wave-absorbing structure: 0.5 ~ 0.5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN The following is a list of approximate values for the reflection coefficients of several types of structures. near the heads of breakwaters. one cannot expect the wave-absorbing work to be very effective unless it is installed along the entire length of the breakwater.3 ~ 0. the lower limits in the above ranges of reflection coefficient correspond to the case of steep waves and the upper limits to waves with low steepness. as obtained from numerical calculations for each principal wave direction.3 ~ 0. however.

T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Computer method Approximate solution method Computer method Approximate solution method Fig.4.10 Distribution of the Maximum Value of the Wave Height around Concave Corner 32) -73- .5.

It shall be standard to consider the nonlinearity of waves when calculating the shoaling coefficient. it is necessary to take heed of the fact that. In this calculation. H is the wave height at water depth h.5.e. waves with the height greater than that of normal standing waves are produced. not when the waves are normally incident to the breakwater.5 Wave Shoaling When waves propagate into shallow waters. T. H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height. the ratio of the wave force to that of a standing wave) near the head of a breakwater. waves diffracted by breakwaters exercise an effect of local wave height increase over the normal standing wave heights. Ks is the shoaling coefficient.12 Wave Force Distribution along a Detached Breakwater 4. -74- .4.5. [Commentary] Shoaling is one of the important factors that lead to changing of the wave height in coastal waters. T. This is due to the effect of wave diffraction at the two ends of the breakwater 34). Wave force ratio Irregular waves Regular waves 0 (5) Increase in Wave Height around Detached Breakwater Along a detached breakwater. with a detached breakwater. and L0 is the wavelength in deepwater. It exemplifies the fact that the wave height in shallow waters is also governed by the water depth and the wave period. It includes the linearized solution by the small amplitude wave theory and enables the estimation of the shoaling coefficient from deep to shallow waters.4.4. Fig. it is necessary to take heed of the fact that the difference in water level between the inside and the outside of the breakwater gives rise to a large wave force.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (4) Increase in Wave Height at the Head of a Breakwater Near the head of a semi-infinite breakwater or those of breakwaters at a harbor entrance (specifically within a distance of one wavelength from the head).. Figure T. The wave force also becomes large due to the difference between the water levels in the offshore and onshore sides of the breakwater. but rather when obliquely incident with a relatively shallow angle). the place where the maximum wave force is generated can shift greatly with the wave direction and the ratio of the breakwater length to the wavelength.5. the wave direction for which the largest wave force occurrs is a = 30º (i.11 Wave Force Distribution along a Semi-Infinite Breakwater 33) Wave force ratio 60° 45° α=30° 75° 90° α N N (m) Fig. Because the wave height distribution has an undulating form even at the back face of a breakwater. and the wave height distribution takes an undulating form even at the back face of the breakwater. Figure T. In the diagram.5.11 shows an example of the results of a calculation of the wave force ratio (i. In particular.13 has been drawn up based on Shuto’s nonlinear long wave theory.5.4.4.12 shows an example of the results of a calculation of the wave force distribution along a detached breakwater for unidirectional irregular waves. shoaling shall be considered in addition to refraction and diffraction.5. Figure T.e..

44) using a theoretical model of wave breaking. For regular waves. These figures show the change in wave height for irregular waves as calculated by Goda 35). the location of wave breaking depends on the height and period of individual waves.4.5. the change in wave height is calculated using the shoaling coefficient (see 4.14 (a) ~ (e) or Figs. As for the bottom slope. [Commentary] After the height of waves has increased owing to shoaling.5 to 2. For irregular waves. It shall be standard to consider the irregularity of waves when calculating the change in the wave height due to wave breaking.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 0 2% dec ay line 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fig.13 Graph for Evaluation of Shoaling Coefficient 4.4. -75- . and so the wave height must be determined using this graph. Therefore. when calculating the wave force acting on a structure in a very shallow water.5. For the region to the right of the dash-dot line on each graph. a major portion of wave energy is converted to the energy of oscillating flows rather than to that of water level undulation. it is desirable to use the wave height at the place where the water depth is one half of the equivalent deepwater wave height. and wave breaking thus occurs over a certain distance: this area is referred to as the “breaker zone”. waves break at a certain water depth and the wave height decreases rapidly. T. This phenomenon is called the wave breaking.5.5.6 Wave Breaking At places where the water depth is no more than about three times the equivalent deepwater wave height.5 Wave Shoaling). T. it is appropriate to use the mean bottom slope over the region where the water depth to equivalent deepwater wave height ratio h/H0¢ is in the range of 1.15 (a) ~ (e). if the facilities in question are highly important. the change in wave height due to wave breaking dominates.5. (2) Scope of Application of Graphs of Wave Height Change At places where the water depth is no more than about one half of the equivalent deepwater wave height. the place at which waves break is always the same: this is referred to as the “wave breaking point”. For the region to the left of this dash-dot line. It is an important factor to be considered when determining the wave conditions exercising on maritime structures. T4. changing of the wave height due to wave breaking shall be considered.5. [Technical Notes] (1) Change in Wave Height Due to Wave Breaking The change in wave height due to wave breaking may be determined using Figs.

14 (d) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/50 -76- y li ne . T.5.4.14 (c) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/30 2% Fig.4.4.14 (b) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/20 Bottom slope Bottom slope 0 0 0 0 0 ine ay l 0 2% 0 dec 0 2% dec a 0 0 0 Fig.14 (a) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/10 Fig. T.5. T. T.5.4.5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Bottom slope 0 0 Bottom slope 0 0 deca y lin e 2% 0 0 0 deca y lin e 0 h / H ' 00 Fig.

5. T.15 (c) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/30 -77- 2% d ecay line . T. T.14 (e) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/100 Fig.4.4.5.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Bottom slope Bottom slope 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 ec %d ay l ine 0 0 Fig.4.15 (b) Diagram of Highes Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/20 Fig.5.15 (a) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/10 Bottom slope 0 0 Bottom slope 0 0 line 2% d e 0 0 0 cay l ine ecay 2% d 0 0 Fig. T.5.4.

b max H 0 ¢. T.17.5.53 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 0.2 ³ 2% min { ( b0 H 0 ¢ + b 1 h ). 1. respectively.4.63 exp [ 3. T.23) (4.8K s H 0 ¢ * * * : h ¤ L 0 ≧0. it is acceptable to calculate wave height changes using the following simple formula 35). then the breaker index curve becomes as shown in Fig. T.16.29 exp [ 2. an approximate calculation formula for the highest wave height Hmax is given as follows: H max = where b* = 0.13. Similarly.2 ³ min { ( b 0 H 0 ¢ + b 1 h ).5.2 (4. b max H 0 ¢. 44): H1 ¤ 3 = where ｛ Ks H0 ¢ : h ¤ L 0 ≧0.5.15 (e) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/100 (3) Approximate Calculation Formulas for Breaking Wave Height Calculation of wave height changes based on a theoretical model for wave breaking generally requires use of a computer.38 exp [ 20 ( tan q ) 1. considering the variability of the phenomenon and the overall accuracy. However.5. K s H 0 ¢ } : h ¤ L 0 < 0.5.4.65.052 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 0. 0. and tanq is the bottom slope. then the graph for calculating the breaker depth becomes as shown in Fig.5.38 exp [ 20 ( tan q ) 1. the operators min{ } and max{ } take the minimum and maximum value of the mulitiple quantities within the braces.32 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 deca ) 0.5 ] 0 b* = 0.52 exp [ 4.21) b 0 = 0.2 tan q ] b max = max { 0.5. -78- e 64748 64748 .4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Bottom slope 0 0 Bottom slope 0 0 ine cay l 2% d e 0 0 Fig. 0. If the water depth (h1/3)peak at which the significant wave height is a maximum is taken as representative of the breaker depth.5.8K s H 0 ¢ } : h ¤ L 0 < 0.4.92.8 tan q ] 1 b* max ｛ 1.4 tan q ] } 0 0 y lin (4. T. T.2 = max { 1.4.028 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 0.24) The shoaling coefficient Ks is determined using Fig.15 (d) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/50 Fig.4 tan q ] } (4) Graph for Calculating Breaking Wave Height 35) If the maximum value (H1/3)peak of the significant wave height in the breaker zone is taken as representative of the breaking wave height.5 ] b 1 = 0.29 exp [ 2.22) (4.5.

15.( 1 + 15 tan 4 ¤ 3 q ) ý L0 L0 î þ (4. Figure T. the change in wave height cannot be calculated directly using Figs.4. T.= 0. it is thus necessary to consider this increase in water level.17 Diagram of Water Depth at which the Maximum Value of the Significant Wave Height Occurs slope 0 0 Fig.5.5. The curves in the graph can be approximated with the following equation: Hb ì ü ph -----. When estimating the limiting wave height in the breaker zone. This figure can be used to calculate the breaking wave height criterion in hydraulic model experiments using regular waves.5.4. the water depth increases owing to the wave setup caused by wave breaking.ö ý + a --------------è H 0 ¢ø H0 ¢ H0 ¢ î þ -79- o B tt o m sl o p e 0 0 0 Fig.26) . T.18 shows the limiting wave height at the point of first wave breaking.4. T.= B exp í A æ ------.5.5. At places where the water is shallow. Bottom (6) Change in Wave Height at Reef Coasts At reef coasts where shallow water and a flat sea bottom continue over a prolonged distance. the following empirical equation may be used 36): Hx h + h¥ ì x ü ------.25) where tanq denotes the bottom slope.5.14 and T.4.5.4.17 1 exp í 1.4.4.18 shows the breaking wave height criterion for regular waves.18 Breaking Wave Height Criterion for Regular Waves (4.5 ----.5. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Note: ( 0 1/3) peak is the water depth at which 0 1/3 is a maximum B Note: ( 0 in the breaker zone ot 1/3) peak is the maximum value to of 0 0 m 1/3 in the breaker zone o sl pe Fig. Instead.5.16 Diagram of Maximum Value of the Significant 0 0 (5) Breaking Wave Height Criterion for Regular Waves Figure T.

and Transmission 4. T. C0 is given by hx = 0 + h 2 3 Hx = 0 2 C 0 = æ ----------------------ö + -. From the continuity of the mean water level at the tip of the reef (x = 0).5.6 Wave Runup. and so -80- . it is advisable to set the crown elevation of the seawall to be higher than the runup height for regular waves. it is advisable to determine wave runup heights by carrying out hydraulic model experiments. H0 ¢ ü A = 0.= H0 ¢ 3 C 0 ¤ æ 1 + -. and h x is the rise in the mean water level at the distance x and is given by the following equation: hx + h -------------. it is obtained from the significant wave height Hx = 0 at water depth h as follows. and the sea bottom topography. When designing seawalls of gently sloping type and the like.20 ( 4 m > H 0 ¢ ³ 2 m ) ï a = í ï ï ï 0. Using Fig.05 and 0.14. 1.6.30) The term h x = 0 represents the rise in the mean water level at water depth h. it is advisable to use the following values that have been obtained from the data of field observations. depending on the wave height.ö è H0¢ ø 8 è H0 ¢ ø (4.015 ï h + h¥ ï ï (4.+ 0.28) where b = 0. overflow can occur.7. a --------------H0 ¢ H0 ¢ The term (h+ h ¥ )/H0¢ is given by h + h¥ --------------.5.ba 2ö è ø 8 (4.= H0¢ 3 Hx 2 C 0 -. respectively. H max. Considering the breaking wave height criterion of a solitary wave. However.31) where min{a. according to the results of hydraulic model experiments. the highest wave height Hmax.32) 4. thus the runup height varies in a complex way. [Commentary] The phenomenon of wave runup is dependent upon a whole variety of factors.b æ ------------.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where H0¢： equivalent deepwater wave height Hx： significant wave height at a distance x from the tip of the reef h： water depth over the reef h ¥： increase in the mean water level at a place sufficiently distant from the tip of the reef The coefficients A and a are 0. which is controlled by the bottom slope in front of the reef and wave steepness (see 4.29) (4. such as the wave characteristics. It is thus not possible to apply the method when the water is deep and wave breaking does not occur. x = min { 0. Overtopping.8H x } (4.27) ì ý ï 0. although they are applicable only under certain limited conditions. There are calculation diagrams and equations based on the results of past researches that may be used. Hx = 0 h + h¥ B = ------------.1 Wave Setup).5.33.56. When the seawall and sea bottom are complex in form.5. x at the distance x from the tip of the reef may be obtained as follows. b} is the smaller value of a or b. the configuration and location of the seawall.78 ( h + h x ).5.ö 8 è H 0 ¢ø (4.33 ( H 0 ¢ ³ 4 m ) î þ The coefficient B corresponds to the bottom slope at the front of the reef.1 Wave Runup Wave runup shall be calculated appropriately by taking into account the configuration and location of the seawall and the sea bottom topgraphy.4. However.5. for irregular waves.b æ ------. The calculation method in the above has been derived under the assumption that the water depth h over the reef is small and waves break over the reef.5.089 --------------.

Takada used the following equation for hs /H1.2 Wave Overtopping) no more than a certain permissible value. [Technical Notes] The following is the description of methods for calculating the runup height over smooth impermeable slopes: (1) Simple Cross Section “A simple cross section” refers to the case in which a seawall (including an upright wall) having a front slope of an uniform gradient a is located at a certain place (of water depth h) on the sea bottom with an almost uniform gradient q. according to Miche’s equation.+ ----. H1 is the wave height at the water depth at the foot of the slope. The term LR in the figure is the wavelength at water depth hR.. when the angle of inclination of the slope is greater than ac. hs is the crest elevation. which shows the runup height for a vertical wall.3) When the angle of inclination of the slope is smaller than ac. deeper than the depth at the breaker line).2) where H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height. -81- . wave breaking does not occur over the slope.6. the case where wave breaking does not occur on the front slope and the case where such wave breaking does occur.6. in which case the runup height is given by the following equation: hs p R ------.6) (4. the runup height can be calculated as above.6.ö è cot a ø è H1 ø î 2a c þ a < ac (4.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ultimately the crown elevation and the form of the seawall are determined so as to make the quantity of overtopping (see 4. Firstly. wave breaking does occur on the front slope.1) Accordingly.e..18 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/10 ï R ¤ H 0 ¢ = í 0.6.5) is the water depth at the foot of the levee for which the runup height becomes largest. H1 1 3 h s ¤ H 1 = 1 + p ----. (b) Region where the water is shallower than the breaker depth Takada has given the runup height for regions where the water is sufficiently shallow for wave breaking to occur as follows: h R ¤ H 0 ¢ = ( R max ¤ H 0 ¢ R 0 ¤ H 0 ¢ ) ----.e. leading to the following equation: cot a c 2 ¤ 3 hs ì p ü : R ¤ H 0 ¢ = í -------. the runup height when h = hR). (a) Region of standing waves Takada has proposed the following equation for determining the runup height when the water depth h at the foot of the levee is in the range where standing waves exist (i. R0/H0¢ is given as follows: ì 0.6. It is estimated using Fig.4) When the water depth is such that standing waves exist.. the minimum angle of inclination of the slope ac for which wave breaking does not occur is found as that satisfying the following condition: 2a c sin 2 a c H0 ¢ -------.6. He dealt with two cases separately. 1ö ý Ks æ ------------.1. -----------------------ö è L 4 sinh 2 kh 4 cosh 2 khø (4. with the runup height decreasing both when the slope is more steeply inclined than this and when it is more gently inclined. i. it is assumed that the runup height is proportional to tan2/3a.4.075 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/20 ï 0. Based on the experimental results of Toyoshima et al.6.--------------. 1 ö K s : a > a c è 2a ø H0 ¢ H1 (4. In this case.046 ( H ¢ ¤ L ) 1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/30 0 0 î (4.+ R 0 ¤ H 0 ¢ hR where R0 is the runup height on the levee body at the shoreline (h = 0). while Rmax is the maximum runup height for the region where the water depth is such that standing waves exist (i.= æ -----.e.5) The term hR in equation (4.which assumes that there is good agreement between the value from Miche’s standing wave theory and experimental data.coth kh × æ 1 + --------------------.+ æ ----. The maximum runup height occurs when a = ac.6. T.. and R is the runup height.= ------p p L0 (4.6. Ks is the shoaling coefficient.

6. the points A and B are joined by a straight line. If the two do not agree.e. ③ The runup height for this virtual gradient is calculated using Fig. with the error usually being no more than 10%. T. T.4. Maximum runup point Wave breaking point Actual cross section Virtual gradient Fig.4. it is generally found that there is good agreement between the two. 0 0 0 (b) When the results obtained from this method are compared with actual experimental results for a complex cross section.6. if the bottom slope is too gentle.4. ② Next. the runup height R is assumed and the point A is set at the maximum runup point.4. then a new runup height is assumed. Shoaling coefficient and the gradient of this line yields the virtual gradient cota. and the calculated Fig..2. ① The wave breaking point B is determined from the deepwater wave characteristics. T. and so this method should only be used when the bottom slope is steeper than 1/30. and the estimation are repeated (i.3 Runup Height on a Slope -82- .6.4.6.3. Then.4 shows experimental results obtained for a bottom slope of 1/70. T.6. However.1 Graph for Estimating hR for a Vertical Wall height is compared with the initially assumed runup height. T.4. the runup height of the seawall is obtained as follows (refer to Fig. ④ The value so obtained is taken to be the runup height for the complex cross section in question.2) 37). T. the new runup height is used to give a new virtual gradient and so on).6. This figure provides a useful reference when estimating the runup height for a complex cross section with a gentle bottom slope.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Complex Cross Section A “complex cross section” refers to the case where the sea bottom topography and the configuration and location of the seawall (on the whole) are as shown in Fig.2 Complex Cross Section and Virtual Gradient Fig. the agreement between the two becomes poor.6. (c) Figure T. 0 0 (a) When the cross section can be considered to be complex.4. This iterative process is repeated until convergence is achieved.

Holland Smooth surface 0 0 Surface covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks 0 (Former) Russia Fig. T. (4) Effects of Wave-Absorbing Work The runup height can be significantly reduced when the front face of a seawall is completely covered with wavedissipating concrete blocks.6.4. It should also be noted that actual wave runup will frequently exceeds the design crown height because of wave irregularity when the crown height of a seawall is designed against the significant waves.4. it is necessary to give consideration to the quantity of overtopping (see 4..2 Wave Overtopping).6. This figure can be used to estimate the effect of wave incident angle on the runup height. in fact.5 shows the relationship between the incident angle coefficient Kb and the angle b.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Fig. the effect of the concrete blocks varies greatly according to the way in which they are laid. when b = 0).6. even if the scatter of the experimental data is not considered. (5) Estimation Errors It is important to note that the curves for determining the runup height have been obtained by averaging experimental data that show a large scatter.4.4 Runup Height on a Seawall Located Closer to the Land than the Wave Breaking Point (3) Oblique Wave Incidence Figure T.e.6 shows an example. rather. and so in general it is advisable to determine the runup height by means of hydraulic model experiments.6.5 Relationship between Wave Incident Angle and Runup Height (Full Lines: Experimental Values by Public Works Research Institute.6. Figure T. T. the crown height of a seawall should not be decided based purely on the runup height of regular waves. However. T.6. and the incident angle coefficient Kb is the ratio of the runup height for angle b to the runup height when the waves are normally incident (i. Accordingly.4. b is the angle between the wave crest line of the incident waves and the centerline of the seawall. Ministry of Construction) 0 0 Fig.6 Reduction in Runup Height Due to Wave-Absorbing Work -83- . Here.4. in extreme cases as many as about a half of the waves may exceed this height.

4. Furthermore. but also damage by flooding to the roads. The quantity of overtopping and the rate of overtopping are generally expressed per unit width. the graph for which the values most closely match should be used. the quantity of overtopping tends to decrease 39). T. Table T. it is necessary to make the quantity of overtopping no more than a certain permissible value that has been determined in line with the characteristics of structures and the situation with regard to their usage.2 ~ 3 0.1 ~ 5 Wave-absorbing seawall 0. it is obtained by dividing the quantity of overtopping by the time duration of measurement. The “rate of overtopping”. in the way in which the tetrapods are laid. If the quantity of overtopping is large.6. i. -84- . In this case. or if the same kind of wave-dissipating concrete block is used but there are differences in the crown width.10.6. that does not have anything like a toe protection mound or a crown parapet).4. is the average volume of water overtopping in a unit time.1 Estimated Range for the Actual Rate of Overtopping Relative to the Estimated Value q ¤ ( 2 g ( H 0' ) 3 ) 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 Upright seawall 0. From the results of a comparison between the experiments and field observations.6.e. The rate of overtopping for the waveabsorbing seawall has been obtained under the conditition that the lower armor layer at the crown consists of 2 rows of wave-dissipating concrete blocks. to carry out experiments for different water levels. or in the form of the toe. houses and/or port and harbor facilities behind the levee or seawall.4. There is further a risk to users of water frontage amenity facilities that they may be drowned or injured. the approximate equation of Takayama et al.5 times 0. then there is a risk that the actual rate of overtopping may considerably differ from the value obtained by the figures. the following should be considered: (a) If the actual values of the bottom slope and the deepwater wave steepness do not match any of the values on the graphs.2 ~ 3 0. on the other hand.6... it is desirable to consider changes in tidal water level. 40) may be used.6.4. T.05 ~ 10 Note that when obtaining rough estimates for the rate of overtopping for irregular waves using Figs. wave irregularity shall be considered. These graphs have been drawn up based on experiments employing irregular waves. or alternatively interpolation should be carried out.1 ~ 5 0. when estimating the quantity of overtopping by means of experiments.6.7 ~ 4.7 ~ 4. despite that the levee or seawall is intended to protect them. If a different kind of wave-dissipating concrete block is used. (d) When there are difficulties in applying the graphs for estimating the rate of overtopping.e. During design. then not only there will be damage to the seawall body itself.2 Wave Overtopping For structures for which the quantity of overtopping is an important design factor. it is thought that the accuracy of the curves giving the rate of overtopping is within the range listed in Table T.5 ~ 2 times 0.7 ~ 1. the rate of overtopping may be estimated using Figs.10. the overtopping quantity shall be calculated by carrying out hydraulic model experiments or by using data from hydraulic model experiments carried out in the past. [Commentary] The “quantity of overtopping” is the total volume of overtopped water.6.4 ~ 2 0. [Technical Notes] (1) Diagrams for Calculating the Rate of Overtopping 38) For an upright or wave-absorbing seawall that has a simple form (i. (b) The wave-dissipating concrete blocks in the figures are made up of two layers of tetrapods. (c) If the number of rows of concrete blocks at the crown is increased.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4.1.

6. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Fig.7 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for an Upright Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/30) -85- .4.

4.8 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for an Upright Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/10) -86- . T.6.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Fig.

4. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 0 0 0 0 0 0 Co nc ret eb loc k 0 Co 0 nc ret 0 0 eb loc k 0 0 0 0 Co 0 0 nc 0 0 0 ret eb loc k 0 0 0 0 Fig.6.9 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for a Wave-Absorbing Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/30) -87- 0 0 .

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 0 0 0 0 0 Co 0 0 nc ret eb loc k 0 0 0 0 0 Co nc ret eb loc k 0 Co 0 nc ret eb 0 0 0 0 Fig.4.6.10 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for a Wave-Absorbing Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/10) -88- 0 0 loc k 0 0 0 . T.

the larger the wind velocity. (5) Overtopping of Multidirectional Random Waves In waters where the multidirectionality of waves is well clarified. the rate of overtopping may be corrected in line with Smax as in reference 42). Below are the reference values for the equivalent crown height coefficient b for typical types of seawall. The abscissa shows the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping. but no concrete on back slope Concrete on front slope only Covering Rate of overtopping (m3/m•s) 0. crown.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (2) Permissible Rate of Overtopping The permissible rate of overtopping depends on factors such as the structural type of the seawall. the relative effect of winds decreases as the quantity of overtopping increases. behind the seawall. Figure T. however. it must be set appropriately in line with the individual situation. the difference in the splash distance becomes small.2 0. However.11 shows the results of an investigation on the wind effect on the quantity of overtopping based on field observations.6. where the conditions in terms of waves and the sea bottom topography are taken to be the same for the both cases.6 : b = 1. and the capacity of drainage facilities.4.7 ~ 1. Wave-absorbing seawall with concrete block mound 40): b = 0. the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping increases.0. when the quantity of overtopping is small.0 ì 1 sin 2 q : q ≦ 30° ü £ :b = í ý 1 sin 2 i 30° : q > 30° þ î (q is the angle of incidence of the waves.02 ~ 0. Furthermore. using the results of experiments with regular waves. public facilities etc. with a larger distance at a higher wind velocity.05 0. the distance over which a mass of water splash strongly affected by the wind velocity.005 or less Levee Table T. the situation with regard to land usage behind the seawall.4. when the quantity of overtopping is small. -89- . have considered the degree of importance of the facilities behind the seawall and have come up with the values for the permissible rate of overtopping as listed in Table T.05 0.01 About 0. while the ordinate shows the quantity of overtopping per unit area. it is 0º when the waves are normally incident on the seawall) When the waves are obliquely incident 42) (4) Effect of Winds on the Quantity of Overtopping In general.6. the smaller the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping becomes.2 based on past cases of disasters. although there is a lot of variation.6. The equivalent crown height coefficient is the ratio of the height of the seawall in question to the height of an imaginary upright seawall that results in the same quantity of overtopping.3 Permissible Rate of Overtopping (m3/m•s) as a Function of the Degree of Importance of the Hinterland Areas where there is a high concentration of houses.2 Damage Limit Rate of Overtopping Type Revetment Apron paved Apron unpaved Concrete on front slope. As can be seen from the figure. winds have a relatively large effect on the quantity of overtopping when it is small.3.4. Although it is thus impossible to give one standard value for the permissible rate of overtopping.02 0.06 (3) Equivalent Crown Height Coefficient The equivalent crown height coefficient can be used as a guideline when setting the quantity of overtopping for a seawall upon which wave-dissipating concrete blocks are laid or for a seawall of wave-absorbing type with vertical slits.4. This shows that.7 Vertical-slit type seawall 40) Parapet retreating type Stepped seawall 39) seawall 39) : b = 0. this means that the crown of the seawall under study can be lowered below that of an upright seawall and still give the same quantity of overtopping.4. and back slope Concrete on front slope and crown. and so it is anticipated that flooding due to overtopping or spray would cause particularly serious damage Other important areas Other areas About 0.6. Table T.0 ~ 0. when the quantity of overtopping is large. When the quantity of overtopping is large.9 ~ 0.5 : b = 1. Goda 41) nevertheless gave the values for the damage limit rate of overtopping as listed in Table T. in other words.02 0. Nagai et al. the seawall under study has a form that is effective in reducing the quantity of overtopping. If the equivalent crown height coefficient is less than 1.6.

because the transmitted waves affect the wave height distribution behind the breakwater. several breakwaters have been built with caissons (which are originally not permeable) having through-holes in order to enhance the exchange of the seawater within a harbor.3 Wave Transmission It shall be standard to calculate the height of waves transmitted behind a breakwater by overtopping and/or permeation through the core or the fundation mound of breakwater by referring to either the results of hydraulic model experiments or the past data.6. the transmission coefficient agrees pretty well with that shown in Fig.11 Wind Effect on Spatial Gradient of Wave Overtopping Quantity 4. T. Fig.12 may be used to calculate the height of waves that are transmitted into a harbor when they overtop a composite breakwater or permeate through a foundation mound.6.6. T.4.12 Graph for Calculating the Wave Height Transmission Coefficient -90- W in d ve lo cit y . but also for the highest one-tenth wave height and the mean wave height. because the coefficient serves as an indicator of the efficiency of the exchange of seawater.12. [Technical Notes] (1) Transmission Coefficient for a Composite Breakwater Figure T. T.4. Transmitted waves include waves that have overtopped and/or overflowed.4. as well as waves that have permeated through a rubble mound breakwater or a foundation mound of composite breakwater. [Commentary] It is necessary to appropriately estimate the transmitted wave height after waves have overtopped and/or passed through a breakwater.6. Even when the waves are irregular.6. it is necessary to examine the value of wave transmission coefficient. It has also been shown that Fig. T.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Quantity of overtopping per unit area q Gradient Fig.12 is valid not only for the significant wave height.4. In this case. Recently.4.6.

water-permeable structure such as a rubble mound breakwater or a wave-dissipating concrete block type breakwater.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (2) Period of Transmitted Waves for a Composite Breakwater The period of the transmitted waves drops to about 50 ~ 80% of the corresponding incident wave period (this is true both for the significant wave period and the mean period). (3) Experimental Data on Other Types of Breakwater For composite breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. (d) Types of breakwater aiming to promote the exchange of seawater include multiple-wing type permeable breakwaters.1 Wave Setup When designing structures that will be placed within the breaker zone. (2) Consideration of the Rise in Mean Water Level in Design A rise of mean water level causes the wave breaking point to shift shoreward and the breaking wave height to increase. Figure T.05.7. and then covering the surface with concrete blocks to protect underlayers. The rise of in mean water level is thus important for the accurate calculation of the design wave height in shallow waters. B is the crown width of the structure.1 ~ 0.1 Curtain Wall Breakwater). the steeper the bottom slope. experiments on the transmitted wave height have been carried out by the Civil Engineering Research Institute of Hokkaido Development Bureau. -91- . multiple-vertical cylinder breakwaters. which occurs in the breaker zone owing to wave breaking as they approach the coast.7.7.67. and L is the wavelength of transmitted waves. H is the height of incident waves.15)H0¢.1 and T. d is the depth from the water surface to the ground surface of the structure.3. the rise of mean water level near the shoreline is of the order (0. T.7 Wave Setup and Surf Beat 4. and pipe type breakwaters. Moreover. For a submerged breakwater of crushed rock. (b) For a curtain wall breakwater. 3.4. rubble mound breakwaters armored with wave-dissipating concrete blocks.01 ~ 0.3 shows the rise of mean water level at the shoreline. Kondo’s theoretical analysis may be referred to.7) where kt=1. The transmission coefficients of these types of breakwater have been obtained by hydraulic model tests. where H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height and L0 is the wavelength in deepwater ).7. the empirial solutions of Morihira et al. (c) For the transmission coefficient of an upright breakwater of permeable type that has slits in both the front and rear walls. the larger the rise of mean water level. (4) Transmission Coefficient for Structures Other than Composite Breakwaters (a) For a porous. and other such breakwaters. it is desirable to consider the phenomenon of wave setup as necessary.6. a graph showing the relationship between the crown height of the breakwater and the transmission coefficient is available.2. The smaller the wave steepness (H0¢/L0. The effects of wave steepness and bottom slope on the rise of mean water level are clearly shown. 44) are shown in Figs. horizontal-plate type permeable breakwaters.4. The following empirical equation may be used to obtain the transmission coefficient of a typical structure. (5) Transmission Coefficient for a Submerged Breakwater A submerged breakwater is usually made by piling up natural stones or crushed rock to form a mound. 43) may be used (see Part VII. Stone breakwater: K T = 1 ¤ ( 1 + k t H ¤ L ) (4.26 (B/d)0. the experimental results are available. 4. When H0¢/L0 is in the range 0. the larger the rise of mean water level becomes.4. [Technical Notes] (1) Diagrams for Estimating the Amount of Wave Setup The changes in the mean water level by random wave breaking on the bottom slopes of 1/100 and 1/10 as calculated by Goda 35). with the exception of very steep bottom slope.

T.æ 1 + ------------.3 Rise in Mean Water Level at the Shoreline 1¤2 H ¢ 0 h -------.7.7.= -----------------------------------H0¢ H0 ¢ h ö h ö ------.01H 0 ¢ z rms = -----------------------------------.ö L è H ¢ø 0 0 0 0 0 Fig. surf beat with the period of one to several minutes shall be investigated as necessary.7.7. Goda has proposed the following relationship 35).4.1 Change in Mean Water Level (Bottom Slope 1/10) Fig. T.4 Ratio of Surf Beat Amplitude to Deepwater Wave Amplitude 4.7. 44): 0.04 ( h rms ) 0 0.7.2 Surf Beat In shallow waters. T. [Technical Notes] Goda’s Formula for Estimating Surf Beat Amplitude Based on the results of field observations of surf beat.2 Change in Mean Water Level (Bottom Slope 1/100) z rms --------------------(h ) rms 0 0 0 Risc in mean water level Oarai Niigata Miyazaki Near shoreline Offshore Wave steepness 0 0 Fig.4.1) -92- .4.4. T.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 0 0 η / H0′ 0 Change in mean water level η /H0′ 0 0 0 h /H0 ′ Change in mean water level h /H 00 ′ Fig.æ 1 + ------L0 è L0 è H 0 ¢ø H 0 ¢ø (4.æ 1 + -------.

resulting in breaking of the mooring ropes of small vessels. it is advisable to investigate either hard or soft countermeasures. If the amplitude of such seiche becomes significantly large. When conspicuous water level fluctuations with the period several minutes or longer occur at an observation point in a harbor. field observations shall be carried out as far as possible. 4. and appropriate measures to control them shall be taken based on the results of these observations. Also high current velocities may occur locally in a harbor. that it falls as the water depth increases. Observed spectrum Approximate form of standard spectrum Fig.8. This equation shows that the amplitude of the surf beat is proportional to the deepwater wave height. and the loading conditions.7. L0 is the wavelength in deepwater. and h is the water depth. it can be assumed that the phenomenon of “seiche” is taking place.8. the mooring situation.4. -93- .7.1 shows a comparison between an observed spectrum and an approximate form of the standard spectrum. the dimensions of the vessel in question. Nevertheless. T. inundation at the head of the bay or reverse outflow from municipal drainage channels may occur. H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height. Figure T. resulting in large effects on the cargo handling efficiency of the port.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS where zrms is the root mean square amplitude of the surf beat wave profile. it corresponds to a significant wave height of about 10 ~ 15 cm. (4) Calculation Method for Seiche See 6. it is thus desirable to give consideration to making the shape of the harbor to minimize the seiche motion as much as possible. The threshold height of long-period waves for smooth cargo handling works depends on the factors such as the period of the longperiod waves. (hrms)0 is the root mean square amplitude of the deepwater wave profile.4. If the period of such long-period waves is close to the natural period of oscillation of the vibration system made up of a vessel and its mooring ropes.5 shows a comparison between the estimation by equation (4. This phenomenon occurs when small disturbances in water level generated by changes in air pressure out at sea are amplified by the resonant oscillations of the harbor or bay. (2) Calculating the Propagation of Long-period Waves It is desirable to calculate the propagation of longperiod waves into a harbor by setting up incident wave boundary out at sea and then using either the Boussinesq equation 29) or a calculation method that uses long linear wave equations 47).5 Seiche for a calculation method for seiche. Such fluctuations are called long-period waves.4. Figure T. according to field observations carried out in places like Tomakomai Bay 46).1 Comparison between Standard Spectrum (3) Standard Spectrum for Long-period Waves with Long-period Components and When there has been insufficient field observation Observed Spectrum data of long-period waves out at sea and the longperiod wave conditions that determine the design external forces have not been established. the phenomenon of resonance can give rise to a large surge motion even if the wave height is small.1) and actual observation values. The term al in the figure is a parameter that represents the energy level of the long-period waves. [Technical Notes] (1) Threshold Height of Long-period Waves for Cargo Handling Works It is necessary to give due consideration to the fact that long-period waves in front of a quaywall can induce ship surging with the amplitude of several meters through resonance. If it is clear from observations that long-period waves of significant wave height 10 ~ 15 cm or more frequently arise in a harbor.8 Long-Period Waves and Seiche With regard to long-period waves and seiche in harbors. [Commentary] Water level fluctuations with the period between one and several minutes sometimes appear at observation points in harbors and off the shore. When drawing up a harbor plan. the standard spectrum shown in reference 48) or its approximate expression may be used. and that it increases as the deepwater wave steepness H0¢/L0 decreases.

The harbor calmness is obtained by subtracting from 100% the occurrence probability (in percentage) that the wave height in the harbor exceeds the threshold level for cargo handling works at the berth in question. vessel motions. However. vessel refuge during stormy weather. (2) Next.0 m (significant wave height) may be used as a reference value.and wave-resistance of working machinery.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. 4. Nevertheless. first establish the joint distribution of the height and direction of deepwater waves. and the threshold conditions of works at sea. it is also acceptable to take into consideration the exceedance probability for other wave height classes. wind waves generated within the harbor may require attention. It is not possible to determine a value for the threshold wave height for cargo handling works that is valid universally. and the cost of constructing the various facilities required to improve the harbor calmness. but also the factors requiring human judgement: the latter include the easiness of vessels entering and leaving a harbor.0 m in height or in terms of the number of days. adding the results. such as the efficiency of cargo handling works. [Technical Notes] The following method may be used for evaluating the harbor calmness: (1) To estimate the waves in the harbor. depending on the usage purpose.9 Waves inside Harbors 4. the reflected wave height and the transmitted wave height. and the ship-generated waves by larger vessels may cause troubles for small vessels. calculate the wave transformations by refraction and breaking that takes place between the deepwater wave observation and/or hindcasting point and the harbor entrance. (3) Obtain the wave height in the harbor. it should be noted that the critical wave height for cargo handling is lower for waves of long-periodicity such as swell 49).5 to 1. using say the energy balance equation method. the dimensions of vessels. If necessary. it is desirable to examine the influence of waves generated by moving vessels. The factors that lead to wave disturbances in harbors.9.5 m or 1. a value of 0. the operating rate of vessels. (5) It is standard to express the occurrence rate of waves in a harbor as the percentage of the waves exceeding 0. and the wind. and thus obtain the wave conditions at the harbor entrance. it depends on the purpose for which the wharf facilities are used. focusing mainly on diffraction and reflection. and so care is required when evaluating the net working rate for ports and harbors that face out onto the open sea. which form the basis of the criteria for determining the harbor calmness.2 Evaluation of Harbor Calmness The harbor calmness shall be evaluated by considering individual wave components estimated separately for respective factors that cause disturbances in the harbor. -94- . rather.10 Ship Waves In canals and navigation channels. However. etc. the wave period in the harbor may be taken to be the same as the period of the diffracted waves. carry out an investigation on wave transmission at this time. For harbors where the effects of transmitted waves are relatively slight. include the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Waves penetrating through the harbor entrance Transmission of waves into the harbor over breakwaters Reflected waves Long-period waves Seiche In large harbors. The harbor calmness is further related with the economic factors. and then taking the square root. [Commentary] The problem of harbor calmness is extremely complex. and the period and direction of waves. Note that the wave height in the harbor should be investigated for each wave direction for various classes of wave heights with the occurrence probability outside the harbor. the factors that give rise to disturbances in the harbor shall be set appropriately.9. 4. (4) The wave height in the harbor can be estimated by taking the squares of each of the diffracted wave height. winds.1 Calmness and Disturbances When evaluating the harbor calmness. It involves not only physical factors such as waves.

330V k g .1. It is given by equation (4. The divergent waves form concave curves. The former waves are termed the “divergent waves”. The other group of waves are behind the vessel and are such that the wave crest is perpendicular to the vessel’s sailing line. with the latter having both a longer wavelength and a longer period. On the other hand. V essel's sailing line Fig. Amongst the divergent waves.10.2 = 0. with the gap between waves being constant (i.1 Plan View of Ship Waves (2) Wavelength and Period of Ship Waves The wavelength and period of ship waves differ for the divergent waves and the transverse waves. One group of waves spread out in a shape like 八 (the Chinese character for 8) from a point slightly ahead of the bow of the vessel.10.2) g where L0： wavelength of transverse waves at places where the water is sufficiently deep (m) Vk： sailing speed of vessel (kt).10.. the transverse waves are approximately arcshaped. T. it appears as shown in Fig.10.4. gL t 2ph ------. T. (a) The wavelength of the transverse waves can be obtained by the numerical solution of the following equation. Specifically. Tt = 2p 2ph 2ph ----.946V (m/s) (b) The period of the transverse waves is equal to the period of progresseive waves with the wavelength Lt (or L0) in water of depth h. The divergent waves cross the transverse waves just inside the cusplines.= 0.4. the point from which the cusp lines diverge) lying somewhat in front of the bow of the vessel. the area over which the ship waves extend is limited within the area bounded by the two cusplines with the angles ± 19º28' from the sailing line and starting from the origin (i..10.169V k (4.3) (4.e.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] (1) Pattern of Ship Waves as Viewed from Top If ship waves are viewed from top.e. the wavelength and period are both longest for the first wave and then become progressively shorter.= V 2 : (provided V < g h ) 2p Lt where Lt： wavelength of transverse waves (m) h： water depth (m) V： sailing speed of vessel (m/s) Note however that when the water is sufficiently deep.3) or (4.4). which is derived from the condition that the celerity of the transverse waves must be the same as the velocity at which the vessel is sailing forward. it is composed of two groups of waves. while the latter are termed the “transverse waves”. the smaller the gap between waves.10. In deep water.1) 2p -V T 0 = ----. implying that the transverse waves often cannot be discerned from an aerial photograph.10. the wavelength of the transverse waves is given by the following equation: 2p 2 -V L 0 = ----.t coth æ ---------ö = T 0 coth æ ---------ö -L è Lt ø è Lt ø g (4.4) -95- (4. the closer to the sailing line. this is where the wave height is largest. independent of the distance from the sailing line). The wave steepness is smaller for the transverse waves than for the divergent waves.10.tanh --------. Vk = 1.

5) (4. As can be seen from this table. and their properties vary when the water depth decreases relative to the wavelength of ship waves. a is the angle between the cusp line and the sailing line. ship waves are affected by the water depth.10. and q is usually about 50º ~ 55º for the point on a particular divergent wave at which the wave height is a maximum. L d = L t cos 2 q T d = T t cos q where Ld： wavelength of divergent waves as measured in the direction of travel (m) Td： period of divergent waves (s) q： angle between the direction of travel of the divergent waves and the sailing line (º) According to Kelvin’s theory of wave generation at places where the water is sufficiently deep. Angle between the direction of travel of the divergent waves and the sailing line G (4. the angle of travel q of the divergent waves can be obtained as shown in Fig.2.10.6) 0 0 Relative position of observation point x / s Fig.10.5) and (4.7 gh (4.1.7) The critical water depth above which ship waves may be regarded as deepwater waves is calculated by equation (4.10. as a function of the position of the place under study relative to the vessel. Situations in which they must be regarded as shallow water waves include the following cases: a high-speed ferry travels through relatively shallow waters. which are derived from the condition that the component of the vessel’s speed in the direction of travel of the divergent waves must be equal to the velocity of the divergent waves. as shown in the illustration in the figure. and ship waves propagate into shallow waters. T.10. as listed in Table T-4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where Tt： period of transverse waves in water of depth h (s) T0： period of transverse waves at places where the water is sufficiently deep (s) (c) The wavelength and period of the divergent waves are given by equations (4.4.2 Wave Direction and Period of at Places Where the Water is Sufficiently Deep (3) Shoaling Effect on Ship Waves As common with water waves in general.10. a motorboat travels through shallow waters. the angle q directs the location of the source point Q from where the divergent wave has been generated. Note however that for actual vessels the minimum value of q is generally about 40º. T.6). This shoaling effect on ship waves may be ignored if the following condition is satisfied: V ≦ 0.4. -96- Ratio of the period of the divergent waves to that of the transverse waves Td / T0 .7).10.10. Note also that. Note that ship waves in shallow water have a longer wavelength and period than those generated by the vessel sailing in deep water at the same speed. the waves generated by vessels in normal conditions can generally be regarded as deepwater waves.10.

5 8.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Table T-4. the upper limit of the wave height at any given point is given by equation (4.8 20. however.6 4. 2ö è ø n where SHPm： r0： V0： CF： n： Ñ： 2 (4.10.10.3 30.6 25.010V k (4.10. specifically.6 9.10) (4. r0 = 1030 (kg/m3) full-load cruising speed (m/s). where s is the distance of the observation point from the sailing line.9 (4) Height of Ship Waves The Ship Wave Research Committee of the Japan Association for Preventing Maritime Accidents has proposed the following equation for giving a rough estimate of the height of ship waves: Ls 1 ¤ 3 E HPW -----------------------H 0 = æ --------ö è 100ø 1620L s V K (4.rSV 0 C F 2 S ≒ 2.14. The upper limit of the height of ship waves occurs when the breaking criterion is satisfied. the approximate minimum value of s for which equation (4.0 m.8) has been obtained by assuming that the energy consumed through wave making resistance is equal to the propagation energy of ship waves. If the angle between the wave direction and the sailing line is assumed to be q = 50º at the point on a divergent wave where the wave height becomes largest.13) continuous maximum shaft power (W) density of seawater (kg/m3).10.0 12.1 15.14) cannot be applied if s is too small.6S HPm 1 3 E HPF = -.2 × 10-6 (m2/s) full-load displacement of vessel (m3) Equation (4.15).10.4 5.0 49. although for medium-sized and large vessels it is about 1. n ≒ 1.514VK frictional resistance coefficient coefficient of kinematic viscosity of water (m2/s).10.5 10. this criterion is expresed as the steepness Hmax/Lt of the highest divergent wave being equal to 0.12) (4.10.5 16.075 ¤ æ log ----------.5 3.3 12.8) where H0： characteristic wave height of ship waves (m).9 5. while the values of the coefficients have been determined as averages from the data from ship towing tank tests. Accordingly: 100 H max = H 0 æ --------ö è s ø 1¤3 Vk 3 æ ------ö è V Kø (4.10.11) (4.7 7.0 22.0 5.0 34.1 2.4 1.10.14) can be applied is either the vessel length Ls or 100 m. Tugboats sailing at full speed produce relatively large waves.10.5 ÑL s V0 Ls C F = 0. It is also considered that the wave height is proportional to the cube of the cruising speed of the vessel. The characteristic wave height H0 varies from vessel to vessel.0 ~ 2. V0 = 0. This also assumes.10.14) where Hmax：maximum height of ship waves at any chosen observation point (m) s：distance from the observation point to the sailing line (m) Vk：actual cruising speed of the vessel (kt) Equation (4.10.0 1.5 3.1 Conditions under Which Ship Waves Can Be Regarded as Deepwater Waves Speed of vessel Vk (kt) Water depth h (m) ≧ Period of transverse waves T0 (s) 5. It is considered that the wave height decays as s-1/3.9) (4.0 6. whichever is the smaller.15) where -97- . E HPW = E HP E HPF E HP = 0.10. or the maximum wave height observed at a distance of 100 m from the sailing line when a vessel is sailing at its full-load cruising speed Ls： length of the vessel (m) V K： full-load cruising speed (kt) EHPW： wave-making power (W) The wave-making power EHPW is calculated as follows.4 8. 2 H limit = 0.0 17. that the conditions for deepwater waves are satisfied.

Tomoharu TAKAHASHI: “A comparison on wave hidcasting methods”.. L. Vol. 603. Navy Hydrographic Office. undergoing transformation such as refraction and others. Toba: “Ocean wave prediction by a hybrid model combination of single-parameterized wind waves with spectrally treated swells”. U. 1967. while q getting gradually larger for subsequent waves.3). T. 1975.: “Stream function wave theory and application”. 1947. 1369-1377.4.. Y. pp. Geophys. New York. 8. pp. 2. 210. 28. Rept. J.. 74 p. 3. Vol.: “Prediction of shallow water wares”. Jour. T. M. 3. H. When a vessel sails through shallow waters. T. 1985. No. No. Hydrographic Office. Volume 1. 21) Wilson. Vol. B. S. 17) Hasselmann. Vol. 1965. Trans. pp. 84. pp. Kawai and Y. pp.. and W. U. 19) Sverdrup. 1964. pp. [References] 1) Dean.: “Weak-interaction of ocean waves”. TR-67-5. O. S.: “Wave forces on a vertical circular cylinder: Experiments and proposed method of wave force computation”. 1959. 1981.3º. pp. Vol. pp.. the waves appear to pass beyond the cuspline and vanish one after the other at the outer edge of the divergent waves. and continue to propagate even if the vessel changes course or stops..: “Numerical prediction of ocean waves in the North Atlantic for December 1959”. Oceanogr. (6) Generation of Solitary Waves. Oceanogr. Rizzoli: “Wind wave prediction in shallow water: theory and applications”. 1981. P. (b) The direction of propagation of a divergent wave varies from point to point on the wave crest. Vol. 1983. Jr. pp. the length of wave crest spreads out (the wave crest gets longer). Soc. Ht.: “On the generation of waves by turbulent wind”. Vol.: “On the growth of the spectra of a wind gererated sea according to a modified Miles-Phillips mechanism and its application to wave forecasting”. the angle between the direction of propagation and the sailing line is q = 35. Tech. 1972. 10961-10973.4. 40. Phys. J.: “The generation and decay of waves in deep water”. Jour. the waves have a typical nature of regular waves (with the period being given by equation (4. 2693-2702. 6. Munk: “Wind Sea and Swell. Vol. 305-309 3) Goda. T. U. there is a possibility of small vessels being affected by such solitary waves generated by other large vessels 50). World Scientific. Since each wave profile propagates at the wave velocity (phase velocity). the transverse waves propagate in the direction of vessel’s sailing line.. Papers of Meteorology and Geophysics. No. the time needed for a component wave to propagate at the group velocity from the point Q at wave source to the point P is equal to the time taken for the vessel to travel at the speed V from the point Q to the point O. 207-231. Jour. solitary waves are generated in front of the vessel if the cruising speed Vk (m/s) approaches gh . 2. 37.10. Around the mouths of rivers. Jour. James: “Practical methods for observing and forecasting ocean waves by means of wave spectra and statistics”. 18. No. Royal Meleorol. 16) Miles. Takeuchi and Nanasawa gave an example of such transformations. Uji: “Numerical prediction of ocean wind waves”. -98- .. No. 1952. 77. 5. J. pp. et al: “A hybrid parametrical wave prediction model”. M.. L. 5727-5738. F. 303-313. Tohoku Univ.). B: “A wave perdiction system for realtime sea state forecasting”. U. No. Theory of Relations for Forecasting”. 15) Phillips.6)). C11. pp. pp. 24 No. 13) Cavaleri.. 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Shoichi YAMAMOTO: “Wave height distribution in the region of ray crossing application of the numerical analysis method of wave propagation -”. Proc. 33) Yoshiyuki ITO.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 22) Saville. World Scientific. Conf.An examination on basis of field observation at HORF -”. Naota IKEDA: “Estimation of infragravity waves in consideration of wave groups . No. of PHRI. 1. Aagaard: “Extrapolation of historical storm data for estimating design wave heights”. of PHRI.Part 8b”. 31. 151-205 (in Japanese). JSCE. 1975 (in Japanese). W. 3. Rept. No. 1996. No. JSCE. Vol. T. Tech. 26) Petruaskas.. Osamu KIKUCHI: “Estimation of incident and reflected waves in random wave experimen”.: “The effect of fetch width on wave generation”. Yutaka KAMIYAMA: “Laboratory investigation on the overtopping rate of seawalls by irregular waves”. of PHRI. I-409-428. Yasuharu KISHIRA.. No. Vol. Yoshimi GODA: “Experimental investigation of a curtain-wall breakwater”. Chapt. 39-64 (in Japanese). (in Japanese). Proc. 1982. 70 p. pp. Yutaka KAMIYAMA. Geophysical Res. Vol. pp. No. 18. 24) Bretschneider. Tech. Rept of PHRI. 137-163 (in Japanese). 47) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. Vol. B. Hideyoshi FUJISAKU: “Characteristics of long period waves observed in port”. Hydrodyn. No. (in Japanese). 1-27 (in Japanese). Nav. of PHRI. Ocean Industry. 4. 49) Shigeru UEDA. pp. 42) Tetsuya HIRAISHI. Singapore. pp. 1994. 11. 814. Wehausen: “Ship generated solitions”. Memo. 1972. Tech. Note of PHRI. 52) Yoshimi GODA and Koji KOBUNE: “Distribution function fitting to storm waves”. C. Yasumasa SUZUKI. No. Yasumasa SUZUKI: “Applicability of wave transformation model in boussinesq equation”. Rep... 22 p. ASCE. 68 No. Note of PHRI. Note of PHRI. 35) Yoshimi GODA: “Deformation of irregular waves due to depth-controlled wave breaking” Rept. 39) Yoshimi GODA. 1976. 32 p. 1991. Conf. -99- . 21-67 (in Japanese). 112. Vol. 39-52. 1971 (in Japanese). Corof. (in Japanese). I. 1970. Vol.. 70. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO.: “Graphical approach to the forecasting of waves in moving fetches”.: “A plotting rule for extreme probability paper”. 4. Note of PHRI. pp. 40) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. Vol. 54) Yoshimi GODA: “Statistical variability of sea state parameters as a function of wave spectrum.” Coastal Engineering in Japan. 53) Yoshimi GODA: “Random Waves and Design of Maritime Structures (2nd Edition)”. 21st Int. 1997. No. 14. 46) Tetsuya HIRAISHI.: “Wave run-up on composite slopes”. Preprints 2nd OTC. 23) Wilson. Constal Engineering in Japan. 1971 (in Japanese). 87-110 (in Japanese). I. Shusaku KAKIZAKI. B. C. pp. No. W. Note of PHRI. pp. 2000. 899-913. of PHRI. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Meandering damages of composite type breakwaters”. 1990. 34) Yoshimi GODA. Tech. 1991. ASCE. Tech. 25) Gringorten. 1958. 1955. Satoshi NAKAMURA. 3-41 (in Japanese). pp. Shigenori TAMAKI. 636. 38) Yoshimi GODA. C. M. 35. 3.” porc. 1. Rept. pp. Tokuhiro TADOKORO. 1963. 30. Note of PHRI. pp. 1976 (in Japanese). 3. 1988. 691-699. of PHRI. Mutsuo OSATO: “A study of wave height distribution along a breakwater with a corner”. No. 1995. Kohei ASANO: “Allowable wave height and wharf operation efficiency based on the oscillations of ships moored to quay walls”. 41) Yoshimi GODA: “Estimation of the rate of irregular wave overtopping of seawalls”. 15. Vol. 31) Yoshimi GODA. of PHRI. (in Japanese). 3-44 (in Japanese). 1975. 1976. Note of PHRI. 813-814. E. 44th Japanese Coastal Eng. Rept. Proc. Tsuyoshi KANAZAWA. No. Vol. J. 1964. Osamu KIKUCHI: “Wave transformation on a reef ”. 28) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. and P. 48) Tetsuya HIRAISHI. 14. pp. 11 (Statistical Analysis of Extreme Waves). No. No. Vol. 29) Tetsuya HIRAISHI. pp. 10. isolated in the offshore”. 37) Saville. Coastal Eng. 4550. 6th Conf. 278. Isao UEHARA. 28 p. Rept. 347-364. 2. Tech. 25. of PHRI. 242. 1985. Vol.

5. with the design waves determined by the procedures described in Chapter 4 Waves. and the configuration of the alignment of the structure.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall 5. the crown height of upright wall. (2) Wave Irregularity and Wave Force Sea waves are irregular with the wave height and period varying from wave to wave. Furthermore. Depending on the water depth and the topography of the sea bottom. [Commentary] (1) Structure Type and Wave Forces Wave forces can be generally classified by the type of structure as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) Wave force acting on a wall-type structure Wave force acting on armor stones or concrete blocks Wave force acting on submerged members Wave force acting on structures near the water surface The wave force is different for each type of structure. The wave force acting on an upright wall shall thus be calculated appropriately while considering these items. the water level. their wave forces have not been sufficiently elucidated. the wave direction. it may be assumed that the larger the wave height. if the front face of upright wall is covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks. the cross-sectional form of the structure. it is desirable to consider the effect of the successive action of the irregular waves. When calculating the wave force. the water depth.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall.2.1 General (Notification Article 5. there may appear waves that have not broken. and those of concrete blocks or armor stones on the slope. An upright wall on a steep seabed or a high mound is often subjected to a strong impulsive wave breaking force. In particular.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 5 Wave Force 5. waves that are just breaking. straight wall of infinite length. the water depth. the bottom slope. a breaking wave force. In general.1 General Considerations The wave force acting on an upright wall varies with the wave conditions. Clause 1) The wave force acting on a structure shall be determined using appropriate hydraulic model experiments or design methods described in 5. it is important to include the waves that cause the severest effect on the structure. the sea bottom topography. and the water depth at the base of upright wall. the characteristics of these blocks and the crown height and width of the mound will affect the wave force. The wave force on an upright wall with a concaved alignment may be larger than that on an upright. However. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the failure process of the structure and to use an appropriate measurement method. (3) Calculation of Wave Force Using Hydraulic Model Experiments When studying wave force using hydraulic model experiments. with regard to the stabilities of floating structures and cylindrical structures with small rigidity. or waves that have already broken. and therefore it is desirable to carry out studies including hydraulic model experiments for such structures. It is considered that the wave force changes -100- . an investigation against the highest wave should be included. the water depth on and the berm width of the mound. the wave height. it is also necessary to consider the effect of the wall alignment. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to wave irregularity and to the characteristics of the wave force being produced in accordance with the type of structure. For some types of structures with a few experiences of construction. (2) Types of Wave Force The wave force acting on an upright wall can be classified according to the type of waves as a standing wave force. [Commentary] (1) Parameters Affecting Wave Force on an Upright Wall 1) The major parameters that affect the wave force acting on an upright wall are the wave period. In addition. as well as the tidal level. the greater the wave force becomes. or a wave force due to a broken wave. It is thus acceptable to focus on the wave force of the highest wave among a train of irregular waves attacking the structure. It is also necessary to give sufficient consideration to the irregularity of waves. so that sufficient attention shall be paid to the conditions under which such a force is generated when calculating the wave force. when carrying out experiments using regular waves. It is thus necessary to use an appropriate calculation method in accordance with the structural type.

ý è ø è d ø HD î 3h b þ (5.ö æ -----. with the pressure intensity at the front toe pu given by the following equation and 0 at the rear toe.6) ü h¢ ì 1 (5. The angle shall be reduced by 15º. It is necessary to note that when breaking waves act on an upright wall on a steep seabed.2. -----.ý hî cosh ( 2 p h ¤ L ) þ where hb： water depth at an offshore distance of 5 times the significant wave height from the upright wall (m) d： water depth at the crest of either the foot protection works or the mound armoring units of whichever is higher (m) h¢： water depth at toe of upright wall (m) min {a.2.7) a 3 = 1 ---. but the resultant angle shall be no less than 0º. As the wave height increases.í -------------------------------.ý 2 î sinh ( 4 p h ¤ L ) þ (5. l2： h： L： HD： height above still water level at which intensity of wave pressure is 0 (m) intensity of wave pressure at still water level (kN/m2) intensity of wave pressure at sea bottom (kN/m2) intensity of wave pressure at toe of upright wall (kN/m2) density of water (t/m3) gravitational acceleration (m/s2) angle between the line normal to the upright wall and the direction of wave approach. with the exception of very shallow water conditions.2) (5.5 ( 1 + cos b ) ( a 1 l 1 + a 2 l 2 cos 2 b )r 0 g H D p1 p 2 = --------------------------------cosh ( 2 p h ¤ L ) p3 = a3 p1 where h*： p1： p2： p3： r0： g： b： l1.3) (5.4) p 1 = 0. the force exerted by waves breaking just in front of an upright wall is larger than the wave force by higher waves that have already broken well.1) (5. In general.2. This correction provides a safety margin against uncertainty in the wave direction. 0 at the height h* above the still water level.6 + -.2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS its type continuously with the variation in the offshore wave height.2. A standing wave force is produced by waves whose height is small compared with the water depth. and the change in the wave pressure over time is gradual. Accordingly. Number 1) (1) Wave Pressure on the Front Face of an Upright Wall Assuming a linear distribution of wave pressure with a maximum value p1 at the still water level. the largest wave force is generated by the waves breaking just a little off the upright wall.2.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves [1] Wave Force under Wave Crest (Notification Article 5. the wave force also increases. 5. and p2 at the sea bottom. the wave pressure from the bottom to the crown of the upright wall shall be calculated by the following equations: h* = 0.2.ö .5 ( 1 + cos b )a 1 a 3 l 3 r0 g H D -101- (5. or on an upright wall set on a high mound (even if built on a gentle seabed).0 is the standard value) water depth in front of upright wall (m) wavelength at water depth h used in calculation as specified in the item (3) below (m) wave height used in calculation as specified in the item (3) below (m) 2 1 ì 4 ph ¤ L ü a 1 = 0.8) .í 1 --------------------------------.b}： smaller value of a or b (2) Uplift beneath Upright Wall The uplift acting on the bottom of an upright wall is described by a triangular distribution.2. Clause 1.2.5) ì h b d H D 2 2d ü x 2 = min í æ ------------.75 ( 1 + cos b )l 1 H D (5. wave pressure modification factors (1. a very strong impulsive breaking wave force may be generated. p u = 0.

The wavelength of the highest wave is that corresponding to the significant wave period.2. The wave pressure given by the Goda formula takes the hydrostatic pressure at the still water condition as the reference value. the equation does not necessarily express the local maximum wave pressure at the respective positions.2. the formula may underestimate the wave force. if presents. When breaking wave actions exist. the equation is designed to examine the stability of the whole body of vertical wall.1 illustrates the distribution of wave pressure acting on an upright section of a breakwater.5. should be considered separately.5. where the upright wall is located on a steep seabed. T.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where pu： uplift pressure acting at front toe of upright wall (kN/m2) l3： uplift pressure modification factor (1. and is subjected to a strong impulsive wave pressure due to breaking waves.5. T. while the height of the highest wave is as follows: (a) When the upright wall is located off the breaking zone: HD = Hmax (5. Further. thus such should be considered during examination of the stress of structural members.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves).9) Hmax = 1. [Technical Notes] (1) Wave Pressure on the Front Face According to the Extended Goda Formula Figure T.1 Wave Pressure Distribution Used in Design Calculation -102- . The extended Goda pressure formula is that proposed by Goda and modified to include the effects of wave direction and others.2. The correction to the incident wave angle b is exemplified in Fig. Any hydrostatic pressure difference between the offshore and onshore sides of the wall. Its single-equation formula enables to calculate the wave force from the standing to breaking wave conditions without making any abrupt transition. F 678 1 η* D? @ D Buoyancy D F u F 2 F 3 Fig. It should therefore be carefully applied with consideration of the possibility of occurrence of impulsive wave pressure due to breaking waves (see 5.2. However.8H1/3 where Hmax： highest wave height of incident waves at the water depth at the upright wall (m) H1/3： significant wave height of incident waves at the water depth at the upright wall (m) (b) When the upright wall is located within the breaking zone: HD is the maximum wave height considering the breaking of irregular waves (m) [Commentary] It is standard to calculate the maximum horizontal wave force acting on an upright wall and the simultaneous uplift pressure using the extended Goda equation.2. or built on a high mound.0 is the standard value) (3) Wave Height and Wavelength Used in the Wave Pressure Calculation The wave height HD and the wavelength L are the height and wavelength of the highest wave.

.1. hb should be substituted as h in the first term in the braces { } on the right-hand side of the equation. In the wave breaking zone. After reaching its maximum value.6 Wave Breaking.2r0gHD. Since the Goda formula incorporates the effect of period on the wave pressure as well as on the maximum wave height.5. and to evaluate the force due to the highest wave. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS β 15 ° Fig. it has been made standard to use 1. but that it is subject to wave breaking when the water is shallower than this.23) in 4. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the irregularity of waves in the field.5. because the wave height used in the calculation is the maximum wave -103- 90 ° Pr inc ipa ld ire c tio n of wa v e Normal Line to the alignment . the steeper the bottom slope. for a constant deepwater wave height. In this case. Moreover. d = h).2. a high-accuracy. Nevertheless. combining this with the maximum value of a1 of 1. The wave pressure acting on other types of wall such as a caisson covered with a mound of wavedissipating concrete blocks or a perforated-wall caisson may be expressed using the extended Goda formula with appropriate correction factors (see 5. a2 then decreases until it reaches zero again when d = 0. (5) Features and Application Limits of the Goda Formula The first feature of the Goda formula is that the wave force from standing waves to breaking waves can be evaluated continuously. (3) Correction Factors l1. a2 gradually increases from zero to its maximum value. If using a value other than 1. it takes the limiting values of 1.8 times the significant wave height as the height of the highest wave when the upright wall is located off the breaking zone.1 for shallow water waves and 0. it is necessary to take sufficient care when determining the period in the design conditions.5.e. It has also been made standard to use the wavelength corresponding to the significant wave period as the wavelength of the highest wave.6 Wave Breaking) should be used by referring to the location of the peak wave height in the zone in the onshore side of the 2% decay line.5. the correction factors are of course 1.2. It is acceptable to consider that the highest wave is not subject to wave breaking when the water is deeper than that at the peak height. As can be seen from equation (5. the Sainflou formula 3) and the Hiroi formula may also be used for a design wave force calculation.1.3 [2] Statistical Properties of Waves).4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks).2.15 (a)~(e) in 4. as the mound height is gradually increased from zero (i. the intensity of the wave pressure p1 at the still water level is given by 2. a steep bottom slope results in the same effect as having a high mound. standing wave theory may be applied.1. the longer the period.2 Way of Obtaining the Incident Wave Angle b (2) Highest Wave In breakwater designs in general. l3 Equations (5. however. after examination of the results of applying the current method to breakwaters in the field. The parameter a1 given by equation (5.1) ~ (5. The appearance of the highest wave in an irregular wave group is probabilistic.4.2. and so it is not possible to determine the highest wave explicitly. The effect of the bottom slope also appear when evaluating the maximum wave height to be used in the calculation. In order to determine whether or not the highest wave is subject to wave breaking.2. With regard to the effect of the bottom slope.0.8) are the extended version of the Goda formula. T.2. The maximum value of a2 is 1. including the effect of period. the larger the maximum wave height in the surf zone. the larger the wave height. For an upright wall. The effect of period also appear when evaluating the maximum wave height to be used in the calculation. hb within the equation for a2 is taken as the water depth at the distance of 5 times the design significant wave height from the upright wall.6).6 for deepwater waves.2. l2. the graphs for determining the highest wave height (Fig. it is necessary to evaluate the largest wave force that can be given by the Goda formula using the highest wave. Because of this artifice.5) expresses the effect of the period (strictly speaking h/L). It contains three correction factors so that it can be applied to walls of different shapes and conditions. when the applicability can be verified based on past results for existing breakwaters. If the highest wave height is to be obtained using the approximate equation (4. (4) Application of Other Theoretical and Calculation Equations When the ratio of the wave height to the water depth is small and a standing wave force is obviously exerted on a upright wall. it is necessary to conduct sufficient investigations into the occurrence of the highest wave and then choose an appropriate value (see 4. Another feature of the Goda formula is that the change in the wave force with the mound height and the bottom slope is considered by means of the parameter a2.9).5.8 as the coefficient on the right-hand side of equation (5.

in this case.e. it is advisable to use other calculation equations together with the Goda formula. and have proposed a method for calculating the wave force. -104- . a large impulsive breaking wave force may act. and so care must be taken when setting the bottom slope in the design conditions. and yet standing waves are assumed to maintain as the perfect standing wave condition. However.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore).2) for wave direction by multiplying a2 (which represents mound effects) with cos2b. were the first to propose a method for calculating the wave force in such a case. One explanation is such that because actual breakwaters are finite in extension. this has resulted in the irrational situation whereby the breaking wave force is assumed to decrease as the wave angle b increases. In the method. the horizontal wave force is reduced not only for the sloping part but also for the vertical part. the stability of upright wall tends to increase as the crown height is reduced. The bottom slope thus has a strong influence on the wave force. (see 5. In other words. The Goda formula cannot be applied accurately for broken waves. However. and verified that the Goda formula can be applied even in such a case. the distance to the place where the wave height becomes two fold tends to go to infinity. Traditionally. (7) Wave Force and Significant Wave Period for Waves Composed of Two Groups of Different Periods Examples of two wave groups of different periods being superimposed are such a case that waves enter a bay from the outer sea and another group of waves are generated within the bay by local winds. have come up with a method that is based on the approach by Morihira et al. it is necessary to consider the vertical component of the wave force acting on the inclined surface. the horizontal wave pressure and the uplift pressure from the Goda formula are multiplied by a modification factor lh. the significant wave period after superimposition may be obtained using the method by Tanimoto et al. As explained above.6) but also the impulsive breaking wave force coefficient aI by Takahashi et al. When applying the Goda formula. It is difficult. Tanimoto et al. for example near to the shoreline. Considering these points and application to breakwaters in the field. Tanimoto and Kimura 5) have carried out experiments on the wave force for trapezoidal caisson walls.5(1+cosb).. with a high mound. 4) carried out experiments on the wave force acting on the upright section of a composite breakwater by using waves with a bimodal spectrum. In such cases. however.2.4 Sloping-Top Caisson Breakwater).5. it is necessary to consider not only a2 in equation (5. They also proposed a method for calculating the significant wave period to be used in the wave force calculation (see 4.2. oblique wave incidence). It is also necessary to consider the vertical component of the wave force for the sloping part for stability analysis of breakwaters.2. reaching zero at the limiting value b = 90º. the horizontal wave force is more-or-less the same as that for a perfectly upright wall. it has been decided to correct equation (5.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves). One more problem with the Goda formula concerns its applicability to extremely shallow waters. there will be no overtopping. for standing waves. In particular. to clearly define where the limit of applicability lies. but the method by Hosoyamada is more general and can be applied for a wider variety of sloping-top caissons (see Part VII. As b approaches to the limiting value of b = 90º. 3.. If each frequency spectrum of the two wave groups before superimposition can be considered to be a Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu type. there are still many points that are unclear.4 Wave Reflection). where b is the angle between the direction of wave approach and the line normal to upright wall alignment. (10) Wave Force on Inclined Walls When the wall is slightly inclined. (6) Modification of the Original Goda Formula for Wave Direction Although results from a number of experiments on the effect of wave direction on the wave force are available. it is thus necessary to pay attention to the risk of an impulsive breaking wave force arising. (9) Wave Force for High Crested Upright Wall When the crown of the upright wall is considerably higher than that for a normal breakwater. for an upright wall on a high mound or a steep sea bed.2. when the incident angle is large (i. Mizuno and Sugimoto carried out experiments into the wave force acting on a breakwater with a high crown. thus reducing the wave force.2. along with the reduction in uplift pressure and others. by multiplying the wave force by cos2b. and there are actual cases of such observations in the field.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN height at the a distance 5H1/3 offshore from the upright wall. (see 5. it is appropriate to consider that the wave pressure of progressive waves acts on the upright wall. no correction has been made for wave direction to the wave force. and then multiplying the whole term by 0. it takes a considerably large distance from the tip of breakwater until the wave height becomes two times the incident height. meaning that the wave force may be larger than that given by the Goda formula. The effects of wave direction have been considered only for breaking waves. Nevertheless. and to use aI in place of a2 when aI is the larger of the two. Morihira et al. For a caisson in which the upper part of the upright section is inclined (sloping-top caisson). having two peaks). and under such conditions the Goda formula may underestimate the wave force. the Goda formula considers the effects of the mound height and the bottom slope on the wave pressure. Hosoyamada et al.e. Another case is the superposition of diffracted waves coming from the entrance of a harbor and waves transmitted by means of overtopping. For cases such as the wave force acting on an upright wall near the shoreline. the spectrum is bimodal (i. (8) Wave Force for Low Crested Upright Wall According to results of model experiments. Then this significant wave period may be used in wave force calculation.. Nakata and Terauchi have proposed a method for calculating the wave force for a breakwater with a low crown height.

It is necessary to note that the negative wave force may be comparable in magnitude to a positive wave force when the water is deep and the wavelength is short. it is thus standard to use the water depth on the mound for evaluation of both the wave height and the wavelength to be used in the wave force calculation. As explained.5r 0 gH D where pn： intensity of wave pressure in constant region (kN/m2) r0： density of seawater (usually 1. the Goda formula incorporates only the effect of the mound height.2.8). Number 2) The negative wave force at the time of wave trough acting at a wall shall be calculated using either appropriate hydraulic model experiments or an appropriate calculation formula. A “negative wave force” is the force directed seaward.4. pn is given as follows: p n = 0.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves).81 m/s2) HD： wave height used in design calculation (m) (5. and having a triangular distribution in-between. a negative wave force acts corresponding to the trough depth of the water surface from the still water level.10) Seaward Shoreward 0.5.2. Consequently. in general the resultant force is not significantly different to that without the footing.5. -105- . and an uplift pressure of p¢u acts at the front toe. with the magnitude of this wave pressure being zero at the still water level and having a constant value of pn from a depth 0. It is thus acceptable to ignore the footing. [2] Wave Force under Wave Trough (Notification Article 5.5. T. Even with the standard formula. and Hayashi et al. of these three factors. Through their researches. considering the change in the uplift pressure p¢u at the front toe of the footing.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (11) Uplift on a Caisson with a Footing When a caisson has a footing. a wave force acts downwards on the upper surface of the footing on the seaside. [Commentary] When the trough of a wave is acting at a wall. Here. it has been verified that the wave force is not greatly different from that acting on an upright wall with a flat face.2. In addition. It is thus acceptable to treat an upright wall comprised of a row of cylinders as having a flat face and calculate the wave force using the Goda formula.2.2.3 Uplift Pressure When There Is a Footing (12) Wide Mound Berm in Front of the Upright Wall The wave force acting on the upright wall of a composite breakwater varies not only with the mound height but also with the berm width and the front slope of mound (see 5.2. it is advisable to carry out studies using hydraulic model experiments. and to assume that the uplift pressure has a triangular distribution as shown in Fig.5.03 t/m3) g： gravitational acceleration (9. T. [Technical Notes] (1) Negative Wave Pressure Distribution The negative wave pressure acting on an upright wall at the wave trough can be approximately estimated as shown in Fig.5 0. Note however that if the berm is sufficiently wide. Clause 1. it may be considered as a part of the topography of the sea bottom.2. it is necessary to use the highest wave height as the wave height HD used in the design calculation.5. Incidentally. with the uplift pressure pu at the front toe being given by equation (5. it can be assumed that a wave pressure acts toward the sea. Fig. (13) Wave Force Acting on an Upright Wall Comprised of a Row of Vertical Cylinders Nagai et al.2. Nevertheless. while the uplift pressure at the rear toe is zero. if the width and/or slope of the mound are considerably different from normal. have carried out studies on the wave force acting on an upright wall comprised of a row of cylinders (a pile breakwater). however. zero at the rear toe. the negative uplift pressure acting on the bottom of the upright wall can be assumed to act as shown in Fig.3. T.5HD below the still water level right down to the toe of the wall. Specifically.2. Specifically. it is necessary to calculate the uplift pressure appropriately. and the uplift pressure at the rear toe being zero.10)) T. T. if the width is more than one half of the wavelength.4 Negative Wave Pressure Distribution at the front toe. If the footing is extremely long.4. it can be assumed that an uplift pressure acts downwards with its intensity being pn (as given by equation (5.

(3) Investigating Wave Force Using Model Experiments When investigating the wave force using hydraulic model experiments for the case that an impulsive pressure due to breaking wave acts. based on the results of a variety of experiments. it may be assumed that a large impulsive pressure will not be generated.0r0 gHD). [Technical Notes] (1) Conditions of Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves A whole variety of factors contribute to generation of an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves. with a high mound.03) are satisfied simultaneously. [Commentary] An impulsive pressure is generated when the wave front of a breaking wave strikes a wall surface. one possible countermeasure is to ensure that the wave direction is not perpendicular to the breakwater alignment. When the water is deep and standing waves are clearly formed. it is acceptable to use the results of this finite amplitude standing wave theory of higher order approximation. It has been verified that their calculation results agree well with experimental results. in addition to the wave conditions.2. and so it is hard to determine the conditions under which such an impulsive pressure will be generated. (2) Countermeasures If a large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acts on an upright wall. 5. (b) High mound Even if the bottom slope is gentle. and presented calculation diagrams for negative wave pressure. then an impulsive pressure is liable to be generated. the negative wave force at the wave trough may become larger than the positive wave force at the wave crest. and that the upright wall may slide toward offshore. such a wave pressure acts only locally and for a very short time. It should be noted that. an impulsive pressure will be generated when the mound is relatively high. the crown height. a sufficient covering with wave-dissipating concrete blocks can stop the occurrence of the impulsive pressure itself. it can be said that an impulsive pressure is liable to occur in the following cases when the wave angle b is less than 20º. for example by providing appropriate wave-absorbing works. the shape of the rubble mound may cause an impulsive pressure to be generated. and therefore. When the seabed slope is gentler than about 1 ¤ 50 and the ratio of the depth of water above the top of the mound (including any armor work) to the water depth above the seabed is greater than 0. and even slight changes in conditions lead to marked reduction in the wave pressure. a study including hydraulic model experiments shall be carried out as a general rule.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Negative Wave Force by Finite Amplitude Wave Theory Goda and Kakizaki 6) have carried out a wave force calculation based on the fourth order approximate solutions of a finite amplitude standing wave theory. Nevertheless. Because of the impulsive nature of the wave force. In particular. However. and so it is difficult to describe the conditions in general. (2) It is desirable to avoid the adoption of cross-sectional forms and structure type that may induce the generation of large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves.6. The wave direction also has a large effect on the occurrence of an impulsive pressure. it is necessary to give consideration to the response characteristics of the structure to -106- . Accordingly. the berm width and the slope gradient of the mound all play a part. In some cases the action of an impulsive pressure can also be avoided by using special caissons such as perforated-wall caissons or sloping-top caissons 7). and their equivalent deepwater wave steepness is less than 0. the berm width is suitably wide or the slope gradient is gentle. the effects on stability and the stress in structural elements vary according to the dynamic properties of the structure. there are waves that break slightly off the upright wall. and breaking waves form a vertical wall of water at the slope or at the top of the mound 7).3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves (1) When it is apprehended that an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves may be generated. In this case. it is necessary to take appropriate countermeasures by understanding the conditions of the impulsive pressure generation and the wave force characteristics by means of hydraulic model experiments. when there is a risk of a large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves being generated. If a large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves cannot be avoided. In general. It has been shown from model experiments that under certain conditions the maximum wave pressure may rise as much as several tens of times the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the wave height (1. it is desirable to redesign the structure such that the wave force will be reduced. for a deepwater breakwater. (a) Steep bottom slope When the three conditions (the bottom slope is steeper than about 1/30. the wave force can be greatly reduced by sufficiently covering the front face with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks.

12) Hom-ma. it has then been plotted against the deepwater wave steepness. 9). 11) have carried out studies on the impulsive wave pressure acting on an upright wall on a horizontal floor that is joined to a steep slope.5. and 1/15 for a variety of water depths.5 as a gross guideline. In this figure.59 3. and then measured the wave pressure that acts on an upright wall at a variety of positions with regular waves.11) (5.5 in order to obtain an approximate estimate of Fig. Hb should be taken to be the aforementioned Hmax.2. One may refer to Fig.2 tan q deepwater wave height (m) deepwater wavelength (m) gradient of uniform slope (5. T.5. He investigated the change in the total wave force with the water depth at the location of the upright wall. T. Horikawa and Hase have proposed a slightly different value for CM based on the results of experiments with a gradient of 1/15 and other data.2. For irregular waves in the sea. have been set by primarily employing Fig. the impulsive wave pressure is largest when the structure is located slightly shoreward of the wave breaking point for progressive waves.ö è L0 ø 0. and to study the strength of structural elements such as parapets by stress and strain measurements. as the slope gradient becomes smaller. when placing an upright wall closer to the shore where waves already broken act upon. In particular. It is better to study the stability of the upright wall as a whole by sliding tests. Mitsuyasu carried out a wide range of experiments using regular waves whereby he studied the breaking wave force acting on an upright wall on uniform slopes of gradient 1/50. (c) Impulsive wave force acting on an upright wall on a horizontal floor adjoining a steep slope Takahashi et al.2.5. it becomes as follows: hM -----. the wave steepness can be evaluated as the ratio of the equivalent deepwater wave height corresponding to the highest wave height Hmax to the deepwater wavelength corresponding to the significant wave period: the wave height Hmax is to be evaluated at the distance 5H1/3 from the upright wall. (b) Conditions for generation of impulsive breaking wave pressure The conditions for the occurrence of an impulsive pressure on a steep seabed.2. Hom-ma et al. They have proposed an equation (valid for certain wave conditions) for calculating the upright wall position at which the wave force is largest and the maximum wave force in that condition. When the Mitsuyasu equation is rewritten in terms of the deepwater wavelength. the mean intensity of the wave pressure p has been obtained and then divided by r0gHD to make it dimensionless. However. T.5 shows the total wave force when the impulsive wave force is largest for a number of slope gradients. (Upright Wall on a Steep Slope) In this case. as based on the results of Mitsuyasu’s experiments. Goda and Haranaka 10). it can be seen that the smaller the wave steepness.5 Mean Intensity of Wave Pressure the mean intensity of the wave pressure for for the Severest Wave Breaking this equivalent deepwater wave steepness. (4) Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves Acting on an Upright Wall on a Steep Seabed. the larger the impulsive pressure is generated. One can also envisage an installation of a breakwater at a place where the risk of impulsive pressure generation is not large for the design waves. 1/25.5. Horikawa and Noguchi. It is possible to gain an understanding of the overall trend from this figure. -107- . They employed a horizontal berm connected to a slope of gradient 1/10 or 3/100 in a wave channel. Figure T. and obtained an equation for calculating the water depth hM at the upright wall for which the impulsive wave force is largest. the intensity of the maximum impulsive pressure decreases. as described in (1) (a). and Fujisaki and Sasada have all carried out studies on the impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acting on an upright wall on a steeply sloping sea bottom.2.= H0 where CM = H0： L0： tanq： H 0 1 / 4 C M æ ----.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS the impact force.2. (a) Water depth that produce a maximum wave pressure and the mean intensity of wave pressure Mitsuyasu 8). it becomes important to carry out investigations for waves with a height lesser than that of the design waves. In any case.. Morihira et al. Also. Specifically.

the impact of the wave front results in the generation of an impulsive force.0) r0gH.12.2. have carried out calculations of the shear force at the bottom of an upright section using dynamic models.3 0. When calculating the wave force using Goda’s formula. Judging by the results of these calculations and the results of various sliding experiments.2 0. it is reasonable to assume that the condition for the generation of an impulsive wave force is that b is less than 20º.5 ~ 3. It attains the maximum value of 1 when d/h is 0.4 0. Note that the wave height H is the design wave height (highest wave height). the instantaneous local pressure can rise up to several tens of times the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the wave height. based on the results of sliding experiments 7). It is necessary to evaluate the contribution of the impulsive breaking wave force to sliding in terms of the dynamic response.4 and BM /L is 0. based on the results of sliding experiments with consideration of such dynamic response effects. For example. The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI is expressed as the product of aI0 and aI1 as in the following equations: a I = a I0 a I1 £ ì H ¤ d : H ¤ d ≦2 a I0 = í : H¤d>2 î2 Figure T.5. This is because the steep front of a breaking wave often takes a nearly vertical cliff of water above the still water level.6 shows the distribution of aI1. Goda 12) as well as Takahashi and Shimosako.6 0.6)) if aI is larger than a2. have pointed out the tendency that.1 0. By considering the fluctuation in the wave direction. although the duration time of the impulsive pressure is very short.13) (5.2 0.4 0. T. but the fluctuations in the impulse are not large.2. (d) Dynamic response of the upright section to an impulsive force and the sliding of upright section When an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acts on an upright section.2. the impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI.2. 1.2. and the ratio of the berm width of the mound to the wavelength at this place BM/L. the larger the impulsive breaking wave force is. have proposed. an impulsive breaking wave force is generated even when the mound is relatively low.0 0.2 α I = α α I0 BH I1 α 0 0 I0 = H:H d d H 2 : d < 2 = > 2 d 0. when the crown is high. there is a rapid drop in the magnitude of the wave force as b increases to 30º or 45º.13) for aI has been derived for the case of H/h being equal to 0. (b) Effect of the crown height of the upright wall The higher the crown height. even if conditions are such that a large impulsive pressure is generated when the wave angle b is 0º. the ratio of the depth of water above the mound to the original water depth at the upright wall d/h. The impulsive peak pressures fluctuate significantly. Note that equation (5.5. This coefficient aI may be used when examining the sliding of an upright wall against the waves of relatively large height.0 (5.8 0. the larger the value of aI.4 BM L Fig.2. one should use aI in place of a2 (equation (5. the greater the risk of an impulsive breaking wave force being generated.8 0. This is a coefficient that represents the extent of the impulsive pressure due to breaking waves when the mound is high. Mizuno et al.6 Impulsive Breaking Wave Pressure Coefficient aI1 (c) Effect of the wave direction According to the results of the sliding experiments of Tanimoto et al. it would seem reasonable to take the mean intensity of the wave pressure equivalent to the sliding shear force to be (2. It is expressed as the function of the ratio of the wave height to the depth of water above the mound in front of the caisson H/d.14) α 0.9 0. The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI has been introduced.1 I1 hd h 0.6 0. based on the results of sliding experiments.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (5) Impulsive Wave Pressure Acting on a Composite Breakwater (a) Effect of the mound shape (impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient) Takahashi et al. The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI takes values between 0 and 2. 7). considering deformation of the mound and the subsoil.60 or greater. -108- . and if there is an upright wall at this place.

there is a risk of the wave force here becoming an impulsive breaking force.8) are used respectively. [Commentary] If the front face of an upright wall is covered with a mound of wave-dissipating precast concrete blocks.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves.2. (d) If even a small portion of the upper part of the upright section is left uncovered.6 : H/h ＞ 0. In this method with the standard formula given in 5. the type of wave-dissipating concrete blocks used. and l3.2. considering the crown height and width of the wave-absorbing work as well as the characteristics of the wave-dissipating concrete blocks. (c) The larger the ratio of the block mound width to the wavelength.2. and Tanaka and Abe amongst others and have revealed the following: (a) Wave-dissipating concrete blocks cause a considerable reduction in the breaking wave pressure. and the composition of the wave-absorbing work. and pu given by equations (5. the above equations give l1 = l3 = 0. 14). where breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks are generally used. Takahashi et al.2). 14) have summarized that in general.2. the wave force acting on the upright wall may be calculated using the extended Goda formula. Based on such experimental results. l2. 13). if the crown elevation of the waveabsorbing work is as high as the top of the upright wall and the wave-dissipating concrete blocks are sufficiently stable against the wave actions.15) (5. They have thus proposed the following equations: 678 l1 = 1. but it is necessary to assign appropriate values to the wave pressure modification factors l1. the wave pressure reduction factor l2 may be taken to be zero.17) l3 = l1 l2 = 0 In the breaker zone. the smaller the modification factor l1 for standing wave type pressure and the modification factor l3 for uplift pressure become. [Technical Notes] (1) Wave Force Calculation Formula for Upright Wall Sufficiently Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks The wave force acting on an upright wall covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks varies depending on the composition of the wave-absorbing work. while the values of l1 and l3 depend primarily on the wave height H (the highest wave height). the wave-absorbing work often invites an increase in the wave force. (2) Modification Factors for the Extended Goda Formula The method using the extended Goda formula can be applied by assigning appropriate values to the modification factors l1.3 : 0. (5.(2/3)(H/h) 0. l2. Sekino and Kakuno.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks The wave force acting on an upright wall covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks shall be evaluated based on hydraulic model experiments or an appropriate calculation equation.8 : H/h ≦ 0.3 ＜ H/h ≦ 0. (b) The larger the wave height.2 .2. Studies have been carried out by Tanimoto et al.8. it should be noted that if the top of the wave-absorbing work is below the design water level. the smaller the modification factors l1 and l3 become. when a large impulsive breaking wave force acts.1). along with the crown height and width of the wave-absorbing work.0 1. when the upright wall is sufficiently covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. However. In general. and so it is generally acceptable to set the breaking wave pressure modification factor l2 to zero. such a reduction in the wave force is only achieved when the wave-absorbing work has a sufficient width and crown height. However.6 (5. and l3 in accordance with the design conditions. the features of wave force acting on the wall are changed. p1.2.2.2. The extent of this change depends on the characteristics of incident waves. and therefore it should be evaluated using the results of model experiments corresponding to the design conditions.16) (5. the values of h*. the wave force can be reduced significantly by covering the upright wall with a mound of wave-dissipating blocks. and (5. the change in wave force upon the upright wall covered with wave-dissipating blocks is not large. Takahashi et al. in particular.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 5. -109- . when nonbreaking waves act on an upright wall. Nevertheless.

the distribution of the wave height along the face line of breakwater becomes non-uniform due to the effects of wave reflection and diffraction. -110- .2. It should be noted that the value of Kc obtained in this way varies along the breakwater and that there may be regions where Kc < 1. by taking the rapid transformation of waves into consideration.6 Effect of Abrupt Change in Water Depth on Wave Force For an upright wall located in a place where the water depth changes abruptly owing to the presence of reefs and others. (5. KcbHb} (5.19) 5. [Commentary] When the extension of breakwater is not infinitely long.4 Kcb： limit value of the height increase coefficient for breaking limit waves. it is desirable to calculate the wave force acting on the upright wall based on hydraulic model experiments. HD： wave height used in the wave force calculation when the effects of the shape of breakwater alignment are not considered (m) Hb： breaking wave height at the offshore location with the distance of 5 times the significant height of progressive waves from the upright wall (m) The height increase coefficient Kc in equation (5. In particular. It is thus reasonable to consider the irregularity of the period and the direction of incident wave. then the coefficient for wave height increase varies considerably along the breakwater. Moreover. It is thus acceptable to increase the wave height for the design calculations in accordance with the extent of the effect of the shape of the breakwater alignment as in equation (5.18) where HD¢： wave height to be used in the wave force calculation in consideration of the effect of the shape of breakwater alignment (m) Kc： coefficient for the increase in wave height due to the effect of the shape of breakwater alignment. Kc = HS / {HI (1 + KR)} where HS： standing wave height along the front wall of breakwater (m) HI： incident wave height (m) KR： reflection coefficient for the breakwater in question If the waves are treated as being of regular trains.18) is generally expressed as in equation (5. Kc ≧ 1.5. for a detached breakwater that extends over a short length only.19). there is a good correlation between the increase in the wave height owing to the shape of the breakwater alignment and the increase in the wave force. Ito and Tanimoto 16) have pointed out that most damaged breakwaters having been struck by storm waves equivalent to design waves show a pattern of meandering distribution of sliding distance (they have termed this “meandering damage”). the wave force shall be calculated by giving appropriate consideration to this aspect of wave height distribution. Variations in wave heights along the breakwater alignment may also occur near the head of the breakwater. It should be appropriately determined based on the distribution of the standing wave height (see 4. The variation of wave heights along the breakwater is particularly prominent when the breakwater alignment contains a corner that is concave with respect to the direction of wave incidence (see 4. diffracted waves from the two ends may cause large variations in wave heights 17).0. Nevertheless.2.2. and around Detached Breakwaters). it may be considered to be about 1. However.0 Kcb ≒ 1. near the Heads of Breakwaters. and then calculate the wave force based on the standard calculation formula. It is thus desirable to carry out an investigation using hydraulic model experiments.18). the wave height to be used in design must not be less than the original incident wave height.2.2.5 Effect of Alignment of Breakwater on Wave Force In the case when the distribution of wave heights along the face line of a breakwater is not uniform. near the Heads of Breakwaters.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 5. The limit value Kcb of the height increase coefficient for breaking waves has not been clarified in details. and around Detached Breakwaters) along the face line of breakwater as determined under the condition that the waves do not break.4 based on experimental results up to the present time.4 [3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners.2. HD¢ = min {KcHD. and that one of the causes of this type of damage is the differences in the local wave forces induced by the non-uniform wave height distribution. the height increase coefficient is very sensitive to the period of the incident waves and the direction of incidence.4 [3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners.5. [Technical Notes] Wave force calculation methods that consider the effects of the shape of the breakwater alignment have not reached to the level of reasonable reliability yet. Nevertheless.

Takahashi et al. they give specific values for the modification factor for the slit and rear walls for each phase.8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson shall be calculated based on hydraulic model experiments or appropriate calculation formulas. provided necessary modifications are made. [Commentary] The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson (perforated-wall caisson etc. one may refer to the research that has been carried out by Tominaga and Kutsumi on the wave force acting on an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline. [Technical Notes] (1) Wave Force without a Ceiling Slab in the Wave Chamber The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson varies depending on the structural conditions of the wave-absorbing compartment. [Technical Notes] A number of different wave force formulas have been proposed for upright walls near the shoreline and on shore. the water level. 18) have carried out experiments on the wave force acting on an upright wall located on or behind a reef where the water depth is more-or-less uniform.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore [1] Wave Force at the Seaward Side of Shoreline It is desirable to calculate the wave force acting on an upright wall in shallow water near the shoreline based on hydraulic model experiments. with the offshore slope of the shoal having a gradient of about 1/10. It is thus difficult to designate a general calculation method that can be used in all cases. Very roughly speaking.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves are applicable in the regions where the seabed slope is gentle and the water is relatively deep. 5. and so it is not possible to calculate this wave force for all general cases involved. Specifically. This method can be used to -111- . [2] Wave Force at the Landward Side of Shoreline It is desirable to calculate the wave force on an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline based on hydraulic model experiments. whereby the wave pressure given by the extended Goda formula is multiplied by a modification factor l for the vertical-slit wall caisson. if the calculation method that is sufficiently reliable for the structure in question has not been proposed. it may be appropriate to use the values for the wavelength and wave height at the water depth equal to one half the equivalent deepwater wave height in the calculation. the standard formula in 5. the topography of sea bottom and the shape of the mound as with the case of a normal upright wall. considering increases in the water level due to surf beat and wave setup as well as wave runup. Nevertheless. it varies with the wave characteristics. When applying the standard wave pressure formula to the places where the water depth is less than one half the equivalent deepwater wave height. The formula of Tominaga and Kutsumi is applicable in the regions near the shoreline.2.2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] Ito et al. Moreover. it is necessary to carry out studies using hydraulic model experiments matched to the individual conditions. considering changes in the wave force due to the structure of the wave-absorbing compartment. 5. the water depth. and have presented a method for calculating the wave pressure acting on the slit and rear walls for four representative phases. and the complex processes of random wave breaking. the formulas by the US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC) 19) are available. for the normal case where there is no ceiling slab in the wave chamber. It is necessary to carry out an appropriate wave force calculation in line with the design conditions.) varies in a complex way. Horikawa and Hase is applicable in the regions where the seabed slope is steep and the water is of intermediate depth. it should be noted that the wave force varies significantly according to whether or not the top of wave chamber is covered with a ceiling slab. Consequently. 20) have carried out experiments on a vertical-slit wall caisson. [Technical Notes] For an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline.2. one can use the extended Goda formula to calculate the wave force. but it also varies with the structure of the waveabsorbing compartment. Moreover. considering the effects of water level changes due to surf beat etc. It is necessary to sufficiently investigate not only the wave force to be used in the stability investigation but also the wave force acting on structural members. The formula of Hom-ma.

3.1)). because the significant wave height is representative of the overall scale of an irregular wave train. When applying it to the action of actual waves (which are irregular). by introducing the nominal diameter Dn = (M/rr)1/3 and the term D = Sr .1). For example. This impulsive pressure can be reduced by providing suitable air holes. and so it is necessary to ensure that an armor unit has a mass sufficient to be stable against wave actions so that it does not scatter itself. such as the armor units on the mound of a composite breakwater. Considering this fact and past experiences. (2) Stability Number and Nominal Diameter The stability number directly corresponds to the necessary size (nominal diameter) of the armor stones or concrete blocks for a given wave height.3. -112- . (3) Design Wave Height The Hudson formula was proposed based on the results of experiments that used regular waves. it should be noted that if these air holes are too large. However. Consequently. by means of appropriate hydraulic model experiments or the following equation: rr H 3 M = --------------------------3 NS ( S r 1 ) 3 where M： minimum mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t) rr： density of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t/m3) H： wave height used in the stability calculation (m) NS： stability number Sr： specific gravity of rubble stones or concrete blocks relative to sea water [Commentary] (5. but recently it has become common to use Hudson’s formula with a stability number. it is also standard to use the significant wave height when using the generalized Hudson formula. 5. the required mass was calculated in the past by Hudson’s formula with an appropriate coefficient (KD value).3. there is thus a problem of which defcinition of wave heights should be used. However. The latter is more general in that it can also be applied to other cases. It is thus necessary to give consideration to this impulsive pressure in particular with regard to the wave pressure used in design of structural elements. with structures that are made of rubble stones or concrete blocks. In other words. Note however that for places where the water depth is less than one half the equivalent deepwater wave height. The mass required to produce such stability can be calculated using a suitable calculation formula. (2) Wave Force with a Ceiling Slab in the Wave Chamber When the top of the wave chamber is closed off with provision of a ceiling slab. there is a tendency for damage to occur not when one single wave having the maximum height H among an irregular wave train attacks the armor layer. the following relatively simple equation is obtained: H/(DDn) = NS (5.3.3.1) The armor layer for the slope of a rubble mound breakwater protects the rubble stones in the inside. the rising water surface will directly hit the ceiling slab without air cushion.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks 5. 23).3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN give not only the wave force that is severest in terms of the sliding or overturning of the caisson. but rather for damage to progress gradually under the continuous action of waves of various heights. it has been decided to make it standard to use the significant wave height of incident waves at the place where the slope is located as the wave height H in equation (5. but also the wave force that is severest in terms of the design of the elements for each wall. the significant wave height at the water depth equal to one half the equivalent deepwater wave height should be used. an impulsive pressure is generated at the instant when the air layer in the upper part of the wave chamber is trapped in by the rise of water surface. [Technical Notes] (1) Hudson’s Formula The required mass of armor units on a slope can be expressed using the Hudson formula with a stability number (this is also referred to as the generalized Hudson formula) 24) (see equation (5. Clause 5) It shall be standard to calculate the mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks necessary to cover the front slope of a sloping structure that is subject to wave forces.1 Armor Units on Slope (Notification Article 48. meaning that the wave force may actually increase 22).1).2) It can be seen that the nominal diameter is proportional to the wave height with the constant of proportionality being 1/DNS.1 and substituting them into equation (5. for the armor units on the slope of a rubble mound breakwater.

Hudson developed equation (5. wave spectrum. this method of determining the stability number NS from the KD value cannot be guaranteed to yield economical design always. i. existence of reef. It is thus better to employ irregular waves in experiments. there was a tendency for the irregular wave action to be more destructive than the action of regular waves. and is also used for the armor units of other structures such as submerged breakwaters.) ③ Strength of armor material (c) Wave characteristics ① Number of waves acting on armor layers ② Wave steepness ③ Form of sea bottom (bottom slope. and so the generalized Hudson formula with the stability number can be considered as being the standard equation for calculating the required mass of armor units on a slope. berm. In order to calculate more reasonable values for the required mass. regular laying or random placement. or else to use calculation formulas (calculation diagrams) that include the various relevant factors as described below. By comparing the results of regular wave experiments with those of irregular wave experiments. The stability number NS can be derived from the KD value and the angle a of the slope from the horizontal line by using equation (5. damage level. The NS value is a coefficient that represents the effects of the characteristics of structure. those of armor units. for armor stones.3.) ② Gradient of the armored slope ③ Position of armor units (breakwater head. breaker type. position relative to still water level. In other words. (a) Characteristics of the structure ① Type of structure (rubble mound breakwater. and also the stability number NS.1)) has been used for quite a while for calculating the required mass of armor units on the mound of a composite breakwater (to be discussed later). composite breakwater. In the past.1) by himself using K D cot a instead of NS. -113- .3. (5) Stability number NS and KD value In 1959. their diameter distribution) ② Placement of armor units (number of layers. the one using the KD value) has thus been used in the calculation of the required mass of armor units on a slope.) ④ Crown height and width. and degree of surface roughness) (b) Characteristics of the armor units ① Shape of armor units (shape of armor stones or concrete blocks. breakwater covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. wave grouping characteristics (d) Extent of damage (damage rate. Hudson published the so-called Hudson formula 24). However. wave characteristics and other factors on the stability. relative damage) Consequently.) There is no problem with this process if the KD value is an established one and the slope angle is within a range of normal design. front face and top of slope.0 (depending on the conditions). etc.1).. this formula (i. it is thus desirable to use the results of experiments matched to the conditions in question.e. etc. and shape of superstructure ⑤ Inner layer (its coefficient of permeability. the generalized Hudson formula that uses the stability number (equation (5.3.) ⑤ Wave direction. The main factors that influence the NS value are as follows.3. most of the KD values obtained up to the present time have not sufficiently incorporated various factors like the characteristics of the structure and the waves.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (4) Parameters Affecting the Stability Number As shown in equation (5. back face. It is thus now more commonly used than the old formula with the KD value.3. Thus. the NS value used in design must be determined appropriately based on hydraulic model experiments in line with the respective design conditions.3. the required mass of armor stones or concrete blocks varies with the wave height and the density of the armor units. replacing the previous Iribarren-Hudson formula.0 to 2. However.3) where a： angle of the slope from the horizontal line (º) KD： constant determined primarily by the shape of the armor units and the damage ratio The Hudson formula was based on the results of a wide range of model experiments and has proved itself well in usage in the prototype design. etc. it was found that the ratio of the height of regular waves to the significant height of irregular waves that gave the same damage ratio (within the error of 10%) varied in the range of 1. 3 N S = K D cot a (5. thickness. etc.e. etc.) ④ Ratio of wave height to water depth (as indices of nonbreaking or breaking wave condition. breakwater trunk.

Kajima et al.3) number of waves (in storm duration) (5. NS = max {Nspl. T. In Japan.1 Deformation Level S for Each Failure Stage for a Two-layered Armor Slope 1 : 1.3.5.1 is for a point at a distance 5H1/3 from the breakwater.2) deformation level (S = A / Dn502) (see Table T.3.18 (S 0. and it is a kind of damage ratio.5) (also called the surf similarity parameter) wave steepness (H1/3/L0) deepwater wavelength (L0 = gT1/32/2p. the number of waves. and Hanzawa et al. The deformation level S is an index that represents the amount of deformation of the armor stones.1) angle of slope from the horizontal line (º) nominal diameter of armor stone (=(M50/rr)1/3) 50% value of the mass distribution curve of an armor stone (required mass of an armor stone) permeability coefficient of the inner layer (see Fig.5IrP where Nspl： Nssr： Ir： Som： L0： T1/3： CH： H1/3： H1/20： a： Dn50： M50： P： S： A： N： stability number for plunging breakers stability number for surging breaker Iribarren number (tan a/Som0. usage of the value for intermediate damage can also be envisaged. (8) Stability Number for Concrete Units of the Wave-Dissipating Block Mound in Front of Upright Walls (horizontallycomposite breakwater) The wave-dissipating concrete block mound of a horizontally-composite breakwater may have various crosssectional forms.5.2 / N 0.1) erosion area of cross section (see Fig. For example.5. Nssr} Nspl = 6.5 Nssr = CHP-0.4 / (H1/20/H1/3) ] (=1. Burcharth and Liu 27) have proposed a calculation formula. T. Takahashi et al. g = 9. other people are also proceeding with research into establishing calculation formulas for precast concrete blocks. it should be noted that these are based on the results of experiments for a rubble mound breakwater with a high crown.3. which considers not only the slope gradient. For example. but also the wave steepness.3. with design where a certain amount of deformation is permitted.0. have carried out systematic research on the stability of wave-absorbing concrete blocks.5. when all the front face of an upright wall is covered by wave-dissipating concrete blocks. and failure.2CHP 0.3. the wave height H2% for which the probability of exceedance is 2% has been replaced by H1/20. it is common to use the deformation level for initial damage for N = 1000 waves. Note however that the following formula has been slightly altered in comparison with van der Meer’s original one in order to make calculations easier.3.3) being divided by the square of the nominal diameter Dn50 of the armor stones.1) (cota)0. T. three stages are defined with regard to the deformation level of the armor stones: initial damage. van der Meer carried out systematic experiments concerning the armor stones on the slope of a rubble mound breakwater with a high crown. He proposed the following calculation formula for the stability number. It is defined as the result of the area A eroded by waves (see Fig.2 / N 0.6) The wave height H1/20 in Fig. Tanimoto et al.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (6) Van der Meer’s Formula for Armor Stones In 1987.5.3. Table T. T.3. 29) have proposed the following equation for wave-dissipating concrete blocks that are randomly placed in the mound covering the whole of upright wall.5.5.1.81m/s2) significant wave period modification factor due to wave breaking [=1. and H0’ is the equivalent deepwater wave height.. In particular.3. 28). In addition.13 (S 0. and the damage level 25).4) (5.5) (5. and proposed the formulas for calculating the stability number NS 26).3. As shown in Table T. intermediate damage.5.5 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:6 Initial damage 2 2 2 3 3 Intermediate damage 3～5 4～6 6～9 8 ～12 8 ～12 Failure 8 8 12 17 17 (7) Stability Number for Armor Concrete Units of Rubble Mound Breakwater Van der Meer has carried out model experiments on several kinds of precast concrete blocks. However. However. much research has been carried out on the stability of breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. -114- . the stability is higher than for the normal case of armor concrete units covering a rubble mound breakwater because the permeability is high.3.1) Ir. In addition. T. For example.0 in the region where wave breaking does not occur) significant wave height highest one-twentieth wave height (see Fig. With the standard design.

T.5. T.3.3 Erosion Area A No filter.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Sea Bottom slope 1/100 Sea Bottom slope 1/50 Sea Bottom slope 1/30 H0′/L0 H0′ : Equivalent deepwater wave height h/H0¢ Fig.1 Ratio of H1/20 to H1/3 (H1/20 Values are at a Distance 5H1/3 from the Breakwater) Arm er or lay Imp able erme layer Filter layer yer or la Arm ter layer Fil Area of eroded part r r laye Armo Core Armo r laye r Fig.5. no core Nominal diameter of armor stones Nominal diameter of filter material Nominal diameter of core material Fig.2 Permeability Coefficient P -115- . T.3.5.3.

1).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN N S = C H { a ( N 0 ¤ N 0. (10) Submerged Armor Units Since the action of waves on a rubble mound breakwater is weaker midwater than around the waterline. (13) Armor Units in Reef Area In general.5 times the value given by equation (5.e. and forms a relatively flat and shallow sea bottom. it is necessary to note that the concrete blocks around its crown (in particular on the shoreward side) are easily damaged. Based on these results. but also to confirm that the block itself has sufficient structural strength. it is necessary not only to ensure that the block has a mass sufficient to be stable against the design waves.5H1/3 below the still water level.). a = 2. it is considered that when the wave angle b (see Fig.33. when the wave direction is more than 60º.5) Takahashi et al.42. it breaks around the tip of the reef.2. 29) have further presented a method for calculating the cumulative relative damage (the expected relative damage) over the lifetime of a breakwater. is more-or-less the same as that calculated using the KD value in the past. The value of N0 = 0. it is thought to be insufficient. and indeed such cases of block damage have been reported. (15) Effect of Steep Slope Bed When the bottom slope is steep and waves break in plunging form. Consequently.2 + b } (5. where Dn is the nominal diameter of the concrete blocks: Dn = (M/rr)1/3. H1/20 / H1/3 = 1.0) a.3 corresponds to the conventionally-used damage ratio of 1%. when a large wave arrives at such a reef. there is no supporting wall at the back and the crown is not high. if cot a = 4/3. 31) have shown that the stability increases when the directional spreading of random waves is large. It would be desirable to use the mass at least 1. subject to their shapes.4 / (H1/20 / H1/3) (in the region where wave breaking does not occur. making the situation more complicated than that in general cases. a = 2. Christensen et al.5 ) 0.3. However. (9) Breakwater Head Waves attack the head of a breakwater from a whole angle of directions. a large wave force may act on concrete blocks.3.2 in 5.3.3. CH = 1. T. and there is a greater risk of the armor units on the top of the slope falling not so much forward but rather toward the rear side. stones or concrete blocks of reduced mass may be used at depths more than 1. -116- . Moreover. and then the regenerated waves propagate over the reef in the form of surge. direction of incidence is perpendicular to the breakwater alignment). where M is the mass of a concrete block) CH： modification factor due to wave breaking. 45º.3. b： coefficients that depend on the shape of the concrete blocks and the slope angle (for concrete blocks with the KD value of 8. the design mass as calculated using the method of Takahashi et al. if the number of waves is 1000 and the relative damage N0 is 0. (11) Effect of Wave Direction The extent to which the incident wave angle affects the stability of the armor stones has not been investigated sufficiently. a reef rises up at a steep slope from the relatively deep sea. The characteristics of waves over a reef are strongly dependent on not only the incident wave conditions but also the water depth over the reef and the distance from the tip of the reef. the damage ratio drops. This means that the concrete blocks near the crown (in particular at the rear) are easily damaged.7) where N0： relative damage (a kind of damage ratio that represents the extent of damage: it is defined as the number of concrete blocks that have moved within a width Dn in the direction of the breakwater alignment. Hudson suggested to raise the mass by 10% in the case of stones and 30% in the case of concrete blocks.2. In the region where wave breaking does not occur.2 [1] Wave Force under Wave Crest) is 45º or less. The stability of wave-dissipating concrete blocks situated on a reef must thus be investigated based either on model experiments matching the conditions in question or on field experiences for sites having similar conditions. It is thus necessary to carry out appropriate investigations while considering the possibility of large wave force (see Takeda et al.5. and so CH = 1. if cot a = 1. In the future. reliability design methods that consider the expected relative damage will become important in the advanced design methodology.. 30º. for detached breakwater composed of wave-dissipating concrete blocks. (14) Armor Units of Low Crest Breakwater For a rubble mound breakwater with a low crown. the damage ratio for a wave direction of 45º or smaller is more-or-less the same as that when the wave direction is 0º. unlike a caisson breakwater covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks.4. 60º and 90º. the minimum mass should not be corrected for wave direction.32 and b = 1. (12) Integrity of Concrete Blocks With a precast concrete block. Nevertheless.1) for both stones and concrete blocks. For example. Stones or concrete blocks to be used at the head of a breakwater must thus have a mass greater than the value given by equation (5. according to the results of experiments carried out by van de Kreeke 30) in which the wave angle was changed between 0º (i.32 and b = 1. The stability of wave-dissipating concrete blocks situated on a reef also varies greatly for the same reasons.

and actual experience in the field.0 times its height.1 Armor Units on Slope. and it is needed to progressively accumulate the results of such experiments. there is a tendency of greater stability when the crown is high and wide. where the wave height H is inversely derived from the Hudson formula with the mass of armor units as the input. Moreover. high-density blocks have a high stability. The inspection area is taken from the elevation of wave runup to the depth of 1. and so it has still not been sufficiently elucidated. The following points should be noted when carrying out studies using model experiments. The deformation level is suitable when it is difficult to count the number of armor stones or concrete blocks that have moved. Moreover. and carrying out model experiments if necessary. According to the results of experiments carried out to compare the random placement over the whole cross section and that of regular two-layer placement upon a stone core. etc. the effects of the wave characteristics and the mound shape are more pronounced than those in the case of the armor units covering the surface of sloped breakwater in 5. the stability of the regular placement with well-interlocking was markedly improved for most of the cases tested. According to the results of a number of experiments. and its position (breakwater head. However.).3. However. considering the results of past studies. breakwater trunk. one run for each test condition will suffice.3.2 Armor Units on Foundation Mound of Composite Breakwater (Notification Article 48. it is necessary to take sufficient heed of the effects of wave irregularity..3. there is no need to define the inspection area.e. the shape of the mound (thickness.5H below the still water level or to the bottom elevation of the armor layer (take a shallower depth). 5.3.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (16) High-density Blocks The minimum mass of blocks that are made of high-density aggregate may also be determined using the Hudson formula with the stability number (equation (5. so a stable armor layer can be made using relatively small blocks of high density. it is desirable to apply more than 500 waves or so. It is thus necessary to appropriately determine the mass. and the type of armor unit. research. (18) Standard Method of Hydraulic Model Experiments The stability of concrete blocks is influenced by a very large number of factors. the water depth. For evaluating the damage ratio.1)). The damage ratio is the ratio of the number of damaged armor units in an inspection area to the total number of armor units in the same inspection area. its placement method. As shown by the equation. with three different wave trains).). Clause 5) It shall be standard to calculate the mass of armor stones or concrete blocks for the foundation mound of a composite breakwater. berm width. (b) For each particular set of conditions. for the deformation level and the degree of damage. (a) It is standard to carry out experiments using irregular waves. (c) It is standard to study the action of 1000 waves in total of three runs for each wave height level.). (d) For the description of the extent of damage. In particular. when experiments are carried out by systematically varying the mass and other factors and a large amount of data can be acquired. slope angle. in addition to the damage ratio which has been commonly used in the past. This means that it is necessary to carry out studies using model experiments for the design of prototype breakwaters. etc. -117- . Even for the systematic experiments. (17) Effect of Placement The stability of wave-dissipating concrete blocks also varies with the method of placement (random placement or regular placement etc. the stability is also affected by the crown height and width of the mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks. the experiment should be repeated at least three times (i. while the degree of damage is suitable when one wishes to represent the damage to wave-dissipating concrete blocks. for example. an armor unit is judged to be damaged if it has moved over a distance of more than about 1/2 to 1. by means of appropriate hydraulic model experiments or the following equation: rr H3 M = --------------------------3 NS ( S r 1 ) 3 where M： rr： H： NS ： Sr： minimum mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t) density of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t/m3) wave height used in the stability calculation (m) stability number specific gravity of rubble stones or concrete blocks relative to sea water (5. the deformation level or the degree of damage may also be used.1) [Commentary] The mass required for an armor unit covering the foundation mound of a composite breakwater varies according to the wave characteristics.

3 ----------.8) (5. Depending on the structure and the layout of armor units.e. It is thus necessary to assign the stability number NS appropriately through model experiments corresponding to the design conditions. -118- .25 1/3 H k k 1 / 3 H1 ¤ 3 þ 1¤3 î k = k 1 ( k 2 )B 4ph¢ ¤ L¢ k 1 = ----------------------------------sinh ( 4ph¢ ¤ L¢ ) ( k 2 )B = max { a s sin 2 b cos 2 ( 2p l cos b ¤ L¢ ). and proposed the following equation that gives the stability number NS* for any given number of waves N and any given damage ratio DN (%). However. Because it has a certain degree of validity even from a theoretical standpoint. either BM or BM¢. T. which is based upon the work of Brebner and Donnelly and past experience of damage. (2) Stability Number for Armor Stones The stability number NS can be determined using the method of Inagaki and Katayama 34). and in Japan it is also known as the Brebner-Donnelly formula. breakwater head.3. (a) Extended Tanimoto formulas ì 1 k h¢ ( 1 k ) 2 h¢ ü N S = max í 1. it may be possible to achieve stability even when the armor units are relatively small. have carried out stability experiments for the special case such that the mound is low and no wave breaking occurs. whichever gives the larger value of (k2)B (see Fig. cos 2 b sin 2 ( 2p l cos b ¤ L¢ ) } s a (5. the berm width BM (m) In the case of oblique wave incidence. the required mass of armor units covering the foundation mound of a composite breakwater can be calculated using the generalized Hudson formula (the Hudson formula with the stability number).10) (5.4) l： in the case of normal wave incidence. and the waves used in the model experiments should be irregular. etc. the wave height used in the design calculation is generally the significant wave height. They investigated the relationship between the number of waves N and the damage ratio.5 -----------------. the generalized Hudson formula may also be used as the basic formula for calculating the minimum mass of armor units for the breakwater mound 33).8 exp 1.1).5) H1/3： design significant wave height (m) The validity of the above formulas have been verified for the breakwater trunk for oblique wave incidence with an angle of incidence of up to 60º. Moreover.3. T. Kimura.3.3.3. Seaward h BM d BM ' Shoreward Upright section C ' h h Foot protection blocks Armor material Rubble mound Foot protection blocks Armor material Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Note however that the stability of the armor units covering the foundation mound of a composite breakwater is not necessarily determined purely by their sizes. the shape of the mound. and they have been extended by Takahashi.+ 1. i. the wave characteristics.5.3. 33) are based on the flow velocity near the mound and allow the incorporation of a variety of conditions.5. and Tanimoto 35) to include the effects of wave direction. Note however that the stability number NS varies not only with the water depth. the generalized Hudson formula has been used widely. T. and the characteristics of the armor units..5. the following formulas by Tanimoto et al. [Technical Notes] (1) Generalized Hudson’s Formula for Calculating the Required Mass Similarly with the stable mass of armor units on a slope.4) L： wavelength corresponding to the design significant wave period at the water depth h¢ (m) as： correction factor for when the armor layer is horizontal (= 0.----------. equation (5.4 Standard Cross Section of a Composite Breakwater and Notations (b) Stability Number When a Certain Amount of Damage is Permitted Sudo et al.3. but also with their position of the placement (breakwater trunk.9) (5.5.----------.3.3.).45) b： incident wave angle (see Fig.ý : B M ¤ L¢ < 0. The extended Tanimoto formulas have thus been made the standard formulas.11) where h¢： water depth on top of rubble mound foundation (excluding the armor layer) (m) (see Fig. 1. Ever since Brebner and Donnelly 32) used it as the basic equation for calculating the required mass of the armor stones of the rubble mound for an upright wall. T.8.

it is standard to increase the mass to at least 1. (3) Stability Number for Concrete Units The stability number NS for concrete blocks varies according to the shape of the block and the method of placement. Breakwater head Fig. it is thus desirable to examine the validity using hydraulic model experiments.3.14) Note however that if the calculated mass turns out to be less than 1.12) to a low value of DN = 1% for N =1000 acting waves. The mass of the armor stones at the breakwater head can also be calculated using the extended Tanimoto formula. it is advisable to set it to 1. it is best to employ irregular waves. The wave force acting on such members can be obtained using the Morison equation.3. for the breakwater head. In this case.13) (5.25 (5. meaning that the armor units become liable to move. When carrying out such experiments. The validity of the stability number for armor stones in the Tanimoto formulas has not been verified experimentally for when h’/H1/3 is small: when h’/H1/3 is about 1 or less.3.12) where NS is the stability number given by the Tanimoto formula when N = 500 and the damage ratio is 1%. This means that the required mass decreases to about 1/3 of that required for N = 500 and DN = 1%. provided that consideration is given to past experiences of breakwaters. If N = 1000 and DN = 5%. while the damage ratio 3% to 5% can be allowed for a 2-layer armoring. T.1 Wave Force on Cylindrical Members The wave force acting on an cylindrical member can be calculated as the sum of a drag force that is proportional to the square of the water particle velocity under waves and an inertia force that is proportional to the water particle acceleration. it is better to use the stability number for armor stones on a slope of mound breakwater. then NS* = 1. wave breaking often causes the armor stones to become unstable. the flow velocity parameter k in equation (5. in which the wave force is expressed as the sum of a drag force that is proportional to the square of the velocity of the water particles and an inertia force that is proportional to the acceleration. as well as to the wave surface elevation.4.3 ( 1 500 ¤ N ) } ] 0. one could think of compensating the use of one layer only by setting the damage ratio in the aforementioned equation (5. In design it is necessary to take N = 1000 considering the progress of damage.4 Wave Forces Acting on Cylindrical Members and Large Isolated Structures 5. it is necessary to assign accurate values to the water particle velocity and acceleration of the waves. 5.22 (5.5 Shape of the Breakwater (5) Armor Layer Thickness Alignment and Effects of It is standard to use two layers of armor stones.3. It is thus desirable to evaluate the stability number by means of hydraulic model experiments. It should further be noted that the impact of the wave front may -119- Br eak w ate r tru nk . Specifically. it is rather standard to use one layer. It is thus appropriate to use the stability number for armor stones on a mound only when h¢/H1/3 ≧ 1: when h¢/H1/3<1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS N S * = N S [ D N ¤ exp { 0. although two layers may be laid if the shape of the blocks is favorable for two layer placement and the design wave conditions are severe. (4) Conditions for Applying the Stability Number for Armor Stones on Foundation Mound When the water above the armor units covering a mound is shallow. For concrete armor blocks.5 times that at the breakwater trunk.5. However. Note however that with the Morison equation.9) should be rewritten as follows: k = k 1 (k 2)T (k2)T = 0. (6) Armor Units for Breakwater Head At the head of a breakwater. strong currents occur locally near the corners at the edge of the upright section.5 times that for the breakwater trunk.3.44NS.3. If hydraulic model experiments are not carried out. it is Wave Direction acceptable to use only one layer. [Commentary] Structural members such as piles that have a small diameter relative to the wavelength hardly disturb the propagation of waves. It is also necessary to appropriately evaluate the drag coefficient and the inertia coefficient by means of model experiments or field measurement results.5 times that for the breakwater trunk. It is thus necessary to verify the extent to which the mass of armor units should be increased at the breakwater head by carrying out hydraulic model experiments.

the surface roughness. The first term on the right-hand side represents the drag force. an approximation using small amplitude wave theory becomes insufficient to yield reliable estimate. the same direction as un) (these components are for f incident waves that are not disturbed by the presence of member) u n ： absolute value of u n (m/s) CD： drag coefficient CM： inertia coefficient D： width of the member in the direction perpendicular to the member axis as viewed from the direction f of un (m) A： cross-sectional area of the member along a plane perpendicular to member axis (m2) r0： density of seawater (normally 1. and to investigate the distribution of the wave force that is severest to the member or structure in question. the water particle velocity component contributes to the wave force with its second power. the Reynolds number Re..7. The arrows on top of symbols indicate that the force. the surface roughness. it is necessary to use a value for the drag coefficient that has been adjusted for the estimation error in the water particle velocity (4) Inertia Coefficient The calculated value by the small amplitude wave theory may be used for the inertia coefficient CM.1) represent those of the u water particle motion at the center of the member. It also varies with the KeuleganCarpenter number (KC number) because the flow is of oscillating nature. Note also that when estimating the water particle velocity by means of an approximate equation.3 Properties of Waves. the KC number.C D r 0 u n u n DDS + C M r 0 a n ADS n 2 where u： force that acts on a small length DS (m) in the axial direction of the member. a n： components of the water particle velocity (m/s) and acceleration (m/s2).4. the elevation of wave crest. i. when the member extends above the mean water level.1) . and that a lift force may act upon it. CD should not be set below 0.1) is a generalized form of the equation presented by Morison et al. and the separation distance between neighboring members. the highest wave height and the significant wave period should be used in the analysis for rigid structures. The water particle velocity and acceleration components in the equation both vary in time and space. that the inertia coefficient varies with the shape of the member and other factors such as the Reynolds number.03 t/m3) Equation (5. In general. respectively. based on either experimental dater or theoretical prediction. while the second term represents the inertia force. 36). It is necessary to take sufficient heed of these variations.e.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN generate an impulsive wave force if the member is located near to the still water level or if breaking waves hit the member. and to study the wave characteristics that are severest to the safety of member or structure in question. For a circular cylindrical member. Note however that the drag coefficient varies with the shape of the member. and the separation distance between neighboring members. a lower value may be used if its value is based on the results of model experiments matched to the conditions. it is standard to set CD = 1. however. For a -120- (5. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the range over which the wave force acts. In particular.4.4. and are evaluated under the assumption that waves are not disturbed by the presence of the structure in question. Moreover. Note also that it is necessary to take full account of wave irregularity with regard to the wave height and period used in the wave force calculation. velocity and acceleration are the components in the direction perpendicular to the member. where the direction of f n this force lies in the plane containing the member axis and the direction of motion of the water particles and is perpendicular to the member axis (kN) u n. in the direction u perpendicular to the member axis that lies within the plane containing the member axis and the direction of motion of the water particles (i. These components are in the direction perpendicular to the member axis.. Even in this case. however. When evaluating these terms using theoretical values. meaning that when the wave height is large. depending on the shape and position of the member. For an unmanned structure.e. [Technical Notes] (1) Morison’s Equation The wave force acting on a structural member is calculated based on the following equation: 1 u fu = -.0 if the finite amplitude properties of the waves are fully evaluated. based on 4. to give the wave force acting on a section of a very small length DS of a member orientated in any given direction. It is thus necessary to set the value of the inertia coefficient appropriately in line with the given conditions. it is necessary to estimate these components as accurate as possible. It is necessary to consider these conditions when setting the value of drag coefficient. it is desirable to use the finite amplitude wave theory that agrees with the characteristics of the design waves. (3) Drag Coefficient In general. When calculating the wave force. the drag coefficient for steady flow can be used as the drag coefficient CD for wave force. Note. (2) Water Particle Velocity and Acceleration Components The components of water particle velocity and acceleration u n and a n in equation (5.1.

because it is generally possible to ignore the drag force. the inertia coefficient for a cube under waves is in the range of 1. for long and thin members. it is necessary to take heed of the fact that the lift force may induce vibrations.5 Flat plate D . but it is necessary to take heed of the fact that the lift force may become a problem for horizontal members that are placed near to the seabed.4.. considering the size of the structure and the crosssectional form.0 (8) Experimental Values for Drag Coefficient and Inertia Coefficient of Circular Cylinder There are many experimental values for the drag coefficient and inertia coefficient of a vertical circular cylinder.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS circular cylindrical member. Nakamura. 5.67 D D Sphere D πD 3 6 πD2 4 1.2.1 in 7. Moreover.0 D Square-based prism D D D D2 2. 47). [Commentary] The wave force acting on a large isolated structure whose dimensions are comparable to the wavelength can be calculated using the velocity potential.61 0. (5) Lift Force In addition to the drag and inertia forces of equation (5.3. those of Keulegan and Carpenter 41)./ . In particular. However. for structures of a simple shape. Sarpkaya 42).0 may be used as a standard value.4./ =1 =2 = 0. analytical solutions obtained by means of diffraction theory are available. Yamaguchi. According to the experiments of Hamada and et al. the value of drag coefficient for steady flow such as those listed in Table T. Chakrabarti 46). which is experienced in actual design. CM = 2. 43). (7) Standard Value for Inertia Coefficient When the diameter of the object in question is no more than 1/10 of the wavelength.4. (6) Standard Value for Drag Coefficient When the water particle velocity can be calculated accurately.19 D Cube D3 1. 44). In general. provided the diameter of the member is no more than 1/10 of the wavelength. Oda has produced a summary of these researches which may be referred to. for example. However.85 1./ . Table T.2 Wave Force on Large Isolated Structure The wave force acting on a large isolated structure built in the sea shall be calculated using an appropriate numerical calculation or hydraulic model experiments. when estimating the water particle acceleration by means of an approximate equation.5. it is necessary to adjust the value of CM for the error in the estimate of water particle acceleration.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures may be used. it is necessary to calculate the breaking wave force by means of hydraulic model experiments if there is a possibility of breaking wave force exerted on structure. -121- .4 to 2.5. there is not sufficient data in the region of high Reynolds number. and Koderayama and Tashiro. the lift force acts on an underwater member in the direction perpendicular to the plane containing the member axis and the direction of the water particle motion.7.1 for the inertia coefficient CM. However. There are much variations between these values.1).1 Inertia Coefficient Shape Reference volume Inertia coefficient Circular cylinder πD2 4 D 2. it is acceptable to ignore this lift force. Goda 45). it is standard to use the value listed in Table T. The value of inertia coefficient shown here is mostly from the study by Stelson and Mavis 40).4.

1 Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate near the Still Water Level For a horizontal plate located near the still water level.1 (a). Goda and Yoshimura 60) have applied diffraction theory to an upright elliptic cylinder. a layer of trapped air is often formed and this layer of air is compressed by the uprising wave surface. The distinct feature of the wave pressure in this case is its rapid rise in time. With beams.5.1 Impact between Wave Front and Horizontal Plate In case of a pier with a deck plate supported by horizontal beams. and pointed out that it is necessary to consider these effects when the water is shallow.5. The distinct feature of the wave pressure in this case is its oscillation in time with having a short period and damping. (2) Isolated Structure of Arbitrary Shape For a structure that is complex in shape. and presented their results in terms of the inertia coefficient CM.5. such as integral equation methods. an impact wave force may act on the bottom face of the plate (this wave force is hereafter referred to as the uplift). the wave surface is disturbed by the beams. The shape of the impacting wave surface varies greatly according to the condition whether the wave is progressive or standing in nature. when the angle between the wave front and the plate is close to 0° as shown in Fig.1 (b). Various methods are available.5. the shape of the impacting wave front varies with the -122- . (a) Pressure distribution Wave impact (b) Pressure distribution Wave impact Fig. the impulsive uplift shall be evaluated by means of an appropriate method including hydraulic model experiments etc.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) Diffraction Theory MacCamy and Fuchs 59) have determined the velocity potential of waves around an upright circular cylinder of large diameter using diffraction theory.5. depending on the wave conditions and the structural form of the plate. When there exists such a risk. and the uplift becomes of complex nature. As shown in Fig. and compression of this layer of air results in the almost uniform wave pressure distribution. With standing waves. Yamaguchi has investigated the effect of the wave nonlinearity on the wave force acting on an upright circular cylinder of large diameter by means of nonlinear diffraction theory. T. [Technical Notes] (1) Characteristics of Impulsive Uplift If the bottom face of the plate is flat. It is thus necessary to give consideration to the change in the uplift with respect to the shape of the bottom face of the horizontal plate. a layer of air is trapped between the wave surface and the plate.5. T. 5. and calculated the wave force from the water pressure distribution at the surface of cylinder. when there is an angle between the wave surface and the plate. it is difficult to obtain the wave force analytically. On the other hand.5 Wave Force Acting on Structure Located near the Still Water Level 5.5. the impulsive uplift acting on a horizontal plate near the still water level varies with the impact (uprising) velocity of the wave surface and the angle between the wave surface and the plate. and so it is necessary to carry out a numerical calculation. T. the wave surface runs along the bottom face of the plate and the wave pressure distribution becomes as shown there.

The impact force has the magnitude given by the above equations and takes the form of a pulse that lasts for a time t from the moment of the impact.4 L è s¢ Hø H2 2ph (5.5. he obtained the following formulas for calculating the uplift from standing waves acting on a horizontal plate.coth --------L L where P： total uplift (kN) z： correction factor r0： density of seawater (1..2) s¢ = s p -----.1) well represents the features of the uplift well (despite the fact that the equation is simple). the impact between the wave surface and the floor slab is disturbed by the beams. This means that even if the intensity of the uplift p exceeds the deadweight q (specifically the weight per unit area (kN/m2)) of the access -123- . r0 g 2ph H s¢ (5. This calculation method is intended for use when the bottom face of the horizontal plate is flat. It is thus necessary to consider such differences. that is given as follows: pT l 2 s¢ t = ----------.5. According to the measurement records of wave pressure gauges attached to the access bridge.æ --.1) P = z --------HLB tanh --------. the result being that the impact force is less than for a horizontal plate with a flat surface. Tanimoto et al. the presence of beams causes air to become trapped in and the wave surface to be distorted. Comparing calculated values with z = 1. 61) have proposed another method for calculating the uplift acting on horizontal plate based on Wagner’s theory.03 t/m3) g： gravitational acceleration (9. It cannot be applied directly to structures of complicated shape such as an ordinary pier that have beams under the floor slab. (2) Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate with Flat Bottom Face (with standing waves) Goda thought of the uplift acting on a horizontal plate as being the force arising from the sudden change in the upward momentum of wave surface by its collision with the plate. equation (5. the mean of these peak values is given approximately by the following equation: (5. (3) Uplift Acting on Open-type Wharf (with standing waves) Ito and Takeda 62) have conducted scale model tests of open piled marginal wharves (open-type wharves) to obtain the uplift acting on an access bridge.ö . and that the phase of this uplift varies from place to place. In general. agreement is relatively good provided H/s ¢ is no more than 2. The experimental conditions were the wave height up to 40 cm. the value obtained from this calculation method may be thought of as being the upper limit of the uplift for an ordinary pier.5.5.03 t/m3) gravitational acceleration (9.4 s. With this calculation method.5. Using von Karman’s theory.5s ) where p： r0： g： H： s： mean peak value of the intensity of uplift (kN/m2) density of seawater (1.4) acts only for an extremely short time. making it possible to obtain the spatial distribution of the impact pressure and its change over time.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS distance between the position of wave reflection and the horizontal plate. Nevertheless. --. the angle of contact b between the wave surface and the horizontal plate as well as the impact velocity Vn are given by Stokes’ third order wave theory.5.----------------------(5. and a water depth of 56 cm and 60 cm.81 m/s2) incident wave height (m) (Hmax) distance from the water level to the underside of access bridge (m) Note however that the peak value of the intensity of the uplift given by equation (5.3) 2 L H 2 s¢ 2 where T is the wave period and l is the length of the horizontal plate. a period of 1.0 s and 2. Note however that the use of Stokes’ third order wave theory makes the calculation rather complex. Provided the length of the horizontal plate is sufficiently small compared with the wavelength L and the bottom face of the horizontal plate is flat. and its minimum weight to prevent moving and falling.0 to experimental values.81 m/s2) H： wave height of progressive waves (m) (generally the highest wave height Hmax) L： wavelength of progressive waves (m) B： extension width of plate perpendicular to wave incidence (m) h： water depth (m) s： clearance of the plate above the still water level (m) s¢： clearance of the plate above the level corresponding to the middle of the wave crest and trough (m) One should take note of the fact that the uplift in the above equations does not depend on the length of the horizontal plate. Accordingly.4) p = r 0 g ( 8 H 4. the peak value of the uplift varied considerably from wave to wave even under the same conditions.

2. Tech. 1985 (in Japanese). 12. 1973. For waves of period 2. 1983. 1-39. Coastal Eng. and Sawaragi and Nochino. Rept of PHRI. pp. 5. No. Vol. 1981.. Based on this perspective. Shusaku KAKIZAKI. Based on the upper limits of their experimental results. The falling threshold weight was found to be 1/2 to 1/3 of the moving threshold weight. the bridge will not necessarily move or fall down. pp. 2) Yoshimi GODA: “A new method of wave pressure calculation for the design of composite breakwaters”. No. Mutsumi Fujishima. the relationship between the moving threshold weight per unit area q and the wave height H was as follows: q = r 0 g ( 1. No. Nagai and Kubo. No. No. 1962. 3. In general. 1928. Ito and Takeda also tested the access bridge with holes or slits of various sizes. they proposed the following equation for the uniformly distributed equivalent static load. No.7) . 3-31 (in Japanese).6) is generally lower than the uplift acting on a horizontal plate with a flat bottom face. No. No. pp. Rept of PHRI. Tech. 1967.e. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. Inst. 2. Vol. 4) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 98. pp. 5) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO.5. on the other hand. Vol. 7) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 1973. Rept of PHRI. Rept of PHRI. 6) Yoshimi GODA. Vol. (4) Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate with Flat Bottom Face (with progressive waves) An impulsive uplift also acts when progressive waves act on a horizontal plate that is fixed near to the still water level. Based on their results. Horikawa and Nakao. 134p.4 s. (5) Uplift Acting on Superstructure of Detached Pier (with progressive waves) Ito and Takeda 62) have also carried out studies on the uplift from progressed waves acting on a detached pier.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN bridge.5.5) The moving threshold weight given by equation (5. 1-57 (in Japanese). Shigeo TAKAHASHI. Experimental research into the uplift acting on a pier has also been carried out by Murota and Furudoi. Katsutoshi KIMURA. 1984. 12) Yoshimi GODA: “Motion of composite breakwater on elastic foundation under the action of impulsive breaking wave pressure”. pp. 6. Tanimoto et al.6H 0. Ito and Takeda 62) have attached a strain gauge to the deck slab of the model of open-type wharf and measured the stress. 1986.5.5) is one fifth of the intensity of the uplift as given by equation (5. Vol. 3-39 (in Japanese). 10) Yoshimi GODA. (in Japanese). 32. the change in the moving threshold weight by the void ration is only slight. Kazuyuki MYOSE: “Experimental study of random wave forces on upright sections of breakwaters”. 47. Vol. drops noticeably when the void ratio exceeds 20%. Vol. Specifically. p = 2r 0 gH [References] 1) Yoshiyuki ITO. 528. p = 4r 0 gH (5. pp. Satoshi SUZUMURA: “Generation mechanism of impulsive pressure by breaking wave on a vertical wall”. Rept of PHRI. Toru KIKUYA: “Experimental study on wave force damping effects due to deformed artificial blocks”. Report of Trans. pp. 13) Katsutosi TANIMOTO. 4. pp. Res. the equivalent static load becomes much smaller than the peak value of the uplift. 12. 3-25 (in Japanese).4). Note of PHRI. they measured the stress occurring in the deck slabs of a detached pier model. and investigated how the threshold weights changed when the void ratio was changed. It is also thought that because the uplift acts very locally and for an extremely short time. pp.5. In these access bridge experiments. Katsutoshi KIMURA: “A hydraulic experimental study on trapezoidal caisson breakwaters”. 14. Rept of PHRI. No.5.: “Experimental study on wave force against a wall”. It is thought that this is partly because the beams disturb the impacting wave front and cause air to become trapped in. Rept of PHRI. based on the same theory by Wagner that was used for impulsive uplift by standing waves. Takao KITATANI: “Experimental study of impact breaking wave forces on a vertical-wall caisson of composite breakwater”. Vol. H.5. 5-48.. Tech. Antonio Paulo dos Santos Pinto: “Random wave forces and design wave periods of composite breakwaters under the action of double peaked spectral weves”. Rept of PHRI. No. 1-18 (in Japanese). 4. 23. they proposed the following equation for the equivalent static load (kN/m2) assumed to act with uniform distribution on the deck slab. pp. the weight per unit area excluding the voids). 3. 22. ASCE. 3) Sainflou. Vol.6) Note however that the value given by this equation corresponds to the upper limit of the experimental values and should thus be thought of as corresponding to the case that the distance s from the water level to the underside of the is almost 0. 8) Mitsuyasu. No. 3-29 (in Japanese). 11) Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 20. pp. Note that the bridge weight referred to here is the weight per unit area of the substantial part (i. Suketo HARANAKA: “An experiment on the shock pressure of breaking waves”. -124- (5. 5. 9) Michio MORIHIRA. Annales des Ponts et Chaussées. 1966. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. pp.9s ) (5. 1966. G.1702-1720. 1967. 3. 31-69 (in Japanese). 10. Rept of PHRI. Furthermore. 63) have proposed a method for calculating this impulsive uplift. Shusaku KAKIZAKI: “Study on finite amplitude standing waves and their pressures upon a vertical wall”. 1. The falling threshold weight. No. Note of PHRI. 3-31 (in Japanese). No. Ito and Takeda have obtained the threshold weight at which the access bridge starts to move and that at which the deck slab falls down. also “New wave pressure formulae for composite breakwater” Proc. 47-100 (in Japanese).: “Essai sur les diques maritimes verticales”. 14th Conf. Takao KITATANI: “On the stability of breakwaters”. 1974. The equivalent static load given by equation (5. Vol. 25.

Sand. R. H. No. National Bureau of Standards. Jour. pp.. Broberg. 35) Sigeo TAKAHASHI. 3-31 (in Japanese). 1972.: “Wave forces on a vertical circular cylinder: Experiments and proposed method of wave force computation”. 423-440. Takeo KATAYAMA: “Analysis of damage to armor stones of mounds in composite breakwaters”. 39) Yoshiyuki ITO. No. T. 32-37. 3-25 (in Japanese). P. 1. 16) Yoshiyuki ITO. 8th Conf.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 14) Shigeo TAKAHASHI. Vol. of Breakwater '88. pp. 36) Morison. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 25. T. New Mexico City. O'Brien. Rept of PHRI. 19) Coastal Engineering Research Center: “Shore Protection Manual” Vol.: “Stability of cubes. 3-42 (in Japanese). H. Vol. T. Prepr. 149-154. Eastbourne. and F. Tomotsuka YOSHIMURA. No. 1982. pp. 54-75 (in Japanese). Keisuke SHIOTA. Masahiko TODOROKI: “An experimental investigation of upright breakwaters at reefs”. Note of PHRI. Y. Rept of PHRI. 30) Van de Kreeke. Venice. 95. 81. 450. Coastal Eng. Tryde: “Behavior of rubble-mound breakwater in directional and unidirectional waves”. No. 2. Koji KOBUNE. Minoru HANZAWA.. -125- . 22) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 95-108. Vol. Vol. 152p. Rept of PHRI. 23) Sigeo TAKAHASHI. E. ASCE. 33) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. Doctoral thesis. 265-278. UK.: “Rock slopes and gravel beaches under wave attack”. 45) Goda. Donnelly: “Laboratory study of rubble foundations for vertical breakwaters”. 1964. Vol. 1980. 85. Liu: “Design of Dolos armour units”. A.: “In-line and transverse forces on cylinders in oscillatory flow at high Reynolds number”. 1966. Tetrapods and Accropode”. 1950. Jour. 29) Shigeo TAKAHASHI.. 1990. WW3. Vol. Vol. the first rept. pp. Vol. No. 1958.. of Tech. 1959. Coastal Eng. Roshi OJIMA: “Experimental study of wave forces acting on a superstructure of sloping breakwaters and on block type composite breakwaters”. Kozo SHIBATA. C. pp. No. Vol. 25) Van der Meer. TP2846.analytical model for compression of an enclosed air layer -”.. No. 1980. Note of PHRI. pp. 43) Sarpkaya. T. Proc. and P. Hirokazu SATO. 7180. Waterway and Harbors Div. No. 1969. 59-86 (in Japanese). R. 26) Van der Meer. 24) Hudson. pp. Ken-ichirou SHIMOSAKO. 23rd Int. pp. 189. pp. pp. US Army Corps of Engineers.field data analysis -”. 86-121 (in Japanese). 42) Sarpkaya. Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. pp. 670-1 ～ 670-9. Trans. 38) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 1976.. 167-184. No. 1992. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “yStability of armour units of composite breakwater mound against oblique waves”. Rept of PHRI. 1988. Coastal Engineering. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Lifetime damage estimation with a new stability equation for concrete blocks . pp. W. A. 44) Sarpkaya. Eiji TOMIDA. pp. Note of PHRI. Vol. 19. Kiyoshi TERAUCHI. 3-52 (in Japanese). Hitoshi SASAKI: “Experimental study on wave forces acting on perforated wall caisson breakwaters”. pp. 93-121. Suketo HARANAKA.: “Laboratory investigation of rubble-mound breakwater”. 21. 4. H. Vol. III. Rept of PHRI. 1-22 (in Japanese). Coastal Eng. Michio GOMYO. 1974 (in Japanese). 9th Offshore Tech. No. R. No. Report of P.23. M. Tadahiko YAGYU. 1985. N. Vol. Vol. 8th Offshore Tech. Delft Univ. Rept of PHRI. No. 1. E. 11. Rept of PHRI. 32) Brebner. J. -”. Ken-ichiro SHIMOSAKO. Koji KOBUNE: “Dynamic response of an offshore platform to random waves”. J. P. W. Evans: “Wave forces on rough-walled cylinders at high Reynolds numbers”.2901. 19. 670. 33-87 (in Japanese). Tsutomu MURANAGA “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable front wall . 1984.. and S. 1986. Satoshi SUZUMURA: “A hydraulic experimental study on curved slit caisson breakwaters”. Yoshikazu IZUMIDA. Rept of PHRI. 408-429.2. 34) Hirofumi INAGAKI. T. Yoshimi GODA: “Stability of armor units for foundation mounds of composite breakwater by irregular wave tests”. 24. 6.. 10. Takao KITATANI. 1.. 1971. 8. Jour. 3-53 (in Japanese). 2. 30. ASCE. 29. 29. Conf. Tech. 3-36 (in Japanese). No. 1-30 (in Japanese). 3-34 (in Japanese). 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Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable front wall (2nd Report) . and Z. Carpenter: “Forces on cylinders and plates in an oscillating fluid”. and D. T. Shigeo TAKAHASHI.. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Meandering damages of composite type breakwaters”.112. 21) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 1991. pp. Tech. Rept of PHRI. 40) Stelson. Tech.: “Forces on cylinders and spheres in a sinusoidally oscillating fluid”. Koichiro OGURA: “Experimental study on impulsive forces by breaking waves on circular cylinder”. Note of PHRI. Tech. Tadao KANEKO. T. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 11. 1990. pp.: “Stability of breakwater armour layer . No. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 3. II. Masahiko ITO: “Reflection and diffraction of water waves by an insular breakwater”. pp.. S. No. 3-28 (in Japanese). pp.Design equations”. J. 10531066.. pp. Prepr. Y. Rept of PHRI. Petroleum Trans. 1. pp. Vol. No. No. 1984. pp. Separate No. J. Suketo HARANAKA. 5. pp. Conf. No. II. 1955. G. Ken-ichirou SHIMOSAKO: “Wave and block forces on a caisson covered with wave dissipating blocks”. 1984. Kazuo YAMAZAKI: “Experimental study on the stability of wave dissipating concrete blocks against irregular waves”. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. F. No. pp. pp. 41) Keulegan.

4. pp. 129-156. ASCE. 1971. pp. 1972. 50) Borgman. Ltd. Memo. ASCE.12th OTC Paper No. K. 203-221. and R. 102. H. pp. 4. 2505-2514. Pitman Pub. Y. Isaacson: “Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structure”. Dean: “Second-order directional seas and associated wave forces”. 1977. 1975. National Water Resources and Ocean Engineering Convention. L. 4. Y. ‘Mechanics of Wave-Induced Forces on Cylinders’. and J. Masahiko TODOROKI. C. pp. 1.2193. R.: “Hydrodynamic drag on bottom-mounted smooth and rough cylinders in periodic flow”. T. Vol. 39-68 (in Japanese). 1976. 2898. and M. and H. 1954. ASCE. 16. 7th OTC. 1977. Rept of PHRI. Vol. 1975. 54) Yoshimi GODA. No. 1981. isolated in the offshore”. 2633. 48) Kim.. 219-226. Div. 69. T. Tech. 2. pp. K. pp. 1980. H. 11. and F. 9th OTC Paper No. T.: “Wave force prediction from non-linear random sea simulation”. and R. 3. and A. L. 52) Sharma. 61) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 46) Chakrabarti. T. Beach Erosion Board. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. No. R. Yasuharu KISHIRA: “Study on design wave forces on circular cylinders erected upon reefs”. Proc. G. Waterways.: “Ocean wave simulation for engineering design”. Waterway. Vol. S. T. Harbors and Coastal Eng. Vol. No... 3761. Yoshikazu IZUMIDA: “A calculation method of uplift force on a horizontal platform”. R. 6. No. A. 1967. pp. Jour. Elwany: “A probabilistic description of forces on a member in a short-crested random sea”. 53) Tickell. G. 57) Sarpkaya. 17p. S. 1967. 1979. WW4. pp. Rajabi. WW2. pp. 461-469. Coastal and Ocean Div. pp. Hibbard: “Analysis of simultaneous wave force and water particle velocity measurements”. 56) Yamamoto. No. Vol. 95 No.3645. 561-576. Yoshikazu IZUMIDA: “Horizontal wave forces on a rigid platform”. pp. 60) Yoshimi GODA. 145-155.: “Inline forces on fixed vertical cylinder in waves”. ASCE. Proc. 471486. 106. Vol. Army Corps of Engineers. 7th OTC. C. ASCE. 1976. 1978. Prepr. S. Fuchs: “Wave forces on piles. 1979. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. U. 59) MacCamy. 58) Sarpkaya. No.. 63) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. Prepr. 11th OTC. 1980.: “In-line and transverse forces on cylinders near a wall in oscillatory flow at high Reynolds numbers”. E. Wollbert. 55) Sarpkaya. Prepr. 49) Borgman. William: “Wave forces on vertical circular cylinder”. T.. Rept of PHRI. Vol. a diffraction theory”. Jour. Rept of PHRI. Vol. pp. No. London. 47) Chakrabarti. pp. L. Rept of PHRI. Nath: “Forccs on many cylinders near a plane boundary”. WW2. Port. pp. Vol. Tadashi SASADA. A. Preprint No. 161-166. Hideaki TAKEDA: “Uplift on pier deck due to wave motion”. and M. No.: “Spectral analysis of ocean wave forces on pilling”. 45-81 (in Japanese). Tomotsuka YOSHIMURA: “Wave force computation for structures of large diameter. Prepr. 651p. J. 2192. 557-583. 62) Yoshiyuki ITO. pp. 3-52 (in Japanese). No.. 51) Hudspeth. WW2. 37-68 (in Japanese). 3-47 (in Japanese). No. -126- . 1969. E. 93 No. S. 10. Tatsuhiko IKEDA. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Vol. Prepr. 17. Rept of PHRI.

for port and harbor facilities on lakes or rivers for which the effects of tides are not large.1 Design Water Level (Notification Article 6) The water level that is to be used for the structural design and stability analysis of port and harbor facilities shall be determined based on either the measured values or the hindcast values of astronomical tides and meteorological tides. IS 92 e/High/4. when designing important structures for which it is anticipated that subsequent repairs would be extremely difficult (for example. Figure T. [Technical Notes] (1) Rising of Mean Sea Level Apart from astronomical tides and storm surge.5 Year Note 1: The values 1. 2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 6 Tides and Abnormal Water Levels 6. and in highland glaciers melts in response to a rise in air temperatures. Although it is known that the mean sea level will rise in the future. the water level that is most dangerous to the safety of the structure in question is used as the design water level. and is treated separately. studies on the long-term sea level rise are being carried out both in Japan and abroad.2 IPCC Panel’s Forecasts for Mean Sea Level Rise 1) (BaU Scenarios) -127- . and 4. However. The ice melting parameter represents the extent to which the ice at the poles. it is estimated that the mean sea level will rise 15 cm to 95 cm between 1990 and 2100.5. (2) Simultaneous occurrence of storm surge. and so it may be assumed that they will not occur at the same time. Seiche in the narrower sence occurs independently of storm surge or tsunami. Note 2: The low. it is hard to evaluate this rise quantitatively.1. T.5 shown in the three graphs represent the climate sensitivities for the three scenarios.2 shows the IPCC panel’s forecast for the mean sea level rise. the water level shall be determined appropriately based on the water level records or the like. The IPCC panel has thus produced three estimates. and seiche Storm surge and tsunamis both occur only very rarely. Fig. respectively. and high represent the value of ice melting parameter for the three scenarios.6. which are essential for the design water level. when designing the clearance of a bridge that will have to remain in service for a very long time or when designing the drainage outlets of reclaimed land).6. According to the Secondary Evaluation Report of the IPCC 1). medium.5 Mean sea level rise over the whole world (cm) IS 92 a/Medium/2. in Greenland. It is thus unavoidable that countermeasures in response to a rise in the mean sea level will have to be carried out through maintenance work such as raising of the crests of structures. [Commentary] (1) Design water level As a general rule. in general it is hard to take account of it at the design stage. However.5.5 IS 92 c/Low/1. appropriate consideration should be given to the amount of mean sea level rise in the future.1. Since the quantitative extent of the mean sea level rise is uncertain. along with abnormal water levels caused by tsunamis and others. tsunamis.

the mean sea level for Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Peil TP). the mean monthly-highest water level. [Commentary] (1) Definition of Storm Surge Fluctuations in the sea level occur as the result of a combination of astronomical tide. along with the effects of factors such as ocean currents. S2. including the spring tide and the neap tide.3 Storm Surge The storm surge parameters shall be determined by referring to the observed tide records collected over as long a period as possible. (b) Chat datum level (CDL) See PartⅠ. Figure T. and other commonly used water levels. (f) Mean low water level (MLWL) The mean value of all of the low water levels.6. Out of these factors. These refer respectively to the water levels at the height h above and below the mean water level. where h is the sum of the amplitudes of the tidal components M2 and S2. [Commentary] (1) Definitions The definitions for the various types of water level are as follows: (a) Mean sea level (MSL) The average height of the sea level over a certain period is referred to as the mean water level for that period. specifically an abnormal rise of the sea level that occurs when a typhoon passes by. the water levels of rivers. and hindcast values for abnormal meteorological conditions. For practical purposes. (g) Near highest high water level (NHHWL) The water level obtained by adding the sum of the amplitudes of the four principal tidal components (M2. 6. and coastal waves. the seawater temperature. and the mean monthly-lowest water level. there are also the high water of ordinary spring tides (HWOST) and the low water of ordinary spring tides (LWOST). (e) Mean high water level (MHWL) The mean value of all of the high water levels. the sea level fluctuation due to meteorological factors. the resonance of water in embayments. are referred to as meteorological tides or deviations. Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work. The deviation of sea level from the astronomical tide during a storm surge is called the storm tide. and the wind setup.2 Astronomical Tide Consideration shall be given to the following astronomical tide parameters: the chart datum level. where the monthly-lowest water level for a particular month is defined as the lowest water level occurring in the period from 2 days before the day of the lunar syzygy to 4 days after the day of the lunar syzygy. the mean water level is taken to be the average of the water level over one year. The term “storm surge” refers to a type of meteorological tides. meteorological tide. these parameters shall be determined from the tide observation records over one year or a longer period. inundation records for past disasters. The height of the HWOST as measured from the chart datum is known as the spring rise. (d) Mean monthly-lowest water level (LWL) The average of the monthly-lowest water level. seasonal fluctuations in the atmospheric pressure. the propagation of elevated sea surface as long waves. the mean water level.1 shows an example of the relationship between these water levels. and seiche. -128- .2. along with the chart datum level (CDL). [Technical Notes] (1) In addition to the above definitions of water level. As a general rule. including the spring tide and the neap tide. K1 and O1) to the mean sea level. Ⅰ (c) Mean monthly-highest water level (HWL) The average of the monthly-highest water level. The causes of storm surge are the depression of atmospheric pressure and the resultant rise of sea surface.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 6. for the Tokyo Tide Observation Station. where the monthly-highest water level for a particular month is defined as the highest water level occurring in the period from 2 days before the day of the lunar syzygy (new moon and full moon) to 4 days after the day of the lunar syzygy. such as air pressure fluctuations caused by passing of high or low pressure area and winds.

it is thus necessary to also carry out hindcasting from meteorological conditions. 1953) Observation datum level (DL) Mean value over 1991~1995 Fig.8 × 10-2 from the observation data in the Baltic Sea. newspapers and old documents. 1917) (observed before the statistical period to obtain standard water levels) Highest water level ever (Oct 19. However. (c) Static water level rise caused by depression in the atmospheric If the atmospheric pressure drops slowly by DP (hPa). and to collect data on past disasters.1) h 0 = k -.3. [Technical Notes] (1) Meteorological Tide (a) General Meteorological tide parameters to which consideration should be given include the storm tide and its duration. The rise in water level z (cm) is given by the following equation: z = 0. T.99DP (6. seawater is dragged by the wind. seawater accumulates in the littoral zone. the sea level rise h 0 (cm) at the shoreline is given by the following equation: F (6. If the wind is onshore.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Bench mark Highest water level ever recorded (Oct 1. the minimum necessary observation period is considered to be 30 years.AP) Lowest water level ever recorded (Feb 13. resulting in a rise in the sea level. If the angle between the wind direction and the line perpendicular to the shoreline is a. because of the pressure difference.( U cos a ) 2 h where F： fetch length (km) U： constant wind velocity (m/s) h： mean water depth (m) The term k is a coefficient that varies depending on the bay characteristics. the water level in the sea area where the atmospheric pressure has dropped rises relative to the surrounding areas where the atmospheric pressure has not dropped. 1979) (during the statistical period to obtain standard water level) Mean monthly-highest water level* HWL HWOST Mean sea level for recent 5 year period* MSL Mean sea level for Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Peil -TP) Edogawa construction work datum level (YP) Mean monthly-lowest water level* LWL LWOST Chart datum level (CDL) = Work datum level (WDL) Arakawa construction work datum level (Arakawa Peil .3.1 Water Level Diagram for the Tokyo (Harumi) Tide Observation Station (2) Observation Period It is desirable to study the storm surge records covering as long a period as possible. to study records from storm surge damage reports. In order to carry out a study of storm surge covering the longest possible period.2) -129- . (b) Wind setup When a strong wind continues to blow for a prolonged time in a shallow bay. there are only a few tide observation stations that have put together storm surge records covering several tens of years.6.2. Colding has obtained a value of k ＝ 4.

The change in the water level and the flow velocity at each point is then progressively calculated for a series of time steps. the lowest water level. (c) Obtain the occurrence probability curve for past storm surge levels. are given as external forces. With this method. or else this plus a little extra allowance. b.2 in 4. (2) Numerical Computation of Storm Surge In order to analyze the phenomenon of storm surge in detail. but also the possibilities of losing small vessels that have been moored in a harbor but are carried away by strong currents of tsunami. considering the occurrence probability of various storm surge levels. the water level deviation (rise of water level by tsunami above the astronomical tide). [Commentary] (1) Tsunamis are waves with an extremely long period that mainly occur when the sea floor is raised and/or dropped by an earthquake in the sea. meaning that tsunami often causes tremendous damage to coastal areas.3) may be used to estimate the maximum amount of storm tide. (d) Determine the design water level based on economic factors. and sliding or overturning of breakwaters.3) where h 0： maximum amount of storm tide (cm) P： lowest atmosperic pressure (hPa) U： maximum wind velocity (m/s) q： angle between the predominant wind direction that causes the highest storm tide and the wind direction at the time of maximum wind speed U (º) The coefficients a.4 Tsunami The following tsunami parameters shall be considered: the highest water level.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where DP： pressure difference (hPa) z： rise in water level (cm) (d) Estimation formula for storm tide For places where numerical computation of storm surge have not been carried out. and the tsunami period. T. the atmospheric pressure. the tsunami wave height. the wave height rises rapidly owing to the shoaling and the concentration effect of the sea bottom topography. It is important to investigate not only the possibility of flooding damage as a result of overflowing a tsunami barrier. (3) Design Water Level for the Facilities for Protection against Storm Surge The following four methods exist for determing the design water level for storm surge protection facilities. and then use the water level that is expected to be exceeded only once within a certain return period (say 50 years or 100 years) (this water level is obtained by extrapolating the probability curve). The topography of the bay is approximated using a grid system (with adjacent mesh points separated by say a few kilometers).3. (b) Use the elevation above the mean-monthly highest water level by the amount of either the highest storm tide observed in the past or the storm tide predicted for a model typhoon. by solving the equations of motions and continuity. by referring to the measured data (taken over as long a period as possible) and the heights of tsunami runup traces during past disasters. Near to the shoreline.4.7. and c are determined by the relationship between the storm tide. equation (6. The atmospheric pressure and wind velocity within a typhoon is often calculated using Myers’ formula or a similar theoretical model. scouring of seabed at the openings of breakwaters. As a tsunami approaches the coast. along with the cost of constructing storm surge protection facilities. and the damage to the hinterland for each water level. and thus it cannot be ignored when waves are high. This equation incorporates the factors of suction caused by a depression in the atmospheric pressure and wind setup. along with the tangential stress at the sea surface due to the wind and the tangential stress at the sea bottom due to viscosity. h 0 = a ( 1010 P ) + bU 2 cos q + c (6. this rise is 10% or more of the deepwater significant wave height.7. with the average water depth at each mesh being inputted in advance. (a) Use the highest water level observed in the past. the rise of sea surface caused by a depression in the atmospheric pressure (see (1)(c) above). -130- .3. These parameters shall be determined using an appropriate method. (4) Rise in Mean Water Level Due to Waves (Wave Setup) The rise in mean water level due to waves can be estimated using Fig. numerical computations are carried out. 4.7.1 Wave Setup.1 and Fig. 6. and the wind data that have been observed at the place in question.

4. [Technical Notes] (1) Definitions of Tsunami-Related Terms The definitions of various terms related to tsunamis are shown in Fig.6. it is thus desirable to carry out investigations on not only tsunamis having the periods that have actually been measured in the past. The estimated tide level is expressed as the elevation above the CDL (chart datum level). the initial motion is referred to as the drawing initial motion. the tsunami wave height may be analyzed using the zero-upcrossing method. During a design process. but also tsunamis having the period same as the natural period of the bay or harbor in question.1.1 Definitions of Tsunami-related Terms (f) Initial motion This term refers to the instance at which a tsunami reaches the observation point and the water level first starts to deviate from the estimated tide level. (e) Tsunami wave height As with wind waves. and the resonance characteristics of the bay. The maximum value of the deviation when the actual tide level is higher than the estimated tide level is sometimes referred to as the maximum deviation or the tsunami height. the distance from the epicenter. In this case. When a tsunami enters a bay.6. Note that the runup height of a tsunami is often determined based on an investigation of tsunami traces left at the site in question. Tsunami wave height Deviation Highest water level First arrival time Estimated tide level Time Fig. (a) Estimated tide level This is the tide level obtained by smoothing the tide level on a tide observation record by removing the components that are thought to be of the tsunami and any oscillation component of shorter period by seiche. T. Since the increase in wave height depends on the topography and natural periods of the bay.4. but it can nevertheless be detected by means of continuous observations recorded by a wave gauge out at sea. T. (b) Runup height and tsunami trace height The elevation of the highest point to which a tsunami has runup the land or a structure is called the runup height above the CDL (chart datum level). (2) Tsunami Period The period of tsunamis observed in a bay varies depending on the scale of the earthquake. If the first observed deviation of water level caused by the tsunami is a rise relative to the estimated tide level. If it is a fall relative to the estimated tide level. (d) Highest water level The maximum value of the actual tide level above the CDL (chart datum level). This estimated tide level may thus differ somewhat to the hindcasted tide level obtained from the tidal harmonic constants. The elevation of a trace of a tsunami that has run up over the land or a structure above the CDL is called the tsunami trace height. The wave height of a tsunami in a harbor is greatly affected by the period of the tsunami. the tsunami parameters used in design are determined from the past tsunami records for the place in question or the values obtained from numerical computations for the place in question. and the difference between the maximum and minimum water levels within that section is taken as the tsunami wave height for that wave. and others. (c) Deviation The difference between the actual tide level and the estimated tide level described in (a). the wave height increases greatly. the section between a point where the tsunami wave profile crosses over the estimated tide level from the negative side to the positive side and the next such point is taken as one wave. the initial motion is referred to as the pushing initial motion. -131- .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (2) The wave height of a tsunami in the outer sea is generally extremely small. The maximum tsunami wave height in a continuous tsunami wave record is defined as the highest tsunami wave height.

6. The incident wave profile is assigned in advance. In this case the distance between the maximum water level in front of the breakwater and the still water level may be used as the incident wave height. A method for calculating the tsunami wave force when a bore type tsunami acts on an upright wall has been presented based on experimental results 3).4. It is also acceptable to use one half of the standing wave height as the incident wave height. which takes place when there is a sudden constriction or widening of the cross section at the opening between breakwaters.4. B0 1 ¤ 2 h0 1 ¤ 4 H (6. With regard to the momentum loss that is proportional to the mean flow velocity.1r0gH) at the still water level. however. T. (4) Tsunami on Tide Observation Records Tide observation records provide an extremely useful source of tsunami data. it did not produce multiple bores.4. it is necessary to take note of the fact 3) that if the tide observation station is within a harbor. were that the wave profile transformed markedly as the tsunami propagated. which may be evaluated using say Manning’s roughness formula.2. forming the shape of multiple bores.= æ -----ö æ ---. and the increase in wave height induced by seiche in the bay.5H above the still water level and p (=1. it is assumed to have a constant intensity of p below the water surface. Note. and the wave height H is that of progressive tsunami. When the water level exceeds the crown elevation of a breakwater or levee in the calculation region. Correction for wave direction is not made. The method of Iwasaki and Mano may be used to obtain the runup height over the land in a numerical computation of tsunami. 4). there is a high possibility of tsunami record being different from a tsunami just outside harbor because of the interferences of structures such as breakwaters etc. the quantity of overtopping per unit width may be calculated using Hom-ma’s formula. Even though the height of the incident tsunami was the same in both cases.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (3) Transformation of Tsunami in a Bay The most important types of transformations that a tsunami undergoes in a bay are the increase in wave height and flow velocity caused by the decrease in the cross-sectional area toward the end of bay. a tsunami wave profile that has previously been reproduced by a numerical simulation is generated at the model boundary to investigate the effectiveness of breakwaters and the effects of the topography of reclaimed land 5). within the harbor. and to have a linear distribution in between. the tsunami wave height in front of the breakwater becomes twice that for the case when there is no breakwater. the influence of the change in cross-sectional area may be calculated approximately using Green’s equation (equation (6. When h/L < 0. Accordingly. and may be assumed to be as sketched in Fig. Moreover it does not consider the energy loss due to friction. Under the assumption of small amplitude waves. the wave force is assumed to be zero at a height h = 1.04 and there is no wave breaking. In tsunami simulations that use hydraulic model experiments. -132- . consideration is given to friction along the sea bottom. but rather took the shape of standing waves. (5) Bore Type Tsunami 3) Notable features of the tsunami that accompanied the Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake of 1983. the equation cannot be applied to the area of shallow water nor the case when there are reflection effects at the end of the bay.) on a tsunami 3). there was a tendency for the bore type tsunami to have a higher runup than the standing wave type tsunami.1) is applicable under the conditions that the variations in both the width and the water depth are very gentle and that no reflected waves moving offshore are generated.1)). or it is assumed that the initial variation in the water level is equal to the displacement of the sea floor in the earthquake fault model. (7) Tsunami Wave Force The wave force of tsunami is given as the wave force of a long wave. (6) Tsunami Simulation Numerical simulations of tsunamis correspond to the case where the meteorological disturbance term (which represents a forcing external force) is removed from the numerical computation scheme for storm surge. when this tsunami arrived at coastlines with a relatively steep bottom slope (around 1/50) such as the west coast of the Oga Peninsula. when handling such data. When estimating the effectiveness of tsunami mitigation facilities. The simulation makes it possible to investigate the effectiveness of breakwaters designed to protect harbors and coastal zones against tsunamis and the effect of topographic changes (land reclamation etc.4.1) -----. owing to reflection. and the aperture loss 6). along the northern coast of Akita Prefecture where a coastline with a shallow bottom slope of about 1/200 continues for as much as 30 km. according to the results of numerical simulations. the loss in tsunami momentum is an important factor. However. However.ö è Bø è hø H0 where H： height of long waves for a cross section with the width B and the water depth h (m) H0： height of long waves for a cross section with the width B0 and the water depth h0 (m) Note however that equation (6. that if there is a breakwater. and there were rapid undulations of surface elevation with the period around 5 to 10 s.

6. It is thus desirable to investigate the effects of seiche when drawing up a harbor plan. and then the amplification factor for these waves in the harbor is calculated.5.3) -133- . 1.æ 0. but the water of the open sea around the bay entrance also oscillates somewhat. [Technical Notes] (1) Natural Periods The natural periods of a bay that has a long.9228 ln ----.5 Seiche For harbors where the seiche motion is anticipated. whereby incident waves with the period from a few minutes up to around one hour are inputted. which can cause severe problems to moored vessels and cargo handling work.5.ö ý pl è 4lø þ î 1¤2 (6.4.5. even if the wave height is only a few tens of centimeters.2 Distribution of Wave Pressure by Tsunami 6.1 Bay Shape Models In an actual bay.…) > h： mean water depth in the bay (m) > = g： gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (= 9. the presence of seiche shall be considered as necessary when fixing the design water level or investigating the tranquility in mooring basins.6.5. T. Depending on the topography.6. 2. T. This can be done using say a numerical calculation 9). and the components of these oscillations whose period is the same as a natural period of the harbor are amplified through resonance. It is desirable to avoid such the shape of a harbor that the amplitude of long waves may be amplified by ten times or more within the harbor.5.2) T = a --------gh where h： mean water depth in the bay (m) a： bay entrance correction factor. [Commentary] Seiche is a phenomenon involving abnormal oscillations of the water level with a period of approximately a few minutes to a few tens of minutes. It is thus necessary to make a correction to the natural period with equation (6. Small long waves in the outer sea may have an amplitude of the order of a few centimeters. ì pb ü 2b a = í 1 + ----.1) T = ------------------------------( 2m + 1 ) gh l where l T： natural period (s) l： length of bay (m) m： number of nodes in the bay (0.81m/s2) Fig.2) of the following: 4l (6. narrow rectangular shape as shown in Fig.5.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Fig. Seiche is particularly liable to occur in an artificially excavated harbor. which is long and narrow in shape and surrounded by quaywalls. T.1 (a) are given approximately as in the following equation: 4l (6. not only does the seawater within the bay oscillate in a periodic fashion. the amplitude of these fluctuations may be anything from a few tens of centimeters up to around 2m. It occurs when small fluctuations of the water level are generated by a microscale variations of the atmospheric pressure by an air front or a low in the outer sea. the long wavelength results in a great deal of water movement in the horizontal direction. When seiche occurs in a harbor. as obtained from the following equation 10).

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

where l： length of bay (m) b： width of bay (m) Table T- 6.5.1 lists the values of the bay entrance correction factor a calculated for different values of b/l.

Table T- 6.5.1 Bay Entrance Correction Factor b/l a 1 1.320 1/2 1.261 1/3 1.217 1/4 1.187 1/5 1.163 1/10 1.106 1/25 1.064

The natural periods of a rectangular harbor that has a narrow entrance as shown in Fig. T- 6.5.1 (b) may be calculated approximately with the following equation: 2 (6.5.4) T = -----------------------------------------------2 2ü n ì m m gh í æ --- ö + æ --- ö ý è bø è lø î þ where b： width of harbor (m) m： number of nodes in the harbor in the length direction (0, 1, 2, …) n： number of nodes in the harbor in the width direction (0, 1, 2, …) Note however that because of the effect of the harbor entrance, the natural periods of an actual harbor are slightly lower than those calculated using this equation. (2) Amplitude The magnitude of amplification factor for the resonant oscillations in a harbor by seiche is limited by the energy carried out by the disturbance waves that are radiated from the harbor entrance, and the energy lost through the vortices at the harbor entrance and the bottom friction within the harbor. Accordingly, even if the period of longperiod waves arriving at the harbor coincide with one of the natural periods of the harbor, it is not the case that the amplitude of the oscillations in the harbor will rise to infinity. Note however that when there is very little energy loss by vortices and friction, it is necessary to take heed of the harbor paradox, which refers to a phenomenon whereby the narrowing of a harbor entrance results in the greater amplification within the harbor. The amplitude amplification factor R for the concave corners at the head of a rectangular-shaped harbor when the entrance loss is ignored may be obtained as a function of the ratio of the harbor length to the wavelength using either Fig. T- 6.5.2 or Fig. T- 6.5.3. According to Fig. T- 6.5.2, in a harbor with a long, narrow rectangular shape, resonance occurs when the period is slightly longer than that corresponding to a wavelength that satisfies the conventionally-cited resonance condition, namely the harbor length being odd quarters of the wavelength (1/4, 3/4, 5/4, etc.). According to Fig. T- 6.5.3, the resonance points for a harbor with a wide rectangular shape are more-or-less the same as those for a completely closed rectangular lake; in other words, they are given approximately by the following equation: -- = L

l

n2 m 2 + ------------2 æ 2bö ----è lø

: m, n = 0, 1, 2 ,…

(6.5.5)

Amplitude amplification factor R

Relative length of the port

Amplitude amplification factor R

Relative length of the port

Fig. T- 6.5.2 Resonance Spectrum for a Harbor with Long, Narrow Rectangular Shape 11)

Fig. T- 6.5.3 Resonance Spectrum for a Harbor with Wide Rectangular Shape 11)

-134-

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(3) Countermeasures against Seiche Seiche is the phenomenon whereby long-period waves penetrates into a harbor from the entrance, repeates perfect reflection within the harbor, and increases its amplitude. In order to hold down the amplitude of seiche, it is thus necessary to make the reflection imperfect around the inner perimeter of the harbor, or increase the energy loss within the harbor. For this reason, it is not advisable to build solid quaywalls around the whole perimeter of a harbor. If a permeable rubble-mound breakwater with a gentle slope is used, wave reflection can be reduced to some extent, and in addition one can expect a certain energy loss within the core of breakwater. Furthermore, by installing an inner breakwater close to the position of a node of the seiche in a harbor, the amplitude of the seiche can be somewhat reduced. Regarding the shape of the harbor, it is thought that an irregular shape is better than a geometrically regular shape.

**6.6 Groundwater Level and Permeation
**

The groundwater level in coastal aquifers of sandy beaches shall be examined when there is a risk of arousing a problem by the change of the groundwater level. The flow velocity and rate of permeation through water-permeable ground or structures shall be examined when there is a risk of arousing a problem by their changes.

[Technical Notes] (1) Groundwater Level in Coastal Aquifer The elevation of brackish groundwater intruding in a coastal aquifer may be estimated using the following equation (see Fig. T- 6.6.1) 12): 2 2 x 2 2 (6.6.1) h = h 0 + ( h l h 0 ) -L where r1 r1 h 0 = -------------- z 0 , h l = -------------- z l r2 r1 r2 r1 h： depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at the distance x (m) h0： depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at x = 0 (m) hl： depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at x = L (m) r 1： density of the fresh water (g/cm3) r 2： density of saltwater (g/cm3)

Fresh water level

Sea

Fresh water

Salt water

Salt w

ater le

vel

Fig. T- 6.6.1 Schematic Drawing of Groundwater at Coast

z 0： elevation of fresh water above the sea surface at the coast (x ＝ 0) (m) z l： elevation of fresh water above the sea surface at x ＝ L (m) L： distance from the coast (x ＝ 0) to the reference point (m) x： landward distance from the coastline (m)

Equation (6.6.1) cannot be applied if an impermeable layer exists close to the ground surface or in the aquifer: For the relationship between the rise of groundwater level due to wave runup and beach profile change, see in 10.1 General [Technical Notes] (8). (2) Permeation into Foundation and Structures (a) Permeation through a sheet pile wall The flow rate of permeation through a sheet pile wall is not determined purely by the permeability of the wall; rather, the permeability of the soil behind the wall has a dominating influence. Shoji et al. 13) examined this problem, and carried out comprehensive permeation experiments in which they not only varied the tension of the joints, but also added the cases with and without sand filling in the joint section. They concluded to propose the following experimental formula: q = where q： K： h： n： Kh

n

(6.6.4)

flow rate of permeation through a sheet pile joint per unit length in the vertical direction (cm3/s/cm) permeation coefficient for the joints (cm2-n/s) pressure head difference between the front and back of a joint (cm) coefficient depending on the state of the joints (n ≒ 0.5 when the joints are not filled with sand, and n ≒ 1.0 when the joints are filled with sand) When there was sand on both sides of the sheet pile and the joints were under tension, Shoji et al. obtained a value of 7.0 × 10-4 cm/s for K in their experiments. However, they also pointed out that if the permeation flow

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is estimated with this value, then the flow rate turns out to be as much as 30 times that observed in the field. For actual design, it is thus necessary to pay close attention to any difference between the state of the sheet pile wall used in the experiments and those used in the field. (b) Permeation through rubble mound The flow rate of permeation through a rubble mound foundation of a gravity type structure may be estimated using the following equation: q = UH U = where q： U： H： d： g： DH/DS： z： 2 g d DH -------- × ------z DS

flow rate of permeation per unit width (m3/s/m) mean permeation velocity for the whole cross section of rubble mound (m/s) height of the permeable layer (m) rubble stone size (m) gravitational acceleration (= 9.81 m/s2) hydraulic gradient resistance coefficient

Equation (6.5.5) has been proposed based on the experimental results using eight different types of stones of uniform size, with the diameter ranging from 5 mm to 100 mm. The virtual flow length DS may be taken to be as the total of the 70% to 80% of the permeable layer height and the width of the caisson base. The coefficient of resistance is shown in Fig. T- 6.6.3. When R e ( = Ud / n ) > 10 4 , it is acceptable to take z ≒ 20.

Fig. T- 6.6.3 Relationship between Resistance Coefficient and Reynolds Number

678

Ud R e = -----n

(6.6.5)

[References]

1) IPCC: “Climate Change 1995”, IPCC Second Assessment Report, The Science of Climate Change, 1995, 572p. 2) Toshihiko NAGAI, Kazuteru SUGAHARA, Hiroshi WATANABE, Koji KAWAGUCHI: “Long team observation of the mean tide level and lond waves at the Kurihama-Bay”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1996. (in Japanese). 3) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Kazuo MURAKAMI, Shigeru MURATA, Hiroiti TSURUYA, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Masayuki MORIKAWA, Yasutoshi YOSHIMOTO, Susumu NAKANO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Field and laboratory investigations of the tsunami caused by 1983 Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 470, 1983, 299p. (in Japanese). 4) Chiaki GOTO, Kazuo SATO: “Development of tsunami numerical simulation system for Sanriku Coast in Japan”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1995. (in Japanese). 5) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Hydraulic model tests on tsunamis at Suzaki Port”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 549, 1986, 131p. (in Japanese). 6) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Norihiro NAGAI, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “The numerical calculation of tsunami in Tokyo Bay”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 454, 1986, 131p.(in Japanese). 7) Toshihoko NAGAI, Noriaki HASHIMOTO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Katsuyoshi SHIMIZU: “Characteristics of the HokkaidoEast-off-Earthquake Tsunami”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 802, 1995, 97p. (in Japanese). 8) Koji KOBUNE, Toshihiko NAGAI, Noriaki HASHIMOTO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Katsuyoshi SHIMIZU “Characteristics of the Irianjaya Earthquake Tsunami in 1996”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 842, 1996, 96p. (in Japanese).

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**PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS
**

9) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Amplification mechanism of harbor oscillation derived from field observation and numerical simulation”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 636, 1988, 70p. (in Japanese). 10) Honda, K., T. Terada, and D. Ishitani: “Secondary undulation of oceanic tides”, Philosophical Magazine, Vol.15,1908, pp.88126. 11) Ippen, A.T. and Y. Goda: “Wave-induced oscillations in harbors: the solution for a rectangular harbor connected to the open sea,” M.I.T. Hydrodynamics Lab. Report No.59, 1963, 90p. 12) Todd, D. K.: “Groundwater Hydrology”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1963. 13) Yoshihiro SHOJI, Masaharu KUMEDA, Yukiharu TOMITA: “Experiments on seepage through interlocking joints of sheet pile”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1982, pp. 41-82 (in Japanese).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

**Chapter 7 Currents and Current Force
**

7.1 General

(1) The current parameters that shall be used in the design of port and harbor facilities are the velocity and the direction. The severest conditions shall be set, based on either the field measurements at the installation location of the facilities in question or the numerical estimation. (2) For the current force, consideration shall be given to the drag and lift, depending on the type of the facilities in question and the structural form.

[Commentary] For structures that are located in a place where there is strong currents such as a tidal currents or river flow, it is necessary to carry out investigations on the forces produced by the currents with the largest velocity from the most unfavorable direction. Depending on the type of structures or members, it may also be necessary to consider the vertical distribution of the current velocity. When waves coexist with currents, it is necessary to use the current velocity and direction in the state of coexistence. Types of currents in the sea area include ocean currents, tidal currents, and wind drift currents, which are described in the [Technical Notes] below, along with density currents caused by the density differences due to salinity or water temperature. In addition, in the coastal area, there are longshore currents and rip currents caused by waves. [Technical Notes] (1) Ocean Currents Ocean currents are the phenomenon involving the circulation of seawater around the ocean as a whole. They are the result of a combination of the following currents: a) density currents that are based on local differences in the density of seawater, b) wind-driven drift currents that are caused by the wind, and c) gradient currents that accompany spatial inequalities in the atmospheric pressure, along with d) compensation currents (upwelling currents and or sinking currents) that supplement the aforementioned currents. Ocean currents maintain the almost steady direction and strength over prolonged periods of time. (2) Tidal Currents (a) The nature and strength of tidal currents vary with the geographical conditions of the sea area in question and the celestial movements. In order to analyze the harmonic components of tidal currents, it is necessary to carry out continuous observation for at least 25 hours or advisably for full 15 days. In particular, if the topography of a place is going to be changed considerably, for example when carrying out large-scale land reclamation in shallow coastal waters, it is desirable to examine the resultant changes in tidal currents at the planning stage. (b) The tidal currents are the flow of seawater in the horizontal direction that accompanies a tidal variation of sea level. This variation consists of the tidal components (diurnal tide, semi-diurnal tide, etc.) of the water level and is thus periodic. (3) Wind-Driven Currents When a wind blows over the sea surface, the friction on the boundary between the air and the sea surface produces a shear stress that causes to induce a flow on the sea surface. As this flow develops, the turbulent eddy viscosity of the seawater causes the lower layers to start to be pulled along by the upper layers. If the wind velocity and direction remain constant for a prolonged period of time, a steady state of currents is eventually reached. Such the currents are referred to as the wind-driven currents. (4) Nearshore Currents In the surf zone, there exist special currents called the nearshore currents induced by waves. Because the nearshore currents are induced within the surf zone, they transport suspended sediments and cause topographical change of beaches. Consequently, an understanding of the pattern of nearshore currents leads to a deeper perception of topographical change.

**7.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures (Notification Article 7)
**

It shall be standard to calculate the drag and lift forces caused by currents acting on a member or a structure that is submerged or near the water surface using the following equations: (1) Drag Force 1 F D = -- C D r 0 AU 2 2

(7.2.1)

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

where F D： CD： r0： A： U：

drag force acting on the object in the direction of the current (kN) drag coefficient density of water (t/m3) projected area of the object in the direction of the current (m2) flow velocity (m/s)

(2) Lift Force 1 F L = -- C L r 0 A L U 2 2 where FL： lift force acting on the object in the direction perpendicular to the current (kN) CL： lift coefficient AL： projected area of the object in the direction perpendicular to the current (m2)

[Commentary]

(7.2.2)

The fluid force due to the currents acting on members of a pile-supported structure such as a pier, a pipeline, or the armor units of a mound is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. It may be divided into the drag force acting in the direction of the current and the lift force acting in the direction perpendicular to this. Note also that a thin, tubelike object in the water may be subject to vibrations excited by current-induced vortices. [Technical Notes] (1) Drag Coefficient The drag to a submerged object due to currents is expressed as the sum of the surface resistance due to friction and the form drag due to pressure difference around the object. The drag coefficient varies according to the shape of the object, the roughness, the direction of the current, and the Reynolds number, and thus the value appropriate to the conditions in question must be used. When the Reynolds number is greater than about 103, the values listed in Table T- 7.2.1 may be used as standard values for the drag coefficient. Note that for a circular cylinder or sphere with a smooth surface, there is a phenomenon whereby the value of the drag coefficient drops suddenly when the Reynolds number is around 105. However, for a circular cylinder with a rough surface, this drop in drag coefficient is not particularly large, and the drag coefficient settles down to a constant value that depends on the relative roughness. For the values of the drag coefficient when a prism or L-shaped member is oriented diagonally relative to the current, search for references. The data for the cube have been obtained from wave force experiments carried out by Hamada, Mitsuyasu and Hase.

Table T- 7.2.1 Drag Coefficients

**Shape Circular cylinder (rough surface) Rectangular prism Circular disc Flat plate
**

a

Projected area

D

D

Drag coefficient

1.0 D

B

B

2.0

B

D

πD2 4

1.2

= /> = 1 = /> = 2 = /> = 4 =/>= 10 =/>= 18 = /> =

b

ab

1.12 1.15 1.19 1.29 1.40 2.01

Sphere Cube

D D

D

πD2 4

D

0.5

0.2

D2

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1.3

1.6

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(2) Lift Coefficient As with the drag coefficient, the lift coefficient varies with the shape of the object, the direction of the current, and the Reynolds number. However, the lift coefficient is not well understood (see 5.4.1 Wave Force on Submerged Members). (3) Current Force Acting on Submerged Breakwater As for the force acting on the coping of the submerged section at the opening of tsunami protection breakwater, Iwasaki et al. have measured the pressure on the coping due to the currents. They obtained the values of 0.94 for the drag coefficient and 0.48 for the lift force coefficient. Tanimoto et al. have carried out similar measurements, obtaining the values 1.0 to 1.5 for the drag coefficient and 0.5 to 0.8 for the lift coefficient. They have also pointed out, however, that when the flow velocity in the breakwater opening is large, the presence of the water surface gradient causes the coefficient values to increase.

**7.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks against Currents (Notification Article 48, Clause 6)
**

It shall be standard to calculate the required mass for the armor units (rubble etc.) on a rubble mound to be stable against currents by means of either appropriate hydraulic model experiments or else the following equation: prr U 6 M = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------(7.3.1) ( 48 )g 3 y 6 ( S r 1 ) 3 ( cos q sin q ) 3 where M： rr： U： g： y： Sr： q： minimum mass of armor stones and blocks (t) density of armor stones and blocks (t/m3) current velocity above armor stones and blocks (m/s) gravitational acceleration (= 9.81 m/s2) Isbash’s constant (1.20 for embedded stones; 0.86 for exposed stones) specific gravity of armor stones and blocks relative to water slope angle in the axial direction of the channel bed (º)

[Technical Notes] (1) Isbash’s Equation With regard to the mass of rubble stone that is stable against currents, the US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC) has presented equation (7.3.1) for the mass that a rubble stone must have in order to prevent scouring by tidal currents 8). (2) Isbash’s Constant Equation (7.3.1) has been derived by considering the balance between the drag caused by a flow acting on a spherical object on a sloped surface and the frictional resistance of the object. The coefficient y is termed Isbash’s constant. It would appear that the values of 1.20 and 0.86 for embedded stones and exposed stones, respectively, were determined by Isbash, but the details were not documented. Since equation (7.3.1) has been obtained by considering the balance of forces for steady flow, for places where it is anticipated that strong vortices will be generated, it is necessary to use rubble stones of larger mass. (3) Armor Units for the Mound at the Opening of Tsunami Protection Breakwaters Iwasaki et al. have carried out two-dimensional steady flow experiments in which they used precast concrete blocks as the armor for the mound in the opening of breakwaters designed to protect harbors and coastal area against tsunamis. They obtained a value of 1.08 for Isbash’s constant in equation (7.3.1). Tanimoto et al. have carried out three-dimensional experiments on the opening of a tsunami breakwater. They clarified the structure of the three-dimensional flow near the opening, and revealed the relationship between the damage ratio and Isbash's constant when stones or precast concrete blocks were used as the covering material. [References]

1) Kazuo MURAKAMI, Masayuki MORIKAWA, Tatsuya SAKAGUCHI: “Wind effect and water discharge effect on constant flow - discussion using observation data at off-Sennan (1978-1981) -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1982, pp. 3-39 (in Japanese). 2) Masch, F. D.: “Mixing and dispersion of wastes by wind and wave action”, ‘Advances in Water Pollution Research,’ Proc. Int. Conf., Vol. 3, 1962, pp. 145-168. 3) Longuet-Higgins, M.S. and R.W. Stewart: “Radiation stress and mass transport in gravity waves, with application to ‘surf beat’”, J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 13, 1962, pp. 481-504. 4) Bowen, A. J., D. L. Inman, and V. P. Simons: “Wave ‘set-down’ and ‘set-up’”, J. Geophs. Res. Vol. 73, 1968, pp. 2569-2577. 5) Kazumasa KATOH, Shin-ichi YANAGISHIMA, Tomoyoshi ISOGAMI, Hiroyuki MURAKAMI: “Wave set-up near the shoreline - field observation at HORF -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1989, pp. 3-41 (in Japanese).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

6) Yoshimi GODA: “Deformation of irregular waves due to depth-controlled wave breaking”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1975, pp. 59-106 (in Japanese), also “Irregular wave deformation in the surf zone”, Coastal Engineering in Japan, JSCE, Vol.18, 1975, pp.13-26. 7) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Katsutoshi KIMURA, Keiji MIYAZAKI: “Study on stability of submerged disk at the opening section of tsunami protection breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1988, pp. 93-121 (in Japanese). 8) Coastal Engineering Research Center: “Shore Protection Manual”, Vol. II, U.S. Army Corps of Engineering, 1977

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

**Chapter 8 External Forces Acting on Floating Body and Its Motions
**

8.1 General

The motions of a floating body produced by external forces such as those due to winds, currents and waves, along with the mooring force, shall be given due consideration in design of the floating body and related facilities.

[Commentary] (1) Floating Body In general, a floating body refers to a structure that is buoyant in water and its motions within a certain range is permitted during use. When designing a floating body, it is necessary to investigate both its functions that are going to be demanded and its safety. In general, the design conditions for the investigation of its function differ from those for the examination of its safety. (2) Mooring Equipment Mooring equipment comes in a whole variety of types and is generally composed of a combination of mooring lines, mooring anchors, sinkers, intermediate weights, intermediate buoys, mooring rods, connection joints, and fenders. The mooring equipment has a large influence on the motions of a floating body, and so it is important to design this equipment safely and appropriately. [Technical Notes] (1) Classification of Floating Bodies The floating bodies used as port and harbor facilities can be divided into floating terminals, offshore petroleum stockpiling bases, floating breakwaters, mooring buoys, and floating bridges. Moreover, researches for development of extra large floating structures (mega-float) are being carried out. (2) Classification of Mooring Methods and Characteristic Features of Each Method Floating bodies can also be classified by the type of mooring methods. As described below, mooring methods include catenary mooring (slack mooring), taut mooring, and dolphin mooring. (a) Catenary mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(a)) This is the most common mooring method. With this method, the chains or whatever used in the mooring are given sufficient lengths to make them slack. This means that the force restraining the motions of the floating body is small, but nevertheless the mooring system fulfills the function of keeping the floating body in moreor-less the same position. There are various types of catenary mooring, depending on factors like the material of the mooring lines, the number of mooring lines, and the presence or absence of intermediate buoys and sinkers. (b) Taut mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(b)) This is a mooring method that reduces the motions of the floating body greatly; a tension leg platform (TLP) is an example. With this method, the mooring lines are given a large initial tension so that they do not become slack even when the floating body moves. The advantages of this mooring method are that the floating body does not move much, and only a small area is needed for installing the mooring lines. However, it is necessary to take note of the fact that because a large tensile force is generated in the mooring lines, the design of the lines becomes the critical factor on the safety of the floating body. (c) Dolphin mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(c)) With this method, mooring is maintained using either a pile-type dolphin or a gravity-type dolphin. In general, this method is suitable for restraining the motions of a floating body in the horizontal direction, but a large mooring force acts on the dolphin. This method has been used for mooring floating units of offshore petroleum stockpiling bases. (d) Mooring method using a universal joint (Fig. T- 8.1.1(d)) The mooring system shown in the figure is an example of a mooring method that can be used to moor a large offshore floating body. Examples of mooring systems that use a universal joint on the sea bottom include a SALM (Single Anchor Leg Mooring) type mooring buoy and a MAFCO (MAritime Facility of Cylindrical cOnstruction) tower.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Fender

Chain Mooring anchor

Dolphin

(a) Catenary mooring

(c) Dolphin mooring

Damper

Universal joint

(b) Taut mooring

(d) Mooring by universal joint

Fig. T- 8.1.1 Examples of Mooring Methods for Floating Body

**8.2 External Forces Acting on Floating Body (Notification Article 26, Clause 1)
**

When a port or harbor facility is made of a floating structure, it shall be standard to take the following forces in design calculation: wind drag force, current drag force, wave-exciting force, wave-drift force, wave-making resistance, restoring force, and mooring force. These forces shall be calculated by means of an appropriate analytical method or hydraulic model experiments, in accordance with the mooring method for the floating body and the size of facility.

[Technical Notes] (1) Wind Drag Force With a structure for which a part of the floating body is above the sea surface, winds exert a force on the structure. This force is called the wind drag force (or wind pressure), and is composed of a pressure drag and a friction drag. If the floating body is relatively small in size, the pressure drag is dominant. The pressure drag is proportional to the square of the wind velocity and is expressed as in the following equation: 1 (8.2.1) F w = -- r a C DW A W UW2 2 where Fw： wind drag force (N) ra： density of air (1.23 kg/m3) AW： projected area of the part of the floating body above the sea surface as viewed from the direction in which the wind is blowing (m2) UW： wind velocity (m/s) CDW： wind drag coefficient The wind drag coefficient is a proportionality constant and is also known as the wind pressure coefficient. It may be determined by means of wind tunnel experiments or the like. However, it is also acceptable to use a value that has been obtained in the past experiments for a structure with a shape similar to the structure under current study. Values such as those listed in Table T- 8.2.1 have been proposed as the wind drag coefficients of objects in the uniform flow. As can be seen from this table, the wind drag coefficient varies with the shape of the floating body, but it is also affected by the wind direction and the Reynolds number. Note that it is considered that the wind pressure acts in the direction of the wind flow, with the point of application being the centroid of the projection of the part of the floating body that is above the water surface. However, it is necessary to take heed of the fact that this may not necessarily be the case if the floating body is large. Moreover, the velocity of the actual wind is not uniform in the vertical direction, and so the value of the wind velocity UW used in the wind pressure calculation is set as that at the elevation of 10 m above the sea surface.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Table T- 8.2.1 Wind Pressure Coefficient

Square cross-section

2.0 1.6

1 2

**Rectangular cross-section 2 (ratio of side lengths = 1:2)
**

1

2.3 1.5

(when one face is in contact with the ground) Circular cross-section (smooth surface)

1.2 1.2

(2) Current Drag Force When there is currents such as tidal currents, these currents will exert a force on the submerged part of the floating body. This force is referred to as the flow pressure or the current drag force. Like the wind drag force, it is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. Note however that since the velocity of the current is generally small, the current drag force is actually expressed as being proportional to the square of the velocity of the current relative to the velocity of motion of the floating body as in the following equation: 1 (8.2.2) F C = -- r 0 C DC A C | U C U | ( U C U ) 2 where FC： current drag force (N) r0： density of fluid (for seawater, 1030 kg/m3) AC： projected area of the submerged part of the floating body as viewed from the direction of the currents (m2) UC： velocity of the currents (m/s) U： velocity of motion of the floating body (m/s) CDC： drag coefficient with respect to the currents The drag coefficient CDC is a function of the Reynolds number. When the Reynolds number is large, however, the values for steady flow in Table T- 7.2.1 in 7.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures may be used. The drag coefficient for the currents varies with the shape of the floating body and the direction of the currents. As with the wind pressure, the direction of the force exerted by the currents and the direction of the currents itself are not necessarily the same. In general, the deeper the draft of the floating body relative to the water depth, the larger the drag coefficient for the currents becomes. This is referred to as the shoaling effect, and the drag coefficient increases because the smaller the gap between the sea bottom and the base of the floating body, the harder it is for water to flow through this gap. (3) Wave-Exciting Force The wave-exciting force is the force exerted by incident waves on the floating body when the floating body is considered to be fixed in the water. It is composed of a linear force that is proportional to the amplitude of the incident waves and a nonlinear force that is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the incident waves. The linear force is the force that the floating body receives from the incident waves as reaction when the floating body deforms the incident waves. The velocity potential for the deformed wave motion is obtained using wave diffraction theory. The nonlinear force, on the other hand, is composed of a force that accompanies the finite amplitude nature of waves and a force that is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. The former force due to finite amplitude effect can be analyzed theoretically, but in practice it is often ignored. The latter force that is proportional to the square of the flow velocity becomes large, in particular when the diameter of the floating body is small relative to the wavelength; it is necessary to determine this force experimentally. (4) Wave-Drift Force When waves act on a floating body, the center of the floating body’s motion gradually shifts in the direction of wave propagation. The force that causes this shift is called the wave-drift force. If it is assumed that the floating body is two-dimensional and the wave energy is not dissipated, then the wave-drift force is given by the following equations: 1 (8.2.3) F d = -- r 0 gHi2R 8

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

ì 4ph ¤ L ü R = K R2 í 1 + ------------------------------- ý sinh ( 4ph ¤ L ) þ î where r0： density of seawater (kg/m3) Fd： wave drift force per unit width (N/m) Hi： incident wave height (m) KR： reflection coefficient R： drift force coefficient

(8.2.4)

If the dimensions of the floating body are extremely small relative to the wavelength, the wave drift force may be ignored as being much smaller than the wave-exciting force. However, as the floating body becomes larger, the wave drift force becomes dominant. When irregular waves act on a floating body moored at a system having only a small restraining force, such as a single point mooring buoy designed for use of supertankers, the wavedrift force becomes a dominant factor as it may give rise to slow drift motions. (5) Wave-Making Resistance When a floating body moves in still water, the floating body exerts a force on the surrounding water, and the floating body receives a corresponding reaction force from the water; this reaction force is called the wavemaking resistance. This force may be determined by forcing the floating body to move through the still water and measuring the force acting on the floating body. In general, however, an analytical method is used whereby each mode of the floating body motions is assumed to be realized separately, and the velocity potential, which represents the motion of the fluid around the floating body, is obtained. Only the forces that are proportional to the motion of the floating body may be determined analytically; the nonlinear forces that are proportional to the square of the motion cannot be determined analytically. Out of the linear forces (i.e., that proportional to the motion of the floating body), the term that is proportional to the acceleration of the floating body is called the added mass term, while the term that is proportional to the velocity is called the wave damping term. (6) Restoring Force The static restoring force is the force that makes a floating body to return to its original position when the floating body moves in still water. It is generated by buoyancy and gravity, when the floating body heaves, rolls or pitches. This force is generally treated as being proportional to the amplitude of the motion of the floating body, although this proportionality is lost if the amplitude becomes too large. (7) Mooring Force The mooring force (restraining force) is the force that is generated in order to restrain the motion of the floating body. The magintude of this force depends greatly on the displacement-restoration characteristics of the mooring system. (8) Solution Method for Wave-Exciting Force and Wave-Making Resistance Using Velocity Potential The method adopted for calculating the wave-exciting force and the wave-making resistance involves deriviation of the velocity potential, which represents the motion of the fluid, and then calculating the waveexciting force and the wave-making resistance from the potential. The analytical method with the velocity potential is the same for both the wave-exciting force and the wave-making resistance, the only difference being the boundary conditions. The velocity potential may be obtained using any of a number of methods, such as a region segmentation method, an integral equation method, a strip method, or a finite element method. (9) Wave Force Acting on Fixed Floating Body with Rectangular Cross Section When a floating body is fixed in position, the velocity potential that satisfies the boundary conditions at the sea bottom and around the floating body can yield the wave force. The wave force acting on a floating body with a long rectangular cross section such as a floating breakwater can be determined using the approximation theory of Ito and Chiba 2). (10) Materials for Mooring For the materials used in mooring and their characteristic features, search for appropriate references. (11) Forces Acting on an Extra Large Floating Structure For an extra large floating structure (mega-float), the external forces described in (1) ~ (10) above are different from those for a smaller floating body, because of its large size and elastic response characteristics of the floating body structure. It is thus necessary to carry out sufficient investigations on the motions and elastic response characteristics of the floaty body structure.

**8.3 Motions of Floating Body and Mooring Force (Notification Article 26, Clause 2)
**

The motions of a floating body and the mooring force shall be calculated by means of an appropriate analytical method or hydraulic model experiments, in accordance with the shape of the floating body and the characteristics of the external forces and the mooring system.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[Commentary] The motions of a floating body can be determined by Heaving solving the dynamic equilibrium equation, with the Yawing Rolling external forces taken to be the forces due to winds and Surging waves, the restoring force of the floating body itself, and the reaction forces of the mooring lines and fenders. If the floating body is assumed to be a rigid body, then its motions are comprised of the six Pitching components shown in Fig. T-8.3.1, namely surging, swaying, heaving, pitching, rolling and yawing. Out of Swaying these, the modes that represent motions within the horizontal plane, namely surging, swaying and yawing, may show long-period oscillations with the period of a Fig. T- 8.3.1 Components of Vessel’s Motion few minutes or more. Such long-period oscillations have a large influence on the occupancy area of a vessel at a mooring buoy and the design of the mooring system. One may thus give separate consideration to the long-period oscillations, taking only the wave-drift force and the long-period oscillation components of the winds and waves as the external forces when doing analysis. If the floating body is very long, elastic deformation may accompany the motions of floaty body and this should be investigated as necessary. [Technical Notes] (1) Methods of Solving the Equations of Motions (a) Steady state solution method for nonlinear equations of motion The equations of motions for a floating body are nonlinear, meaning that it is not easy to obtain solutions. Nevertheless, if it is assumed that the motion amplitudes are small and the equations of motion are linearized by using linear approximations for the nonlinear terms, the solutions can be obtained relatively easily. For example, for a three-dimensional floating body, one ends up with a system of six simultaneous linear equations involving the amplitudes and phases of the six modes of motions. Note that if the floating body is assumed to be a rigid body and its motions are linear, then the motions are proportional to the external forces. In particular, if there are no currents or wind, then the motions are proportional to the wave height. (b) Numerical simulation of nonlinear motions The wind drag force and the current drag force are in general nonlinear, and moreover the restraining forces of mooring equipment are also often nonlinear. In this case, an effective solution method is to use a numerical simulation whereby the equations of motion are progressively solved for a series of time steps. Such numerical simulation is commonplace nowadays. First, the time series data (which will be used as the external forces) are obtained for the wave-exciting force and the flow velocity due to the waves from the input of incident wave spectrum, as well as the fluctuating wind speed from the wind spectrum. The external forces obtained from these time series data are then put into the equations of motions for the floating body, and the time series data for the motions of the floating body and the mooring force are calculated. Numerical simulations are used for analyzing the motions of all kinds of floating bodies. For example, Ueda and Shiraishi 3) have carried out numerical simulations on the motions of a moored vessel, and Suzuki and Moroishi 4) have analyzed the swinging motion of a vessel moored at a buoy. Note that the following is usually assumed as preconditions in a numerical simulation: ① the fluid is an ideal fluid; ② the amplitudes of motions of the floating body are small; ③ the incident waves are linear and their superposition is allowed. If these assumptions cannot be held, it is necessary to carry out hydraulic model experiments. (2) Hydraulic Model Experiments Hydraulic model experiments provide a powerful technique for determining the motions of a floating body and the mooring force. Up to the present time, hydraulic model experiments have been carried out for all kinds of floating body. For examples, see references 5) and 6). (3) Law of Similarity for Mooring Systems The characteristics of the motions of a floating body vary greatly with the mooring method. When carrying out hydraulic model experiments on a floating body, it is thus particularly important to give appropriate consideration to the laws of similarity for the displacement and reaction force characteristics of the mooring equipment. For example, with a mooring rope, if the material used in the hydraulic model experiments is kept the same as that used in the field and the size is simply scaled down while maintaining the same shape, then the law of similarity will not hold; rather it is necessary to scale down the elastic modulus of the material used in the models relative to that used in the prototype. In practice, however, it will probably be unable to find such a material, in which case various other contrivances must be used.

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Rept of PHRI. 2. 504. No. -147- . (in Japanese). 107-150 (in Japanese). 11. 372 p. Tech. pp. 829. 1972. No. 6) Sigeru UEDA: “Analytical method of ship motions moored to quay walls and the aplications”. No. 2. Note of PHRI. Tech. (in Japanese). pp. Shigeru CHIBA: “An approximate theory of floating breakwaters”. Tetsuya HIRAISHI. Note of PHRI. 5) Yasumasa SUZUKI: “Study on the design of single point buoy mooring”. 542. 15-28 (in Japanese). 1996. (in Japanese). Rept of PHRI. Note of PHRI. Kunihisa SAO. Vol. 181-218 (in Japanese). Tech. 48 p. 3) Shigeru UEDA. pp. 1982. 21. Masami FURUKAWA. 4) Yasumasa SUZUKI. 4. Vol. Shin-ichiro TACHINO: “Feild observation of motions of a SALM buoy and tensions of mooring hawsers”. No. No. 38 p. Rept of PHRI. 2) Yoshiyuki ITO.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [References] 1) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. Vol. Kazuyuki MOROISHI: “On the motions of ships moored to single-point mooring systems”. 1985. 1983. Satoru SHIRAISHI: “Method and its evaluation for computation of moored ship’s motions”. No. 22. 1984.

+ -----.( H z ) -----. T. ------. K 2 = A 2 R 1 / 3 / n 2 R： hydraulic radius (m) n： Manning’s roughness coefficient (s/ m1/3) Dx： distance between two cross sections (m) t： time (s) B： river width (m) H： water level from an arbitrary datum level (m). (a) When tides are negligible (see Fig.-----. tidal changes and density currents. Consequently. ---------. estuarine hydraulic phenomena such as the flow situation at the times of high water and low water in the river. ---------.9. because the calculation is only an approximation while ignoring tides. and the coexistence of waves and river flow shall be estimated appropriately.1) 2 2 aQ æ 1 1 ö Q æ 1 1 ö ---------. and the settling and deposition of sediment. However. the formation of density currents.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 9 Estuarine Hydraulics 9.0 Q： flow rate (m3/s) A： cross-sectional area (m2) K： flow carrying capacity of cross section (m3/s).1) is a modified form of the basic equation for non-uniform flow in a channel of arbitrary cross section.1. upstream flow occurs during a flood tide.81 Fig. As a result.÷ ----. [Technical Notes] (1) Tides in River The surface water level in a river channel can be calculated using either equation (9. several hydraulic phenomena occur such as the periodic changes in water level and current speed.1.1 Diagram Showing Water Level Curves m/s2) Equation (9. -148- 2 2 . it should only be used for the order estimate of hydraulic quantities during planning.2 ¶t 3 è 2 ø gA 3 ¶x ¶x gA ¶t ¶x (9. longshore currents.+ --------÷ Dx Dh = h 1 h 2 = z 2 z 1 2 2gs è A 2 A 2 ø 2 è K2 K2 ø 2 1 1 (9. These phenomena have a large influence on the flow regime in the estuary and the transport of sediment and others. Even so.1. T.= 0 . and littoral drift. waves.æ i + -----. it cannot be applied to an estuary where there are strong tidal effects and a reverse. estuaries are also affected by the tide level changes. It is thus necessary to give consideration to both conditions of rivers and the sea when handling estuarine hydraulics.ç -------.1 General (Notification Article 8) In planning and designing port and harbor facilities in an estuary where a river flows into the sea.-----.+ -----.ö -------. [Commentary] In addition to the effect of outflow of fresh water during floods and droughts and the sediment transport from rivers.1) (b) When tides are considered 64748 Q 1 ¶Q 2QB ¶H Q B ¶B ¶H Q Q ¶H -----. it can be applied to an estuary where the tidal range is small (less than 20 cm) and the tidal compartmut is not long (say up to about 3 to 4 km upstream).1.1.9.2).2) gA gA K ¶A ¶Q -----.+ ----------.1.1) or equation (9. H = h + z Cross Section 2 Cross Section 1 i： channel bottom slope g： gravitational acceleration (g = 9. the bedload.= 0 ¶t ¶x where Dh： difference in water depth between two cross sections (m) h1： water depth at cross section 1 (m) h2： water depth at cross section 2 (m) z1： height of river bed above an arbitrary datum level at cross section 1 (m) z2： height of river bed above the arbitrary datum level at cross section 2 (m) z： height of river bed above the arbitrary datum level (m) a： velocity coefficient a ≒ 1.ç ------. tidal currents.1.

wave partially breaks around u = -C1/7. Equations (9.5). and turbulence of currents. When waves with an increased height run up the river channel. it is not so easy to solve equations (9. where the phase velocity of waves relative to the river flow is given as g h and it is not affected by the river flow. according to Yu’s experiments.3) and (9. the water is sufficiently deep relative to the wavelength in both the zones I and II). -149- . where the flow rate and water level are the variables. while equation (9.( u /C1) sin a 1 ] H2 / H 1 = sin 2a 2 / sin 2a 1 2 1 (9.1. the wave celerity equation C = g L 2 leads to equations (9. 644474448 C 2 / C 1 = ( 1 + m ) /2 L 2 / L 1 = ( 1 + m )2/4 H 2 / H 1 = 1/ 1 + 4u / C 1 m = 1 + 4u / C 1 (9.1. wave height may increase through energy exchange through the river flow’s stopping action or radiation stress.5) is a relationship that was obtained by Yu 3).( u /C1) sin a 1 ] C 2 / C 1 = [1 .1.4).( u /C1) sin a 1 ]2 L 2 / L 1 = [1 .2) with appropriate boundary conditions.3) (9.2.5) cannot be applied to waves after breaking.1.2) numerically. Incidentally. In order to estimate the surface water level and flow rate due to the tidal action and propagation of tsunami into an estuary. and waves breaking theoretically occur when u = -C1/4. and the wave height decreases. (2) Waves Entering an Estuary Upon entering a river mouth. (b) Deformation of waves by currents (finite water depth) Near a river mouth. However. Equations (9. Wave direction cre st Wa ve L1 Zone 1: Still water α1 u=0 u C1 α2 c ve Wa t res C2 L2 Zone 2: Flowing water Uniform flow Fig. T. When the direction of waves is exactly opposite to that of river flow. and the mechanism of wave height change is very complex.1. In addition to refraction due to the water depth.4) The deformation of deepwater waves propagating on exactly opposite currents is given by equation (9.9. the wave height should increase in the exactly opposite current.5) where a： angle between the boundary line and the wave crest (º) u： uniform flow velocity in zone II (m/s) (positive when the flow is following the direction of propagation of the waves. refraction due to the difference in the directions between waves and currents causes the attenuation of wave height. waves are deformed by the currents. where the water depth is relatively shallow compared with the wavelength of the incoming waves. however.1. It is thus not easy to estimate the wave height. along with the nonlinear interaction between them.1.1.e. He assumed the linear long waves.5).4) was presented by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart 2). when waves propagates at an angle a across the straight boundary of discontinuity between the zone I where the water is still and the zone II where the water is flowing with a uniform velocity.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Equations (9. (a) Deformation of waves by currents (deepwater waves) As shown in Fig.1. while the subscript 2 denotes zone II (flowing water).2) represents the equations of motions and continuity having been modified from the basic equations for unsteady flow in a river. the velocity of waves is generally affected by currents and is different from the case of no river flow. According to equation (9. refraction occurs at the boundary.1.1. These opposing effects are related to the properties of river flow and waves.2 Refraction of Waves Due to River Flow 6447448 sina 2 = sin a 1 /[1 . it should be noted that equation (9. for a channel with a variable cross section. negative when it is against) L： wavelength (m) C： wave celerity (m/s) H： wave height (m) Note that the subscript 1 denotes zone I (still water). However.1.1.1. If waves can be regarded as deepwater waves (i.3) was proposed by Johnson 1). Arthur 4) has carried out calculations whereby he specified the sea bottom bathymetry and the flow velocity distribution.9.1..1. T. changing the wave celerity and wavelength. the wave height gradually decreases due to the effects of internal and external frictions. simultaneous solutions can be obtained by equations (9. However. the deformation of waves depends on the properties of both waves and river flow.

2 s and u = 20 cm/s. The sediment in the estuarine part of a bay is often composed of fine particles such as clay and silt (hereafter referred to as mud). it is said that the difference between the surface detected by 210 kHz sound waves and that detected by 33 kHz sound waves can be as much as a few meters 6). For example. to excavate the sea bottom to deepen it in order to create navigation channels.05~1. depending on the characteristic features of the mud (duration over time after settling (the level of consolidation). bottom sediment need to be removed immediately. the safe nautical depth is specified as being the depth at which the density of bottom material is no more than 1. (3) Siltation and Channel Maintenance (a) Siltation When constructing a harbor. a fluid mud layer can be detected by using different frequencies.2 g/cm3 7). as well as in estuaries in Brazil. the sea bottom in approach channels is covered with fluid mud with a density of 1. and settling. Southeast Asia. the water depth of navigation channels is quite changeable. The siltation phenomenon can be divided into three stages: picking-up and transport of bottom mud by currents.3 g/cm3. In some of the large European ports such as Rotterdam. have proposed a method for calculating the wave refraction in a current field on uneaven bottom. since the phase velocity and the group velocity of waves relative to the currents cannot be given in advance. In Japan. Dunkirk. Near to the sea bottom. it is often necessary to carry out dredging. With regard to the nature of waves immediately after they have entered an estuary and come up against the river flow. much efforts are being made for the measurement. and control of water depth. because this definition directly affects the timing and quantity of dredging. and South America that have similar problems. it is necessary to carry out dredging in order to increase the water depth of the navigation channels and mooring basins. Flocculation causes large changes in the settling characteristics of fine sediment. They show several cases of calculations. However. In such a case. and flocculation is promoted in the zone where saltwater and fresh water mix. any quantitative discussion was not made. Venezuela and Indonesia. However. The two frequencies commonly used are say 210 kHz (sound waves of this frequency are reflected from the surface of the fluid mud) and 33 kHz (sound waves of this frequency passes through the fluid mud but is reflected from sand or higher-density mud). However.e. In harbors that suffer from heavy siltation. the texture. accumulation and consolidation. mooring basins. Zeebrugge.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN For wave deformation near a river mouth. If the required water depth is not sufficient for the safe navigation of vessels. Consequently. 5) have proposed a numerical calculation method for obtaining the directional spectrum of irregular waves near a coast where the water depth changes and currents are present. Fine particles of mud that have settled onto the sea bottom experience a process of dewatering and form the bottom sediment. for both the distributions the wave height increases by about 5% in comparison with the case of no river flow. however. maintenance. In most of the harbors in the world that suffer from heavy siltation. it is important to define the water depth which ensure safe navigation. Even with an existing harbor. when h = 15 cm. The sediment on the sea bottom is usually subject to external forces such as currents and waves. there is a tendency that the change in the principal wave directions are affected mainly by the water depth and that wave components with frequency higher than the peak freakency are affected by currents. and small craft basins. i. both waves and currents exist simultaneously. The mud that leads to siltation has a tendency to flocculate due to the mixing of the river water and the seawater in an estuary. The phenomenon whereby such fine sediment is picked up. it is necessary to continue dredging in order to maintain the functionality of the harbor because siltation occurs. water content. whereby the sand is generally treated as individual grain. where many navigation channels have the problem of heavy siltation (in particular in the Rotterdam Europort area). transported. and accumulates at the sea bottom is referred to as “siltation”. Bordeaux and Nantes.. Iwagaki et al. In the echo-sounding. According to Hamada’s calculations. For places where siltation is particularly pronounced. the density of the mud generally varies with depth. that it is not really sufficient to fix the water depth for which navigation is possible simply by using such equipment. the rates of the wave height increase and the wavelength decrease with the river flow were slightly larger for the parabolic velocity distribution than for the uniform distribution. This means that even after construction of a harbor has been completed. Note. strictly speaking. Sakai et al. Hamada has determined the changes that steady shallow water waves undergo while running up an estuary for both the cases that the vertical velocity distributions are uniform and parabolic. and so it is necessary to monitor the bottom level constantly. etc. if the coming vessels are going to increase in size. The major difference between siltation and littoral drift (mainly sand) comes from different grain sizes. the resistence characteristic of mud against erosion by external forces such as waves and currents vary.). there is much room for further study on the way in which the wave breaking conditions are given. including that of navigation channels. and several harbors in the Suo Nada Sea area are faced with the problem of siltation. -150- . and then its strength gradually increases over a long period of time through consolidation. In estuaries. In Europe. Bathymetry measurement using a sounding lead or echo-sounders has been carried out for a long time for the purpose of managing and maintaining navigation channels. Kumamoto Port and Miike Port in the Ariake Sea. There are also many harbors in Europe. China. mutual interference between waves and the bottom mud layer. T = 1. organic matter content. This is the major difference between siltation and littoral drift.

(b) Formation of fluid mud The fluid mud layer is often found in estuaries or on the continental shelf close to the coast.1.9.1 and No. 1) was located where the water depth is 4m. and proposals of countermeasure are being investigated. The layer contains a very high concentration of mud in fluid condition and easy to move. there should be no damage to the hull. three test trenches for siltation experiments were constructed.3..1. Although it is ultimately desirable to carry out direct evaluation by means of a viscosity meter. the following two criteria must be satisfied. 3. there was also no trace of any significant mud accumulation along the outsides of the submerged dykes. in Trench No. Fig. T. By comparing with the results of echo sounding measurements. with over 60 cm of siltation occurring in just one day. Large-scale field observations are thus being carried out to investigate siltation process in this area. Before construction was commenced.e.05~1. New measuring equipment for the sediment density in navigation channels using the g rays has been developed in Europe 6). which was surrounded by submerged dykes. Trenches No. but Trench No. when there was nothing at all in this sea area. In fact.e. which is currently being constructed on very gentle mud flats of the Ariake Sea. One (Trench No. i.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS In addition to this density requirement. The criteria mentioned above can be considered that the water depth has been defined from a physical standpoint. Ishizuka and Nemoto 8) have developed a density measuring device that uses the g rays. Krone1 9) defines a fluid mud layer to have a mud concentration of at least 10. 3 was made different from the other two in that it was surrounded by 1 m-high submerged dykes. The mud concentration in the fluid mud layer is of the order of 10. ① Even if the draft of a vessel approaches the nautical depth. the rheology characteristic) and the internal waves generated at the mud/water boundary do not cause any change in the water depth. separated from each other by 100m) were located where the water depth is 2m.4 shows the time series of the amount of siltation in each trench.9. During two large storms in 1987.000 mg/l. -151- .2 silted up rapidly. they have concluded that the density of fluid mud lies in the range 1. hardly any siltation occurred at all.1. Kirby and Parker1 10) have obtained the vertical distribution of the density within a fluid mud layer using a density measuring device that makes use of the scattering properties of the g rays. the water depth has been specfied using the density value that is most reliable in terms of measurement technology.3 g/cm3. 2 and No. 3. it is expected that navigation channels and mooring basins will be subject to siltation. (c) Effect of submerged dykes In Kumamoto Port. and two (Trenches No.9. as measured at the center of each of the three trenches. ② The viscous drag induced by the underside of a moving vessel (i.3 Locations of Trenches Used in Siltation Experiments Figure T. T. In Japan. The locations of the trenches are shown in Fig.000 mg/l 9). The three trenches were all of the same size.000~300. However. it can be considered that at the present technical stage..

2 (DL-2m) Trench No.2 9405 9405 9405 3/1 1000(m) 94.0 Dredging 9209 Area 10 92.4 Time History of Siltation in the Central Parts of Three Test Trenches TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Fig. 9209 9210 9211 9212 9301 9302 9303 9303 9303 9303 9302 9302 9302 9301 9301 9301 9212 9212 9212 9211 9211 9211 9210 9210 9210 9209 9209 9209 -152Area 6 2000(m) 8/1 9209 92.1.9 9305 9308 9310 9312 9402 9402 9402 9402 9312 9312 9312 9310 9310 9310 9308 9308 9308 9305 9305 9305 9210 9211 9212 9301 11/1 9302 Trench No.1. T.10 94.9 9409 Area 2 9412 9503 Area 1 Area 1 95.6 9506 -100 -100 -100 -100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 9/1 Area 6 Area 5 Area 4 Area 3 10/1 9209 9209 9209 9210 9210 9210 9211 9211 9211 9212 9212 9212 9301 9301 9301 9302 9302 9302 9303 9303 9303 9305 9305 9305 9308 9308 9308 9310 9310 9310 9312 9312 9312 9402 9402 9402 9405 9405 9405 9409 9409 9409 .9 9409 9409 9409 9412 9412 9412 4/1 Area 8 5/1 9503 9503 9503 95.1 (DL-4m) Trench No.9. T.10 94.2 9405 9405 9405 9405 9409 9409 9409 9409 9412 9412 9412 9412 9503 9503 9503 9503 9506 9506 9506 9506 9402 2/1 9405 Area 2 94.3 N 9303 9303 9303 9305 9308 9310 9312 9402 9402 9402 9312 9312 9310 9310 9308 9308 9305 9305 -100 100 0 0 0 Area 9 Area 8 Area 7 100 100 100 0 Area 10 9210 1986 12/1 9211 -100 9210 9211 -100 -100 Deposition height 0 1987 1/1 2/1 Area 9 Waterway 93. .9.6 9506 9506 9506 6/1 Units : cm 7/1 Fig.3 (DL-2m) 93.9 9209 9209 100 cm 150 50 9210 9211 9212 9301 9302 9302 9302 9301 9301 9212 9212 93.3 9303 12/1 Area 5 9305 9308 9310 1988 1/1 Area 4 9312 Area 3 Anchorage 93. 3/1 9412 9412 9412 0 50 100 cm 150 9503 9503 9503 9506 9506 9506 .5 Time History of Siltation in Various Areas of Kumamoto Port Area 7 -100 -100 -100 -100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 Area 2 Area 2 Area 1 Area 1 . Units : cm .

Springer-Verlag. U. Report of Working Group 3-a. 4. 1950. 59-65.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Figure T. G. Tsuruya 12) has applied a multi-layered level siltation forecasting model to Kumamoto Port. 12) Tsuruya. Takashi NEMOTO: “Development of mud layer density meter using radio isotope”. 30. 1947. 9) Van Leussen.. They have shown that this model accurately represents the siltation of Kumamoto Port during a typhoon. Submerged dykes of 1 m to 1.The combined effect of current and underwater topography -”. 33. December 1987... 11) Kirby. 6) De Vlieger. 85-109 (in Japanese). pp. 1988. 7) PIANC: “Navigation in muddy areas”. 2) Longuet-Higgins. Hydraulic Engneering Lab.5 shows the change over time in siltation for a number of areas of Kumamoto Port after it was partially opened. A. Rept of PHRI. S. Vol. 10. and Sanitary Research Lab. F. It is thought that this was caused by fluid mud flowing in from the lower section of the pier. J.: “Cohesive sediment transport model and its application to approach channels and anchorages in estuarine ports”. Excerpt from Bulletin No. Langkawi..9. R.5 m in height were installed on the both sides of the navigation channel. Fifth International Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineerring (OMAE) Symposium. A. Vol. [References] 1) J. pp. 28. W. while others are in a mooring basin. B. Vol.. U. and continuous observation is being carried out. Brussels. with the fluid mud model that describes the formation of fluid mud and its flow mechanism. 641. pp. H. No. 4) Arthur. pp. 1991. pp. W. 1. -153- . 423-424.. A. on the other hand. G. Dronkers: “Physical process in estuaries: An introduction”. W. and R. 1983. Parker: “Seabed density measurements related to echo sounder records”. there was progressive sedimentation. Trans. University of California. Stewart: “The change in amplitude of short gravity waves on steady non-uniform currents”. pp. Proc. V. in J. G. H. and W. Barkeley. “Physical Processes in Estuaries”. Dronkers and W. 1950. 2-18. pp. Vol. No. R. 110 p. R. 1962. and J. De Cloedt: “Navitracker: a giant step forward in tactics and economics of maintenance dredging”. 8) Koji ISHIZUKA. 549-552. Trans. Terra et Aqua 35. some of the areas are in a navigation channel. Malaysia. Vol. S. No. thus showing the effect of the submerged dykes in effectively preventing siltation. van Leussen (ed). 10) Krone.1983). 31. LIV. hardly any silt accumulation was observed from October 1993 onwards. 1986. Seminar Text on Maritime Infrastructure Development. 560 p. Trans. 1974.. For the mooring basin part (Areas 1’~5). 1. (d) Numerical simulation In order to forecast siltation. have extended it into a new model that includes fluid mud layer mechanism. November 1995. and then Tsuruya et al. T. Inagaki: “Wave directional spectra change due to underwater topography and current”.: “Flume studies of the transport of sediment in estuarial shoaling processes”.: “Refraction of shallow water wave . 529-549. 6. The places from where the fluid mud flowed in are currently being plugged up. No. Vol. it is necessary to predict external forces such as currents and waves. and develop the computational models that incorporate the above-mentioned flocculation. Yi-Yuan: “Breaking of waves by an opposing current”. and J. Vol. 39-53. and Y. Hirosue. 43(1982Å . For the part of navigation channel (Areas 6 to 10). PIANC. 1952.1. 3) Yu. 5) Sakai. Johnson: “The refraction of surface waves by current”. M. The Dock and Harbour Authority. Fluid Mech. R. and erosion mechanisms. settling.

and predominant direction of longshore transport.10. it is often accompanied by beach erosion or accretion over a long period of time. (7) Longshore sediment moves in either the right or left direction along a coast.1 General (Notification Article 9) When port and harbor facilities are to be affected by the littoral drift phenomenon. by changes in sand supply conditions following construction of coastal structures. careful attention should be paid to the deformation conditions of the beach both during construction and following completion of any structure. threshold depth of sediment movement. characteristic values of littoral drift shall be established appropriately for sediment grain size. -154- .1. The latter term he applied to the situation that the sand shows striking movement with a distinctly visible change in water depth (see [Technical Notes] (4)). where waves will reach during stormy weather with the rise of water level. Sato 1) studied the movement of sediment by placing radioactive glass sand on the sea floor and investigating the distribution of their movement. he defined two conditions that are called the surface layer movement and the total movement. At a certain water depth. the sediment begins to move. This is why the sediment shows characteristics that reflect the characteristics of external forces such as waves and currents. the movement of water particles near the sea floor does not have the force to move the sediment in places where the water depth is sufficiently deep. however. This balance may be lost by a reduction in the supply of sand owing to river improvements. where waves break and longshore bars or steps are formed. (6) Longshore sediment transport rate refers to the rate of littoral drift in the direction parallel to the coast that is caused by waves obliquely incident to a coast. (3) Sediment that forms a beach is supplied from nearby rivers. Then beach deformation will occur as the beach moves toward new equilibrium conditions. and in many cases the bottom slope is comparatively gentle. respectively. (2) Although the movement of sand by winds and the sand that is thus moved are referred to as the wind-blown sand. corresponding to the direction of incoming waves. From this study. detached breakwaters. He applied the former term to the situation in which the sand in the surface layer on the sea floor is moved collectively in the direction of wave movement. (8) The littoral drift in the direction parallel to the coastline (shoreline) is designated as the longshore sediment transport. and the “backshore” is the zone from the landward boundary of foreshore to the coastline. [Commentary] (1) Littoral drift refers to either the phenomenon that the sediment composing a sea coast or lakeshore is moved by the action of some force such as waves or currents. The direction with the larger volume of movement during a year is called the predominant direction. careful attention should be paid to the changes that the construction works will bring about in the balance of the beach. it achieves a relatively balanced topography over a long period. The “foreshore” is the zone from the low tide shoreline to the location where waves will reach normally. (5) When waves approach a coast from offshore.1. or material that is moved by the above process. When building structures such as breakwaters. (4) As a natural beach is repeatedly subjected to process of erosion when storm waves attack and that of accretion during periods when waves are moderate. [Technical Notes] (1) Coast Topography (a) Terminology for various sections of a beach profile Various sections of a sandy beach are defined with the terminology shown in Fig. The sediment is exposed to the action of waves or currents during the supply process or after it has accreted on the beach. Because the process is normally nonreversible. and training jetties. and by changes in external forces such as waves and currents. The “offshore” is the area on the ocean side where waves do not break normally. Topographical changes that might be induced by a construction project should be sufficiently investigated in advance. and the adjacent coastline. In addition. The “inshore” (nearshore) refers to the area between the offshore and the low tide shoreline. longshore sediment transport rate. and appropriate coastal protection countermeasures should be taken any time when there are concerns about the possibility for disaster triggered by coastal erosion. This is referred to as the sediment sorting action by external forces. T. It contributes to the advance and retreat of a shoreline. The water depth at this boundary where sediment begins to move is called the threshold depth of sediment movement. in the broad definition the littoral drift is also considered to include wind-blown sand at beaches. groins.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 10 Littoral Drift 10. coastal cliffs.

10.3) where p： Dp： d25： d75： cumulative percentage (%) increase in the cumulative percentage grain size corresponding to 25% of the cumulative percentage grain size corresponding to 75% of the cumulative percentage (3) Form of Littoral Drift Movement Littoral drift is classified into two categories of bedload and suspended sediment. Step type beach (Normal beach) Bar type beach (Storm beach) Forebeach Step Forebeach Trough bar (a) Step type beach (b) Bar type beach Fig. T.2 Step Type Beach and Bar Type Beach (2) Characteristics of Sediment The grain size characteristics of sediment are normally expressed with the indices given below. T. sliding or bouncing along the surface of the sea floor through the direct action of waves and currents.2) 2 ③ Sorting coefficient ④ Skewness parameter (S0): (Sk): S 0 = d 75 ¤ d 25 S k = d 75 ´ d 25 ¤ ( d 50 ) (10. -155- .1 Terminology of Beach Profile (b) Step type beach (ordinary beach) and bar type beach (storm beach) When a model beach is constructed with natural sand in a wave channel and exposed to waves over a long period of time. This equilibrium condition of beach is broadly classified into two types as shown in Fig. T.1. The bedload includes sheet flow.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Coast Coastline Shore Backshore Foreshore High tide shoreline Low tide shoreline Inshore Offshore Bluffs Beach scarp Mean high water Mean Low water Fig.1. ① Median diameter (d50): diameter corresponding to a cumulative percentage p = 50% on the grain size distribution curve 100 ② Average grain diameter (dm): d m = -------------------100 p=0 p=0 å dDp (10. (a) Bedload: littoral drift that moves by tumbling.2 (a) and (b). respectively.10. according to the modes of sediment movement.1) å Dp (10. the beach profile will approach an equilibrium condition corresponding to the waves acting upon it.10. (b) Suspended sediment: littoral drift that is suspended in seawater by turbulence of breakers and others and transported by currents. called a step type beach and a bar type beach.1.1.1.1.

the time frame for cross-shore sediment transport is relatively short (from a few days to about one week). ② Surf zone Inside the surf zone. high-density suspension of sediment is formed by the severe agitation and action of large-scale vortices that are generated by breakers. T. ③ Swash zone The sand movement in a swash zone differs for the times of wave runup and downflow. and a sheet flow condition occur in which sediment moves in stratified layers extending several layers below the sea bed surface. ① Offshore zone In order for sand to be moved by the action of fluid motion (oscillatory movement). depending upon the physical properties of waves that provide the external forces for the littoral drift phenomenon.3 Changes in Sediment Movement Modes in Cross-Shore Direction (4) Physical Meaning of and Estimation Formulas for the Threshold Depth of Sediment Movement To determine the extension of breakwater (water depth at the head) and the required threshold depth of sediment movement when seeking the offshore boundary of beach deformation. For littoral drift the threshold of movement is defined with the water depth (threshold depth of sediment movement). conducted a number of field surveys -156- Threshold depth of sediment movement . During the time of wave runup sand is put in suspension by the agitation at the front of a wave and transported by running-up water.10.10. sand ripples are extinguished. T. regular. whereas during the downflow sand is carried in a bedload mode. While the time frame for beach deformation caused by longshore sediment transport is long. like that for periods of passing storms.1.3. The dominant mode of the littoral drift movement in each region is as follows. For convenience the sand movement inside the surf zone is divided into a component that moves parallel to the shoreline (coastline) (called the longshore sediment transport) and a component that is perpendicular to the shoreline (called the cross-shore sediment transport). vortices are generated by the fluid motion in the vicinity of the sand ripples and movement of suspended sediment trapped in the vortices occur.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (c) Sheet flow: littoral drift that moves as a layer of high density flow near the bed surface. When sand ripples form. When the water depth is shallower than the threshold depth of sediment movement.1. The volume of sand that moves near the bed surface in a bedload state also increases. the current velocity of the fluid must exceed a certain value. small undulating topographic contours that are called the sand ripples will form on the sea floor surface. This condition is generally called the threshold of movement. As the water depth becomes shallower. Wave height 0 Bed surface current speed amplitude Swash zone Breaker zone Offshore zone Movement in the wave runup zone Agitation from breakers Suspension above sand ripples Undertow Nearshore currents Suspension from breakers Sheet flow Suspension above sand ripples Bedload movement Fig. Shallow water zones can be classified into three regions as shown in Fig.

This corresponds to a situation of distinct sand movement with the result of apparent change in water depth.1. mineral composition.1.1. T.4 Spread of Radioactive Glass Sand in Surface Layer Movement and Total Movement Based upon their field data. parallel to the wave direction. Waves Input point Waves Input point Highest count Highest count Isocount line Isocount line (a) Surface layer movement (b) Total movement Fig.× --------. T.4) Repeated calculations are required to estimate the threshold water depths using equations (10.5 (a) and (b) have been prepared so that the depths can be easily estimated. the elongation of the isocount lines that show the distribution of radioactive glass sand after waves acted upon it on the sea floor demonstrates that all of the sand has moved in the direction of the waves. Calculation diagrams like those in Fig.1.1. This corresponds to a situation in which the surface layer sand is moved collectively by traction.35 æ ---. etc.40 æ ---. Based upon their observed results they defined the littoral drift movement conditions as follows.4 (b).1. (5) Longshore Sediment Transport The predominant direction of longshore sediment transport is determined using the following information: (a) (b) (c) (d) Topography of the natural coast and that around coastal structures (see Fig. The threshold depth of total sediment movement is often calculated when the threshold depth of sediment movement is investigated for engineering purposes. it is possible to determine hi/L0.6) Alongshore distribution of the sediment characteristics (median diameter. (a) Surface layer movement: As shown in Fig.10.) Direction of movement of fluorescent sand tracers Direction of incident wave energy flux -157- . T. indicating no movement.= 1.1.1.10. By specifing d/L0 and H0/L0.5).4) and (10. 2) proposed two equations for estimating the threshold depth of surface layer sediment movement and that of total sediment movement.10.10.ö è L 0ø L H L0 (d) Threshold depth of total sediment movement H0 ----L0 where L0： H0： L： H： d： hi： 2ph i H 0 d 1¤3 = 2. (c) Threshold depth of surface layer sediment movement 2ph i H 0 H0 d 1¤3 sinh ---------. T.ö sinh ---------. T.1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS using radioactive glass sand as a tracer. (b) Total movement: As shown in Fig.4 (a).× ----è L 0ø L H deepwater wavelength (m) equivalent deepwater wave height (m) wavelength at water depth hi (m) wave height at water depth hi (m) sediment grain size (average grain size or median diameter) (m) threshold depth of sediment movement (m) (10. this refers to a situation in which both the isocount lines and the portion of the highest count move in the wave direction. But the location of the highest count remained at the input point of glass sand.10.5) (10.

T.5 (a) Calculation Diagram for Threshold Depth of Surface Layer Sediment Movement Fig.1. T.5 (b) Calculation Diagram for Threshold Depth of Total Sediment Movement Predominant direction Jetties Predominant direction Harbor interior Eroding coast protected Littoral drift accretion by a coastal revetment Beach is wide Beach is narrow Predominant direction Detached breakwaters Beach is narrow Beach is wide Predominant direction River current Predominant direction Predominant direction Sand spit Fig. T.1.1.10.10. the following various data must be prepared and sufficiently investigated: (a) Continuous observation data of the change in sediment volume in the area around a coastal structure (b) Data on the alongshore component of wave energy flex -158- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Fig.6 Typical Coastal Topography Showing the Predominant Direction of Littoral Drift To estimate the longshore sediment transport rate.10.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (c) (d) (e) (f) Data concerning the littoral drift rate at the surrounding coast Data on past dredging quantities Continuous observation data on deposition volume at the location of experimental dredging Data on the volume of movement of fluorescent sand tracers placed within the surf zone Various equations can be used to estimate an approximate value of longshore sediment transport rate 3). (b) Settling process during which sediment is buffeted by random external forces following breakup of organized vortices into small eddies. Figure T. This result indicates that sediment suspension is related to the organized vortices (particularly obliquely descending vortices) that occur after waves break. and by the existence of nearshore currents. 4). T. (a) Sediment suspension process caused by systematic vortices formed by wave breaking.1. large quantities of sand are put in motion by the increase of the water particle velocity near the bottom. Density Current velocity in the direction of the shore Time Fig.1.1. Longshore sediment estimation equations are normally given in the expression shown in equation (10.10. Army Corps of Engineers 4) 0.81 m/s2) wave height at the wave observation point (m) wavelength at the wave observation point (m) wave period (s) angle of wave incidence at the breaking point (º) Table T. 5) inside a breaker zone in the field.022 Sato and Tanaka 1) 0.1.1 Coefficient a for Longshore Sediment Transport Rate Equation Savage 3) 0.1.6) longshore sediment transport rate (m3/s) alongshore component of wave energy flux (kN･m/m/s) refraction coefficient between the wave observation point and the breaking point ratio of group velocity to wave celerity at the wave observation point = r0g seawater density (t/m3) (1030 kg/m3) gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (9.7 gives the results of continuous observations of suspended sediment concentration and horizontal current speed that were carried out by Katoh et al. Q x = aE x Ex = where Qx ： Ex： Kr： nA： w 0： r 0： g： HA ： LA： T： a b： 2 SK r 64748 æ n A w 0 H A L Aö ç ---------------------------. by turbulence caused by wave breaking.1. The sediment movement when suspended sediment is predominant can be examined by dividing the movement into two types. The white arrows in the figure point out the waves that broke on the offshore side of the observation point and the black arrows point out the waves that passed the observation point and broke on the coast side.10. with the coefficient a for various equations being as given in Table T. It is clear that the suspended sediment concentration increased rapidly when waves broke on the offshore side.10.03 U.1.S.10.7 Example of Field Observation of Suspended Sediment Density 10) -159- .6).04 (6) Littoral Drift Phenomenon in the Surf Zone Inside the surf zone.÷ sin a b × cos a b 8T è ø 2 (10.

9 is a comparison of the calculated and actually measured results of shoreline location. the -160- . T. a shoreline will retreat when Cs ≧ 18 (see Fig. T.10. and proposed equation (10.1.27 æ d ö 0.8).= C s ( tan b ) è L 0ø L0 where H 0： L0： tanb： d： Cs： deepwater wave height (m) deepwater wavelength (m) average bottom slope from the shoreline to a water depth of 20 m sediment grain size (m) coefficient Based on equation (10. Thus the sediment carried by the seawater when it runs up on the beach will accrete there.1. When the tide level changes. As shown in Fig. and it is easy for the seawater running up on the beach to permeate underground.67 ---(10.1. revised equation (10. T. (8) Relationship between Foreshore Topographical Changes and Groundwater Level The topographical changes that accompany the change in the foreshore tide level can be explained as follows by using Fig. the beach groundwater level also changes as a response. during the time of ebb tide the groundwater level is high and it is difficult for seawater to run up on the beach and to permeate underground. T.10. the groundwater level differs from the foreshore tide level during the time of flood tides and that of ebb tides. During the flood tide the groundwater level is low. At certain conditions.1.7) which is also applicable for the field condition. But because of the delay in response time.1. T.1. investigated the criteria for shoreline advance and retreat occurring as a result of sand movement in the swash zone based on laboratory experiments.1.+1.1.1.4m Distance in offshore Calculated value Measured values Offshore direction Shore direction Month seaward Fig. Figure T.7).10. H0 0.L.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (7) Topographical (Shoreline) Deformation in the Swash Zone Horikawa et al.10.10.7) using deepwater wave energy flux and presented a model to calculate the change of daily shoreline locations.10 (b).1.10. the groundwater may flow out of the beach surface during the ebb tide. On the other hand.8 Advance and Retreat of Shorelines in Field HoRF 3/12/86 9/11/86 D.9 Comparison of Calculation and Actual Measurements of Shoreline Location Katoh et al.7) ----. Retreat Index based upon experimental results or Retreat Advance Advance Fig.10 6).

e. i.1. T. T. Some shore protection methods make use of this relationship between the foreshore groundwater level and sand movement. and return to its original location. lowering the groundwater level by forced means or gravity and thus halting erosion.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS result is that the sediment that accreted during the time of flood tide will be eroded.10 Relationship between Foreshore Topographical Changes and Groundwater Level 10. [Technical Notes] (1) Beach Scouring in Front of Coastal Revetment It is well known that beach scouring in front of coastal revetment has a close relationship with wave reflection.1. groins. slope gradient of coastal revetment a (for a vertical breakwater.2. a highly water-permeable layer is installed in the foreshore sand to cause the groundwater flow down offshore and to lower the groundwater level. [Commentary] Wave characteristics that act on natural beaches can be considered as nearly fixed over a long period of time.2.10. it is advantageous to make the front surface of revetment inclined against beach scouring in front of revetment.10. T. these must be considered carefully when choosing countermeasures against scouring. The diagram indicates that all other conditions being equal.. and training jetties may affect the safety and integrity of structures. Because the mechanism and amount of scouring will also change when the conditions of wave action on a beach vary with construction of structures.1 Threshold Conditions between Scouring and Accretion in Front of Coastal Revetment -161- . and the condition becomes as shown in Fig. When waves run up to a high level on a beach during storm periods. T. a = 90º).10. With this method it is possible to preserve beach conditions close to those of a natural beach because no structures are visible above the beach floor. median sediment diameter d50.10 (b).1 has been proposed for determining scouring or accretion by means of the reflection coefficient K and the parameter (H0 / L0)(l /d50) sina. K Scouring Accretion H0 L0 d50 sin α Fig. In the gravity methods. which is defined with the wave steepness H0 / L0. and the distance l from the wave runup point on an equilibrium profile to the location of the coastal revetment.10. Topographies that form in response to these characteristics are nearly stable as well.2 Scouring around Structures Scouring shall be taken into consideration when there are concerns that scouring around structures such as breakwaters. Fig. a high groundwater level condition continues throughout the stormy weather period because the run-up seawater permeates into the beach. Occurrence of rapid foreshore erosion during such the condition has been confirmed by the field data. For example. Accretion Sand movement towards the coast Permeation Groundwater surface Erosion (a) Flood Tide Groundwater surface Sand movement towards the offshore Water outflow Accretion (b) Ebb Tide Fig. Scouring will occur when structures are erected and the equilibrium between external forces and topography will be disturbed locally or over a broad area.

4 shows the relationship between the scouring depth along the face line of a breakwater and the water depth.10. Fig.10.3 Relationship between Scouring Depth around Breakwater Head and Water Depth Scouring depth (m) North breakwater and south breakwater vertical sections South breakwater slope section Figure T.2. The location where the scouring depth is largest corresponds to the location where a longshore bar exist.2. It reaches a maximum value at the point of water depth about 2 m.10.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Local Scouring around Breakwaters (a) Scouring in the surf zone ① Local scouring at the breakwater head Figure T. which is based on the field data of a large harbor.2. Irie et al. T. The alignment of south breakwater changed from perpendiaular to oblique to the coastline at the water depth of about 7 m. The scouring depth along the sections of breakwaters perpendicular to the coastline are shown with open circles. and decreases as the water depth becomes shallower or deeper than that point. The maximum scouring depth is found to be nearly equal to the maximum significant wave height (H1/3)max during the period up to 15 days prior to the time of scouring measurements. T. The closed cirdes in the figure show the scouring depth in the section of the south breakwater which is oriented obliquely to the coastline.2. In addition.2 Relationship between Scouring Depth at Breakwater Head and Maximum Significant Wave Height during the Prior 15 Days ② Scouring along the face line of breakwaters Scouring depth Water depth around the breakwater head Fig.10.2. West breakwater Inner breakwater East breakwater North breakwater Inner breakwater South breakwater Kashima Niigata New Port Port of Kagoshima West breakwater Port of Kanazawa Inner breakwater New south breakwater Port ofAkita Port ofAkita Breakwater Port of Mikuni Sankoku Legend Water depth Scouring depth Relationship to (H1/3)max during the prior15 days Fig. The scouring depth becomes largest when the water depth at breakwater head is about 3 m to 5 m (breaker zone).2 shows the local scouring conditions around a breakwater head. 7) carried out experiments concerning this type of scouring and highlighted the following issues: -162- .3 shows the relationship between the water depth around a breakwater head and the scouring depth.4 Relationship between Scouring Depth and Water Depth (b) Scouring in standing wave regime Scouring depth in front of a vertical wall tends to decrease as the initial water depth in front of the wall increases and the wave condition is shifted into the standing wave regime. scouring at the toe of rubble mound by standing waves sometimes become a problem. We can see that the scouring depth becomes largest at this inflection point and then gradually decreases as one moves offshore. Water depth (m) Fig. where the toe of rubble mound is somewhat away from the wave reflection surface of the upright section. T. In case of composite type breakwaters.10.2. T10. as analyzed by Tanaka.

Because of the similarity problems being unresolved.1 is applicable to the coast under investigation.3 Prediction of Beach Deformation All the related factors shall be thoroughly investigated when predicting beach deformation. He classified characteristics of typical topographical changes in numerous examples of beach deformation. The reproductive accuracy of the experiment. including empirical prediction techniques. Movable Bed Model Experiments) The capability of predicting beach deformation based on hydraulic model experiments. But the advantage of model experiments is such that specific topographical changes can be reproduced in a laboratory basin and the phenomenon to be forecasted can be understood visually. Normally. Based upon the similarities. Fig.2. estimation based on hydraulic model experiments (especially with movable bed model experiments). The L-type scouring refers to the phenomenon where accretion occurs at the antinode of standing waves and scouring occurs at the node.10. -163- . Because beach deformation is strongly governed by the characteristics of the region in question. sediment will move from the location of the node of standing waves to the location of the antinode. the layout and structural characteristics of structures to be built are compared with past examples of similar nature.3. whereas the N-type scouring refers to the opposite phenomenon where scouring occurs at the antinode and accretion occurs at the node.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ① The basic parameter is Ub /ω. therefore. and numerical simulations. with scouring occurring at the node and accretion taking place at the antinode (L-type scouring). is limited because the problem of similarity remains unresolved. it will be necessary to verify the model for reproducibility of the topographical changes that occurred in the past in the study area and to confirm the model’s kinematic similarity. When Ub / ω < 10.10.2.10. As a result of this research. and by focusing attention on the reproducibility of the area of most concern. and a topographic model that is judged most reliable is introduced in a laboratory basin. the potential for beach deformation to be caused by construction of structures is judged. When Ub /ω > 10. Efforts should be made to predict beach deformation by combining two or more procedures and by investigating the local data and information as comprehensively as possible.3. Exceptions to these patterns are relatively rare. Before predicting future beach deformation. cannot exceed the accuracy of the data collected on beach deformations in the past. and generally scouring at the node of standing waves is predominant. T10.6 Sketch of Scouring by Standing Waves 15) 10. T. Breakwater Node Antinode N-type Rubble mound L-type ② There are many instances in the field where Ub /ω > 10. experiments are carried out with partially distorting model scales. scouring and subsidence of the rubble mound of breakwater will occur at its toe as the sediment there move toward the location of antinode at one half wavelength from the upright section. [Commentary] Various methods exist as procedures for predicting beach deformation. the ratio of the maximum horizonal velocity of water particles at the bottom by incident waves Ub to the settling velocity of sedimentω. Tanaka has carried out research on modeling of the complicated topographical changes that occur after construction of structures. the opposite phenomenon (N-type scouring) will occur (refer to Fig. The degree of kinematic similarity will be judged by the accuracy of reproduction.1). (2) Hydraulic Model Experiment (particularly. because a toe of rubble mound is located at the distance of about 1/4 wavelength or so from the upright section. it is possible to understand the topographical changes in the vicinity of Japan’s ports and harbors in several representative patterns (Fig. on the basis of collection and analysis of past examples of beach deformation. it is inappropriate to rely on any single method. T. with consideration given to factors such as the predicted results by an appropriate forecasting method and the data of past beach deformation at the site in question. [Technical Notes] (1) Empirical Prediction Techniques The empirical method is a procedure that. particularly movable bed model experiments.6). T. a qualitative prediction of beach deformation becomes possible. however. By judging which pattern in Fig. based on the comparison of several formulas on beach deformation simililarity.

T.3. oblique breakwater Accretion towards the training jetty of a river month at the edge of a beach Short jetty a Long jetty Accretion on both sides of training jetty of the center of a long concave coast Completion stage Changes in beach and water depth inside a harbor Change in salient by breakwater extension Tombolo formation and associated shoreline changes Formation of a tombolo Inithial stage Change in a shoreline accompanying change in the direction and shape of harbor entrance Accretion between a cape and a breakwater built on the downdrift side of the cape TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN -164- Effect of coastline shape Local scouring in the vicinity of a breakwater At the breakwater head Concave coast Formation of a sand bar at the head of a main breakwater and harbor entrance At a bend Formation of one-side salient Without lee breakwater At a narrow mouth At the front of an oblique section At the side surface of a straight section Convex coast Prevention of local erosion and accretion caused by Mach-stem waves Breakwaters extending obliquely from the shoreline Fig.1 Classification of Patterns of Topographical Changes after Construction of Structures .Updrift accretion and downdrift erosion by obstructing littoral transport Effect of jetty length Accretion in calm zone With lee breakwater Long.10.

As shown in the figure. it is possible to express the advance and retreat of the shoreline as the result of the imbalance. HB Cg B ¶H B 2K 2 Q = ------------------------. and those that predict three-dimensional changes in water depth.3.3.× cos q B × --------.2) -165- . the wave height varies alongshore and longshore currents are induced. however.10. T. and the coast will be eroded with a retrent of shoreline. Because of this sheltered area.× æ K 1 sin 2 q B --------. however. numerical simulations are divided into two models: those that predict changes in the shoreline location. Thus. use should be made of the littoral sediment transport rate equation related to the component of the incident wave energy flux at the breaker point in the longshore current direction. Using this equation. the coastline should be split along the longshore direction of the shoreline into sections having the width Dy. beach topographical changes.3. Because littoral drift is caused mainly from the direct action of waves. Figure T. Beach sediment is transported by waves and currents both in the offshore and onshore directions and in the alongshore direction. The former model is called the one-line theory. qö = 0 ø ¶t D s è ¶y ord inat e (10.× æ -----.2 Relationship between Volume of Shoreline Change and Sand Movement where xs ： t： y： Ds ： Q： q： shoreline location (m) time (s) coordinate in longshore direction (m) width of the littoral drift movement zone (m) littoral sediment transport rate (m3/s) cross-shore inflow (q > 0) or outflow (q < 0) of the littoral sediment transport rate across the onshoreoffshore boundary per unit width in the longshore direction (m3/m/s) To find the longshore sediment transport rate Q. one can assume there is no change on the shape of beach profile and that beach erosion and accretion will correspond to the retreat and advance of the shoreline. A prediction of changes in the shoreline location can then be based on the deposititon and removal of sediment volume primarily from longshore transport.+ ----. That is.3. By introducing the assumption that the beach profile remains unchanged over time and any imbalance in the sediment inflow and outflow simply shifts the beach profile offshore or onshore. the sediment will be carried towards the shore and the shoreline will advance. Normally when beach deformation is predicted. littoral drift during storm periods will be predominantly towards offshore. When this is expressed in the continuity of sediment flux. When looked at on the average profile over a long period of time. ¶x s 1 ¶Q ------.2 sketches the calculation principles of a shoreline change prediction model.3. the changes caused by onshoreoffshore transport can mostly be ignored when compared with those caused by longshore transport. An equation based on Ozasa and Brampton 8) that incorporates this kind of effect is frequently used. when focusing on beach erosion or accretion over a period of several years. however. accretion will occur if the former is larger and erosion will take place if the latter is larger.e.1) Lon gsh co ore Offsh ore d Offshore direction coordinate irecti on co ordin ate Model view Longshore coordinate Plan view Fig. and its overview is given below. Along with these movements the beach profile will also change. i.10. and the inflow and outflow of sediment volume between those widths are considered. This topographical change in the shoreline location and beach profiles caused by the onshore-offshore transport is normally a seasonal one. the beach will have some structures that produce an area sheltered from incoming waves.. When the sea becomes calm. the longshore sediment transport rate can be determined using just the wave height and wave direction at the breaker point as the input.1). when the ¶Q inflow of sediment volume QDt and the outflow of sediment volume æ Q + -----.ö Dt during time period Dt are -Dy è ¶y ø compared.ö 16s ( 1 l ) è ¶y ø tan b 2 (10.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (3) Prediction Based on Numerical Simulations At the present time. the result is equation (10.

an energy-averaged representative wave is estimated and its dimensions are substituted into the equations for the runup height and the threshold depth of sediment movement as a method to conveniently find the distance Ds. 5. The results of comparative tests indicate that when applying the various models to a field site. R. Tanaka and I. 1962.: “Beach Process and Sedimentation”. Rept. pp. Vol. 4) U. WW2. Many kinds of models (profile change. P. Irie: “Field observation on suspended-load in the surf zone”. S. Inc. 88. 3-52 (in Japanese). shoreline change. In the numerical computation Q must be evaluated at each measuring line. 8) Hiroaki OZASA. Vol. 77-103 (in Japanese). Note of PHRI. three-dimensional change) have been proposed in the past for prediction of various topographical changes. Conf. 1966. No. Coastal Eng.a study from the standpoint of bedload movement -”. No. Alan H. 1979. Tech. BRAMPTOM: “Models for predicting the shoreline evolution of beaches backed by seawalls”.. Coastal Engrg. they must be used properly to fit the mechanism of beach deformation at the site chosen and the scale of time and area..2) cannot be solved analytically except in extremely simple cases. angle of incidence to the shoreline. PHRI. 1962. Takamichi KONDO. 3) Savage. Vol. Kazuo NADAOKA. Vol. pp. For this purpose the breaker height. [References] 1) Shoji SATO: “A study of littoral drift related to harbor construction”. Rept.: “Laboratory determination of littoral-transport rate”. 18. ASCE. The distance Ds is determined basically by investigating the volume of beach profile area change from the bathymetric data of the coast in question. 7) Isao IRIE. 1976. Proc. Conf. 1846-1862. 1. No. (in Japanese). a computer is required to perform the numerical computation. Tanaka: “Field investigation on sand drift at Port Kashima facing the Pacific Ocean”. 2) Sato. 5) Katoh. P. Proc.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where HB ： CgB： q B： tanb： s： r s： r 0： l： K1. of ASCE.3. D. 10th Int. 156p. pp. Because equation (10.. N. 4. Kenji TERASAKI: “Two dimensional seabed scour in front of breakwaters by standing waves . Army Corps of Engineers. 1. Coastal Engineering Research Center: “Shore Protection Manual”. and N. -166- . K. 1984. S. and breaker depth at each measuring line must be calculated using a separate wave deformation calculation. No. Proc. Prentice-Hall. K2： breaker height (m) group velocity at the breaker point (m/s) angle formed by the wave front when waves break and the shoreline (º) equilibrium beach slope s = ( rs r0 ) ¤ r0 density of sediment (g/cm3) density of seawater (g/cm3) void ratio of sediment coefficients The width of sediment movement zone Ds is the distance perpendicular to the shoreline from the wave runup point on the beach to the offshore boundary where longshore transport activity becomes insignificant... 19th Int. 1977. Several representative models have been tested for mutual comparison. 23. 6) Komar. When the available data are inadequate. 1984. PHRI.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 11 Subsoil 11. land topography. thickness of soft layers. In the case of a structure of a relatively small size or a structure other than pile foundation. values in the columns of “boring” are to be used. density condition.11. consolidation characteristics. while some do not. where N refers to the number of blows in the standard penetration test.11. Mechanically determining the intervals of investigation points without consideration of local conditions should be avoided.1. Guidelines for the intervals of boring or sounding investigation points are given in Table T.1 Principles Geotechincal parameters shall be determined appropriately through site investigation and soil tests. The investigation depth should be sufficiently deep to confirm presence of the strata that has sufficient bearing capacity. and acoustic survey are very useful to verify subsoil uniformity. [Commentary] The geotechnical conditions for construction include the depth of the bearing layer. Existing data such as the results of past investigations. Table T. shear properties. groundwater level (residual water level). [Technical Notes] The location. When using old information obtained at the reference site. because they depend on construction cost or importance of the structure.1 Guidelines for Intervals of Boring and Sounding Points (a) When stratification is relatively uniform both horizontally and vertically (Units: m) Along the face line of structure Intervals Boring Preliminery investigation Largescale area Smallscale area 300 ～ 500 50 ～ 100 50 ～ 100 Sounding 100～ 300 50 20 ～ 50 20 ～ 50 20 ～ 30 10 ～ 15 25 50 ～ 100 Boring Perpendicular to the face line of structure Intervals Sounding Maximum distance from the face line of structure Boring Sounding Detailed investigation (b) When stratification is complicated (Units: m) Along the face line of structure Intervals Boring Preliminery investigation Detailed investigation ～ 50 10 ～ 30 Sounding 15 ～ 20 5 ～ 10 Boring 20 ～ 30 10 ～ 20 Perpendicular to the face line of structure Intervals Sounding 10 ～ 15 5 ～ 10 Maximum distance from the face line of structure Boring Sounding 50 ～ 100 Note: Some soundings require boring holes. Geotechical properties of subsoil drastically change as a result of the passage of consolidation time or the change in load pressure.1 for reference. Subsoil uniformity is the most important factor for determining the number of investigation points. it is important to confirm that the ground conditions have not changed due to the changes in load pressure or degree of consolidation. and depth of soil investigation should be determined by taking into consideration the size of the structure.1.1 Method of Determining Geotechnical Conditions 11. etc. deformation characteristics.1. It is difficult to determine the number of investigation points or their depths a priori. interval. -167- . the stress distribution in subsoil due to the weight of the structure. the investigation is to be completed upon confirmation of several meters of the layer with N≧30. and with N≧50 in the case of a large structure where the pile foundation is expected. permeability. For soundings requiring a bore hole. and the uniformity of the subsoil conditions. The values shown for soundings in the table are those not requiring a bore hole.

The N-value is measured according to the JIS A 1219 “Standard Penetration Test Method for Soils”. The test is less precise. The standard penetration test can be applied to various soils except those such as bedrock. considering the area and cost of investigations. -168- . Since there are suitable investigation methods for alluvial clay. 11. Table T. [Commentary] The N-value determined by the “standard penetration test” is extensively used in Japan. and importance of the structures as well as the soil properties in the neighboring sites. and the importance of the structure.1.2.1.11. evaluation of the soil parameters of alluvial clay by means of the N-value should be avoided.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 11. Clause 5) The N-values of the “standard penetration test” for soils shall be determined following the JIS “Standard Penetration Test Method for Soils”. while considering the type. for a layer of soft clay or for a layer containing gravel with a grain size of 10 mm or greater.2 Soil Investigation Methods and Soil Parameters.1 Unit Weight of Soil The unit weight of soil shall be determined using undisturbed soil samples or shall be measured directly in situ.3 Standard Penetration Test (Notification Article 10.2 Physical Properties of Soils 11.2 Selection of Soil Investigation Methods Soil investigation methods shall be so determined that soil parameters necessary for design and construction plan of the structures can be secured. size. [Commentary] Soil investigation methods should be selected most appropriately for their purpose. cobblestones and coarse gravel.11. however.2.1.1. wP 11. [Technical Notes] The soil investigation methods are classified by the investigation purpose and the soil parameters in question as listed in Table T. Purpose Verification of conditions of stratification Bearing capacity Slope stability Earth pressure Consolidation characteristics Permeability Compaction characteristics Investigation method Boring Sounding Geophysical exploration Undisturbed sampling Sounding Field test Soil parameters Depth of bearing layer Thickness of soft layer Stratification Unconfined compressive strength Shear strength Angle of shear resistance Relative density Undisturbed sampling Undisturbed sampling Field test Disturbed sampling is allowed Field test Coefficient of consolidation Coefficient of volume compressibility Coefficient of permeability Maximum dry density Optimum moisture content CBR Unit weight Moisture content Soil particle density Gradation Consistency qu tf f Dr cv mv k g dmax wopt Classification Undisturbed sampling (Disturbed sampling is allowed except for g t ) w gt rs wL. such as laboratory tests with undisturbed sample or vane shear test in situ.

and their nomenclature should be in accordance with the engineering classification method for subsoil material prescribed by the JGS 0051-2000 “Japanese Unified Soil Classification System” of the Japanese Geotechnical Society.3 Coefficient of Permeability of Soil When the seepage flow in a completely saturated ground is a steady laminar flow. Such a soil is labeled as “pooly graded”. 5 mm Clay Silt 75mm 250mm Fine sand 425mm Medium sand Sand 850mm 2mm 4.2. Soil consisting of components with a grain size less than 75 mm is called the fine-grained soil. [Commentary] Mechanical properties of soil such as strength or deformability have a close relationship with the soil gradation for coarse soils. [Technical Notes] Engineering Classification Method for Subsoil Materials (Japanese Unified Soil Classification System) The classifying method of soil and rock.2).PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 11. In contrast. Clause 2) Soil classification shall be made by gradation for coarse soils and by consistency for fine soils.2. Broadly-distributed soil: Uc ≧ 10 Uniformed soil: Uc < 10 11. i = h ¤ L h： head loss (cm) L： length of the seepage path (cm) A： cross-sectional area (cm2) (11. and such a soil is labeled as “well graded”.75mm 19mm Coarse gravel 75mm 300mm (grain size) Large rocks (boulders) Rock Rock materials Coarse sand Fine gravel Medium gravel Gravel Cobblestone (cobble) Fine materials Coarse materials Fig.2.2. and gave equation (11. T. Hazen showed that the effective grain size D10 and the permeability of sand k are related.1) U c = D 60 ¤ D 10 where Uc： uniformity coefficient D60： grain size correrponding to 60 perent passing of mass in grain size distribution curve (mm) D10： grain size corresponding to 10 perent passing of mass in grain size distribution curve (mm) A large uniformity coefficient means that the grain size is broadly distributed. The grain size classifications and their names are shown in Fig.2. q k = --------i×A where k： coefficient of permeability (cm/s) q： volume of water flow in soil in unit time (cm3/s) i： hydraulic gradient.11. and with the consistency for fine soils.2.2. In the “Japanese unified soil classification system”.2 Classification of Soils (Notification Article 10.1).2) The measurement of k can be carried out for sampled soil by a laboratory permeability test. or a in-situ permeability test. a small value of Uc means that the grain size distribution is narrow or the grain size is uniform. (11. T11.1 1).1 Grain Size Classification and Nomenclature 1) The uniformity coefficient is an index showing the grain size characteristics of sandy soil and is defined by equation (11. coarse soil where fine contents are less than 5% of the total mass is further divided into “broadly-distributed soil” and “uniformed soil”.2.2. the coefficient of permeability shall be estimated by using Darcy’s law. [Commentary] The coefficient of permeability k is calculated by equation (11. The coarse-grained soil refers to soil composed mainly of coarse fraction with a grain size ranging from 75 mm to 75 mm.3) to calculate k of relatively -169- . [Technical Notes] An approximate value for the coefficient of permeability can be obtained as follows.

The secant modulus E50.3. As the strain level increases. the approximate values for the initial tangent modulus Ei. it is necessary to determine the elastic constant by considering the strain level of the ground. (2) Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Deformation Modulus For cohesive soils.1) (11.2 Consolidation Properties (Notification Article 10.5%.3 Mechanical Properties of Soils 11. Table T. although a number of methods have been proposed.3) k = CD 10 2 where k： coefficient of permeability (cm/s) C： constant (C = 100 (1/cm/s)) D10： grain size corresponding to 10 percentage passing of mass in grain size distribution curve (called as the effective grain size) (cm) Terzaghi has pointed out that equation (11. When the strain level is within a range of 10-5 or less.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN uniform sand with the uniformity coefficient of Uc less than 5.4 Approximate Values of Coefficient of Permeability 2) Soil Coefficient of permeability Sand 10-2 cm/s Silt 10-5 cm/s Clay 10-7 cm/s 11. [Commentary] When analyzing a ground as an elastic body. -170- .11. the elastic constants shall be determined with due consideration for the nonlinearity of stress-strain relation of soils.2.1 mm to 0.2.11. the deformation modulus and Poisson’s ratio are normally used as the elastic constants. which can be regarded as the deformation modulus corresponding to a strain level of 0. Because of the strong nonlinearity of stress-strain relation of soil. (11. determined from a conventional unconfined compression test or a triaxial compression test.3. and the effective grain size D10 from 0.2 ~ 0. because it has been measured by the dynamic testing methods such as the elastic wave exploration. When conducting an elastic analysis of ground.1) is applicable only for highly structured marine clay with high plasticity. [Technical Notes] (1) Strain Dependency of Deformation Modulus The stress-strain relation of soil usually shows a strong nonlinearity. the deformation modulus is largest and nearly constant. is the deformation modulus when the strain is of the order of 10-3. the elasticity modulus decreases. (3) Poisson’s Ratio For determining Poisson’s ratio of soil.2. 11. Clause 3) The coefficient of volume compressibility and other parameters that are used for the prediction of consolidation settlement of soft ground based on the theory of consolidation shall be obtained by laboratory consolidation tests of undisturbed samples according to the JIS A1217-193 “Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils”. The approximate values of the coefficient of permeability are listed in Table T.4 2). and the secant modulus E50 can be determined by using equation (11. there is no established method currently.3) can also be applied to cohesive soils by using C ≒ 2.3.3.1 Elastic Constants When analyzing a ground as an elastic body. Practically. Ei E50 where Ei ： E50： cu ： = 210cu = 180cu initial tangent modulus (kN/m2) secant modulus (kN/m2) undrained shear strength (kN/m2) (11.3 mm.3.2) The equation (11.2) 3).3. the elastic constants in design must be determined by considering the strain level of the ground to be analyzed.1) and equation (11. v = 1/2 is used for undrained conditions of saturated soil. and v = 1/3 ~ 1/2 is used for many other situations.2. This maximum value Emax is called the dynamic elasticity modulus.

3.4).3.5) S = h ------------1 + e0 In the m v method.1.3. the prediction of secondary settlement is necessary. The relationship between U and the nondimensional time factor Tv is obtained by the theory of consolidation. p2 (11. p2 (11.4) and the settlement S is calculated by the following equation: De (11. in the case of Pleistocene clay layer.11.1 e-log p Relationship of Soil De = e 1 e 2 = C c log 10 ---p1 When the consolidation pressure is applied to soft ground. The latter is the settlement that continues after the dissipation of the excess pore water pressure. S is calculated by the following equation. The relationship between the void ratio e for the segment abc in Fig. the final consolidation settlement can be calculated using three methods: e-log p curve method. In the e-log p curve method. (1) Calculation of Final Settlement by Consolidation By plotting the consolidation pressure p and the void ratio e after the consolidation is completed on semi-logarithmic coordinates.11.3. The m v method has been commonly used in practice.3. When port and harbor structures are constructed on normally-consolidated marine deposits. showing an almost straight line when plotted on logarithmic coordinates.3. T. T.7) (2) Rate of Settlement The consolidation is the time-dependent settlement phenomenon.11. and Cc method.3. m v (coefficient of volume compressibility) method. is given by equation (11. the most of the settlement is due to the primary consolidation and the effect of secondary consolidation is negligible. Cc p 0 + Dp S = h ------------. In some cases. a socalled “e-log p curve” is obtained as shown in Fig.3). the decrease in void ratio Δe. The former is the settlement that accompanies the dissipation of excess pore water pressure generated due to the increase of overburden pressure.3.log10 -----------------p0 1 + e0 where Cc： compression index (11. Using equation (11. T.6) where S： final consolidation settement (m) mv： coefficient of volume compressibility when the consolidation pressure is (p0+1/2Δp) (m2/kN) e0： void ratio of soil in situ p0： overburden pressure in situ (kN/m2) Δp： increase in consolidation pressure (kN/m2) h： thickness of layer (m) When the soil is normally consolidated. However.1 and the pressure p is expressed by equation (11. however. Δe is determined from equation (11. The rate of consolidation for an entire clay layer is represented with the parameter U for the average degree of consolidation. The relationship between the nondimensional time factor Tv and the actual time t is shown by the following equation: -171- . when consolidation pressure increases from p1 to p2. the determination of m v value should be carried out carefully.3.4) Fig.3.3) e 2 = e 1 C c log 10 ---p1 where Cc is the degree of inclination of the segment abc and is called the compression index. In the Cc method. the value of m v decreases with the increase of consolidation pressure. because the subsoil is usually at the boundary between the over-consolidated stage and the normally consolidated stage. The primary consolidation settlement is determined by the calculation of final settlement and the settlement rate.3). because the determination of m v is easy when the subsoil is normally-consolidated clay.3. [Technical Notes] The consolidation settlement consists of the primary consolidation and the secondary (delayed) consolidation. S is calculated by the following equation: S = mv・Dp ・ h (11.3.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Commentary] The standard laboratory consolidation test is prescribed by the JIS A 1217-1993 “Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils.

11.11. -172- . Fig.g. T-11. and the contribution of secondary consolidation is not negligible.2 Consolidation Isochrones Average degree of consolidation 7 (%) Time factor Tv Fig.3.3.3 Theoretical Relationship between Average Degree of Consolidation and Time Factor When the permeable layer exist at both sides of the clay layer. when the permeable layer only exists in one side. the maximum drainage distance H* is the same as H (half of the thickness of the layer).3. (e.3. The degree of consolidation at each depth is shown by the consolidation isochrones in Fig. In the following cases. T. (a) The ground settlement may give an serious influence on structures in the long term after the primary consolidation is completed.3. Furthermore.2.4.11.. T. T. (b) The consolidation pressure exceeds the consolidation yield stress of the soil layer but not by a large margin. in the case of the settlement of Pleistocene clay in deep layers). secondary consolidation must be taken into consideration at design stage.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN cv · t • T v = ----------H* 2 where Tv： time factor cv： coefficient of consolidation (cm2/d) t ： time after the consolidation starts (d) H*： maximum drainage distance (cm) (11.3 shows the theoretical relationship between the average degree of consolidation and the time factor.3. H* is equal to 2H. However.11. (3) Secondary Consolidation The progress of consolidation with the lapse of time is exemplified in Fig.8) Degree of consolidation Fig. T.

To obtain the consolidation parameters for extremely soft deposits correctly. the coefficient of permeability of sandy soil is 103 ~ 105 times that of cohesive soil. as the drainage cannot take place during construction. Because the value of cd is usually very small. For intermediate soil that has the permeability somewhere between those of sandy soil and cohesive soil. Mikasa’s consolidation theory can be applied to this problem.11. suction or drainage of pore water) takes place during the shear or not. the excess water in pores is considered to be completely drained during construction. because the theory takes into account the effect of deadweight of clay layer and the changes in layer thickness that are ignored in the conventional theory of consolidation 4). the most dangerous time is immediately after the loading when almost no drainage has occurred (this is called the short-term stability problem). The shear strength tf at this time is the shear strength cu that is determined from unconsolidated undrained (UU) tests using the sample before loading. undrained condition (UU condition) ② Consolidated. and the analysis using ?u is also called the “f = 0 method”. landfill. the time-settlement relationship must be calculated with the finite difference method. the soil should be viewed as sandy soil or cohesive soil based on the coefficient of permeability and construction conditions. Constructions of seawalls or breakwaters (without excavation).4 Primary Consolidation and Secondary Consolidation (4) Consolidation Settlement in Very Soft Clay When the landfill is carried out with dredging or disposed sludge. The shear strength is then determined using an appropriate testing procedure. on the other hand. undrained condition (CU condition) ③ Consolidated. the shear strength of the layer undergoes almost no change between before and after construction. soil shall be classified into sandy soil and cohesive soil. For cohesive soil layer. The drainage condition and shear strength are then as in the following: (a) When loading takes place rapidly on the cohesive soil ground: Because consolidation progresses and shear strength increases with the passage of time.3.3 Shear Properties (Notification Article 10. The parameter cu is also called the apparent cohesion. The shear strength of sandy soil shall be determined under drained conditions. For sandy soil layer. it is necessary to predict the consolidation settlement of extremely soft deposits. the constant strain rate consolidation test can be utilized 5). The drainage condition is classified into the following three categories and the different strength parameters are used for each case: ① Unconsolidated. [Technical Notes] (1) Shear Strength Shear strength of soil is greatly dependent upon whether a volume change of soil (in the case of saturated soil.3. The undrained shear strength before construction is therefore used as the strength parameter. To use Mikasa’s consolidation theory. Thus in many cases for sandy soil layer the shear strength is evaluated using the frictional angle in drained condition fd and the cohesion in drained condition cd.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Average degree of consolidation 7 (%) Primary consolidation Theoretical curve Actual curve Secondary consolidation J 100 Fig. T. drained condition (CD condition) The shear strength used for ground design should be that for the most dangerous drainage conditions expected under the given load. In the case of saturated cohesive soil layer. practically cd is ignored and only fd is used as the strength parameter. almost no drainage is expected during construction because the soil permeability is low. -173- . while the shear strength for cohesive soil shall be determined under undrained conditions. and embankments on soft cohesive soil ground are in this category. 11. [Commentary] In general. Clause 4) To determine the shear strength parameters of soil.

11. and loses its shear strength (this is called the long-term stability problem). For the equation to determine fd from N-values.4 Angle of Internal Friction by N-value is referred to. landfill and embankments on sandy soil belong to this category. Because the value of fd becomes large when sand’s void ratio becomes small and its density becomes high. The following equations show the strength calculation methods respectively: For cohesive soil (the sand content is less than 50%) t = cu where t： shear strength (kN/m2) cu： undrained shear strength (kN/m2) For sandy soil (the sand content is higher than 80%) t = ( s u ) tan f d where t： shear strength (kN/m2) s： normal stress to shear plane (kN/m2) u： steady water pressure at the site (kN/m2) fd： angle of shear resistance for drained conditions (º) (11. the parameters cd and fd are used for design because the shear strength under consolidated. it is best to take and test an undisturbed sample. In almost all cases for normal construction conditions of port and harbor structures. sampling of undisturbed sand samples is technically difficult and also very expensive. it is called the intermediate soil. drained) test. Among the three categories the consolidated.9) (11. the importance of the structures. the bearing capacity is overestimated in some cases if the value of fd determined by a triaxial CD test is directly used as the design parameter.3.3. Although the fd values of sand with the same density will vary a little with the shear conditions. Compared with the case of cohesive soil. as presented below. which is conducted with the confining pressure corresponding to design conditions with undisturbed sample. The undrained shear strength cu used for design is given by the following equation: (11.11) cu = qu ¤ 2 -174- . in the case of bearing cabacity problem for foundation. Therefore.3.10). undrained shear strength becomes lowest after water absorption and soil expansion when the overconsolidation ratio is small (s is a little less than pc).3. In this situation. There are several methods. drained condition is the smallest. Hence. the undrained strength in UU conditions of (a) is used in design for cohesive soils and the strength parameter in the CD conditions of (b) is used for sandy soils. (c) When ground permeability is poor and the load is removed to decrease the stress s normal to the shear plane: In this case. the value of fd determined by a triaxial CD test. The angle of shear resistance fd for drained conditions can be determined using a triaxial CD (consolidated. which is much influenced by progressive failure. when the soil absorbs water. (3) Shear Strength of Cohesive Soil Soil in which the clay and silt fraction by percentage is greater than 50% is regarded as cohesive soil. because soil with a sand fraction ranging from 50% ~ 80% displays intermediate characteristics between sandy soil and cohesive soil. subsoil characteristics. the void ratio e0 in situ must be accurately determined. This is the reason that the shear strength for sandy soil is frequently determined from the Nvalue of “Standard Penetration Test” rather than from a laboratory soil test.10) Furthermore. etc. Constructions of seawalls or breakwaters (when there is no excavation). The evaluation of shear strength of intermediate soil is difficult compared with that of sandy soil or cohesive soil. design of structures should be carried out using cd and fd determined under consolidated. the most dangerous situation is after a long time is elapsed. to determine the undrained shear strength cu of cohesive soil. However. drained (CD) conditions. can be used as the design parameter for stability analysis. the shear strength of sand is represented by equation (11. (a) qu method This method uses the average value of unconfined compressive strength qu determined from undisturbed samples. (2) Shear Strength of Sand Because sandy soil has high permeability and is regarded in completely drained condition. Earth retaining and excavation in clayey ground or removal of preloading on cohesive soil ground belongs to this category. therefore. On the other hand. expands.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (b) When ground permeability is large or when drainage from consolidated layer is almost completed during construction period because the loading is carried out very slowly: Because drainage from the layer occurs simultaneously with loading and an increase in strength of the layer is expected along with the loading. in the case of heavily overconsolidated ground where s is very small compared to pc. the shear strength for such soil should be evaluated carefully by referring to the most recent research results. An appropriate method should be chosen in consideration of such factors as past experiences. the cu value should be used with consideration of soil expansion.

to site management where soil is being improved using vertical drains.5 Relationship between Plasticity Index and cu/p (5) Strength of Intermediate Soil Soil with a sand content in the range of 50% ~ 80% is intermediate soil between sandy soil and cohesive soil 10). T. (c) Method using strength from a box shear test This method uses the strength tDS (units in kN/m2) determined by a box shear test. T. it is desirable that the combined method with unconfined compression test and triaxial compression test or the box shear test be used as the method for evaluating the strength of intermediate soil 16). reclaimed ground. 0. for example.3. To resolve this problem. regardless of plasticity (refer to Fig. Hence. because of the limitations of test conditions. However. The test can determine the shear strength for very soft clay for which an unconfined compression test cannot be performed due to the difficuly in making a specimen freestanding. c : : : triaxial compression direct shear triaxial extension Plasticity index 1F c u ¤ p = 0. the value of fd is greater than 30º in many cases 12) ~ 14). From the past experiences in the field and research results for marine clay in Japan.3. the rate of strength increase cu/p by consolidation is an important parameter because the strength is increased by the drainage of pore water by consolidation. the intermediate soil should be regarded as a cohesive soil.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS In this equation. the larger the increase rate of the strength and the more effective soil improvement are expected. the value of cu /p lies in a range shown by the following equation. For soil improvement methods such as the vertical drain method or sand compaction pile method. the shear strength determined by qu method is underestimated. after undisturbed sample is consolidated one-dimensionally under in-situ effective overburden pressure. An in-situ vane shear test can be carried out rather easily with mobility at a field site. For more details see the references 6) and 7).12) c u = 0.85t DS In this equation. the coefficient of permeability and design conditions are taken into consideration to determine whether the soil is sandy soil or cohesive soil.5 Application of Soundings Other Than SPT. the value of fd determined from an electrical cone penetration resistance or a triaxial CD test can be used as design parameters.11. (4) Increase in Cohesive Soil Strength due to Consolidation The undrained strength of cohesive soil will increase with the progress of consolidation.3. When the coefficient of permeability is less than 10-4 cm/s. According to the experience on investigating the properties of intermediate soils in Japan. The average value of the obtained shear strength cu (v) can be used in design as the undrained shear strength cu 9). Clause 6) The angle of internal friction for sandy soils shall be calculated using the following equation from a standard penetration test value. 11. Because the influence of stress release during sampling in intermediate soil is much greater than that in cohesive soil. the coefficient of permeability determined from a standard consolidation test generally gives an underestimated value.11.30 (11.85 is a correction factor related to shear rate effect. For intermediate soil with a large sand fraction or with coral gravel.13) Fig.4 Angle of Internal Friction by N-value (Notification Article 10. regarding cd = 0. (b) Methods combining unconfined compressive strength and strength from triaxial compression tests One problem with the qu method is that the test’s reliability depends on the skill of the technician.28 ~ 0.3. A correction method is used for the strength of such intermadiate soil with a large sand fraction by means of clay fraction and plasticity index 15). It can thus be applied. The box shear test is conducted according to the JGS T 560-1997 of the Japanese Geotechnical Society 8). When the coefficient of permeability determined by this kind of procedures is greater than 10-4 cm/s. (d) Method determing undrained shear strength from an in-situ vane shear test Vane shear test is described in 11.5) 9). q u is the average value of unconfined compressive strength (kN/m2). Then the shear strength is determined accordingly. -175- . a combination method can be used to determine the strength by comparing the qu of undisturbed samples with the strength from a triaxial CU test and evaluating the quality of the sample. It is desirable not only to improve the test procedure. For this type of soil. the ground is regarded permeable. but also to conduct an in-situ permeability test or an electrical cone test to determine the coefficient of permeability 11). The larger the value of cu /p. because the test is subject to the influence of disturbance during sampling. The undrained shear strength cu used for design is given by the following equation: (11. This method is used for natural soil ground and cannot be applied to unconsolidated.

Holtz (dry sand.11.1 Influence of Effective Overburden Pressure and Relative Density on N-Values (Meyerhof) 17) 11. (2) Vane Shear Test A vane shear test is a test in which a cross-shaped vane is pushed into the ground and the undrained shear strength of the subsoil is determined from the vane’s torque for rotation. This is the method of ground investigation most applicable for the case when sandy layers and cohesive soil layers are intricately mixed. it is necessary to consider the background of their derivation and the ground conditions of the data and to confirm the range of their applicability.4. wet sand) Yanase (wet fine sand) Yanase (saturated fine sand) Overburden pressure N-Value Relative density Dr Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 100N f = 25 + 3. and thus the subsoil conditions can be estimated more precisely. -176- . there are many different types of soundings 18). In the “Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan” (1989). C.4.5 Application of Soundings Other Than SPT (Notification Article 10. the required soil parameters.1.5. Because the relative density Dr varies with pvo¢ as seen in Fig. This test is suitable to determine the strength of subsoil in case the specimens are incapable of freestanding.2 --------------------70 + p n o ¢ (11. C. [Technical Notes] (1) Types of Soundings As listed in Table T. Clause 7) When conducting soundings other than the “Standard Penetration Test”.1) where f： angle of internal friction of sand (º) N： standard penetration test value pvo¢： effective overburden pressure at the time the standard penetration test value is obtained (kN/m2) [Commentary] Relationships between the N-value and many soil parameters have been established by the data at various sites.11. the value of f was determined directly from the N-values without considering the effective overburden pressure pvo¢. however. When preparing a ground investigation plan.1. When using these relationships. the required soil constants. such as soft cohesive soil. Terzaghi Gibbs. (3) Electrical Static Cone Penetration Test The notable characteristic of this test is its function to measure soil parameters almost continuously in the vertical direction. and the level of precision.11.4. as can be seen in Danham’s equation. a combination of the laboratory tests and the soundings should be appropriatelly studied considering the characteristics of the subsoil of ground. and the level of precision required for design or construction. pvo¢ must be taken into consideration to determine f from an N-value. a method shall be appropriately selected considering the subsoil properties.

1) is used to determine the undrained shear strength cu of clay from a cone penetration test. the value of Nkt extends over a range from 8 to 15. soil classfication. strength.2 19). When determining cu from a cone test.1 Characteristics and Applicable Subsoils for Sounding Methods Measured parameters Settlement by each load (Wsw) Number of onehalf revolution per 1 m penetration (Nsw) Penetration resistance Estimated values from measured parameters Converted Nvalue or unconfined compressive strength qu value Applicable subsoils Applicable depth (m) Method Designation Continuity Characteristics Weight penetration test (Swedish sounding) Continuous All subsoils except 15 m level cobblestone and gravel Operation is simple compared to the Standard Penetration Test Portable cone penetration test Continuous Unconfined compressive Cohesive soils strength. bearing capacity.1) c u = ( q t s v0 ) ¤ N kt where cu： undrained shear strength (kN/m2) qt： cone penetration resistance (kN/m2) s v0： overburden pressure in terms of total stress (kN/m2) Nkt： cone parameter From investigations conducted on marine clay in Japan. direct measurement of cu Mechanical meaning of the estimated value is very clear In situ vane shear test Discontinuous Undrained Soft cohesive shear strength soils of cohesive soil Deformation modulus.5. and undrained shear strength Sand density. Pore water pressure u Maximum resisting moment for rotation Pressure. therefore. T. shear modulus. clay cohesion. Creep Cohesive soils or sandy soils Depends upon the capacity of Data reliability the penetration is high apparatus or fixing apparatus Specifically for soft cohesive soil. as shown in Fig.5. initial pressure.11. yield stress.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Equation (11. unconfined compressive strength Nd = (1 ~ 2) N (regarded as equivalent to the N-value) 15 m level Borehole horizontal loading test Discontinuous All subsoils and bedrocks where the borehole Basically no wall surface is limits smooth and freestanding Discontinuous N-value Standard Minimum (number of Penetration Test interval is 50 cm hammering) Dynamic All subsoils except cobblestone or boulder stone Basically no limits Widely employed and can be used for almost all subsurface investigations Operation is simple compared to the Standard Penetration Test Simple dynamic cone penetration Continuous test Nd (number of hammering) Same as above 15 m level (lod friction becomes larger as depth increases) -177- . Table T. and or humic soils cohesion of clay Shear strength.5. It is well understood from past testings that the value of Nkt varies depending upon many factors. and consolidation properties 5 m level Simple test. friction angle. very quick Static Double tube electrical static Continuous cone penetration test Point resistance qc. Hole wall displacement.5.11. (11. a laboratory test and an electrical static cone penetration test for at least one location should be conducted to determine the value of Nkt.

1) and equation (11. T.5. the nonlinearity of the relationship between the dynamic stress and strain of soil for a wide range of the shear strain amplitude must be appropriately assessed and modeled.6 Dynamic Properties of Soils 11. the relationship between the shear stress and shear strain of the soils is required. [Commentary] Seismic design methods can be broadly classified into the static design methods and the dynamic design methods.6. the bilinear model. both the time domain analysis and the frequency domain analysis are used.11. and deformation of subsoils or structures against basement rock are calculated to examine the stability of ground or structures.6.11. is up to a strain level of 10-3. In this method the seismic force is assumed to act on the ground or structures in the form of a static inertia force. such as the equivalent linear model. Normally the relationship between the shear stress and shear strain in ground subjected to dynamic loading is described by a skeleton curve and a hysteresis curve. One example of static design methods is the seismic coefficient method. T. The applicable range of the equivalent linear model.6. and the RambergOsgood model 20).2 Cone Parameters of Marine Clay in Japan (Undrained shear strength was determined from unconfined compression tests) 19) 11. the results must be carefully examined.1 Dynamic Modulus of Deformation (Notification Article 10. dynamic magnification factors or amplification values of acceleration. Clause 8) For seismic response analysis. Since the dynamic modulus of deformation prescribes this relationship between the shear stress and shear strain. as shown in Fig.6. however. the hyperbolic model (Hardin-Dornevich model).2) as shown in Fig.6. In dynamic design methods. As for the seismic response analysis method. A skeleton curve will display remarkable nonlinearity as the shear strain amplitude becomes larger. T. The shear modulus G and the damping constant h are defined with the shear strain amplitude by equation (11.11. The relationship of the dynamic stress and strain of soil is expressed with two parameters: the shear modulus and the damping constant in the equivalent linner model. (2) Modeling of Deformation Properties in the Equivalent Linear Model To estimate the behavior of ground during an earthquake. [Technical Notes] (1) Relationship between Dynamic Shear Stress and Shear Strain of Soil. When the strain level exceeds 10-3. and stability is investigated from the equilibrium of forces.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Kurihama Hachirogata Tamano Izumo Kuwana Ogi-shima Shinonome Nkt Ip Fig.1. -178- . There are many models to apply the shear stress and shear strain curves of soil into analysis. it must be appropriately determined when conducting a seismic response analysis.2. an appropriate dynamic modulus of deformation of soils shall be determined to prescribe the relationship between the shear stress and shear strain of soil. For either method. speed. on the other hand. Of these models the equivalent linear calculation method is frequently used for seismic response analyses from the standpoint of calculation time and solution stability.

T.11.1) (11.3) 2e a ( 1 + v ) where s a： axial stress amplitude (kN/m2) e a： axial strain amplitude For v.3 Shear Modulus.2. The tests can also be used to evaluate the change in the modulus of dynamic deformation due to construction of structures. With the cyclic triaxial test. the shear modulus is determined from equation (11. or by the in-situ tests using elastic waves such as the PS logging method or the cross hole method.2 Shear Modulus and Damping Constant // // / / Shear strain amplitude γ Fig.11.6. (3) Measurement of the Shear Modulus and the Damping Constant The shear modulus and the damping constant must be determined by laboratory tests such as the resonance test or cyclic triaxial test.6.11.6.6. Damping Constant and Shear Strain Amplitude t G = g DW h = --------------2p × W where G： shear modulus (kN/m2) t： shear stress amplitude (kN/m2) g： shear strain amplitude h： damping constant W： strain energy (kN/m2) DW： damping energy (kN/m2) (11.3. The damping constant is calculated from equation (11.6.33 is normally used for a drainage condition and 0. The laboratory tests can be used to measure the shear modulus and damping constant for a wide range of shear strain amplitudes from 10-6 to 10-2 although undisturbed samples from the field must be obtained.6.1 Stress Strain Curve Fig.2) Since the values of shear modulus G and damping constant h vary nonlinearly depending on the value of g.6.6. where G0 is the shear modulus at g ≒ 10-6. T.11.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Shear stren τ Skeleton curve / is the shear modulus h is the damping constant Shear stress τ Shear strain γ Shear strain γ Hysteresis curve Fig. T. a G/G0 ~ g curve and a h ~ g curve are normally drawn as shown in Fig T.2) with W and DW obained from the stress .45 is used for an undrained condition. -179- . the value of 0.6.strain curve such as shown in Fig.3) with Poisson’s ratio v.11.6. T. sa G = -----------------------(11.

. 1961. 4) Masato MIKASA: “Consolidation of Soft Clay”. Engineering Classification Method for Subsoil Material (Japanese Unified Soil Classification System)”.4) G 0 = rV s = --. When doing so.6.6. [Commentary] The typical dynamic external forces encountered in ports and harbors are seismic force and wave force. No. No. B. 6) Takashi TSUCHIDA. 8) Japanese Geotechnical Society: “Method for Consolidated Undrained Box Shear Test of Soil” in “Newly Established Standard of Japanese Geotechnical Society and Commentary Ⅳ (1997 version)”. New York. But the tests do possess the advantage of being able to measure the values in situ directly. Rept. 1-17 (in Japanese).6) from the data of elastic wave velocity measurements by a seismic exploration using bore holes. No.6) 11. No.6. Yoshio MORI: “New method for determining undrained strength of clayey ground by means of unconfined compression test and triaxial test”. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 44. Vol. Nov. Under present circumstance these dynamic external forces are normally converted into static loads like in the seismic coefficient method. pp. 7) Takashi TSUCHIDA: “Study on determination of underained strength of clayey ground by mean of triaxial tests”. Jun-ichi MIZUKAMI. Vol. of PHRI. 23. pp. in which it is necessary to handle them as dynamic loads like in liquefaction analysis or in strength decrease analysis of cohesive soil beneath structures exposed to waves.6.4) to (11. Vol. There are situations. and P. 688. gt 2 2 (11.6. 469. pp. 1994. 1 ý è ø î Vs þ where V p： longitudinal wave velocity (m/s) V s： transverse wave velocity (m/s) G0： shear modulus (kN/m2) E0： Young’s modulus (kN/m2) v： Poisson’s ratio r： density (t/m3) g t： wet unit weight (kN/m3) g： gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (11. 33. 1972. Masaki KOBAYASHI. No. 4. 1948. of PHRI. 1996 (in Japanese). while wave forces are characterized by a long period and many cyclic repetitions. Kajima Publisher. of Transportation Technical Research Institute. Vol. No. 81-145 (in Japanese). Tech. -180- . 11. 2) K. Seismic forces are characterized by a short period and few cyclic repetitions. Terzaghi. 243-259 (in Japanese). Ken OIKAWA. Akio KANECHIKA: “Undrained shear strength and deformation modulus of clays”. 1991 (in Japanese).2 Dynamic Strength Properties Soil strength against dynamic external forces shall be determined through laboratory tests.6.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN In-situ tests are limited to measurements of the shear modulus that only corresponds to 10-6 level of shear strain amplitude. 9) Hiroyuki TANAKA. 36 p. [References] 1) Japanese Geotechnical Society: “Revised Standard of Japanese Geotechnical Society and Commentary. 2.5) (11. the properties of the external forces and the subsoil conditions shall be appropriately set in. (in Japanese). Tech. 1983 (in Japanese). 10) Susumu KURATA and Toshio FUJISHITA: Studies on the engineering properties of sand-clay mixture. the cyclic undrained triaxial test method explained in the “Soil Testing Methods and Commentary” of the Japanese Geotechnical Society should be used 21). Note of PHRI. refer to the “Prediction and Determination of Liquefaction” in the “Handbook on Liquefaction Remediation of Reclaimed Land” (Revised Edition) 22). 3. Rept. Peck: “Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice”. Masanori TANAKA: “Detemination of undrained shear strength of clayey ground measured by vane shear tests”. 1996 (in Japanese). of PHRI. p. Rept. however. pp.15-58 (in Japanese).V s g E 0 = 2 ( 1 + v )G 0 Vp 2 æ -----ö 2 è Vsø v = -------------------------------ì æ V pö 2 ü 2 í ----. 3) Akio NAKASE. 11. Note of PHRI. They are also used to calibrate the shear modulus taken from laboratory tests. When applying the results of cyclic triaxial tests to the liquefaction analysis of ground during an earthquake. 5) Yasufumi UMEHARA: “Study on the consolidation characteristics of soils and consolidation test methods”. 1989. When conducting cyclic triaxial tests.. Rept. 9. Such tests have not been put to practical application to measure the shear modulus and damping constant for the large shear strain amplitude. The elastic constant of subsoil is obtained by equations (11. In such cases the dynamic strength of soils are normally obtained by cyclic triaxial tests.

No. 13) Takashi TSUCHIDA. No. 11. 19) Hiroyuki TANAKA. No. Takeshi FUKAZAWA: “Properties of Japanese normally consolidated marine clays obtained from static piezocone penetration test”. on Calcarious Soils. Vol. G. 1992. pp. pp. 3. Note of PHRI. 1996 (in Japanese). Masaki KOBAYASHI. JSCE. 31. Discussion2. of PHRI. Vol. No. 61-92 (in Japanese). 421-450. Proc. 1993 (in Japanese). p. Conf. Note 2. 17) G. Masanori TANAKA and Takashi TSUCHIDA: “Strength characteristics of naturally deposited intermediate soil”. Masaki KOBAYASHI: “Unconfined compression strength of soils of intermediate grading between sand and clay”. 22) Coastal Development Institute of Technology: “Handbook on Liquefaction Remediation of Reclaimed Land (Revised Edition)”. Rept. Shusuke IFUKU and Isao FUKUDA: “Engineering properties of coral soils in Japanese South Western Islands”. 15) Akio NAKASE. 1998 (in Japanese). pp. 1992 (in Japanese). Kenji GOTO. Kouji SUZUKI. 12) Masaki KOBAYASHI. No. Rept. Tech. 1990. 20) Kenji ISHIHARA: “Fundamentels of Geodynamics”. 21) Japanese Geotechnical Society: “Method of Soil Testing and Commentary”. Takashi TSUCHIDA and Takeshi KAMEI: “Intermediate soil-sand or clay?-”. 1988. of PHRI. 589/ Ⅲ-42. compression and permeability characteristics of intermediate soil and mixture”. 1957. -181- . 837. 1997. 14) Takashi TSUCHIDA: “Consolidation. 1976 (in Japanese). 1972 (in Japanese). 191 p. 4. Motoo SAKAKIBARA. Geotech. Int. (in Japanese). Masaru KATSUNO. Vol. 16) Hiroyuki TANAKA. Kajima Publishers. Masanori TANAKA: “A site investigation method using cone penetration and dilatometer tests”. 18) Japanese Geotechnical Society: “Method of Ground Investigation”. 41. Soils and Foundations. pp. 4. 114-136. Vol. Jour. (in Japanese). 7. 7-34. Meyerhof: “Discussion on soil properties and their measurement”.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 11) Hiroyuki TANAKA. 110. Japanese Geotechnical Society. of the 4th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. (in Japanese). 1995.

For structures such as gravity type quaywalls that are comparatively rigid and their amplitudes of vibration is small compared with the ground motion during an earthquake. the seismic resistance should be examined using the seismic coefficient from 12. This experience during the “Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake” strongly suggests that structured types should be diversified to ensure different seismic response characteristics in the facilities when selecting the structural types of port and harbor facilities. the seismic resistance using seismic response analysis after appropriately modeling related conditions such as the structure. Ground conditions at the construction site Importance of the facilities (based on a comprehensive evaluation of social and economic importance) Earthquake resistance of the facilities Stability of the entire structure Stability against subsoil sliding Influence of liquefaction on the subsoil stability and structures Stress within structural elements From the standpoint of serviceability. ground or earthquakes should be examined. earthquake ground motion.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 12 Earthquakes and Seismic Force 12. 12. modified seismic coefficient method. the relative displacement of the various parts of a structure or that between adjacent structures or subsoil (2) Investigation items related to analysis of seismic resistance are as follows: (3) When the Port of Kobe was hit by the “Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake”. the seismic resistance should be examined using the modified seismic coefficient method shown in 12. 12.3 Seismic Coefficient Method. in addition to an investigation based on the seismic coefficient method. The seismic design method for open-type wharves on with vertical piles using the modified seismic coefficient method is described in Part Ⅷ . For very important structures or structures for which past examples of damage are rare.4 Design Seismic Coefficient and the method shown in 12.3 Seismic Coefficient Method. 12.6 Seismic Deformation Method. etc. but which is very large when it occurs) and whose functions can be quickly -182- . If structural types were different. the effect of earthquakes shall be carefully examined so that the facilities retain appropriate seismic resistance. such as immersed tunnels.3 Seismic Coefficient Method in consideration of the dynamic response characteristics of structures. most of the quaywalls were suffered identical damage because almost all of the quaywalls were built in an identical structural type.2 Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities in Design (Notification Article 13 and Article16) (1) Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities (a) Port and harbor facilities shall be capable of retaining their required structural stability without losing their function when subjected to the “Level 1” earthquake motion (earthquake motion with a high probability of occurrence during the lifetime of facilities). 9. earthquakes to be examined in the analysis.5 Seismic Response Analysis. or for structures having a comparatively long natural period. and the extent of damage to structures would have been diverse. pipelines and other pipe-type structures that are buried in the earth. [Technical Notes] The seismic resistance of port and harbor facility must be examined with consideration of the dynamic characteristics of the structures using the methods shown in 12. the seismic resistance should be examined in accordance with 12.1 General In the design of port and harbor facilities. For structures whose stability is subject to the deformation of the surrounding earth. or combinations of the methods.6 Examination of Earthquake-Resistance Performance. or seismic deformation method.6 Seismic Deformation Method. their seismic response characteristics would have differed. [Commentary] (1) The following matters should be taken into consideration when investigating the seismic resistance of structures: (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Level of seismicity in the region. For structures having a natural period close to the predominant period of seismic motion and a small damping characteristics. (b) High seismic resistant structures (particularly important facilities whose seismic resistance is to be reinforced) shall be the structures that will sustain only slight damage during the “Level 2” earthquake motion (earthquake motion that has a vety low probability of occurrence during the lifetime of facilities.

).12.12. earthquake motion with a 75-year return period should be used as the “Level 1” earthquake motion. “To retain their expected function” means that even if damage occurs to the facility it is minor and the facility’s function can quickly be restored after the earthquake. (2) Examination of Earthquake Resistance of High Seismic Resistant Structure (a) In any investigation of the structural stability of high seismic resistant structures. [Commentary] For the seismic design of port and harbor facilities.1 and Table T. -183- . the earthquake resistance shall be examined to ensure required earthquake resistance against seismic load. high seismic resistant revetments for refuge and rescure centers. port and harbor facilities such as bridges and immersed tunnels that must take the Level 2 earthquake motion into consideration in design. The deformation values listed in Table T. etc. “Without losing their function” means that the facility preserves its initial structural stability.2. however. (c) The earthquake motion used for examination of earthquake resistance shall be determined based on a dynamic analysis of the ground. Among the gravity type quaywalls that were damaged by the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. In addition. of which the return period will be several hundred years or more. Table C.4 Design Seismic Coefficient. These specifications are summarized in Table C.1 Earthquake Motion and Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities To Be Considered for Design Ground motion level Level 1 Ground motion considered for seismic design Ground motion with a 75-year return period Ground motion from intra-plate earthquake or ground motion from inter-plate earthquake. (b) For examination of the earthquake resistance. In order to make this judgment it is necessary to determine the allowable amount of deformation of a quaywall or the like.2. Because the values in the tables do not take into consideration the structural stability and function of cranes built on the quays. function and the ease or difficulty of the quick restoration.12.12. another study must be conducted for such cases. some quaywalls that sustained a deformation ratio (swelling of the quaywall divided by the height) of 10% to 20% were quickly restored and put back into service 1). (2) The judgment whether high seismic resistant structures can retain their expected function is made by a comprehensive consideration of structural stability.1.2. Earthquake motion from an inter-plate earthquake or a plate earthquake near the coast should be used as “Level 2” earthquake motion. “High seismic resistant structures” refers to facilities such as high seismic resistant quaywalls whose seismic resistance has been reinforced to ensure the shipment of emergency supplies immediately after an earthquake in order to maintain social and economic activities.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS restored after a Level 2 earthquake and are able to retain their expected function througout the rest of its lifetime.2. the subsoils and the structures shall be appropriately modeled corresponding to the earthquake motion indicated in (2)(a) above and the resistance should be examined using an appropriate method considering the structural characteristics. based upon the provisions in 12. but its precise determination is difficult at the current state of knowledge.2 are used as reference to estimate deformation of quaywalls which allows the temporary use immediately after an earthquake. The return period is anticipated to be several hundred years or more Applicable facilities All facilities (except facilities that are regulated according to other standards) High seismic resistant structures (high seismic resistant quaywalls. The earthquake motion used for such examination shall be the Level 2 earthquake motion defined in (1)(b) above. Earthquake resistance Do not lose their function Retain their expected function Level 2 [Technical Notes] (1) The capability of high seismic resistant structures to retain their expected function against the Level 2 earthquake motion is assured by examining structural deformation and other changes through an appropriate seismic response analysis. It also refers to high seismic resistant revetments designed for the area designated for refuge of people and rescue operation after an earthquake. This is because an analysis of stability of structures or subsoil using just the seismic coefficient method is not sufficient in many cases when the earthquake motion such as the Level 2 earthquake exercises immense forces.

3). the regional seismic coefficient shall be the values listed in Table 12. however. Seismic coefficient = regional seismic coefficient × subsoil condition factor × importance factor In this case. the vertical seismic coefficient is not taken into account in order to avoid the computational complexity.12.2. [Commentary] The influence of the vertical component of earthquake motion on structural stability is complex. 12. reverse 0% 12.12. The factor for subsoil condition shall be the values listed in Table 12. In this case. differences in height of apron surface: difference in height between apron and yard: Inclination.4.4 Design Seismic Coefficient (Notification Article 15 and Article 16) (1) The seismic coefficient shall be the horizontal seismic coefficient determined by the equation below. except for the region near seismic center.1 Quaywall Deformation Rough Standards from the Viewpoint of Temporaly Service Suffered deformation: maximum swelling or maximum apron settlement Structural type Quaywall depth Normal use Restricted use Gravity type quaywall -7. the vertical component is not so large compared with the horizontal component. and either one calculated by (a) or (b) below that is most damaging to port and harbor facilities shall be applied to the centers of gravity of facilities. moreover. the seismic load shall be determined appropriately considering characteristics of the respective structures.4 corresponding to the characteristics of structures. Thus it is a more rigorous examination procedure to use a vertical seismic coefficient to introduce seismic load in a vertical direction.2 Quaywall Deformation Rough Standards from the Viewpoint of Functionality Structure body itself Settlement of the entire apron: Inclination: Deviation of the swelling: 20 ~ 30 cm 3o ~ 5o 20 ~ 30 cm 3 ~ 10 cm 30 ~ 70 cm Apron Settlement. and the importance factor shall be the values listed in Table 12. the seismic load shall be determined using the seismic coefficient prescribed in 12.3.2.4 Design Seismic Coefficient is considered to be determined taking into account the effect of vertical earthquake motion.4. Based upon past studies and experience.4 Design Seismic Coefficient. The coefficient value shall be expressed in two-digit figures by rounding up if the third digit is five or larger or dropping the third digit when it is less than five.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. because it has been shown from the results of observations that.5 m or greater 0 ～ 30 cm 30 ～ 50 cm Less than -7.1 corresponding to the region where the port and harbor facilities are located.2 corresponding to the type of subsoil given in Table 12. intertwining with both the structural type and the horizontal component. For practical seismic design. (a) Seismic load = seismic coefficient × deadweight (b) Seismic load = seismic coefficient × (deadweight + surcharge) (2) For structures such as immersed tunnels for which the seismic coefficient method is not applicable.3 Seismic Coefficient Method (Notification Article 14) (1) It shall be standard to use the seismic coefficient method for determining the seismic load for structures having a comparatively short natural period and large damping factor.4.5 m or greater 0 ～ 30 cm 30 ～ 100 cm Less than -7.5 m 0 ～ 20 cm 20 ～ 50 cm Sheet pile type quaywall -7. -184- . It is therefore sufficient to use the horizontal seismic coefficient in order to dertermine seismic load in design of ordinary port and harbor structures 2).5 m 0 ～ 20 cm 20 ～ 30 cm Table T.4. the horizontal seismic coefficient in 12. normal slope 3% ~ 5%.

Yamagata Prefecture. Shiribeshi. Okayama Prefecture. Saitama Prefecture. Yamanashi Prefecture. Tokachi and Hidaka in Hokkaido Prefecture. Nagasaki Prefecture except for Goto Islands. Oita Prefecture. the type of soil should be set by the layer having the largest value of the subsoil condition factor among all the layers. Fukushima Prefecture.2 Table 12. Toyama Prefecture. Aichi Prefecture.2 Subsoil Condition Factor (Notification Article 15. Shizuoka Prefecture. Kushiro. Oshima and Hiyama in Hokkaido Prefecture. Shimane Prefecture. Ishikari. Kochi Prefecture. Hyogo Prefecture Pacific Ocean coast south of Shiriya-zaki of Aomori Prefecture. Iwate Prefecture. Rumoi and Kamikawa in Hokkaido Prefecture. Goto Retto. Kagawa Prefecture.1 Regional Seismic Coefficient (Notification Article 15. Ishikawa Prefecture. Nagano Prefecture. Akita Prefecture. Tokushima Prefecture Counties of Iburi.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Table 12. Appendix Table 1) Regional classification Counties of Nemuro. Chiba Prefecture. -185- .4. Daito Islands in Okinawa Prefecture Regional seismic coefficient Region A 0.15 Region B 0. Kagoshima Prefecture except for Amami Islands. Nara Prefecture.4. Gifu Prefecture. Sorachi.13 Region C 0. Fukuoka Prefecture. If the subsoil is composed of two or more layer with the almost equal thickness. Mie Prefecture.08 Table 12.3 Classification by Type of Subsoil (Notification Article 15 Appendix Table 3) Type of subsoil Thickness of quaternary strata 5 meters or less More than 5 meters and less than 25 meters 25 meters or greater Gravel stratum Class Ⅰ Class Ⅰ Class Ⅱ Ordinary sandy soil and cohesive soil Class Ⅰ Class Ⅱ Class Ⅲ Soft subsoil Class Ⅱ Class Ⅲ Class Ⅲ Notes: In these tables. Gunma Prefecture. Tottori Prefecture. Yamaguchi Prefecture. Miyagi Prefecture. Hiroshima Prefecture. Iki-no-shima and Tsushima in Nagasaki Prefecture. Appendix Table 2) Type of subsoil Factor for subsoil conditions Class Ⅰ 0. Fukui Prefecture. Osaka Prefecture. Amami Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture Counties of Abashiri. Okinawa Prefecture except for Daito Islands Counties of Soya in Hokkaido Prefecture. the type of soil should be set by the layer with predominant thickness. Kanagawa Prefecture. Hachijo-jima and Ogasawara Islands in Tokyo. Aomori Prefecture except for the Pacific Ocean coast south of Shiriya-zaki.11 Region E 0. Kyoto Prefecture. Niigata Prefecture. except for Hachijo-jima and Ogasawara Islands.12 Region D 0.8 Class Ⅱ 1. “soft subsoil” refers to sandy soil subsoil with the N-value of SPT test being less than 4 or cohesive soil with the unconfined compressive strength being less than 20 kN/m2. Saga Prefecture. Miyazaki Prefecture. Kumamoto Prefecture. Ibaraki Prefecture.0 Class Ⅲ 1. Shiga Prefecture. Tochigi Prefecture.4. When the subsoil is composed of two or more soil layers. Ehime Prefecture. Wakayama Prefecture. Tokyo. Iki-no-shima and Tsushima.

or those having a particular importance in the item 3 1 Having high level of risk to cause large loss of human lives and property if the structure is damaged by an earthquake 2 Having serious economic and social consequences if the structure is damaged by an earthquake 3 Having an important role in restoration works after earthquake disaster 4 Having threat of huge loss of human lives and property. and the amplification of ground motion due to subsoil response. (a) When a is 200 Gal or less kh = a /g (b) When a is larger than 200 Gal 1 k h = -. the dynamic properties of the structures. the dynamic response of the structure needs not be taken into consideration in design. the value may be used as a design seismic coefficient.4.4. For the latter calculation. In general..223. structures handling toxic or hazardous substances) 5 Having difficulty in restoration if the structure is damaged by an earthquake Structures other than those classified as Special. or easy restoration among structures other than those classified as Special or Class A Importance factor 1. if the structure is damaged by an earthquake (ie. the dynamic response of structures is ignored and seismic design is conducted based on the procedure given in 12. For example. Class A or Class C Slight economic and social consequences if the structure is damaged by an earthquake.0 0. the vertical seismic coefficient shall be determined appropriately by considering the structural characteristics.2 Class B Class C 1. 1961). when a dynamic response -186- 644474448 (12. because the majority of port and harbors structures have comparatively short natural periods as well as large damping factors.5 Class A 1. In the former calculation. subsoil properties. (3) The design seismic coefficient to high seismic resistant structures in the seismic coefficient method shall be determined after comprehensive judgment of the result calculated by the equation in (1) and the horizontal seismic coefficient calculated by the equations listed below. ground motion characteristics. those having a remarkable risk specified in the item 1. However.8 (2) When the examination using the vertical seismic coefficient is required in the seismic coefficient method. Item 10 of the “Fundamental Law for Countermeasures against Natural Disaster” (Law No.( a ¤ g ) 1 / 3 3 where kh： horizontal seismic coefficient a： peak ground acceleration at the surface (Gal) g： gravitational acceleration (Gal) [Commentary] (1) General Cases of Port and Harbor Facilities (a) Factors to determine the design seismic coefficients of structures include the regional seismicity.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table 12. using the design seismic coefficient stipulated above. or a serious threat in the item 4.5. the peak ground acceleration shall be estimated by the dynamic analysis against the Level 2 ground motion of the potential earthquake stipulated in the “Regional Disaster Prevention Plan” specified by the Article 2.3 Seismic Coefficient Method. (b) In cases where it is possible to accurately determine the seismic coefficient by investigating the factors such as the regional seismicity. Appendix Table 4) Type of structure Special class Structure characteristics Among structures in the category of Class A. and the importance of the structures.4 Importance Factor (Notification Article 15. the importance factor shall be set to 1.1) . etc. the subsoil conditions. a grave consequence in the item 2.

5 Seismic Response Analysis [Technical Notes] (2). the earthquake by an “Active Fault with High Probability Level 1” or the earthquake by an “Active Fault under Special Attention”. because the submerged unit weight that takes buoyancy into account is used in this case. (d) Based upon the experience with the serious damage suffered by the Port of Kobe during the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. The regional seismic coefficients in Table 12. T. or when conducting a seismic response analysis of structures in order to consider their dynamic response to earthquake ground motion. (e) The seismic response analysis as well as the seismic coefficient method should be used as the design methods for the Level 2 earthquake motion. with a value near 0. (d) When calculating the seismic load in 12.25 when high seismic resistant structures be constructed in locations near an active fault plane (when the site is supposed to be in an epicentral area). the probability that a structure with a 50-year lifetime will encounter an earthquake motion with a 75-year return period or greater during the lifetime is quite high.5.3 Seismic Coefficient Method. the apparent seismic coefficient should be used. In those cases.1. the design seismic coefficient must be multiplied by the net deadweight without deducting buoyancy. should an earthquake motion equivalent to the 75-year return period have occurred.1 by regional classification. another earthquake motion of the same magnitude will not occur during the following 75 years. (b) The peak ground acceleration to calculate the design seismic coefficient of high seismic resistant structures can be determined by the multiple reflection model given in 12. (b) The expected peak acceleration of bedrock with a 75-year return period is listed in Table T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS analysis of the ground is conducted with an input earthquake ground motion based on earthquake data or strong-motion records at the construction site. ③ Cargo handling capacity of the facility after damage.4) have given a detailed explanation of equation (12. (c) Noda et al.4.12. and residual structural strength of the facility after damage. “Complete Listing of Damaging Earthquakes in Japan (New Edition)” and the “Japan Earthquake Fault Parameter Handbook” are available as references.1 are stipulated from the expected peak acceleration using the average relationship in Fig. It does not mean that. [Technical Notes] (1) “Level 1” Earthquake Motion for All Port and Harbor Facilities (a) The regional seismic coefficients listed in Table 12. based on a comprehensive evaluation of structural type. The expression “75-year return period” is based on the theory of probability. difficulty in restoration of the damaged facility. In the case of a facility whose lifetime can be set shorter than 50 years. but must be determined by giving due consideration to the social and economic characteristics of the facilities along with consideration of the following items: ① Earthquake resistance required for the respective function of facilites ② Magnitude of damage when the facility is struck by an earthquake. the design seismic coefficient should be at least 0. ground motion and subsoil properties. For example. or when it is appropriate to determine specially an earthquake to be used in the design.1) for calculating the design seismic coefficient of high seismic resistant structures from earthquake motion. The magnitude of an earthquake on an active fault can be estimated from the following equation: -187- . (c) The importance factor of structures is not a value that could be applied uniformly depending upon the use. however.4.12.4. the return period of the design earthquake becomes shorter than 75 years if the encounter probability is made equally to around 0. The earthquakes to be considered are such as the largest past earthquake. When researching such earthquakes the “Japan’s Active Fault Distribution Maps and Materials (New Edition)”. In the calculation of earth pressure. “Bedrock” as used here means soil type of Class Ⅰ . (2) High Seismic Resistant Structures (a) The target earthquake for the seismic design of high seismic resistant structures should be the potential earthquake preseribed in the “Regional Disester Prevention Plan”. Information regarding the relationship between the lifetime and the encounter probability is given in Chapter 1 General.4. the earthquake that will create the most hazardous ground motion at the construction site among the potential earthquakes should be selected as the target earthquake. (2) “Level 2” Earthquake Motion for High Seismic Resistant Facilities (a) When a potential earthquake has not been stipulated in “Regional Disaster Prevention Plan”. type or size of the facilities.1 were set forth using the distribution of expected peak acceleration 8) corresponding to a 75-year return period for coastal regions. the facilities must secure a certain level of safety factor that is required to ensure the soundness of the facility against the Level 1 ground motion. it is possible to determine the design seismic coefficient based on the results of those analyses. and the input earthquake ground motion at the construction site should be determined based on this potential earthquake.4.5.

4.13 0.0 M = 6.0 8.08 Peak bedrock acceleration with 75-year return period (Gal) 350 250 200 150 100 1 kh = 3 ( Asmac ) g 1 3 Seismic coefficient kh Kh = ( Asmac ) g Upper and lower limits of the seismic coefficient estimated for each quaywall Upper and lower limits of the seismic coefficient estimated for each port (Lines connecting the upper and lower limits determine the range of the seismic coefficient) SMAC peak acceleration (Gal) Fig. T.4.15 0.0 SMAC peak acceleration O data of M 6. T.4.0 Fault distance X (km) Fig.12.1 Regional Seismic Coefficient and Peak Bedrock Acceleration with 75-Year Return Period by Regional Classification Regional classification A B C D E Regional seismic coefficient 0.12.12 0.0 M = 7.12.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN log 10 L = 0.2 Relationship between SMAC Peak Accelerations and Fault Distance by Magnitude ) -188- .9 where L： length of the earthquake fault (km) M： magnitude of earthquake (12.5 M = 7.5 M = 8.1 Relationship between Seismic Coefficient and Peak Ground Acceleration ASMAC (Gal) M = 6.6M 2.11 0.2) Table T.4.

12. the Port Island bedrock incident waves computed from the records at the Port Island of Kobe Port during the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake should be used as the input earthquake waves for the ground seismic response analysis. 0.4. If the construction site is in the zone A on the chart. T.4. T.12. however. T.4. When an intra-plate earthquake is assumed. then the site should be considered as being near to the fault plane (located within the hypocenter area). The Fourier spectra of these wawes are shown in Fig.3 shows these three wave profiles.5.53M Acceleration Hachinohe bedrock incident waves Time Acceleration Ofunato bedrock incident waves Time Acceleration Port Island bedrock incident waves Time Fig. When the fault plane is not known. waves such as the Hachinohe bedrock incident waves (S252NS Base) computed from records at the Port of Hachinohe during the 1968 Tokachi-Oki Earthquake or the Ofunato bedrock incident waves (S-1210 E41S) at the Port of Ofunato during the 1978 Miyagi-Ken-Oki Earthquake should be used for the input earthquake waves. depending upon the mechanism of their occurrence. or subsoil with a shear wave velocity of 300m/s or higher.3) log 10 A SMAC = 0. When a high seismic resistant facility is to be constructed within a hypocenter area and the earthquake is supposed to be large one occurring in that area. T.3) are shown in Fig.524 where ASMAC： peak bedrock acceleration measured by a SMAC-type strong motion seismograph (Gal) M： magnitude of earthquake X： fault distance (km) The term “fault distance” refers to the minimum distance from the fault plane to the site of interest. Figure T. the minimum distance from the surface fault should be used as the fault distance.12. (d) The judgment whether the construction site is near the earthquake fault or not should be made according to Fig.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (b) The bedrock acceleration to be used for the analysis of ground seismic response to determine the design seismic coefficient of high seismic resistant facilities is calculated using the following equation: (12. The results of calculation by equation (12.4.4. The term “bedrock” means rock mass. When assuming an inter-plate earthquake. even if the one being considered is an inter-plate earthquake.2.3 Incident Waves for Bedrock -189- .12.12.4.4. sandy soil layer with the N-value of 50 or greater. clay layer with the unconfined compressive strength qu of 650 kN/m2 or greater.4.0062 ´ 10 ) 0. (c) Potential earthquakes are divided into two classes called intra-plate earthquakes and inter-plate earthquakes. the Port Island bedrock incident waves (PI-79NS Base) should be used as the input ground motion.00169X + 0.53M log 10 ( X + 0.

The validity of the calculated results must be evaluated based upon an adequate examination of the applicable range and limiting conditions of the analytical procedure.8 Hz Magnitude M Fig. specifying the materials constants for the model.5 Seismic Response Analysis The seismic resistance of port and harbor facilities that are particularly important or that are of structural types having few past precedents shall be examined based on a seismic response analysis in addition to the methods in 12. seismic response analysis should be carried out to examine the deformation of structure by the Level 2 earthquake motion.4.6 Seismic Deformation Method.5 Classification of Earthquakes by Active Faults Note: Sites falling in zone A are regarded as being within hypocenter areas Frequency (Hz) (c) Pl-79 NS Base Fourier spectrum (Gal s) Parzen window Band = 0. in which the behavior of structure during an earthquake can be fully studied.8 Hz Frequency (Hz) (b) S-1210 E 41 S Fourier spectrum (Gal s) Distance to fault plane x (km) Parzen window Band = 0. the details of the modeling.12. When the type of structure was rare in the past or when the importance for the target structure is extremely high. it is now necessary to study structural deformation to examine the function of high seismic resistant facilities even when subjected to the ground motion near the fault plane.4. (2) Seismic Response Analysis To conduct a seismic response analysis.3 Seismic Coefficient Method or 12. Moreover.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (a) S-252 NS Base Fourier spectrum (Gal s) Parzen window Band = 0. T. There are also many cases that structures must be built in locations where ground conditions are extremely poor.12.4 Fourier Spectra of Incident Waves for Bedrock 12. wave profiles) is selected and computation of the earthquake response is carried out. T. -190- .8 Hz Frequency (Hz) Fig. and reliability of the material constants. such as the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake that heavily damaged the Port of Kobe. first a suitable analytical method is selected and the structure is modeled according the analytical procedure. [Commentary] (1) General Many types of structures that are different from or are much larger than those of structures built in the past have been designed and built as port and harbor facilities in recent years. Then the input earthquake ground motion (peak amplitude.

018 ´ 10 corrected peak bedrock acceleration (Gal) peak bedrock acceleration for SMSC-type strong motion seismograph (Gal) peak bedrock velocity (cm/s) peak bedrock displacement (cm) magnitude of earthquake distance from fault plane (km) Table T.43M 0. (a) Seismic response analysis based on numerical calculations Seismic response analyses based on numerical calculations can be classified as listed in Table T.53M ) 0.00169X + 0.12. the observed records of the surface ground motion are first converted to the bedrock incident wave profiles.43M 0.5. Nonlinear Time-domain analysis. So the change in seismic response due to the change in the effective stress cannot be taken into consideration. and the following equations have been proposed: log 10 A COR = 0. Two-dimensional.5.502 ) 0.5. and the seismic response characteristics of ground should be considered in order to select the input ground motion. and the application of this method is limited to a strain level of 1% or less. therefore. the multiple reflection theory is based on the equivalent-linear method. Equivalent-linear.4) log 10 A SMAC = 0.55M log 10 ( X + 0.2) (12. The ground seismic response analysis method based on the multiple reflection theory can be used to calculate the surface ground motion from the incident waves of the bedrock and vise versa. the restoring force or damping property of soils will change and the response properties of ground will also change. For situations where the excessive pore water pressure above a certain -191- .524 (12.48M log 10 ( X + 0.53M log 10 ( X + 0.00067X 1.62M log 10 ( X + 0.5.00122X + 0. Total stress analysis (solid phase) One-dimensional. Those methods are briefly explained below.014 ´ 10 where ACOR： ASMAC： V： D： M： X： 0.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] (1) Input Earthquake Ground Motion (a) The ground motion used for seismic design should basically be determined from the results of past observations or from computations of ground seismic response. When used for seismic response analysis for strong ground motion such as the Level 2 earthquake motion. The important records have been published annually since 1963 5). Frequency-domain analysis (2) Seismic Response Analysis Methods Seismic response analysis methods are broadly classified into two types: procedures based on numerical calculations using computers. When the ground liquefies. these situations can be analyzed and the excess pore water pressure that occurs in the ground can be determined directly from calculations. Generally the peak amplitude of ground motion is a function of magnitude and distance.55M ) 0. however.0050 ´ 10 0.1) (12.324 ) 0.5. Then the bedrock incident waves are inputted to the bedrock of the design site and the surface ground motion can be calculated. (d) The items indicated in (b) above must be taken into consideration when specifying the peak amplitude of design ground motion. (b) The magnitude of the earthquake. the excess pore water pressure is induced and the effective stress declines. ① Effective stress analysis and total stress analysis Seismic response analyses can be divided into the methods based on the effective stress and those based on the total stress.12.886 log 10 D = 0. Spring-mass model. careful attention should be paid to the limitations of this method. the fault mechanism. and vibration experiments using apparatus such as a shaking table. As a result. Three-dimensional Multiple reflection model. the distance from the fault plane. In many cases.1 Numerical Methods of Seismic Response Analyses Analysis method (for saturated ground) Dimensions Models for analysis Materials characteristics Domains for computation Effective stress analysis (solid and liquid phases).1. The records of strong earthquake motions of the port and harbor regions in Japan are continuously collected by a nationwide observation network. the total stress analysis is unable to calculate the excess pore water pressure from the calculation process. (c) When the ground conditions of the design site differ from those at which the strong-motion records to be used for the seismic response analysis were obtained 9).3) (12. With the effective stress analysis method. On the other hand.5.0062 ´ 10 log 10 V = 0.00060X 0. Finite element model Linear.

The assumed earthquake motion is then applied to the model with a shaking table. 17). Examples of practical application programs include “FLUSH” 14). (iii) Finite element models These models are not restricted to just ground motion analysis but are used widely in many fields. it is considered that total stress analysis will give safer results in design. Constants required for calculations are the dimensions of structure.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN level will occur (where the excessive pore water pressure ratio is generally 0. It is well understood that in general the response values calculated by the effective stress analysis (shear stress or acceleration) are smaller than those by total stress analysis. -192- . The computer program “SHAKE” 13) based on this model is often used. a centrifuge is used to reproduce stress conditions in the model that are identical to actual stress. Multiple reflection models using equivalent linearization that makes it possible to deal with quasi-nonlinearity have been widely used in recent years. The relative displacement that will occur in the subsoil around tubular structures will vary depending on the nature of earthquake as well as other factors such as the ground conditions. ② Model vibration experiments using a centrifuge For these experiments. and dampers. When shear waves propagate perpendicularly from the bedrock. the unit weight of each part.6 Seismic Deformation Method The displacements and stresses of tubular structures buried in the ground during an earthquake shall be investigated using the seismic deformation method. Nevertheless. “FLAC” is used as a finite difference analysis program using the explicit solution method. it is very important to investigate the relative displacement of subsoil around the structure controlled by the ground deformation during an earthquake. (iv) Continuum model This model regards a structure (or ground) as a cantilever beam possessing uniform characteristics or properties that vary in a uniform manner. “FLIP” is being used for verification of the deformation level of high seismic resistant facilities and other purposes. The shear beam model is normally selected for modeling. 12. ① Model vibration experiments using a shaking table For these experiments. [Commentary] For an investigation of the seismic resistance of tubular structures buried in the ground such as immersed tunnels or oil pipelines that are very long compared to their cross-sectional area. Based on the experience of analyses of damaged quaywalls at the Port of Kobe during the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. In addition. It is an effective means for understanding the overall behavior of a structure and the ground. and “FLIP” 16). (ii) Spring-mass model In this model the ground is replaced with a combination of multiple masses. With this method the relationship between the soil stress and strain is treated as being linear. In this regard. The methods by vibration experiments with apparatus such as a shaking table include the following methods. it is repeatedly transmitted and reflected at the boundaries between soil layers. therefore. ② Models for analysis (i) Multiple reflection model This calculation model regards the ground as a stack of horizontal soil layers. springs. With this method the calculation procedure is comparatively simple and it is possible to introduce a nonlinear relationship between displacement and restoring force. the shear modulus and its depth-wise rate of variation. The assumed earthquake motion is then applied with a vibration test device loaded on the centrifuge to satisfy the similitude.5 or greater). “BEAD” 15). because the displacements of these types of structures are controlled by the deformation of the surrounding earth. a model is prepared that will satisfy the similitudes of the geometrics and dynamic properties of the target structure and the ground. The ground is divided into a number of finite elements. (b) Vibration experiments using a shaking table This method takes the dynamic similitude into consideration and applies vibrations to a model of structure. a fairly high level of experimental technique is required in making a model that adequately reproduces the dynamic characteristics of the prototype. The finite element models are characterized by their capability to analyze and display with ease the two-dimensional changes of layer thickness and ground conditions. it is much likely that the calculation results based on the total stress method will differ greatly from the actual seismic response. the total stress analysis is simple and is often used for design purposes. and the damping constant. Therefore.

1972. Vol. Tech. No. Udaka. 1983 (in Japanese). No.: “Dynamic tests of soil embankments”. 1973. 1990 (in Japanese). 8) Sosuke KITAZAWA. Nobuo MIYAJIMA. 18. B. Hajime TSUCHIDA: “Digitization and corrections of strong-motion accelerograms”. 1. of PHRI. 19) ISHIHARA. D. Rept of PHRI. 1. Satoshi HAYASHI: “Average response spectra for various site conditions”. 12. W. 6. Tsuchid. 6) Hajime TSUCHIDA. Ikuo YAMASHITA: “Studies on the vibration characteristics of fill-type embankments”. 3) Atsushi NOZU. 1979 (in Japanese). Satoshi HAYASHI. University of California at Berkeley. 1973 (in Japanese). Rept of PHRI. K. Tatsuo UWABE: “Analysis on seismic damage in anchored sheet-piling bulkheads”. 5. 1997 (in Japanese). on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics. of PHRI. Eiichi KURATA.mechanism of damage to port facilities during 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake (Part Ⅶ)”. J.: “FLUSH . YOSHIDA. Tsai. Note of PHRI. 1978 (in Japanese). Eiichi KURATA: “Coupled hydrodynamic response analysis based on strong motion earthquake records of fill type breakwater in deep sea”. No.: “Modelling of stress .. Vol. Rept. of PHRI. 1977 -”. 29) Motoki KAZAMA. Proc. 2. Hisanori YOSHIMURA: “Analysis of maritime transportation in KOBE Port after the 1995 HYOGOKEN-NANBU Earthquake”. 1982 (in Japanese). 20) Finn. 1975 (in Japanese). 1986 (in Japanese). Yukihiro SATO. No. and Lee.. of PHRI. Tatsuo UWABE. No. B. Tomohiro KAMEOKA: “Parameter identification for a cyclic mobility model”. 813. Rept. No. 17) Susumu IAI. 30. University of California. Tech. Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics. H. Report No. Note of PHRI. 1969 (in Japanese). 2. Vol. Lysmer.: “Behavior of structures during an earthquake”. 13) Schnabel. Tech. Note of PHRI. Vol. Tadaki CHIBA: “Relation between seismic coefficient and ground acceleration for gravity quaywall”. pp. EM4. Rept. Vol. Tech. Proc. P. 9) Eiichi KURATA. 22. Motoki KANAZAWA: “One-dimensional nonlinear dynamic ground response analyses”. Vol. Proc. Note of PHRI. Berkeley. Yukihiro SATO. Note of PHRI. Setsuo NODA. J. Vol. No. 23) Susumu IAI. 28) Tatsuo UWABE. K. Eiichi KURATA: “Analysis of earthquake ground motions observed with two dimensional seismometer array (First Report) . 337. 1. Hajime TSUCHIDA: “Observations of dynamic response of Kinuura submerged tunnel during an earthquakes and dynamic response analysis”. of PHRI. 4. 22) Susumu IAI. 4) Setuo NODA. 861. 27) Susumi IAI. Tech. 5. 32) Hideo ARAI. College of Engineering. -193- . Note of PHRI. Nagoya. No. Susumu IAI: “Annual report on strong-motion earthquake records in Japanese ports (1994)”. Rept of PHRI. Vol. Note of PHRI. 2. 1991 (in Japanese). of PHRI. No. 29. Takamasa INATOMI. Koji ICHII. Norihiro HAGAKI: “Coupled hydrodynamic response characteristics and water pressures of large composite breakwaters”. Rept of PHRI. Shigeo NAKAYAMA. 1973 (in Japanese). Tech. 11) Susumu IAI. 14) Lysmer. 221.: “Comparison of dynamic analyses for saturated sands”. Rept of PHRI. 25) Osamu KIYOMIYA. Tatsuo UWABE. 1985. Yasuhumi UMEHARA: “Vibration of dry sand layers”. 2. Report No. 1981 (in Japanese). No. of 5th Conf. 472-491. 1990 (in Japanese). 893. 4. 1975 (in Japanese). 561. 1983 (in Japanese). of PHRI. Note of PHRI.North Tokyu Bay Earthquake of June 4. E. No. F. Tadaki CHIBA. 5th WCEE. 3.. H. 22. [References] 1) Hironao TAKAHASHI. EERC72-12. Vol. T. S. Eiichi KURATA: “Characteristics of vertical components of strong-motion accelerograms and effects of vertical ground motion on stability of gravity type quaywalls”. Note of PHRI. 30) Hiromasa FUKUUCHI. 8. and Seed. Toshikazu MORITA: “ Effective stress analysis on a caisson type quaywall . Rept. 10) Hajime TSUCHIDA.. 840. Vol. and Kurata. Tech.A computer program for earthquake response analysis of horizontally layered site”. 15. Toshihiro IMAMURA: “Observation and analysis of seismic response grid type improved ground by deep mixing method”. No. Ikuhiko YAMASHITA: “Vibration characteristics of the open type steel piled wharf with container crane”.Design earthquake ground motion of Kamaishi breakwater”. 373-380. Vol. Tomohiro KAMEOKA: “Strain space plasticity model for cyclic mobility”. 1983 (in Japanese). No. and Seed. 18) Takamasa INATOMI. 253-280 (in Japanese) 24) Noda. 22. Tatsuo UWABE. 156. Vol. pp. of ASCE. 12. No.. 21) HOUSNER. N. 4. Rept.: “SHAKE . Takashi NAKAMOTO. Martin. Rept of PHRI. 20. Eiichi KURATA. Susumu IAI. M. Hajime TSUCHIDA: “Earthquake response analysis of floating type structures”. H. No. Vol. 286. Hajime TSUCHIDA. Yasuo MATSUNAGA. 4. 85. W. Norihiro HIGAKI: “Expected values of maximum base rock accelerations along coasts of Japan”. Tech. Note of PHRI. 1976 (in Japanese). 1997 (in Japanese). No. No. R. EERC 75-30. 1984 (in Japanese). Tomohiro KAMEOKA: “Analysis of deformation in sheet pile quaywall due to liquefaction”. 1959. 26) Takamasa INATOMI. Takumi SHINOZAWA: “Relation between seismic coefficient and peak ground acceleration estimated from attenuation relations”. No. Yasuo MATSUNAGA. Tokuzo ISHIZAKA. Ikuki YOKOHAMA. G. No. 7) Shoichi KITAJIMA. and TSUJINO. 29. Tech. 16) Susumu IAI. Hajime TSUCHIDA: “Site characteristics of strong-motion earthquake stations in ports and harbours in Japan (Part Ⅲ )”. No. No. 15) Tatsuo UWABE. Setsuo NODA. Tech. Toshikazu MORITA. Rept.. Vol.A computer program of approximate 3-D analysis of soil structure interaction problems”. 412. No. 1996 (in Japanese). Vol. 14. Vol. Note of PHRI. Vol. Yasuhumi UMEHARA: “Vibration of saturated sand layers”. Rept.strain relations of soils in cyclic loading”. No. C. pp. Rept of PHRI. No. 2. 1980 (in Japanese). Rept. 5) Masafumi MIYATA. B.. 1. W. 486. No.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] The “Immersed Tunnel Technology Manual” is refered to design immersed tunnels. No. 2) Tatsuo UWABE. 1975. 1978.. ASCE. Tech. 4. 1966 (in Japanese). 1969 (in Japanese). 4. 1973 (in Japanese). No. Vol. of PHRI. Koji ICHII. L. G. S. 12) Tatsuo UWABE: “Base rock motion around the pacific coasts in Tohoku district . Tokuzo ISHIZAKA. 31) Hideo ARAI.

4. 1965 (in Japanese) 34) Tatsuo UWABE. 1983 (in Japanese). Rept. Motoki KAZAMA. Vol. 1995 (in Japanese). 2. Vol. 22. Rept of PHRI. Vol. Masaaki MITOH. Toshihiro IMAMURA: “An experimental study on the earthquake resistance of wall type improved ground by deep mixing method”. Sosuke KITAZAWA. Tech. Hideo NISHIZAWA: “Stress of buried pipe during an earthquake based on two dimensional seismometer array observation”. Ken-ichiro MINAMI. No. 3. Rept of PHRI. Rept of PHRI. Rept. Norihiro HIGAKI: “Shaking table tests and circular arc analysis for large models of embankment on saturated sand layers”. 205. Hiroshi TABUCHI: “An experimental study on the earthquake of steel plate cellular-bulkheads with embedment”. Note of PHRI. No. Hideo NISHIZAWA. 1984 (in Japanese). No.experimental study on the behavior of caisson type quay wall during an earthquake using underwater shaking table”. No. 22. 1983 (in Japanese). 1975 (in Japanese). 37) Setsuo NODA. Hiroshi YOKOTA: “Field observation and response analysis at Kawasaki Port submerged tunnel”. Vol. 39) Osamu KIYOMIYA. Takeshi IIDA. -194- . 1981 (in Japanese). 22. 4. No. Vol. Norihiro HIGAKI: “An experimental study on sliding block in water during an earthquake”. 3. Note of PHRI. 1982 (in Japanese). 1965. 40) Setsuo NODA. Kenji MORI: “Earthquake-resistant calculation and dynamic model test on trench type tunnel”. Vol. Tech. 24. Sosuke KITAZAWA. 1983 (in Japanese). Note of PHRI. Toshiyuki YOKOI: “On the earthquake resistance of anchored sheet-pile walls (1st Report) - Model vibration tests of anchored sheet-pile walls in dry sand”. 20. Tech. 15. Eiichi KURATA. 23. Toshihiro IMAMURA: “An experimental study on the earthquake resistance of wall type improved ground by deep mixing method”.: “Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments”. 41) Takamasa INATOMI. 43) Hajime TSUCHIDA. Rept of PHRI. No. 21. Vol. Rept. 813. 1973 (in Japanese) 36) Takamasa INATOMI. Tatsuo UWABE: “Microtremor measurement on sea banks”. Geotechnique. 9. 2. Nobuo MORI. of PHRI. No. Ken OIKAWA: “Mechanism of damage to port facilities during 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake (Part Ⅵ ) . M. No. 44) Tatsuo UWABE. 38) Takashi SUGANO. Motoki KAZAMA. No. Rept. No. No. of PHRI. 172. 42) Newmark. 1985 (in Japanese) 35) Takuji NAKANO.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 33) Hideo ARAI. Vol. 3. N. of PHRI. No. 3. of PHRI. Vol. 3. Osamu KIYOMIYA.

or when the soil layer continues below the depth of 20m. by referring to Fig. [Technical Notes] The “Handbook on Liquefaction Remediation of Reclaimed Land” (Revised Edition) can be referred to examine liquefaction of the subsoils. 13. a prediction and judgment of liquefaction occurrence of the subsoil shall be made. However.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 13 Liquefaction 13. The threshold value of the uniformity coefficient (Uc= D60 /D10) is 3. Soil is judged not to liquefy when the grain size distribution curve is not included in the range “possibility of liquefaction”.5. (2) Predictions and judgment of liquefaction occurrence of subsoil shall be carried out by choosing an appropriate method that uses the gradation and Standard Penetration Test results or the cyclic triaxial test results. the soil is determined not to liquefy when the coefficient of permeability is 3 cm/s or greater. however. When the grain size distribution curve spans the “possibility of liquefaction” range. predictions of subsoil liquefaction shall be carried out according to the following: (1) When the subsoil is composed of soils such as saturated loose sandy soil. T. The latter method using cyclic triaxial test results is a detailed procedure and is used in the situations where prediction according to the method based on the gradation and N-values is difficult.2.1. (2) Depth of Investigation The subsoils subject to liquefaction prediction are those down to a depth of 20 m below the ground surface (or below the seabed for structures in the sea). [Commentary] (1) Types of Liquefaction Prediction and Judgment There are two types of the methods for prediction of liquefaction occurrence. The former method based on the gradation and N-values is the simplest method and can be applied in general. For the soil with grain size distribution of large fine portion a cyclic triaxial test should be carried out. where Uc is the uniformity coefficient.1 General Saturated loose sandy subsoils tend to liquefy during an earthquake. it should be treated as soil that falls within the range of “possibility of liquefaction”. [Technical Notes] (1) Prediction of Liquefaction Using Gradation and N-values 1) (a) Judgment based on gradation The subsoils should be classified according to gradation.2 Prediction of Liquefaction (Notification Article 17) In principle. when it is predicted that structures will suffer serious damage if liquefaction occur in a layer at a depth of more than 20 m. and D60 and D10 denote the grain sizes corresponding to 60% and 10% passing. a suitable approach is required to examine the possibility of liquefaction. the effects of liquefaction shall be taken into consideration to the extent as necessary. liquefaction predictions should include these layers as well. When there are subsoils with poor permeability such as clay or silt on top of the target subsoil in this case. For that of large gravel portion. which is divided into two sub-figures according to the value of the uniformity coefficient. When designing structures. One method is based on the gradation and N-values. causing damage to structures. and another uses the results of a cyclic triaxial test.13. respectively. -195- .

0041 (s v ¢ 65 ) + 1.1. further investigations should be carried by the descriptions below.0 (13. This conversion reflects the practice that liquefaction prediction was previously made on the basis of the N-value of a soil layer near a groundwater surface (see the “Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan” (1979)). ① Equivalent N-value The equivalent N-value should be calculated from equation (13.2. the equivalent N-value should be the same as the N-value of the layer without correction.13.g sv ¢ -196- . The maximum shear stress determined from the seismic response analysis is used to determine the equivalent acceleration for each soil layer.019 (s v ¢ 65 ) ( N ) 65 = -----------------------------------------------------0.2. The input motion to the bedrock in the seismic response analysis is determined by consulting with the reference 5).1(b) Range of Possible Liquefaction (Uc < 3.2.2. T13. ② Equivalent acceleration The equivalent acceleration should be calculated using equation (13.2) a eq = 0. however. In cases where equation (13. N 0.5) (b) Prediction of liquefaction using equivalent N-values and equivalent acceleration For the subsoil with a gradation that falls within the range “possibility of liquefaction” shown in Fig.2.2. T.13.5) For soil with small uniformity ecefficient 7 Percentage passing by mass Very large possibility of liquefaction Possibility of liquefaction Clay Silt Grain size Sand Gravel Fig.1(a) Range of Possible Liquefaction (Uc ≧ 3.) The equivalent N-value refers to the N-value corrected for the effective overburden pressure of 65 kN/m2.1) where (N)65： equivalent N-value N： N-value of the subsoil s v ¢： effective overburden pressure of the subsoil (kN/m2) (the effective overburden pressure used here should be calculated with respect to the ground elevation at the time of the Standard Penetration Test.3) in (c) below is used. T.2). t max (13.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN For soil with large uniformity coefficient 7 Percentage passing by mass Very large possibility of liquefaction Possibility of liquefaction Clay Silt Grain size Sand Gravel Fig.7 ´ --------.1).2.

) g： gravitational acceleration (980 Gal) ③ Predictions using the equivalent N-value and equivalent acceleration The soil layer should be classified according to the ranges labeled I ~ IV in Fig.5 and N + DN.2.2. ii ) When N + DN falls within the range II. The meaning of the ranges I ~ IV is explained in Table T-13. T.2. When the fines content (grain size is 75 mm or less) is 5% or greater. Corrections of the equivalent N-value are divided into the following three cases. use range III. T. iii) When N + DN falls within the range III or IV and (N)65/0.3.2.3 Compensation Factor of Equivalent N-Value Corresponding to Fine Contents ② Case 2: when the plasticity index is greater than 10 but less than 20. T.2.2.2. use range II. -197- . the equivalent N-value should be corrected before applying Fig. use range I. using the equivalent N-value and the equivalent acceleration of the soil layer.2. and the range should be determined according to the following situations. or when the fines content is less than 15% The equivalent N-value (after correction) should be set as (N)65/cN.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS where a eq： equivalent acceleration (Gal) t max： maximum shear stress (kN/m2) s v ¢： effective overburden pressure (kN/m2) (the effective overburden pressure should be determined based on the ground elevation during an earthquake. T.13. T. and the fines content is 15% or higher The equivalent N-value (after correction) should be set as both (N)65/0.1 to appear later. II or III. ① Case 1: when the plasticity index is less than 10 or cannot be determined. T.2.4 ´ ( I p 10 ) i ) When N + DN falls within the range I.13.13.13. where the value for DN is given by the following equation: (13. The compensation factor cN is given in Fig.13.5 is within range I. The equivalent N-value (after correction) and the equivalent acceleration are used to determine the range in Fig.2 Classification of Soil Layer with Equivalent N-Value and Equivalent Acceleration (c) Correction of N-values and predictions when the fraction of fines content is relatively large. Equivalent N-value Equivalent acceleration (Gal) Fig.3) DN = 8 + 0.13. Compensation factor for equivalent -value N cN Fines content FC Fig.2.2.

5 is within range IV. and the fines content is 15% or higher The equivalent N-value (after correction) should be set as N + DN.13.2.2.4 N-Value Correction Methods by Fine Contents and Plasticity Index (d) Liquefaction predictions Since liquefaction predictions must also consider the factors other than physical phenomena such as what degree of safety should be maintained in the structures. judging the subsoil as the range IV “possibility of liquefaction is very low” is considered as risky.1 Predictions and Judgments of Liquefaction for Soil Layer According to Ranges Ⅰ to Ⅳ Range shown in Fig. T. In contrast.3 and ∆N N Correction with ∆ Plasticity index Ip Correction with by equation (13.2.2.3 Ⅰ Prediction of liquefaction Possibility of liquefaction occurrence is very high Possibility of liquefaction occurrence is high Judgment of liquefaction Liquefaction will occur Either to judge that liquefaction will occur or to conduct further evaluation based on cyclic triaxial tests.2.2. For a very important structure. it is not possible to unconditionally establish any criteron for judgments regarding various prediction results. ③ Case 3: when the plasticity index is 20 or greater. T. T. T. Liquefaction will not occur Ⅱ Ⅲ Possibility of liquefaction is low Ⅳ Possibility of liquefaction is very low (2) Prediction and Judgment Based on the Results of Cyclic Triaxial Tests In some cases it may be difficult to predict or judge the possibility of subsoil liquefaction from the results of gradation and N-values. Either to judge that liquefaction will not occur or to conduct further evaluation based on cyclic triaxial tests.4 illustrates the ranges of applications of the cases ① to ③ .13. The rule of judgment of liquefaction occurrence for the results of prediction that is considered as standard are listed in Table T. because the results from the fines content correction are too conservative.1. The range should be determined according to the equivalent N-value (after correction) and the equivalent acceleration.3) Fine contents Fc (%) Fig. use range IV. Therefore.2. No corrections Correction with cin Fig. either to judge that liquefaction will occur or to conduct further evaluation based upon cyclic triaxial tests. In such cases a prediction and judgment for subsoil liquefaction should be made with the results of a seismic response analysis and cyclic triaxial tests conducted on undisturbed samples.13. Table T.13.3 N N in Equation (13. -198- . In this table the term “prediction of liquefaction” refers to the high or low possibility of liquefaction as a physical phenomenon. the term “judgment of liquefaction” refers to the consideration of the high or low possibility of liquefaction and judgment of whether or not the ground will liquefy.13. The reason that the range IV is not used for the case iii) even when range IV is given by a correction N + DN is that the reliability of the plasticity index in the equation is low when the value is 10 ~ 20. the range III is used for the case iii) even when the equivalent N-value (after correction) with (N)65/0. Figure T-13.5 is in the range I or II.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN iv) When N + DN falls within range III or IV and (N)65/0. Here.13.3) cin Fig.2.

etc. -199- . (a) To prevent the occurrence of excessive pore water pressure ① Compaction ② Solidification ③ Replacement (replacement with easily compacted sand) (b) To dissipate excessive pore water pressure ① Drain placement ② Replacement (replacement with coarse sand. (4) When using compaction as a liquefaction countermeasure. [Reference] 1) Hiroyuki YAMAZAKI. Fumikatsu KOIKE: “Study of the liquefaction prediction based on the grain distribution and the SPT N-value”. the decision should be made based on a judgement for each layer of subsoil. appropriate countermeasure works shall be selected to maintain the functions of structures after an earthquake. Tech. Kouki ZEN. 1998 (in Japanese).PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (3) Judgmant of Overall Liquefaction In the judgment of overall subsoil liquefaction for a site consisting of soil layers. Note of PHRI. appropriate decisions regarding the following items must be made: (a) Construction methods of countermeasure works (b) Dimensions of countermeasure works (area and depth) (c) Specific design of the countermeasure works (2) Items (a) to (c) below are considered to be liquefaction countermeasure works. an area under the influence of the liquefaction should be reserved in the improved subsoil area. When the subsoil that will liquefy is located adjacent to the improved subsoil. (5) Liquefaction countermeasure works should be carried out by taking due consideration to the design targets of subsoil improvement. gravel.3 Countermeasures against Liquefaction When implementing liquefaction countermeasures. [Commentary] (1) When designing liquefaction countermeasure works. No. The equivalent N-value for the reserved area should be 16 or greater. 914.2 Prediction of Liquefaction). the subsoil should be compacted so that the N-value after compaction reaches a value at which liquefaction will be judged not to occur (see 13.) (c) Combinations of (a) and (b) ① Simple combinations of measures in (a) and (b) ② Combinations of measures in (a) and (b) after giving consideration to their relationship with surrounding structures (3) The dimensions of soil improvements to be used as liquefaction countermeasures should be determined to the extent to maintain the functions of structures. 13. and the influence on existing structures and on the surrounding area.

void ratio.b ) sin(f + b ) cos( E E (14. active and passive states of earth pressure due to the displacement mode of structure. ppi： active and passive earth pressure.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure 14.y + b ) E E E where y + d ) sin(f .b)û (14. and stress path. or reinforced soil is not discussed in this chapter. Kpi： coefficients of active and passive earth pressures. many analyses of past damage due to earth pressures during earthquakes have enabled to formulate the practical calculation method of earth pressure during an earthquake for designs.d . The earth pressure discussed in this chapter is the pressure acting on a structure by ordinary soil. [Commentary] The earth pressure is the force that is exerted by the soil mass and acts on a structure. Number 1) The earth pressure of sandy soil acting on the backface wall of structure and the angle of sliding surface shall be calculated by the following equations: (1) Active Earth Pressure and the Angle of Failure Surface.1) cot( z . The magnitude of the earth pressure is known to vary considerably with the displacement of structure and with the nature of the soil such as gradation.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil under Ordinary Conditions (Notification Article 11. the situation in ordinary condition or earthquake condition. Clause 1. in the i-th soil layer y： angle of batter of backface wall from vertical line (°) b： angle of backfill ground surface from horizontal line (°) -200- é y cos(d + y ) ê1 ê ë .2 Earth Pressure under Ordinary Conditions 14.b)û (14.b ) cos( E E (14.1 Earth Pressure The earth pressure acting on the structure shall be calculated in correspondence to various conditions such as sandy soil and cohesive soil properties. é y cos(d + y ) ê1 + ê ë p pi = Kpi éSg i hi + w cosy ù cosy ê ú ë cos( y .b ) sin(f .d .b ) + sec(f + d + y .4) K pi = cos 2 cos ( 2 fi + y ) fi . structure and water. water content.b ) = tan(f .b ) ù ú cos(d + y ) cos(y . The hydrostatic pressure and dynamic water pressure acting on a structure should be evaluated separately. improved soil.2.2.2.2.b ) E E E where y + d ) sin(f + d ) cos(y . The actual phenomenon of the earth pressure during an earthquake is caused by dynamic interaction between backfill soil. 14. However. quaywall.d ) cos(y .y ) fi + d ) sin(fi . p ai = K ai éSg i hi + w cosy ù cosy ê ú ë cos( y . respectively. which is different from the earth pressure discussed in this chapter.tan(f + d + y . respectively.b ) ú û sin( 2 (2) Passive Earth Pressure and the Angle of Failure Surface.2) K ai = cos 2 cos ( 2 fi .y + b ) + sec(f . acting on the bottom level of the i-th soil layer (kN/m2) fi： angle of internal friction of the i-th soil layer (°) gi： unit weight of the i-th soil layer (kN/m3) hi： thickness of the i-th soil layer (m) Kai .b ) ú û sin( 2 with pai .d ) sin(fii + b ) ù ú cos(d + y ) cos(y .2. The earth pressure caused by liquefied soil. for instance.b ) = .3) cot( z .

The unit weight of soil normally has a value of 18 kN/m3 as unsaturated soil such as a soil above the residual water level. (2) Cohesion of soil should be determined using an appropriate method (refer to 11. 14.2.3. Clause 1. Number 2) The earth pressure of cohesive soil acting on the backface wall of structure and the angle of failure surface shall be calculated by following equations: (1) Active Earth Pressure F= = Sg E DE + M . -201- . If a negative earth pressure is obtained by calculation.5) (14.2. (3) Unit Weight of Soil. it can be set as large as 40°.6) = Sg E DE + M + ? active earth pressure acting on the bottom level of the i-th soil layer (kN/m2) passive earth pressure acts on the bottom level of the i-th soil layer (kN/m2) unit weight of the i-th soil layer (kN/m3) thickness of the i-th soil layer (m) uniformly distributed surcharge (kN/m2) cohesion of soil in the i-th layer (kN/m2) [Commentary] (1) Active earth pressure is calculated using equation (14.2. the cohesion between backfill and backface wall should be ignored. and 10 kN/m3 as saturated soil below it. It may be estimated as one-half of the angle of internal friction of backfilling material. (3) In case of cohesive soil. 14.? (2) Passive Earth Pressure where pa： pp： gi： hi： w： c： FF (14. In case of especially good backfilling material.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil under Ordinary Conditions (Notification Article 11.2. (2) Angle of Friction between Backfilling Material and Backface Wall The angle of friction between backfilling material and backface wall normally has a value of ±15° ~ 20°.2.3 Shear Properties).PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS d： angle of friction between backfilling material and backface wall (°) zi： angle of failure surface of the i-th soil layer (°) w： uniformly distributed surcharge (kN/m2) w b z1 z2 y y d zi y+d Fig.5). The wet unit weight gt should be used for soils above the residual water level. and the submerged unit weight g ¢ be used for soils below the residual water level. then the pressure should be set as zero.1 Schematic Diagram of Earth Pressure Acting on Retaining Wall [Commentary] (1) Angle of Internal Friction of Soil The angle of internal friction of backfill soil normally has a value of 30°. (4) The unit weight of cohesive soil should be estimated by soil test.

q ) ù y cos(d + y . -202- .3. C.b ) sin(f + b . (5) The earth pressure theory assumes that the soil and the pore water behave as contained in one unit.14.d ) y .3.q ) cos( E E (14.tan(f + d + y . [Commentary] (1) Earth pressure during an earthquake is based on the theories proposed by Mononobe (1917) and Okabe (1924).1) z .2. It may be estimated as one-half of the angle of internal friction of backfilling material.3 Earth Pressure during Earthquake 14. Clause 1.1.q ) ù y cos(d + y + q ) ê1 + ú cos(d + y + q ) cos(y .q ) cos(y .4) where K pi = cos q cos 2 where q： composite seismic angle (°) given by the following equations: q = tan-1k (above water level) q = tan-1k¢ (below water level) k： seismic coefficient k¢ ： apparent seismic coefficient fi + y .q ) é sin(fi + d ) sin(fi . (3) The composite seismic angle k is used for soils above the residual water level.b ) = .d . pai = K ai éSgi hi + ê ë cot( E y ù ú cosy cos(y .b ) û w cos (14.q ) é sin(fi .3.b ) = tan(f .y + b ) E y + d .1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil under Ordinary Conditions.b ) + sec(f + d + y . k.b ) sin(f .y + b ) + sec(f .1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil during Earthquake (Notification Article 18. The apparent seismic coefficient k¢ is described in 14.b . Thus the equations mentioned above cannot be applied to liquefied soil.b ) û w cos E E (14.3.y .q ) E E (14.b ) ú ê ë û cos ( 2 2 The notations other than q.3.b ) ú ê ë û 2 (2) Passive Earth Pressure and the Angle of Failure Surface.b . and k¢ are the same as those defined in 14.q ) sin(f .d ) sin(fi + b .3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient.q ) ê1 ú cos(d + y . (4) The coefficient of earth pressure and angle of failure surface as illustrated can be obtained from the diagrams in Fig.3. (2) Angle of friction between backfilling material and backface wall normally has a value of ± 15° ~ 20°.2) where K ai = cos q cos 2 fi . and k¢ is used below it. ppi = K pi éSg i hi + ê ë cot( E y ù ú cosy cos(y .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 14. Number 1) The earth pressure of sandy soil acting on a backface wall of structure during an earthquake and the angle of failure surface shall be calculated by following equations: (1) Active Earth Pressure and the Angle of Failure Surface.b ) cos ( 2 y + d + q ) sin(f + d ) cos(y .3.d . It is necessary for liquefied soil to treat carefully with dynamic effective stress analysis or model tests.3) cos( cos( E z .

6 φ= 40 ° φ= ° 25 40 ° 35 ° = φ φ= 0.2 k 0 0.8 50 ° φ= 0.0 25 ° φ= K p cos δ 40° 20 ° 6.4 0.0 φ = 40° K p sin δ φ = 35° φ = 30° 0 φ = 25° 0 0 0.14.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 70 ° 1.0 φ= 35° ζp 15 ° φ = 25 ° φ = 30 ° φ = 35° φ = 40° 4.2 k 0.0 δ = 15° δ = 15° 60 ° 0.4 K acos δ ° 30 ζa 0° 30 ° = 30 ° φ φ= ° 35 25 ° 4 φ= 20 ° 0.0 δ = –15° 30 ° δ = –15° 8.2 K asin δ φ=2 5° 30° φ= 35° φ= 10 ° 0° φ=4 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 Fig.4 0.2 k 0.4 0.2 k –10 ° 0.3 0.5 0 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.0 φ=3 0° φ=2 φ = 40° 5° 10 ° K p sin δ 2.2 k 0 0.1 0.3.3 0.5 0 0.1 0.0 φ = 35° φ = 30° 5° φ = 25° 0 0 0.1 Coefficient of Earth Pressure and Failure Angle -203- .2 k 0.3 0.5 10.3 0.5 60 ° δ = 15° 50 ° 3.0 φ = 35° 30 ° ζp 20 ° φ = 30° φ = 25° 10 ° 1.1 0.3 0.4 0.0 δ = 15° 40 ° φ= 25° φ=3 0° φ = 35 ° φ = 40° φ = 40° K p cos δ 2. C.

(2) Passive Earth Pressure Passive earth pressure shall be calculated using an appropriate earth pressure equation so that the structural stability will be secured during an earthquake.ç E E ÷ tan q 2? è ø active earth pressure. [Commentary] (1) The active earth pressure acting on a backface wall of structure during an earthquake and the angle of sliding surface should be calculated by following equations: F= = (SgE DE + w) sin (z = +q ) cos q sin z = - ? cos z = sin z = (14.3. Clause 1. acting on the bottom level of the i-th soil layer (kN/m2) unit weight of the i-th soil layer (kN/m3) thickness of the i-th soil layer (m) angle of failure surface of the i-th soil layer (°) uniformly distributed surcharge (kN/m2) cohesion of the soil (kN/m2) 1 1 composite seismic angle (°) ( q = tan k or q = tan k¢ ) seismic coefficient apparent seismic coefficient (2) There are many unknown items concerning the method for determining the passive earth pressure of cohesive soil during an earthquake.3.5) (14.3. by using the apparent seismic coefficient that is determined by equation (14.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil under Ordinary Conditions can be used as passive earth pressure during an earthquake.7) where k¢： gt： g： w： hi： hj： h： k： apparent seismic coefficient unit weight of soil layer above the residual water level (kN/m3) unit weight (in the air) of saturated soil layer below the residual water level (kN/m3) uniform external load at the ground surface (kN/m2) thickness of the i-th soil layer above the residual water level (m) thickness of the j-th soil layer below the residual water level (m) thickness of soil layer to calculate earth pressure below the residual watere level (m) seismic coefficient -204- .2.7).3.3. If the earth pressure at the depth of 10 m below the sea bottom becomes less than the earth pressure at the sea bottom.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil during Earthquake (Notification Article 18.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil during Earthquake. 14. the latter should be applied down to the depth of 10 m. the passive earth pressure in ordinary condition discribed in 14. Number 2) The earth pressure of cohesive soil acting on a backface wall of structure during an earthquake shall be calculated by the following: (1) Active Earth Pressure Active earth pressure shall be calculated using an appropriate earth pressure equation which takes the seismic coefficient into account so that the structural stability will be secured during an earthquake. From the practical point of view. The earth pressure between these two depths is determined assuming that the earth pressure is linearly distributed between them. ) h k (14.3. (3) The apparent seismic coefficient should be used to calculate the earth pressure of cohesive soil down to the sea bottom during an earthquake.3.3. k ¢ = ( Sg t hi + Sg hj +M) +g h [ Sg t hi + S (g .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 14. The apparent seismic coefficient may be set as zero when calculating the earth pressure at the depth of 10 m from the sea bottom or deeper.3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient (Notification Article 19) It shall be standard to calculate the earth pressure acting below the residual water level during an earthquake according to the procedures given in 14. ) h j +M ] + ( g .1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil during Earthquake and 14.6) where p a： gi： hi： z a： w： c： q： k： k¢： æ Sg D + 2w ö z = = tan -1 1 .

3. 14.2 Cross Section of Soil Layers and Symbols.1 Schematic Diagram of the Residual Water Pressure [Commentary] For practical design.2 Dynamic Water Pressure during Earthquake (Notification Article 20) (1) The dynamic water pressure during an earthquake shall be calculated using the following equation: pdw = ± % kg w Hy where p dw： k： gw： H： y： Residual Water Press & (14.4.4.4 Water Pressure 14.3) dynamic water pressure (kN/m2) seismic coefficient unit weight of water (kN/m3) height of structure below the still water level (m) depth from the still water level (m) (2) The resultant force of dynamic water pressure and its acting depth shall be calculated by the following equation: pdw = ± % kg w H æ H% ç = ò & kg w è Hydy ö ÷ ø -205- (14.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Commentary] (1) In case of stability analysis of quaywall with use of equation (14. C-14. Residual Water Level Fig. the dynamic water pressure during an earthquake should be applied to the wall in the seaward direction.4. C. and tidal range.4.2) should be used as a water pressure acting on the backface wall (see Fig.L. First stratum First i stratum Residual water level R.4.4.2) Fig. First stratum Second stratum First j stratum Stratum for which earth pressure will be calculated 14. Normally the height hw will be 1/3 ~ 2/3 of the tidal range.4.1 Residual Water Pressure (Notification Article 12) The residual water pressure caused by the time delay of water level changes between the sea level and the residual water level shall be calculated using the following equation: (1) When y is less than hw FM = g M O (2) When y is equal to or greater than hw FM = gM DM where p w： gw： y： h w： residual water pressure (kN/m2) unit weight of water (kN/m3) depth from the residual water level (m) water level difference (m) (14.1) or (14.W.1).3.4. The residual water level is affected by various conditions such as permeability of backfill soil. the residual water pressure calculated by equation (14.4) hdw = ! H # .4.14.1) (14. (2) The concept of the apparent seismic coefficient k¢ is expressed by the following equation: g t ´ k = ( g 10 ) ´ k¢ (3) A product of unit weight of a soil layer (in the air) and seismic coefficient becomes equal to the product of submerged unit weight of a soil layer and the apparent coefficient for the soil below the water level.7). C-14.4.

pp. 418-472 -206- .3) has been derived for the dynamic water pressures induced by stationary oscillations of water 1). No. M.4. the magnitude of dynamic water pressure should be two times that calculated above. 1835. [Reference] 1) H. Westergaard: “Water pressures on dams during earthquakes”. 1933. Transactions of ASCE.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where p dw： resultant force of dynamic water pressure (kN/m) hdw： depth of the acting point of the resultant force from the still water level (m) [Commentary] Equation (14. In case of a structure that have the free water surface in both sides such as a breakwater.

0 16. Table 15.0 15. loads are divided into deadweight and surcharge. snow load. vehicle load. and rubble (dry) Sand.5 24.2. are included in static load.6 26. gravel.0 22. -207- .3. cargo in transit sheds and warehouses. and rubble (wet) Sand. gravel.0 25. ① Train load ② Vehicle load ③ Cargo handling equipment load ④ Sidewalk live load 15.3 Static Load 15.1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 15 Loads 15. when designing port and harbor facilities.2 Deadweight and Surcharge (Notification Article 24) (1) The unit weights of materials in design of port and harbor facilities shall be the values given in Table 15. The types of surcharge to be taken into consideration include static load.0 20.0 27.1 General When designing port and harbor facilities. (1) Deadweight: the weight of the structure itself (2) Surcharge: the weight loaded on top of the structure.1 Static Load under Ordinary Conditions Static load under ordinary conditions shall be determined based on adequate consideration of the factors such as the type. (a) Static load The load such as bulk cargo loaded onto aprons. except for those cases where another unit weight can be specified by means of advance surveys and others.6 7. the handling method. loads shall be taken into consideration as necessary. and rubble (saturated) Unit weight (kN/m3) 77.1 Unit Weights of Materials (Notification Article 24. [Technical Notes] For port and harbor facilities design. etc. and any other loads that will have an effect on the design of the port and harbor facilities. (2) The surcharge acting on port and harbor facilities shall be appropriately determined with due consideration for the service conditions of the port and harbor facilities such as the type and volume of cargo handled and the handling conditions.0 71. (b) Live load The following must be considered as live load.8 22.2. In regions with heavy snowfall.0 18. and it is divided into static load and live load. Clause 5) Material Steel and casting steel Casting iron Aluminum Reinforced concrete Plain concrete Timber Asphalt concrete Stone (granite) Stone (sandstone) Sand. gravel. the snow load also is a kind of static load. and the loading period. sidewalk live load. train load. cargo handling equipment load. shape and volume of cargo handled.

In this case the snow load should be determined by taking into consideration the trend in snowfall.2 Normal Snow Conditions and Unit Weight of Snow (Units: kN/m3) Normal snow conditions Dry powder snow Dry powder snow accumulated by winds Snow with medium water content Snow with high water content -208Unit weight 1.4 Snow Load For regions where snowfall is large. new powder snow.0 15. However.2.9 8.3. the snow load should be determined according to the regional conditions. open storage yards and aprons. the unevenly distributed load may be converted to an uniform load in an area of an apron. transit shed or warehouse. snow quality and snow removal operation.8 ～ 9. Static load to be used in design during an earthquake should be determined according to their conditions of usage.0 20.1 Unit Weights of Bulk Cargo (Units: kN/m3) Commodity Coke Coal (bulk) Coal (dust) Iron ore Cement Sand. for example. gravel and rubble Unit weight 4.3.0 15.8 9. this concentrated load shall be taken into consideration without converting to an uniform load. described in the “Railway Structure Design Standards and Commentary”.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) The static load of apron is 10 ~ 30 kN/m2 in many cases. 15.0 19. This is equivalent to.2 1. [Technical Notes] (1) For quaywalls where snow removal operations will be carried out. which are listed in Table T.15.2 Static Load during Earthquake Static load during an earthquake shall be determined by considering the condition of the static load at the time when the earthquake considered in the design should occur.15.3. [Technical Notes] The conditions of static load during an earthquake should be examined separately for the respective types of facilities such as transit sheds.3.7 4. On the other hand.3.3.1. approximately 70 ~ 100 cm thickness of dry. 15. Table T. warehouses.4 8. (2) The unit weights for bulk cargo have been obtained based on surveys of past actual conditions. the static load will vary tremendously whether cargo loading operations are underway or not. it is often sufficient to determine the snow load with the accumulated weight of snow over one night.8 ～ 11. based on thorough consideration of past snowfall records. (3) The relationship between normal snow conditions and snow unit weight. for facilities such as aprons used as cargo handling facilities where cargo is only placed temporarily.0 ～ 29. where a large concentrated load is likely to act on the structure.15. is shown in Table T.3 Unevenly Distributed Load When calculating the stability of a structure as a whole. For aprons that handle cargo of large weight such as steel materials. Table T.3. For this reason in design of quaywall the static load on an apron during an earthquake is normally assumed to be 1/2 of that under service conditions.3 . (2) In most cases the snow load is set as 1 kN/m2.15. the value of the static load should be determined after investigating the cargo handing condition.

4 Sidewalk Live Load The sidewalk live load shall be 5 kN/m2. or the maximum contact load of crawler of the mobile cargo handling equipment that is expected to be used.591 6. Train load shall be applied in principle as the full set of multiple loads in succession without dividing it into two or more separate sets.900² 6² 6² 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 in 6² 6² Tolerance in 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 Maximum gross mass kg lb 1 AAA 1 AA 12.438 2.15.400² *Some countries regulate the total height of the vehicle and container.438 2. the maximum wheel load. Table T.896² 2.125 1B 1 BX 1 CC 1C 1 CX 1D 2.4. by taking into consideration the net car weight.438 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 Height (H) Tolerance mm 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 ft 9 8 8 <8 9 8 8 <8 8 8 <8 8 <8 0 -3/16 6² 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 24. For special facilities.991 1 DX 0 -10 40 0 -3/8 2.15.896 2.438 <2.1 Train Load Train load shall be applied in such a way to induce the maximum effect on the structures or their members. and axle arrangement of wheels. [Technical Notes] The regulations concerning the dimensions and maximum gross mass of containers used for marine transport have been set by the “International Organization for Standardization (ISO)” as listed in Table T.438 <2.4. this value can be reduced in consideration of the service conditions of the facilities.3 Cargo Handling Equipment Load The load of cargo handling equipment shall be as follows: (1) The load of mobile cargo handling equipment shall be the total deadweight.480 67.1 Standard Demension of Containers Designation Length (L) mm Tolerance ft mm in Tolerance in mm Width (W) Tolerance mm ft Tolerance in mm 2.438 2.200² 0 -10 29 11 1/4 0 -3/16 2. (3) The load of fixed cargo handling equipment shall be the maximum hoisting load.400 56.000² 0 -5 9 9 3/2 0 -3/16 2. loaded weight.2 Vehicle Load Vehicle load shall be determined according to the “Highway Bridge Specification and Commentary”. 15.4.058 0 -6 19 10 1/2 0 -1/4 2.4. however.438 <2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 15.438 0 -5 8 0 -3/16 10.591² 2.000 52.438 <2.4.1. 15. the maximum load of the outrigger operation.591 2.438 0 -5 8 0 -3/16 25.438 0 -5 8 0 -3/16 2. 15.4. (2) The load of cargo handling equipment travelling on rail shall be the total deadweight or the maximum wheel load considering the wheel interval and number of wheels.160 22.438 0 -5 8 0 -3/16 30.192 1A 1 AX 1 BBB 1 BB 9.4 Live Load 15. -209- .

81) 0.5 0. normally the values listed in Table T.7 ～ 0.1 can be used. when the bedrock is brittle or includes cracks. Part Ⅷ .16.5 (dry) 0.5 0. the value of coefficient is to be reduced to down to 0. The friction coefficient shall be appropriately determined after taking into consideration the characteristics of the structure and the characteristics of the materials. -210- .8 0. or when the sand movement over the bedrock is intensive.16. Table T.2 (wet) ～ 0. [Technical Notes] For the static friction coefficient to be used in stability calculations. 2) When calculating the stability of cellular concrete blocks.7 depending on the condition.1. However.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 16 Coefficient of Friction 16.8 for the friction between underwater concrete and bedrock under ordinary condition. 4.1.7 ～ 0.1 General (Notification Article 25) The friction coefficient for materials used in calculations of the frictional resistance force shall be the static friction coefficient as the standard.4 Cellular Blocks shoud be referred to.6 0.8 Notes: 1) The value should be 0.1 Static Friction Coefficient Concrete against concrete Concrete against bedrock Underwater concrete against bedrock Concrete against rubble Rubble against rubble Timber against timber Friction increasing mat and rubble 0.

Part III Materials .

.

However. cost. materials. Clause 1) Examination of the safety of structural members against external forces shall be made in accordance with either the allowable stress method or the limit state design method. depending on the characteristics of structures. -211- . it shall be standard to examine the safety of members of reinforced concrete structures with the limit state design method. lifetime of structures. workability. impact on the environment. and other matters.PART III MATERIALS Part III Materials Chapter 1 General 1.2 Safety of Structural Elements (Notification Article 34. deterioration with time. 1.1 Selection of Materials Materials to be used in structures and foundation works shall be selected after giving due consideration to the external forces acting on them. and load characteristics. shape of structures.

[Technical Notes] Table T.2 Structural Steel.3.2 Structural Steel The standard allowable stresses for structural steel shall be as listeted in Table 2. [Commentary] Foreign products may be used if they are of a quality equivalent to that complying with JIS.3.1 Steel Material Constants Modulus of elasticty Shear modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefficient of linear thermal elongation E G v a 2. 2.4 Steelsheet Piles. or shall be of a quality equal to or better than that specificied by JIS. depending on the type of steel material.1 Allowable Stresses for Structural Steel (Notification Article 35.1 Materials (Notification Article 35. Annexed Table 7) Type of steel Type of stress Axial tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Axial compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Bending tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Bending compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Shearing stress (per gross cross-sectional area) between steel plates Bearing stress when calculated using Hertz’s equation (Units : N/mm2) SS400 SM400 SMA400 140 140 140 140 80 210 600 SM490 185 185 185 185 105 280 700 SM490Y SM520 SMA490 210 210 210 210 120 315 － SM570 SMA570 255 255 255 255 145 380 － -212- .2 Steel Meterial Constants Used in Design Calculation Material constants to be used in design for steel and cast steel shall be set as appropriate in view of strength characteristics and other properties.3.2.3 Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles. Clause 2) 2.3. or if they are of a quality equal to or better than that specificied by JIS even though not yet standardized as JIS. Table T.2.7 ´ 104 N/mm2 0. and 2.1.2.1 lists the reference values of the material constants for ordinary steel and cast steel.0 ´ 105 N/mm2 7. 2.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 2 Steel 2.3 Allowable Stresses (Notification Article 35.3. 2. Clause 1) Steel materials shall be of a quality complying with the “Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)”.30 12 ´ 10-6 1/ ℃ 2.3.3.1 General It shall be standard to set the allowable streses in accordance with 2. Table 2. depending on the quality of steel and the type of stresses.

18ö .3 Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles The standard allowable stresses for steel piles and steel pipe sheet piles shall be as listed in Table 2. 700 + è -ø r Bending tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Bending compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) 140 140 (1) In case of the axial tensile stress s t + s bt ≦ s ta and s t + sbc ≦ s ba (2) In case of the axial compressive stress 1. Annexed Table 8) (Units : N/mm2) Type of steel Type of stress Axial tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) SKK400 SHK400 SHK400M SKY400 140 ili 140.. è r ø ili 18 ＜ ----. the values for allowable stresses listed in Table 2.0 s ca s ba 80 150 Shearing stress (per gross cross-sectional area) where l： effective buckling length of member (cm) r： radius of gyration of area for the gross cross-sectional area of the member (cm) st . depending on the quality of steel and the type of stresses.2 æ ----. 2. 000 ili 1. è r ø ili 16 ＜ ----. ----.3.+ ------.PART III MATERIALS [Technical Notes] (1) The values listed in Table 2.3.≦ 1. sc： tensile stress due to axial tensile force and compressive stress due to axial compressive force acting on the section. (3) Since structural steel is almost invariably used in locations where there is little danger of buckling. respectively (N/mm2) sta .2 Allowable Stresses for Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles (Notification Article 35. 200.a Table 2.3.≦ 79 r -------------------------------------. 200.≦ 16 r ili 185 1. respectively (N/mm2) sba： allowable bending compressive stress (N/mm2) -213- .82 æ ----. The allowable stresses for structural steel with a thickness in excess of 40 mm may follow the provisions in the “Highway Bridge Specifications and the Commentary”.3. 79 ＜ ----r æ iliö 2 5. ----. respectively (N/mm2) sbt .≦ 92 r -------------------------------------. 000 SKK490 SHK490M SKY490 185 ili 185 . (2) The allowable limits for tensile and compressive stresses for the various steel materials have been set at around 60% of the yield strengths prescribed in JIS.≦ 18 r ili 140 0. sca： allowable tensile stress and allowable axial compressive stress relating to smallest moment of inertia.. sbc： maximum tensile stress and maximum compressive stress due to bending moment acting on the section. 000 + è ----.ø r 185 185 ili Axial compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Examination of members simultaneously subject to axial force and bending moment s c sbc ------.1 have been determined for the cases in which there are no danger of buckling taking place.1 are the allowable stresses for structural steel with a thickness of 40 mm or less.92 ＜ ----r ili æ ----. 16ö .ö 2 6.3.2.

-214- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 2. [Technical Notes] (1) Table T.2.3.3 Allowable Stresses for Steel Sheet Piles (Notification Article 35.2 lists the reference values of the allowable stress for welded zones.3.6 Allowable Stresses for Steel at Welded Zones and Spliced Sections The allowable stresses for steel at welded zones and spliced sections shall be set as appropriate in accordance with the quality of steel and the type of welding.5 Cast Steel and Forged Steel The standard allowable stresses for cast steel and forged steel shall be set as appropriate in accordance with the quality of steel and the type of stress.3.3. the values of the steel materials with the lower strength shall be applied. Annexed Table 9) (Units : N/mm2) Type of steel SY295 Type of stress Bending tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Bending compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Shearing stress (per gross cross-sectional area) 180 180 100 235 235 125 SY390 2. Table T. Table 2. depending on the quality of steel and the type of stresses.2.3.3. When steel materials of different strengths are sliced.2.1 Allowable Stresses for Cast Steel and Forged Steel Cast steel SC450 140 140 140 140 80 600 Steels for machine structural use S30CN 170 170 170 170 100 670 S35CN 190 190 190 190 110 720 (Units : N/mm2) Cast iron FC150 40 80 40 80 30 450 FC250 60 120 60 120 50 650 Type of steel Type of stress Axial tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Axial compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Bending tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Bending compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Shearing stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Bearing stress (when calculated using Hertz’s equation) Forged steel SF490A 140 140 140 140 80 600 SF540A 170 170 170 170 100 700 2.4 Steel Sheet Piles The standard allowable stresses for steel sheet pile shall be as listed in Table 2.3.3.3.1 lists the reference values of the allowable stresses for cast steel and forged steel. [Technical Notes] Table T.

2.3. (4) Table T.3.8 2.3.2. -215- .50 [Technical Notes] When assuming a special external force.3. the value should be set at 90% of that of shop welding (2) Table T.4. Table T. the value should be the same as that of shop welding.9 4.15 1.3 lists the reference values of the allowable stresses for anchor bolts and pins.4 Allowable Stresses for Finished Bolts Strength categories according to JIS B 1051 Type of stress Tensile Shearing Bearing 140 90 210 360 200 540 470 270 700 (Units : N/mm2) 10. the allowable stresses in 2.4 can be applied.3.3.4 lists the reference values of the allowable stresses for finished bolts.PART III MATERIALS Table T. an increase rate greater than those in Table 2.2 Allowable Stresses for Steel at Welded Zones Type of steel Type of welding Full penetration groove welding Fillet welding and partial penetration groove welding Field welding Type of stress Compressive Tensile Shearing Shearing Shop welding SM490Y SM520 SMA490 210 210 120 120 (Units : N/mm2) SM570 SMA570 255 255 145 145 SM400 SMA400 140 140 80 80 SM490 185 185 105 105 1) In principle.2 Structural Steel to 2. Annexed Table 10) Combination of external forces and loads When considering the influence of temperature variation When considering the influence of earthquakes Increase rate 1.2. Clause 3) When considering a combination of several kinds of external forces.4 Increase Rates of Allowable Stresses (Notification Article 35.7 Increase of Allowable Stresses (Notification Article 35.3. Table T.3. Table 2.2.3 Allowable Stressess for Anchor Bolts and Pins (Units : N/mm2) Type Anchor bolts Pins Type of steel Type of stress Shearing Bending Shearing Bearing SS400 60 190 100 210 S35CN 80 260 140 280 (3) The allowable stress for anchor bolts prescribed here is based on the assumption that they are embedded in concrete.3. 2) For steel pipe piles and steel pipe sheet piles.6 8.3.3.2.6 Allowable Stress for Welded Zones and Spliced Sections can be increased by the rate listed in Table 2.

the rate of corrosion is highest in the section immediately below the tidal zone. Thus. In cases of concentrated corrosion. when determining the rate of corrosion of steel materials. corrosion is particularly heavy in the splash zone. the sum of the corrosion rates of the both sides estimated on the basis of the values in Table T. and thus these values are not applicable to such cases. This marked localized corrosion is called the concentrated corrosion. (2) The values for “HWL or higher” in Table T.1 are the average ones.2 Corrosion Rates of Steel Materials The corrosion rate of steel materials shall be determined as appropriate in view of the environmental conditions of the site where structures are built. Therefore. where the structure is exposed to sea water splashes and there is an adequate supply of oxygen. C. and in some cases may even exceed the value in the splash zone. -216- . [Commentary] The corrosion rate of steel materials used in port and harbor facilities is influenced by the environmental conditions. The corrosion rate between the HWL and midsea sections should be determined by referring to actual corrosion rates in the properties of sea water around the structures.4. But depending on the environmental conditions of the structure.1 should be employed. the results of corrosion surveys under similar conditions should be referred to. because the corrosion rate depends on the corrosive environmental conditions. It should also be noted that the values in Table T. and the actual corrosion rate may exceed them depending on the enviromental conditions of the steel material. in particular.1 refer to the corrosion rate for only one side of the steel material.4. the rate of corrosion greatly exceeds the values listed in Table T. the values in Table T.2. the rate of corrosion is highest in the section immediately above the mean high water level (MHWL).1. which has been compiled on the basis of survey results on existing steel structures.2. The appropriate boundary between them is around 1. when the both sides of steel materials are subject to corrosion.4. In particular. Among the submerged sections in Fig. the rate of corrosion in the section directly below the mean low water level (MLWL) is often not much different from that in midsea sections. the corrosion in the tidal zone should be dealt with separately from that in the midsea sections because of the differences in the environmental conditions.1. However. This is because past corrosion surveys have shown that the corrosion rate varies depending on the properties of sea water and the depth of water. reference may be made to “Corrosion Control and Repair Manual for Port and Harbor Steel Structures (Revised Edition)” published by the Coastal Development Institute of Technology. [Technical Notes] (1) The corrosion rate of steel materials should generally be determined by referring to the standard values listed in Table T.4. the existence of river water inflow.4. as they are placed under harsh corrosive environmental conditions. Therefore.2.1 are listed as references with a range of variation. the salinity and pollution level of the sea water. [Commentary] The distribution of corrosion rate with respect to the depth of steel materials driven into the sea generally becomes as shown in Fig.2.4 Corrosion Control 2.2. the rate should be determined by referring to past cases in the vicinity and survey results under similar conditions.4. [Technical Notes] For all aspects of corrosion control.4. The values in Table T2.1 refer to the corrosion rate immediately above HWL.1 General Corrosion control shall be investigated in design of facilities involving use of steel materials. the corrosion rate in this section differs greatly depending on the environmental conditions and the cross-sectional shape of the structure. the rate of corrosion in the section directly below MLWL may be much larger than that in midsea sections.4. C. C.2. which include the weather conditions.1.2.2.1 Distribution of Steel Material Corrosion Rates Tidal zone Underwater Sea mud 2.4.4. Marine atmosphere Splash zone Mean high water level Mean low water level Seabed Rate of corrosion Fig.0 m below the depth LWL.4.4.1. For the sections immediately below the mean low water level. suitable countermeasures shall be undertaken because heavy localized corrosion may occur there.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 2. etc. Generally. However. That is. In steel sheet piles and steel pipe pile structures submerged in clean sea water.2.

03 0. and their reliability has been confirmed.03 0. as the sections immediately below MLWL are easily susceptible to corrosion.2. [Commentary] (1) Corrosion control methods to be applied to port and harbor steel structures consist of the cathodic protection method and the coating method. For the sections below the mean low water level (MLWL). (4) The best results have been achieved by using the coating method above the tidal zone and the cathodic protection method in the midsea and seabed sections. the coating should extend to a certain depth below MLWL and should be combined with the cathodic protection method. The zone between MLWL and the LWL is submerged for a shorter time than that below LWL.4.02 Land side 2.2 0. depending on the corrosive environmental conditions. (3) The ground embedded side of steel sheet pile have a slower rate of corrosion than that of the seaward side.3 0. the coating method.1 ～ 0.2.4. and caution should be taken to prevent damage on coating during installation or by collisions from driftwood. Also. But in cases where a strongly corrosive environment is conjectured due to the influence of waste material in the backfill. in principle.4 Cathodic Protection Method [1] Range of Application The range of application of the cathodic protection method shall in principle be at or below the mean low water level (MLWL). or other corrosion control method.1 0.4.2). the effect of the cathodic protection method (corrosion control rate) increases when the period of immersion of the steel material subject to corrosion in sea water is longer and decreases when it is shorter. corrosion control by means of the thickness allowance should not be undertaken as a corrosion control method. corrosion control must be carried out by coating. it is acceptable to apply the method of corrosion control using thickness allowance for corrosion. For the sections above the depth 1 m below the mean monthly-lowest water level (LWL). [Commentary] Above the MLWL. the cathodic protection method shall be implemented as the standard corrosion control method.3 Corrosion Control Methods (Notification Article 38) Corrosion control methods for steel material shall be taken as appropriate by employing the cathodic protection method. Therefore. (2) In the tidal zone and submerged zone. there is a risk of intensive corrosion due to concentrated corrosion. surveys should be conducted in advance and appropriate measures should be taken. the coating materials should be selected in view of their durability in particular. respectively. Table T. depending on the environmental conditions in which the steel material exists. and thus the corrosion control efficiency of the cathodic protection is slightly inferior. the coating method shall be implemented as the standard method.1) and equation (2.PART III MATERIALS (3) In sealed spaces such as the inside of steel pipe piles. However. it may be assumed that corrosion cannot occur because there is no supply of oxygen. The seawater immersion ratio and corrosion control rate are expressed in equation (2. When using the coating method in the midsea sections. [Technical Notes] (1) As listed in Table T.4.1 Standard Values of Corrosion Rates for Steel Material Corrosive environment Seaside HWL or higher HWL ～ LWL -1 m LWL -1 m ～ seabed Under seabed Above ground and exposed to air Underground (above residual water level) Underground (below residual water level) Corrosion rate (mm/year) 0.2.1 ～ 0. 2.4.4. and thus no corrosion control is required in particular. -217- . in the case of temporary structures.3 0.

an electrode that indicates stable reference values even in the different environmental conditions should be used as the reference. corrosion is controlled. This method is applied almost universally in cathodic protection of port and harbor steel structures in Japan.4 Pure Zn. [Commentary] When applying a protective current through a steel structure by the cathodic protection method. (3) Cathodic protection is divided into the method of cathodic protection by galvanic anodes and that of cathodic protection by power impression. The electrode that provides the standard value is known as the reference electrode.2 Corrosion Control Ratio of the Cathodic Protection Method Seawater immersion ratio below 40 % equal to 40 % or over but below 80 % equal to 80 % or over but below 100 % 100 % Corrosion control rate below 40 % equal to 40 % or over but below 60 % equal to 60 % or over but below 90 % equal to 90 % or over Seawater immersion ratio time ＝ Immersion period of test piece ´ 100 (%) Total test period ´ 100 (%) (2.86* Note: * Fluctuates depending on material composition.14 1.11 65* 1. This potential is known as the protective potential.25 2.2 50 1.4.4. are outstandingly economical.1) Corrosion control rate ＝ (Weight loss of test piece without electric current － Weight loss of test piece with electric current) Weight loss of test piece without electric current (2. The value -218- . the saturated mercurous chloride electrode and the saturated copper sulfate electrode are sometimes used.03 mA/cm2 Current efficiency (%) Generated electricity flux (A ・h/g) Dissipation volume (kg/A)/year Current efficiency (%) Generated electricity flux (A ・h/g) Al-Zn-In 2.53 Pure Mg.8 90 2.3. Under the method of cathodic protection by power impression.88 Mg6 Al3 Zn 1. Zn alloy 7.56 0. [2] Protective Potential The protective potential of port and harbor steel structures shall be -780 mV with a seawater-silver chloride electrode as the reference. Under the galvanic anodes method. the potential of the steel structure gradually shifts to a base direction (becomes lower). In seawater. aluminum (Al).2) (2) The standard corrosion control rate for the area below the mean low water level is 90 %.08 0.78 11.0 40 0. Then a protective current flow is applied towards the steel structure from the current circuit.30 3.22 7.4.4.75 2. Aluminum alloy anodes (AI-Zn-In) offer the highest flux of current generated per unit of mass.3 Comparison of Characteristics of Galvanic Anode Materials Characteristics Specific gravity Open circuit anode voltage (V) (SCE) Effective voltage to iron (V) Theoretical generated electricity flux (A ・h/g) In seawater with 1 mA/cm2 In soil with 0. Since the output voltage can be freely adjusted with this method. Mg-Mn 1. and the places where a fine potential control is required.20 0.74 1. [Technical Notes] (1) To meassure the potential of steel structures. in addition to the seawater silver chloride electrode.2. When it reaches a certain potential. aluminum alloy anodes are most commonly used for port and harbor steel structures.20 50 1. zinc (Zn) and other anodes are connected to the steel structure and the electric current generated by the difference in potential between the two metals is used as a corrosion control current.48 0.4.8 65 0. a lead-silver alloy is often used as the current circuit.65 2. Table T. and are suited to both the midsea and seabed environments. Therefore.21 55 1.10 8. magnesium (Mg). it can be applied to the environments featuring pronounced fluctuations such as strong currents or the inflow of river water. In seawater.2.8 1.87 80 2.60 3. The characteristics of the galvanic anode materials are listed in Table T.03 0.82 95 0.6 ～ 2. mainly because of ease of maintenance. a current circuit is connected to the positive pole of an external DC power source and the steel structure to the negative pole.2.77 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T.

2. The constant value is around 40% ～50% of the initial value. -219- . When designing facilities. -780 mV -770 mV -850 mV (2) When combining the coating and cathodic protection methods (particularly the method of cathodic protection by power impression).2. 0. depending on the duration of protection: When protected for 5 years.4. the required protective current generally increases. Saturated copper sulfate electrode. or where there is a high concentration of sulfides. Concrete. Organic lining. waves.100 mV (using a saturated mercurous chloride electrode as the reference). the latter should be applied. This density is known as the protective current density. the design value of the protective current density should be set in reference to actual performance in existing structures in the area. Table T. the generated current weakens.55 ´ initial generated current density When protected for 10 years. Where there is an inflow of river water or diverse effluence. 20 +100 S (mA/m2) 10 +100 S (mA/m2) 100 S (mA/m2) In the above.4. the value of the protective current density should be set by assuming a certain rate of damage to the coating. currents.PART III MATERIALS of the protective potential differs depending on the reference electrode used for measurement. and finally reaches a constant value. [Commentary] (1) When applying cathodic protection. In seawater the following values may be set: Paint. The potential in this case should ideally be -800 ～ -1.4. Therefore.4. Saturated mercurous chloride electrode. if the protective current density obtained from the above equation exceeds the values in Table T2. The value of this protective current density decreases with the passage of time from the initial value at the start of cathodic protection.52 ´ initial generated current density When protected for 15 years.4 for the steel material in normal sea conditions. [3] Protective Current Density Protective current density shall be set to an appropriate value because it varies greatly depending on the marine environments. the value for 15 years should be applied. as in the following: Seawater-silver chloride electrode. Also.4 Protective Current Density at Start of Cathodic Protection (mA/m2) Clean sea areas In seawater In rubble mourd In soil (below seabed) In soil (above seabed) 100 50 20 10 Polluted sea areas 130 ～ 150 65 ～ 75 30 10 (2) As the duration of protection goes on. S is the rate of damage defined as the ratio of assumed damaged coated area to total coated area. [Technical Notes] (1) The protective current density at the start of cathodic protection should be based on the standard values listed in Table T. and water quality. (3) If a section coated with a coating material exists within the range of application of cathodic protection. (2) The protective current density varies with water temperature. where the water current is swift. However. 0. 0. the average generated current density for calculating the life span of the anode is often taken as the following. the required protective current increases. care should be taken not to let the coating film deteriorate due to excessive current. a certain current density per unit surface area of the steel material is needed in order to polarize the potential of the steel material to a more base value than the protective potential.50 ´ initial generated current density If the protection is intended to last for more than 15 years.

4.4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 2. the coating method is sometimes applied to the whole length of the structure depthwise. while the duration of immersion in seawater is shortened by the effects of waves and seasonal fluctuations in tide levels. the life of the galvanic anode may be extended. the following items shall also be surveyed: (7) Degree of corrosion and the deterioration condition of the existing paint coat or lining. (8) Initial design conditions -220- . [2] Applicable Methods The coating method applied to port and harbor steel structures shall be one of the following four methods: (1) Painting (2) Organic lining (3) Petrolatum lining (4) Inorganic lining [3] Selection of Method In selecting the method and determining the specifications. Therefore. By combining the cathodic protection and coating methods in sea water sections. because the cathodic protection cannot be applied to sections where the duration of seawater immersion is short. the characteristics of each method shall be examined and the following items shall be surveyed and reviewed: (1) Environmental conditions (2) Range of corrosion control (3) Lifetime (4) Maintenance (5) Conditions of construction work (6) Others For existing structures. But concentrated corrosion is liable to occur in the vicinity of the mean low water. [Commentary] The coating method is used in port and harbor structures. the range of application of the cathodic protection method is designated as below the mean low water level.4 Cathodic Protection Method.5 Coating Method [1] Extent of Application The coating method shall be applied to the sections above the depth 1 m below the mean monthly-lowest water level (LWL) for corrosion control. the coating method should be applied in combination with cathodic protection to the sections above the depth 1 m below LWL. [Technical Notes] In steel sheet pile revetments in shallow sea areas. As described in the 2.

It includes the active load (e. wave force. the fatigue limit state must be examined. and the fatigue limit state. the types of load and the frequency of loading have been categorized and the values have been determined for respective categories. For prestressed concrete. the variable load. and uplift pressure.g. the load factor. 1987) should be followed. the fatigue failure may be omitted because the repeated effects of moving loads is not plausible to cause a fatigue failure. the serviceability limit state. vessel berthing and pulling force should be regarded as a variable load if necessary. In the case of gravity type quaywalls. 3. the variable load. However. and collision load. Clauses 2 and 3) (1) Examination of the safety of structures using the limit state design method shall be conducted as standard on the ultimate limit state. in accordance with the type of the limit states. ③ fatigue limit state which corresponds to such the failure same as in the ultimate limit state that occurs due to the effects of repeated load. the materials. member factor (except for caisson type quaywalls during an earthquake). and structural analysis factor are in harmony with the principles stated in the “Standard Specifications of Concrete”. and the safety against the serviceability limit state should be confirmed. the member factor. and the structure factor). the “Prestressed Concrete for Ports and Harbors Structure Design Manual” (Ports and Harbours Bureau.1). vessel pulling force. residual water pressure. and comparisons with other structures. However. Since the limit state design method is more rational than the allowable stress design method. the former method has been adopted in principle for the design of breakwaters and mooring facilities. or that caused by the repeated effect of moving loads on the superstructures. internal water pressure. except where otherwise stated in this document. namely the permanent load. (2) Suitable values shall be adopted for the five types of partial safety factors (namely the material factor. and earth pressure of the filling. and the accidental load. ② the serviceability limit state which corresponds to the state of slight inconvenience such as excessive cracking and other relatively minor faults due to the effect of a load occurring often in the lifetime. Ministry of Transport.1 General (1) The design of concrete structures such as breakwaters and mooring facilities shall follow the limit state design method as standard. Accidental load is a load that has an extremely small frequency of action during the lifetime but that has a very large impact when it does act. [Commentary] Limit states are classified as follows: ① the ultimate limit state which corresponds to the devastating failure occurring due to the maximum load in the lifetime.2.. In this case. and the loads. [Commentary] The limit state design method has been applied in the “Standard Specifications of Concrete: 1986 Edition” (Japan Society of Civil Engineers). 2).3.PART III MATERIALS Chapter 3 Concrete 3. It includes the deadweight of the structure or member. Other partial safety factors are determined on the basis of case analyses. uplift pressure (when acting on the superstructure of open-type wharf). vessel berthing force. wind pressure. considering the characteristics of the structures. the material factor. namely the permanent load. 3) (a) Of the partial safety factors. (b) As for the load factor. if the impact of moving loads cannot be ignored. [Technical Notes] (1) The values listed in Table T. -221- .1 may be taken as the partial safety factors to be used in design. load from cargo handling machinery). and the accidental load. hydrostatic pressure. the load factor shall be set as appropriate by categorizing it into three types of loads. (2) The selection of materials for concrete structures shall follow the “Standard Specifications of Concrete [Construction]” (Japan Society of Civil Engineers).2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method (Notification Article 34. Permanent load is a type of load that acts continuously without any variation or with a variation of negligible amplitude compared with the average value. the structural analysis factor. The loads are categorized into three types. The fatigue limit state could include that caused by the repeated effect of wave forces on breakwaters. It includes the earthquake load. comparative studies on safety with the allowable stress method. in accordance with the type of the load and the frequency of loading. Variable load is a load in which a variation arises frequently or continuously and the amplitude of variation is not negligible compared with the average value.

... 1.2.... of structures with special shapes such as curved slit caisson breakwaters........ 1. 1... but it roughly corresponds to the waves with the return period of one-month in the Japan Sea region.0 － 1...0 1..3 ・When calculating shear capacity borne by concrete .1 Partial Safety Factors Type of limit state Partial safety factor Concrete Material factor (gm) Steel reinforcement and prestressing steel Other types of steel Permanent load Variable load Load factor (gf ) Wave force Variable load at time of construction Other types of load Accidental load Structural analysis factor (ga) Member factor (gb) Structure factor (gi) 1..3 (1...0 1........... 1.... (b) In other cases... 1.0 Fatigue limit 1.1 (0.... and the functional shape of the distribution of extreme wave heights..0 － 1...0 ～ 1.0 1. and that of 4 to 6 months in the Pacific region of Tokai and the southward (the wave height refers to that of highest waves)..05 1....0 1. the characteristic values should be calculated according to equation (3.15 (1... (2) Characteristic values used in design may be calculated in accordance with the methods given in the respective sections of this document......0 1. (c) The partial safety factors shown here are only meant to be standard values........0 ～ 1.... otherwise 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T..0 for earthquake load.3 1...0 ～ 1.....0 ・Quaywalls: .. But for the present......0 － 1.3 at the ultimate limit state as standard for caisson type and other ordinary breakwaters. the installation depth..0 1.0 1.. it will suffice to take the value 1....1) .......8 ～ 1.... 1............3 1...15 (1.. The permanent load factor should be 1.. However.... The probability such waves will differ from region to region.0) 1....0 Ultimate limit 1.9 ～ 1.1 The load factor of breakwaters against wave force can vary depending on the type of the breakwater....... The compression strength of concrete may be taken as the nominal strength........ Note 2: The values below may be used for the member factor when examining the ultimate limit state.0) Note 3: The values below may be used for the structure factor relating to the ultimate limit state.0 － 1. ・Superstructure of pier:.2 (0.0 1.. otherwise 1... and other cases should be 1.0 Note 1: Values in the parentheses are applied in the case that the safety of structures is lowered when the loads take smaller values... the seabed gradient.0 1..1).0) Serviceability limit 1........0 1.15) ・When calculating shear capacity borne by shear reinforcement.. 1.. Also......05 1....... the load factor is thought to be even greater and it therefore needs to be determined as appropriate by conducting model experiments...3 1.3..0 for accidental load.0 for the case in which the earthquake resistance of bottom slab of gravity type quaywall is examined. those values may be used.....2 1......05 1. The values of load when examining the serviceability limit state should be as follows: (a) The wave height to calculate wave pressure on breakwaters should be that of waves with the occurrence frequency in the order of 104 during the design lifetime (for example 50 years)... The values in the parentheses are applicable when verifying the safety of the bottom slab of gravity type quaywalls during an earthquake.....2.0 ～ 1......2... that of 2 to 3 months in the Pacific region of Kanto and the northward.............3 1...1 for wave force.... If they can be determined more appropriately using a different method.0 1. ・When calculating bending and axial strength .9). Sk = kp Sp + kr Sr where Sk ： characteristic value of load for examination of the serviceability limit state -222- (3..1 (0.. otherwise 1.. the lower limit values of JIS may be taken as the tensile yield strength and tensile strength of steel materials..0) ・When calculating upper limit of axial compressive strength .2 ・Breakwaters:..0 1...

5 during the construction. 2). Reference 4) may be consulted with when examining the fatigue limit state for superstructures of open-type wharves. Other equations may be referred to. Equation (3. It may be taken that kp is 1.2. Since the fatigue safety is greatly affected not only by the magnitude of the load but also by the frequency of their actions. the limit value of the deflection may be determined by referring to the “Highway Bridge Specifications and the Commentary” (Japan Road Association). Moreover. the rank classification and frequencies of actions need to be determined appropriately. and 0.50 . caution is required when designing the reinforcing bar arrangement. Impact caused by the load with a rank corresponding to the level with the fatigue life of 2 million times or more may be disregarded 1). the allowable stresses may be increased by the factor listed in Table 3. (4) When the load acting on the superstructure of open-type wharf due to cargo handling machinery is comparatively large and a deflection is expected to exceed the extent that the cargo handling is not hindered.0 and kr is 0.g. which may usually be taken as 1.3 Design Based on Allowable Stress Method (Notification Article 36) When examining the safety of structural members based on the allowable stresses method. Equation (3. (3) When examining the serviceability limit state.1 Increase Factor for Allowable Stresses of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Type Plain concrete Reinforced concrete Combination of external forces and loads When considering the impact of earthquakes When considering the influence of temperature variation and drying shrinkage When considering the impact of earthquakes -223Increase factor 1. a Cracks that appear in structures due to factors other than the effect of load (e.2.3.3 in the case of plain bars and prestressing steel. Then the total degree of impact by all load ranks should be calculated and the degree of safety against fatigue failure be judged. w = k [ 4c + 0. those washed by a seawater.15 1.PART III MATERIALS Sp： characteristic value of permanent load Sr： characteristic value of variable load kp. It should then be confirmed that the flexural crack width ω calculated by equation (3. When doing so. Table 3. when using special materials or members of special shape.2) where w： flexural crack width (cm) k： constant indicating the effect of the bonding properties of the steel material.2.2) generally gives results on the safe side. Since flexural crack width is affected not only by the stress on the reinforcement but also by the diameter and pitch of the reinforcement. They may both be taken as 0. and these subject to strong sea breeze. because they do not fall within the scope of the present method of examination. initial defect) and fail to close even in an unloaded state need to be studied separately.50 1.2.+ e cs ¢ö s se è Es ø (3. the safety against the occurrence of deflection as a serviceability limit state should be confirmed as necessary.1.7 ( c s f ) ] æ ------. and elsewhere 150 ´ 10-6) The allowable crack width ω (cm) is 0. (5) When examining the fatigue limit state. kr： constants to represent the effects on crack widths and the corrosion of steel by the permanent load and variable load. the reinforcement or prestressing steel materials subject to examination of flexural cracks shall in principle be tensile steel materials in positions closest to the surface of the concrete. the allowable stresses of concrete and steel reinforcements shall be set at the value appropriate to the material used.0035c for the sections directly in contact with seawater. loads of repeated actions should be ranked as appropriate and their respective degree of impact on fatigue failure be calculated. it is standard to check the safety against the occurrence of excessive cracking. 3. or experimental studies may be conducted for estimating crack width. the method shown in reference 2) may be used to estimate the characteristic value of load.2) in “Standard Specifications of Concrete” may be used to calculate the width of flexural cracks. c： covering (cm) cs： distance between centers of steel materials (cm) f： diameter of steel material (cm) sse： increased stress on reinforcement. calculated using the characteristic load by equation (3.2) is smaller than the allowable flexural crack width ω .3.2.. respectively.1) (N/mm2) Es： Young’s modulus of reinforcement (N/mm2) ecs ¢： constant introduced to represent the increase of crack width caused by creep and drying shrinkage of concrete (this can be 0 under seawater. For examination of the fatigue limit state of breakwaters.5.0 in the case of deformed bars and 1. If a combination of more than one kind of external forces or loads is taken into account.0040c for other sections.

When using a standard concrete strength not shown in these tables or in the case of lightweight aggregate concrete.9 2.6 0.1 Allowable Stresses of Plain Concrete Type of stress Allowable compressive stress Allowable bending tensile stress Allowable bearing stress Notes: Allowable stress No more than fck' /4 No more than ftk /7 No more than 0.4 N/mm2.3fck' Notes: 1) The value corresponds to the standard concrete strength of 40 When the standard concrete strength increases.3.8 1. Table T.4 0.2 Allowable Stresses of Reinforced Concrete (Units : N/mm2) 30 11 0.6 0.1 and Table T-3.4 0. the allowable stress of plain and reinforced concrete should on determined as given in Table T-3.0 2.3.3.3. the amount of chloride ion contained in concrete should be no more than 0. concrete materials shall comply with JIS. 2) Values for punching shear 3) These values may be increased when taking the effect of torsion into consideration.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) When designing with the allowable stress method.3 Allowable Tensile Stresses of Steel Reinforcements Type of steel reinforcement (a) Allowable stress in normal cases (b)Allowable stress determined by fatigue strength (c) Allowable stress determined by yield strength *2) SR235 137 137 137 SR295 157 (147) *1) 157 (147) 176 SD295A.3. one of the following four measures should be adopted: -224- .3.45 0.0 Type of stress Allowable bending compressive stress (sca) Allowable shearing stress When not calculating diagonal reinforcement (tal) When calculating diagonal reinforcement (ta2) Shape steel Allowable bond stress Plain bars Deformed bars Allowable bearing stress (sca) For beams For slabs *2) When shearing force only *3) Standard concrete strength 18 7 0.8 0. *2) (c) is used to calculate overlapping length or fixing length when considering the inpact of earthquake.4 0.9 1.3.55 1. [Technical Notes] (1) Chloride Ion Content In order to reduce the risk of corrosion of steel material inside the concrete.7 1.9 1. 3.8 40 or over 14 *1) 0. 24 9 0.8 0.B 176 157 176 (Units : N/mm2) SD345 196 176 196 SD390 206 176 216 Notes: *1) Values in the parentheses are for lightweight aggregate concrete. the allowable stress should be determined by referring to Chapter 13 of the “Standard Specification of Concrete [Design]”.9 Upper limit of allowable stress fck': standard concrete strength ftk: standard tensile strength (calculated by the JIS A 1113 “Tensile Strength Test Method”) Table T.7 0.0 0.4 Concrete Materials (Notification Article 37) In principle.3.30 kg/m3. (2) Measures against Alkali-Aggregate Reaction In order to suppress alkali-aggregate reaction.2.2 0.3 fck' (Units : N/mm2) 5.5 1. or shall be of a quality equal to or better than that specified by JIS. the value may also increase.8 1.29 5.0 2.3 that have been determined by referring to the provisions of Chapter 13 of the “Standard Specifications of Concrete [Design]”.1 2. (2) The allowable stresses of steel reinforcements shall not exceed the values listed in Table T.3.3. Table T.

(c) Use a portland blast-furnace slag cement that complies with JIS R 5211 “Portland Blast-Furnace Slag Cement” [type B (preferably with a slag substitution ratio of 50% or more) or type C]. and the harmful effects of freezing and thawing. Seawater may be used in plain concrete only when it is difficult to obtain clean freshwater.3.5% as standard. and from that point of view this type of cement should preferably be used. In particular. -225- . But they also have the disadvantage that their initial strength is low. ready-mixed concrete should be used as standard. (4) Seawater must not be used as mixing water for steel reinforced concrete. (3) Of the various types of cement. (3) Table T. the slump should be as small as possible within a workable range. those having good seawater resistance characteristics are said to be the moderate heat portland cement. (4) Recently. and have low hydration heat. concrete made with the type B portland blast-furnace slag cement yields an excellent anticorrosive performance of steel reinforcements 5).5 Concrete Quality and Performance Concrete shall be of uniform quality and shall have good workability. it is preferable to decrease the maximum water-cement ratio in the regions with pronounced freezing and thawing. In general.PART III MATERIALS (a) Use an aggregate that has been confirmed as harmless by alkali silica reactivity tests (chemical method or mortar bar method) as prescribed in the Appendix to JIS A 5308 “Ready Mixed Concrete”. it is extremely important that adequate curing is carried out. and cross-sectional shapes of structural members. (b) Use a cement that complies with low-alkali type cement as prescribed in JIS R 5210 “Portland Cement”. portland blast-furnace slag cement. greatly promote long-term strength. Thus when using these types of cement.5. bearing in mind the points in (1) above. In particular. and steel protecting performance. The use of this high-fluidity concrete makes it possible to place concrete into sections in which concrete placing have been impossible by using ordinary concrete (such as in densely reinforced sections or spaces enclosed by steel shells). (d) Use a portland cement with a clear listing of alkali content and ensure that the total alkali content in 1 m3 of concrete is no more than 3. impermeability. Its characteristics have been materialized through its high fluidity and outstanding resistance to material separation by use of appropriate admixtures. But in this case.1 lists the general concrete mix proportioning and characteristic values for concrete strength. The advantages of these types of cement are that they excel in durability against seawater. Supervising engineers should refer to this table to determine appropriate proportioning and strength. alkaliaggregate reaction. a highly flowable concrete with self-compacting characteristics has been developed 6). corrosion of reinforcement. [Commentary] (1) Concrete should have the required quality and performance according to the type of structure. The air content may be increased in cold regions or areas where there is a risk of frost damage. and portland fly ash cement. AE (air entrained) concrete should be used and the air content should be 4. crack resistance. all due care needs to be given to initial curing. environmental conditions. or a cement mixed with mineral admixture that has proven effective in suppressing alkali-aggregate reaction.0 kg in Na2O conversion. In principle. (2) As for the consistency of the concrete. the chemical and physical effects of seawater. [Technical Notes] (1) The water-cement ratio should be determined in view of the required strength and durability of the concrete. The maximum size of coarse aggregate should be as large as possible. providing this has no adverse effect on the arrangement of steel bars and concrete placement in cross sections of members. 3. the mechanical effects of impact and abrasion by waves and drifting solids. durability. (2) Concrete should be resistant to the effects of weather. It shall also have the required strength. a portland fly ash cement of type B or C that complies with JIS R 5213 “Portland Fly Ash Cement”.

6.5 Note: *1) The characteristic value may be set at 24N/mm2. 40 24 24 24 24 Bending 4. if there is a risk of wave action or submersion during the initial age of the concrete. For example. caisson concrete lid *1) Block for main body of structures. cellular. 40 20. 12 8. well. For plain concrete: (a) The concrete materials should have outstanding resistance to seawater and not cause a harmful aggregate reaction (see 3. or the cathodic protection method may be used on steel reinforcement embedded in the concrete as auxiliary measures to enhance durability of concrete. 40 20. and design details with regard to enhancement of the durability. For reinforced concrete. or if built in a cold season. parapet wall. In addition to the above. provision of construction joints should be avoided as much as possible. 25. 12. 12. 12 8. 25.3. or the surface should be protected with a suitable material. 15 8. *3) Except superstructure of open-type wharf. 12. 40 25(20) *4). 25. When joints are inevitable in view of shrinkage of the concrete or the conditions of -226- .5 20.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method). their quality. (g) Bending cracks in concrete should be reduced to the minimum (see 3.5. 40 20. the surface of the concrete may be covered with organic or inorganic materials 7). L-shape block. (6) Construction Joints Damage often arises from joints in the concrete 8). epoxy resin coated reinforcements may be used. the characteristic value may be increased. precast armor block (for wave dissipating. Therefore. 25. parapet wall. (f) The covering of reinforcements should be increased. (d) The cross-sectional area of member should be increased in readiness for surface abrasion during the required lifetime. 12 8. *2) With large-size precast armor blocks. as well as (a)-(d) above: (e) The use of materials that could have a harmful effect on corrosion of steel reinforcements should be avoided (see 3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. wave dissipating block Anchor wall. (b) The mix proportioning should be such that it guarantees the required durability. packed concrete Quay superstructure. quay superstructure *3) Reinforced concrete Pier superstructure Caisson.1 Concrete Mix Proportioning and Characteristic Values for Concrete Strength According to Structural Members Mixing conditions Maximum water-cement ratio (%) Type Examples of structural members Regions with repeated freezing and thawing 65 65 65 60 Regions where the temperature rarely falls below zero degree 65 65 65 65 Slump (cm) Maximum size of coarse aggregate (mm) Characteristic values of concrete strength (N/mm2) Breakwater superstructure. 15 8. 15 8. the following should be investigated. or determined as appropriate for blocks larger than this. *4) 25mm for gravel and 20mm for crushed stone. 12 40 40 40 40 18 18 (21) *2) 18 18 Plain concrete 60 55 55 60 - 65 55 55 60 - 8.4 Concrete Materials). covering) Foot protection block. mooring post foundation (gravity type) Mooring post foundation (pile type).5. it may be 21N/mm2 for blocks between 35 and 50 tons. (5) The matters listed below should be fully investigated in advance concerning the materials used in plain and reinforced concrete.4 Concrete Materials). 12. anchor pile superstructure Apron pavement 8. 15 2. (c) Provision of construction joints should be avoided as much as possible [see (6)].

(2) The covering for reinforced concrete executed underwater should be equal to or larger than 10 cm. 867. 1972 (in Japanese). Sachio ONODERA. Note of PHRI. 4. (7) Covering The minimum covering of steel reinforcements in reinforced concrete members should be equal to or larger than the values listed in Table T. No. 1991 (in Japanese). necessary measures should be taken on the joints. Tsutomu FUKUTE. No. 142. 1994 (in Japanese).5. 606 (in Japanese). Note of PHRI. 1994 (in Japanese). No. Vol. Hiroshi YOKOTA. 2.2. Note of PHRI. or subject to strong sea winds (b) Other sections 7 cm 5 cm 3. Tech. Vol. 4) Takashi NAGAO. Vol. Koichiro TAKECHI. 9) Nobuaki OTSUKI. Masamitsu HARAMO. Kiyoshi SATO. No.6 Underwater Concrete Underwater concrete shall be designed and executed according to “Standard Specifications of Concrete” or “Port and Harbor Construction Work Common Specifications”.3. 1990 (in Japanese). Rept. Takashi NAGAO: “Design of reinforced maritime structures by the limit state design method”. No. even though their performance is adequate in terms of strength 9). Kunio YAMAMOTO: “Effect and evaluation of concrete surface coatings for the prevention of salt attack”. Note of PHRI. 33. Rept. 2) Takashi NAGAO: “Studies on the application of the limit state design method to reinforced concrete port structures”.5. 3) Takashi NAGAO: “Case studies on safety factors about seismic stability for the slab of caisson type quaywalls”.PART III MATERIALS execution. Hidenori HAMADA: “Test on the effects of joints on the durability of concrete in marine environment (after 10 years’ exposure)”. washed by seawater.3. 1999 (in Japanese). 1997 (in Japanese). 6) Tsutomu FUKUTE. However. Gihodo. Kouji MIURA. [Technical Notes] (1) Construction joints should be avoided in principle. their use requires caution because they sometime do not have enough durability. -227- . Hiroshi MARUYAMA: “Deterioration of plain concrete for coastal structures under maritime environments”. No. 5) Tsutomu FUKUTE. Hidenori HAMADA. of PHRI. 29. Kunio YAMAMOTO. Vol. Masami ABE. Atsurou MORIWAKE. Tech. Katsutoshi HAMAZAKI: “Applicability of super-workable concrete using viscous agent to densely reinforced concrete members”. No. 8) Hiroshi SEKI. Tech. Tech. 706. Susumu KAWASAKI. Yoshitaka NAKAJIMA.2 Standard Values of Covering for Steel Reinforcement (a) Sections in direct contact with seawater. Rept. of PHRI. 1998 (in Japanese). of PHRI. 7) Hidenori HAMADA. Hidenori HAMADA: “Study on the durability of concrete mixed with sea water”. Rept. No. 3. 37. Table T. [References] 1) Osamu KIYOMIYA. 33. Noboru OKUBO: “Fatigue limit state design method for superstructures of open type wharves in view of cargo handling machine loads”. of PHRI. Epoxy or other resins may be used because of their strength. 2. Hiroshi YOKOTA.

Other bituminous materials besides asphalt include tar. 4.e.2 Materials Asphalt mat materials shall be selected as appropriate to yield the required strength and durability. Most of the asphalt in use today is of the latter type. construction location. and asphalt emulsion. and weatherproofness. cohesion. impermeability.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 4 Bituminous Materials 4. sand mastic asphalt. is usually mixed with aggregate and used as an asphalt mixture in asphalt concrete for pavement. They are then formed into a mat-shape (see Fig. durability. and workability according to the purpose of use.5 mm should be used. in this document. There are two types of asphalt.1 General Asphalt mats shall be given an appropriate structure in consideration of the required strength.2.2. Therefore. (2) Sand Clean sand that is free of dirt. limestone filler.2. C. These shall include elasticity.4. The type and mix proportioning of asphalt depend on its use. organic matter.1 Example of Structure of Friction Increasing Asphalt Mat 4. (3) Filler A material in conformity with JIS A5008 “Limestone Filler for Bituminous Paving Mixtures” should be used. mud.1). asphalt mats.. and local marine conditions. “asphalt” means petroleum-based asphalt unless otherwise specified. Therefore. i. natural and petroleum-based.2. -228- . waterproofness. and other harmful substances with a maximum grain size of 2. [Commentary] Asphalt mats are made by embedding reinforcement material and wire rope for suspension into a compound material mixed from asphalt. sand and crushed stone.2 Asphalt Mat 4. (2) Bituminous materials are rarely used in isolation. and asphalt stabilization. pitch. [Commentary] (1) The bituminous material most commonly used in port and harbor facilities today is asphalt. for example. Annealed steel wire Steel bands Reinforcement core material Anti-slip bracket Wire rope Asphalt compound material Steel reinforcement Fig. it is important to select a material that will meet the required objective.1 General Bituminous materials used in port and harbor facilities shall satisfy the required quality and performance. Asphalt. [Commentary] The following materials are used in asphalt mats: (1) Asphalt Asphalt used for asphalt mat should be straight or blown asphalt or both that complies with the regulations JIS K 2207 “Petroleum Asphalt”. durability. C4.

Coarse aggregate is crushed stone with a grain size of 2.4. The reinforcement materials are usually glass cloth or glass fiber tape net. unlike that on roads in city areas. 4. Thus. This includes heavy machinery with large contact pressure. The plastic flow and other properties of these two differ greatly. [Technical Notes] (1) Straight or blown asphalt that complies with the regulations of JIS K 2207 “Petroleum Asphalt” is specified for use.4. The maximum grain size of crushed stone should be no more than one-sixth of the mat thickness. Parts of these paved areas are also used for placing cargoes. Traffic on pavements (and particularly apron paving) in port and harbor areas. in view of work execution. sand.1 Standard Mix Proportioning for Asphalt Mixture Materials Asphalt Dust Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate Material proportion of mass (%) Friction increasing mats 10 ～ 14 14 ～ 25 20 ～ 50 30 ～ 50 Scouring prevention mats 10 ～ 14 14 ～ 25 30 ～ 50 25 ～ 40 Notes: Dust is sand or filler with a grain size of less than 0.5 mm.074～2. 4. 4. They should therefore be determined through mixing tests. The sand mastic -229- . the two are normally mixed to obtain the required properties.1 General [Technical Notes] (1) Sand mastic asphalt is made of asphalt heat-mixed with an ore-based filler or additive and sand. almost invariably involves heavy vehicles.5 ～20 mm should be used. [Technical Notes] The mix proportioning used for asphalt mixture has a great effect on strength and flexibility. straight asphalt with the penetration of 40 to 60 and blown asphalt with the penetration of 10 to 40 should be used.2. or filler with a grain size of 0. In this case. Chapter 20 Aprons). Friction increasing mats and scouring prevention mats have a relatively long history and a considerable track record of use.2. (3) Apart from the above materials. it could be larger than this. Therefore. except for special use conditions.3 Paving Materials Paving materials shall in principle comply with “Asphalt Paving Guidelines”. (2) Crushed stone is a coarse aggregate used in asphalt mats and has a major effect on the strength of the mat. Therefore. Therefore. the values given in Table T. [Commentary] Aprons are an example of the “areas subject to special load conditions”.3 Mix Proportioning It shall be standard to determine the mix proportioning of asphalt mixture based on mixing tests to obtain the required strength and flexibility. care should be taken to the fact that bituminous materials are susceptible to static loading (see Part Ⅷ .5 mm or larger.4 Sand Mastic Asphalt 4. This type of load rarely travels at high speed and is almost always stationary or moving at low speeds.074 mm.PART III MATERIALS (4) Crushed Stone A material in conformity with JIS A 5001 “Crushed Stone for Roads” with a grain size 2.2. asphalt mats require reinforcement materials and wire rope for suspension.1 may be used. Fine aggregate is crushed stone. In cases of friction increasing mats under large pressure. when considering the paving materials to be applied to such areas. and it is difficult to obtain the required strength and ease of handling for mats with one of them alone. it should be of sufficiently good quality.4. They have caused no particular problem to date. Table T. except in the areas subject to special load conditions.

organic matter. all due attention should be paid to the plastic flow due to the material properties of asphalt so that stability problem will not arise. In the table.1) (3) Notes in Design The design of sand mastic asphalt is affected by the following items: (a) It should not be used in locations directly affected by powerful impact wave pressure or drifting objects. 60 ～ 80. thus preventing the stone from breaking off or being washed away. -230- . [Commentary] (1) Asphalt Asphalt used for sand mastic asphalt applied underwater should be straight asphalt with penetration range of either one of 40 ～ 60.074 mm sieve.4. or filler remaining on a 0.4. [Technical Notes] (1) General The values listed in Table T.4.4. (c) The gradient of the rubble surface should be not steeper than 1:1. “dust” refers to sand or filler passed through a 0.5 mm should be used. (d) Suitable reinforcement should be made on the slope top. (e) The relationship between the lifetime of structure and the durability of the sand mastic asphalt should be fully taken into account. mud.4. Table T. (2) Sand Clean sand that is free of dirt. or 80 ～ 100 that complies with JIS K 2207 “Petroleum Asphalt”. with a maximum grain size of 2. It does not separate under water.4. The grouted sand mastic asphalt wraps itself around the rubble to form a single unit. (2) Sand mastic asphalt at a certain high temperature is grouted into gaps between rubbles by pouring it onto the rubble mound. sand.3. 4. 4. and other harmful substances.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN asphalt is an asphalt mixture virtually free of voids and does not require rolling compaction after grouting. slope toe.4.2 Materials Materials for sand mastic asphalt shall be selected as appropriate to meet the required strength and durability.3 Mix Proportioning The mix proportioning shall be determined through mixing tests to obtain the required fluidity and strength in view of the work execution and natural conditions.1) is used to calculate the quantity of sand mastic asphalt applied to the rubble mound. (3) Filler A material in conformity with JIS A 5008 “Limestone Filler for Bituminous Paving Mixtures” should be used. “Fine aggregate” is crushed stone. and the edges of the execution area.074 mm sieve.1 Standard Mix Proportioning for Sand Mastic Asphalt Material Asphalt Dust Fine aggregate Proportion of weight (%) 16 ～ 20 18 ～ 25 55 ～ 66 (2) Method of Calculating Required Quantity of Sand Mastic Asphalt Equation (4.4. (3) When designing sand mastic asphalt. V = a A (hv ＋ d) where V： A： h： v： d： a： required quantity of sand mastic asphalt (m3) surface area of rubble mound grouted by sand mastic asphalt (m2) thickness of rubble layer grouted by sand mastic asphalt (m) void ratio of rubble mound cover thickness of sand mastic asphalt on rubble mound (m) increment ratio taking account of grouting into the lower layer of rubbles (4. It is sometimes used when it is not possible or uneconomical to obtain rubbles of the size required in design calculation.1 are commonly used as mix proportioning for sand mastic asphalt applied underwater. (b) It should not be used in locations where sudden settlement is anticipated.

5. stone is used in large quantities for breakwaters.85 2.08 ～ 1. It should be borne in mind that the physical properties of stone of the same classification may differ depending on the region and site of quarries. and other properties.16 0. [Technical Notes] (1) The shear properties of rubble stones have been studied by using various large-scale triaxial compression tests 1). tests should first be conducted and the material properties be fully ascertained.68 Water absorption rate (%) 0.2 Rubble for Foundation Rubble for foundation mounds shall be hard.04 ～ 3.71 2. and price should also be taken into account. and other port and harbor structures.1. The ease of procurement. [Commentary] When determining which type of stone to use.18 ～ 2. -231- .29 ～ 2.14 0. (2) The types of stone mainly used in construction and their physical properties are given in Table T.36 ～ 2.78 2.85 0.91 (absolute) 3. dense and durable.3 Backfilling Materials Backfilling materials shall be selected in view of their angle of internal friction.PART III MATERIALS Chapter 5 Stone 5.65 ～ 2.1.27 ～ 1. [Technical Notes] (1) Generally.72 2.59 0. 5.03 0.64 0. quays.74 2.07 ～ 0. Selection of stone materials has a major impact on the stability of the structure as well as the duration and cost of construction. Table T.1 Physical Properties of Stones Rock classification Subclassification Granite Andesite Basalt Igneous rock Gabbro Peridotite Diabase Tuff Slate Sedimentary rock Sandstone Limestone Chert Metamorphic rock Hornfels Specific gravity (apparent) 2. a shear strength of 0.78 ～ 2.12 1.22 Compressive strength (N/mm2) 85 ～ 190 78 ～ 269 85 177 187 123 ～ 182 377 59 ～ 185 48 ～ 196 17 ～ 76 119 191 5. specific weight.008 ～ 0.76 2.02 N/mm2 and an internal friction angle of 35º can be expected if the unconfined compressive strength is 30 N/mm2 or more 2).21 0.68 (absolute) 2. and free from the possibility of breaking due to weathering and freezing. (2) As a guideline for determining the strength constant without conducting large-scale triaxial compression tests.64 2.37 0.57 ～ 2. This study is based on the state of rubble actually used in port and harbor construction works.16 0. transportability.65 0.5.64 2. The shape of rubbles shall not be flat or oblong.18 2.1 General Stone shall be selected in view of the required quality and performance to suit its purpose and its cost.1.60 ～ 2.

1991.2 1:1. 20 p. Tech. and therefore these should be examined carefully before use. pit gravel. Generally. or bituminous stabilized soil is used as a base course material. unscreened gravel.2 Slag. These may be used on their own or mixed with other granular materials.5. crushed stone dust. and a lower value when waves are large.4 Base Course Materials of Pavement Base course materials of pavement shall be selected so as to have the required bearing capacity and high durability and to allow easy compaction. Vol. No. see 8. granular material. Normally. steel slag. Table T. and sand. Rept. The upper base course requires materials of good quality with large bearing capacity. Granular materials include crushed stone. a larger value is adopted when waves are small at the time of backfilling execution.3. cement stabilized soil.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Commentary] Rubble. unscreened crushed stone. sandstone.2 1:2 ～ 1:3 1:2 ～ 1:3 (2) “Rubble” used in ports and harbors is almost the same as that prescribed by JIS A 5006. (5) For steel slag.5. and steel slag are generally used as backfilling materials. [Technical Notes] (1) The values listed in Table T. of PHRI. and steel slag vary greatly. [Technical Notes] The base course serves to disperse the surcharge transmitted from above and to tranfer it to the course bed. No. (in Japanese). [Commentary] Normally. 2) Junichi MIZUKAMI. unscreened gravel. 699.1 are often used as design values for backfilling materials. The material properties of mudstone. (3) “Unscreened gravel” consists approximately half and half of sand and gravel. Masaki KOBAYASHI: “Strength characteristics of rubble by large-scale triaxial compression test”.3. 5.1 Design Values for Backfilling Materials Angle of internal friction (°) Rubble Ordinary type Brittle type Unscreened gravel Cobblestone Specific weight Above residual water level (kN/m3) 18 16 18 18 Below residual water level (kN/m3) 10 9 10 10 Slope gradient 40 35 30 35 1:1. [References] 1) Yoshihiro SHOJI: “Study on shearing properties of rubbles with large-scale triaxial compression test”. Note of PHRI. 4. it is divided into a lower base course and an upper base course. 22. (4) The slope gradient is the standard value of the natural gradient of backfilling materials executed in the sea. 1983 (in Japanese). -232- . Materials used for the lower base course are cheaper and have relatively small bearing capacity. cobblestone.

6.1 Structural Timber The timber used as ordinary structural member shall be of quality complying with the “Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS)”.3.2 Timber Piles For timber piles. -233- . 6. 6.2.1 Allowable Stress for Glued Laminated Timber The allowable stress for glued laminated timber shall be determined appropriately according to the purpose of use. unseasoned wood of pines (Japanese red pines and Japanese black pines) are the most suitable in terms of wood properties such as durability and strength. or shall be of quality equal to or better than that specified by JAS.2 Allowable Stresses of Structural Timber The allowable stresses for structural timber shall be determined appropriately under the consideration of the strength reduction by water saturation or the allowance for strength increase for the extraordinary load by an earthquake.1.2 Allowable Stresses of Timber 6. 6.5 Maintenance of Timber If timber is used in places where much vermin damage or rot is anticipated. countermeasures shall be taken to prevent it.1 General The design strength of timber shall be determined by comprehensively evaluating the increase and decrease of strength due to various causes.PART III MATERIALS Chapter 6 Timber 6.3 Quality of Glued Laminated Timber The laminated timber used as structural timber shall be of quality complying with the “Japanese Agricultural Standards” (JAS). 6.1. or shall be of quality equal to or better than that specified by JAS.2. [Technical Notes] The allowable stresses along the fibers of the timber and allowable compressive stresses across the fibers should comply with the “Wooden Structure Design Standard” (the Architectural Institute of Japan).1 Quality of Timber 6. 6.4 Joining of Timber The method of joining timber structures shall be selected by considering the required performance of the structure or structural members. 6. taking into consideration the limits in deflections tolerable for the structure under design.

(f) Seal materials These include seals for dredging pipe joints. a sheet or net of geosynthetics is spreaded directly over the surface. (g) Adhesives Various adhesives formed from synthetic resins are used for joining steel bridge elements.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 7 Other Materials 7. and other ancillary facilities may also be made of rubber or FRP. Its purpose is to ensure the passage of heavy machinery.1 Metals Other Than Steel When using metals other than steel. joining precast concrete slabs. seal rubber gaskets for immersed tunnel units. and other floating bodies are made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). durability. It is also used as a measure to scour prevention. etc. material shall be selected as most appropriate in view of the location and purpose of use. durability. and cost. a filter sheet is often laid out on the surface of backfill stone or on the back of rubble mound of the quaywall. pontoon floats. material shall be selected appropriately in view of the location and purpose of use. joint boards. and repairing cracks in concrete. and cost. to counter settlement in embankments on soft ground. 7. buffer stops. (i) Drain materials (j) Joints and bearing Rubber expansion joints and bearings with the single-layer or multi-layer pad method are used on bridges. titanium. and to form the foundations of temporary roads. EPS beads are mixed with cement or another cementing material together with soils and used as a lightweight material in backfilling. while preventing subsidence of good-quality soils. (l) Expanded polystyrene This is used for buoys. etc. environmental conditions. EPS blocks are used to reduce earth pressure. -234- . handrails. [Technical Notes] (1) The uses of plastic and rubber products in port and harbor construction works include the following: (a) Geosynthetics The use of geosynthetics in port and harbor construction works includes the following: ① Reinforcing embankment When laying good-quality soils over a land reclaimed with dredged clay.2 Plastics and Rubbers When using plastics and rubbers. Ladders. (e) Coating materials See 7. (b) Joint sealing materials These include seal plates. (k) Ancillary facilities Some buoys. Generally. and other civil engineering structures. or under the part of the sea side of the mound. (c) Fenders (d) Grouting materials for foundation See 7. ② Preventing infiltration and scouring When used as a filter material with the aim of preventing sand infiltration.4 Grouting Materials. and grouting materials used in / on the joint sections of concrete structures. The net method has often been used in recent reclamation works with soft ground. on account of its lightness. environmental conditions. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) blocks and EPS beads are used as civil engineering materials. pontoons. in order to reduce settlement and earth pressure. (h) Lining materials These are used for corrosion control in steel and reinforcements as well as for protection against collision etc. [Technical Notes] Metals other than steel used in port and harbor facilities include stainless steel.3 Coating Materials. aluminum. and under the entire bottom of the rubble mound.

2 Standards for Seal Plates (Soft Vinyl Chloride) Test item Tensile strength Tear strength Elongation Seawater resistance Tensile strength residual ratio Seawater resistance Elongation residual ratio Specific gravity Stripping strength Particulars Method JIS K 6723 Test sample No.3 should be satisfied.7 MPa or greater 49 N/mm or greater 180% or greater 90% or greater 90% or greater 1.7. -235- . the values listed in Table T. Table T.05 30 N/cm or greater Table T. In cold regions. Filter sheets that are laid out under the bottom of rubble mounds to prevent leakage of the subsoil will normally be determined in view of the natural and construction conditions such as the wave height.2 mm or greater Tensile strength 880 N/5cm or greater Elongation 60% or greater Mass 500 g/m2 or greater Remarks JIS L 1908 Note: The thickness of 4.7.2.3 Standards for Seal Plates (Rubber) Test item Tensile strength Particulars Method JIS K 6328 Tensile direction Standard value 4. etc. to prevent piping of backfilling is 5 mm. rubble size. piping or infiltation in port and harbor facilities are as follows: (a) Filter sheets Filter sheets used to prevent infiltration of sediment into the backfill will normally be determined in view of the constructions conditions such as the placing method of backfilling.2. etc.7. tidal current.2. 1 type dumbbell JIS K 6773 JIS K 6773 JIS K 7112 JIS K 6256 Width 25 ´ 250mm Strip-shaped sample Tensile direction Lateral Longitudinal Lateral Lateral Lateral Longitudinal Standard values 14.7.1 (a) and (b) list the minimum standards for woven and nonwoven sheets under favorable execution conditions.2.1 (b) Standards for Filter Sheets (Woven) Type Woven cloth Thickness 0.2.1 (a) Minimum Standards for Filter Sheets (Nonwoven) Type Nonwoven cloth Thickness 4.2 mm or greater is applied for the sheet under loading of 2 kN/m2 according to JIS L 1908.4 and T. the residual water level.7. and rubber mats normally used to prevent scouring.080 N/5cm or greater Elongation 15% or greater Remarks JIS L 1908 (b) Seal plates The standard thickness of seal plates used for the vertical joints of caisson etc. the leveling precision of backfilling.2.2.7.7. rubber plates are sometimes used.2. seal plates.35 ± 0.400 N/3cm or greater (c) Rubber mats Rubber mats used for increasing friction may be made of new or recycled rubber.2.7.PART III MATERIALS (2) The standards for filter sheets. Table T.47 mm or greater Tensile strength 4. 1 type dumbbell JIS K 6252 Test sample uncut angle shape JIS K 6723 Test sample No. Table T.7.5.2. With no loading. The quality is commonly as listed in Tables T. In this case. Tables T. the thickness should be 5 mm or greater. The seal plates should meet the standards listed in Table T.

2.3 MPa and above Within ± 8 of pre-aging value 200% or greater Test conditions/method JIS K 6251 JIS K 6252 JIS K 6253 JIS K 6251 JIS K 6251 JIS K 6253 JIS K 6251 (Aging tests are according to JIS K 6257) Aging temperature 70°± 1° Aging time 96 0 hours 2 JIS K 6262 Aging temperature 70°± 1° Aging time 24 0 hours 2 Physical tests After aging Compressive plastic strain 45% or less 7.8 MPa or greater 25 N/mm or greater 70 ± 5 graduations 250% or greater 9.7. △ : caution required.4 Quality of Recycled Rubber Test item Before aging Physical tests After aging Tensile strength Tear strength Hardness Elongation Tensile strength Tear strength Hardness Elongation Performance 4.3 Coating Materials When selecting coating materials. the color is determined in consideration of its purpose. ◎ : excellent.2. appearance.7.1 lists the characteristics of the six color groups (polyurethane resin-based paints) most commonly used for aesthetic purposes 1).9 MPa or greater 18 N/mm or greater 55 ～ 70 graduations 160% or greater 3.5 Quality of New Rubber Test item Before aging Tensile strength Tear strength Hardness Elongation Tensile strength Tear strength Hardness Elongation Performance 9. -236- .3.7.1 Characteristics of Color Groups Grays (pale) Color retention Unmarkedness of discoloring or fading (by eye) Cost Hiding power Resistance to chemicals ◎～○ ◎ 1 ◎ ◎ Blues ○ ○ 2 ○ ◎ Yellows ○ ○ 3 △ ○ Oranges ○ ○ 4 ○～△ ○ Reds ○ △ 5 ○～△ ○ Greens ○ ○ 2 ○ ◎ Note: The figure 1 in “Cost” indicates the lowest price.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. while the figue 5 is for the highest price.7. Table T. and cost. Normally.9 MPa or greater Within ± 8 of pre-aging value 140% or greater Test conditions/method JIS K 6251 JIS K 6252 JIS K 6253 JIS K 6251 JIS K 6251 JIS K 6253 JIS K 6251 (Aging tests are according to JIS K 6257) Aging temperature 70°± 1° 0 Aging time 96 2 hours Table T. ○ : satisfactory. the following shall be taken into account: (1) Purpose of coating (2) Material and characteristics of surface to be coated (3) Performance and composition of coating material (4) Cost (5) Maintenance [Technical Notes] The color tones of coating materials are versatile. Table T.

4.2 Properties of Grouting Materials Grouting materials shall be selected in view of the required performance for the subsoils to be grouted.1 General The grouting methods shall be selected by examining the site conditions with consideration to the influence on the surrounding environment. cement Clay Silicate gel Resin Fig. the strength and impermeability of the stabilized body.4.1 Seepage Limits of Grouting Materials for Subsoils [Reference] 1) Kiyoshi TERAUCHI: “Study on deterioration and painting specification of bridges located in port area”. Note of PHRI.4. [Commentary] The grouting methods are employed to strengthen the ground or to cut off the ground water flow by filling crevices in rocks or subsoils. [Commentary] The basic properties required of grouting materials are the efficiency of seepage. Tech. No.1 shows the seepage limits of various grouting materials for subsoils. -237- .7.4. 651. Suitability with the grouting object is particularly affected by the seepage efficiency of the material. Various grouting materials are used according to the characteristics of the ground to be grouted. C. or voids of coarse aggregate with grouting materials. filling and setting. 7.7. Figure C. vacant spaces in or around structures.PART III MATERIALS 7.4 Grouting Materials 7. Gravel Sand Coarse Large Medium Fine Ultra-fine Special silicate gel Silt Clay Limits according to Karon Clay. 1989 (in Japanese).

by taking advantage of its large angle of internal friction. Thus. and its characteristic of expansion rupture. -238- . This too is used almost 100%. otherwise known as the “Recycling Act”) was enacted. their physical and dynamic properties and the volume to be supplied should be fully examined in advance to ensure the purpose of use. copper granulated blast furnace slag. Table T.8. it set out to promote measures by the national government. Therefore. In the past. It is effectively used however. This was because of its heaviness due to iron content. steel manufacture slag was used only for a material of roads. and ferronickel granulated slag will be discussed. dredged soil. (3) The properties of recyclable materials are quite variable. As well as aiming for the effective utilization of limited resources. it has been experimentally used in the sand compaction pile (SCP) method. Granulated blast furnace slag is a lightweight sand-like material. its angle of internal friction and water permeability are about the same as those of sea sand. coal ash.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 8 Recyclable Resources 8. Steel slag is industrial waste generated in large quantities by the steel industry. As well as being used as a raw material for blast furnace cement. Although it is susceptible to particle crushing. Copper granulated blast furnace slag is a sandy material obtained through high-speed cooling with water in the copper refining process. steel slag. Ferronickel granulated blast furnace slag is obtained during the manufacturing of ferronickel that is a raw material for stainless steel. Recyclable resources (materials) in port and harbor construction include slag. Table T. a major precondition is that full checks are made in advance to ensure that no environmental problems are created. subbase course materials. concrete. high water permeability and its large specific weight 1). and asphalt concrete. it is also increasingly used as a backfilling material for ports and harbors in view of its lightness.2. environmental pollution must not be caused in any way. Most of these can be used in landfill materials. 48 of 1991. and concrete aggregate. 8. Air-cooled blast furnace slag is a granular material conventionally known as slag or dross and mainly used as a material for roads. As well as being used for sand mat and as a filling material. and has been used as a caisson filling material.1 General (Notification Article 39) Recyclable resources shall be used as appropriate in accordance with the characteristics of the resources and the structures under design. the “Law for the Promotion of Utilization of Recyclable Resources” (Law No.2 Slag [Technical Notes] Here. soil improvement materials. coal ash.8. Its specific weigh is larger than that of sand. (2) The use of slag. local authorities. It has a higher particle density than sand. [Technical Notes] Effective use of recyclable resources is extremely important for the sustainable development of society. On the other hand.2. It is broadly divided into blast furnace slag and steel manufacture slag. it is very important that we protect the environment by reducing the use of natural resources and positively create added value by taking advantage of the properties of recyclable resources. concrete.1 lists a comparison of chemical compositions of slag and soil.2 lists the physical and dynamic properties of steel manufacture slag and blast-furnace slag. It is virtually 100% effectively used. and asphalt concrete as recyclable materials must comply with the “Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law” and the “Marine Pollution Prevention Law”. [Commentary] (1) In 1991. and construction contractors to reduce the generation of waste. Therefore. Port and harbor construction works use large quantities of soil materials.

3* 6.5 17.6 0.3.5 5.8 0.7 26.8.1* 2.5 Electric furnace slag Oxide slag 17.7 ~ 17.1 ± 2. or other pozzolan substances has a particularly high pozzolan activity.3 1.2 8.0 0.3 1.5 3.8 ± 2.1 Andesite 59.4 2.0 2.9 0.17 152 ~ 186 - 3.5 6.3 3.8 Note: Figures show the mean value ± standard deviation.5 7.9 5.2 ~ 17.2). The specific weight is lighter than that of sand.09 7.8.0 0.0** 1.8.84 0.3.21 170 ~ 204 10-2 ~ 10-3 CS-40 16.4 22.01 0.3 Coal Ash [Technical Notes] Coal ash is classified into fly ash and clinker ash.8.69 ~ 8.5 2.7 Reduced slag 27.13 ~ 2.50 1.1 and T.18 ~ 2.1 ± 5.2 5.77 ~ 3.2 21.0 ± 0.3 1.2 12.0 1.19 ~ 3. ** as Fe2O2.71 78 ~ 135 10-2 ~ 10-3 40 ~ 50 8.1 Chemical Compositions of Slag and Other Materials (Units in percent) Type Compornent SiO2 CaO Al2O3 T-Fe MgO S MnO TiO2 Blast furnace slag 33.0 51.8 44.0 0.7 0.0 Converter slag 13. -239- .1 Chemical Composition of Coal Ash (Units in percent) Component SiO2 Al2O3 FeO3 CaO MgO Unburned contents Fly ash 63 ± 6 24 ± 4 4.0 64.8 42.3 Clinker ash 61 ± 5 21 ± 5 5.3. The grain size distribution of fly ash is similar with that of silt.8 0.07 5.2. which makes it harden by mixing with water. aluminum.34 ~ 2.4 0.2 0.2 ± 2. Coal ash has pozzolan activity.0 ± 2.6 ± 2. *** as SO3 Table T.6 3.8.8 Normal Portland cement 22.0*** - Note: * as FeO.2 5.4 0.3 0.24 2.2.40 1.8 ~ 9.0 1.0 ± 0.7 ~ 22.PART III MATERIALS Table T.0 9.3 2.0 14.6 5.2 Physical and Dynamic Properties of Steel Slag Steel manufacture slag Absolute dry density (g/cm Water absorbency (%) Specific weight (kN/m3) (g/cm3) Optimum moisture content (%) Maximum dry density Modified CBR (%) Coefficienst of permeability (cm/s) Angle of internal friction (º) 3) Blast furnace slag MS-25 17.4 ~ 9.7 Pit sand 59. while clinker ash has the grain size distributions similar with that of sand 1) (see Tables T.02 19.6 2. Table T.8 17. Ash with a high content of silica.8 8.7 1.

9 ± 3. 886. -240- .13 ± 0. Hiroyuki YOSHINO: “Characteristics of concrete debris as rubble in marine construction”.4 Crashed Concrete [Technical Notes] When using crushed concrete as a stone material.11 5. the properties such as the angle of internal friction vary depending on mother concrete.83 ± 0.2 Physical and Dynamic Properties of Coal Ash Fly ash Particle density Silt content (%) Sand content (%) Maximum density Minimum density (g/cm3) (g/cm3) (g/cm3) 2.12 14.14 Uniformity coefficient Clinker ash 2. If the properties of the concrete before crushing are similar to those presented in reference 2).3. Tech.17 0.78 ± 0. 1997 (in Japanese).26 ± 0. [References] 1) Kunio TAKAHASHI: “Utilization of fly ash and steel slug”. 906.67 ± 0. under present circumstances it is difficult to give the standard values of their propeties.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. the properties of crushed concrete can be determined by referring to it. No.1 73 ± 11 13 ± 11 1. 1998 (in Japanese). Note of PHRI. Yoshiaki KIKUCHI. Thus.8 8±5 58 ± 13 0. Note of PHRI. 2) Jun-ichi MIZUKAMI.8. 8.19 ± 0.13 Note: Figures show the mean value ± standard deviation. Tech. No.1 ± 7.18 0.

Part IV Precast Concrete Units .

.

mounting on the launching truck After fabrication: uneven settlement Design of ancillary provisions Water supply cocks. footing Design of members (Design of outer walls) Set design conditions Calculate section force Examine bending strength Calculate section force Examine bending strength Calculate section force Examine bending strength (Design of footing) Examine dislodging Calculate section force Examine bending strength Examine shear strength (Study of bottom slab) (Design of partition walls) { { { [1] ultimate limit state.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS Part IV Precast Concrete Units Chapter 1 Caissons 1. Fig.1 General (1) The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of ordinary reinforced concrete caissons used on port and harbor facilities. side). suspension hook. rear. [3] fatigue limit state [1] ultimate limit state [2] serviceability limit state [1] ultimate limit state { { [1] ultimate limit state. T. [3] fatigue limit state [1] ultimate limit state.1. (2) Design shall follow the limit state design method.1 Sequence of Caisson Design -241- . [2] serviceability limit state. built-in hook for working net .1. [2] serviceability limit state.1. partition walls. temporary cover. [3] fatigue limit state [1] ultimate limit state. [2] serviceability limit state. Assumption of dimensions of caisson Calculation of stability while afloat Determination of design external forces While afloat : outer walls (front. T.1. winch foundation. bottom slab During installation: partition walls After construction : outer walls. [Technical Notes] (1) The design of caissons can be made according to the sequence depicted in Fig. [3] fatigue limit state Other examinations During fabrication: jacking. [2] serviceability limit state.1. bottom slab. built-in hook for towing.

placing upper concrete. tidal currents. -242- Outer wall (front) Outer wall (rear) . T. 3. (5) Working conditions after installation of caisson: filling. T. etc. waves.1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) For explanations of the limit states.3 Floating Stability If a caisson is to be floated toward the place of installation. 1.2. the floating stability of the caisson shall be examined to ensure that capsiging or tilting will not occur. The thickness of the outer wall is usually 30 ～ 60 cm (with the spacing between partition walls less than 5 m). waves. (3) Examination of the fatigue limit state may be omitted in the case of quaywall caissons. wind.2 Determination of Dimensions The dimensions of caisson members shall be determined in view of the following factors: (1) Capacity of caisson fabrication facilities (2) Draft of a caisson and the water depth at the place of installation (depth above the crown of foundation mound) (3) Floating stability (4) Working conditions during towing and installation: tidal currents. PartⅢ. the bottom slab is 40 ～ 80 cm thick. etc. wind.1 Names of Caisson Members 1. (6) Differential settlement of mound (7) Bending and torsion acting on caisson [Technical Notes] The terminology of caisson members is shown in Fig.2.1. and the partition walls are 20 ～ 30 cm thick.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method can be referred to.1. Outer wall Outer wall Partition wall Vertical haunch Vertical haunch Vertical haunch Partition wall Haunch joints Horizontal haunch Longitudinal sectional view (B-B) Bottom slab Horizontal haunch Transverse sectional view (C-C) Outer wall (rear) Outer wall Outer wall Partition wall Partition wall Horizontal haunch Horizontal haunch Outer wall (front) Plan view (A-A) Fig.

4.2) I¢ ----¢ C ¢ G ¢> 0 V where (1.3) applies when a counterballast is used.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS [Technical Notes] (1) To guarantee the stability of a caisson in water.1) where V： displacement (m3) I： moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area at the still water level about the long axis (m4) C： center of buoyancy G： center of gravity M： metacenter For safety the distance GM should be 5% of the draft or greater.3.3. T. I ¢. CG = GM > 0 V (1. equation (1.1 Combination of Loads and Load Factors The combination of loads and the load factors shall be appropriately considered under the following conditions.3. Footings may be treated in the same way as bottom slabs. G¢： displacement. 3. of caisson with a counterballast respectively 1.1).3.4. -243- . center of buoyarcy. C¢.1 Stability of Caisson I ----¢(I ¢ S i ) C ¢ G ¢ > 0 V (b) When using sand.1) applies when the cross section of caisson is symmetrical and no significant tilt is expected. (3) Equation (1.1.1 lists the ultimate limit state safety factors and the serviceability limit state influence coefficients on crack width (see Part Ⅲ. T.1) must be satisfied (see Fig. (2) Equation (1. I -. moment of inertia. and center of gravity.3.1.3.3.3) i： moment of inertia of the water surfaces of inside chambers about the centerline parallel to the rotating axis of the caisson (m4) V ¢.3. (a) When using water as the counterballast: Fig.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method) to be multiplied to the load characteristics for various combinations of loads to be considered in design.4 Design External Forces 1.3. or fresh concrete as the counterballast: (1. stone.2) or (1. respectively: (1) Breakwater ① under no waves ② under waves ③ during execution (2) Quaywall ① under ordinary conditions ② during an earthquake ③ during execution [Technical Notes] (1) Table T.1.

1 (0.5) outer wall (while afloat) 1.9 (1.8] (1.0) 1. the characteristic loads are calculated according to Part Ⅱ.9 (1.1 (1.1 [0.1.0) Bottom slab 1.0) outer wall During an earthquake 1.1 [0.9] (1.4.1 (1.3 (1.1 (0.1 (1.1 (0.1) 1.0) Under no waves 1.0) 1.5) 1.2 (1.9] (1.0) 1.9] (1.0) 1.1 (1.1 (1. -244- .0 (-) 1.1 (1. Chapter 12 Earthquakes and Seismic Force.1 (1.0 (-) Bottom slab (bottom slab reaction considering surcharge during an earthquake) 0.0) 1.0 (-) 1.0) 1.8 (0.5) 1.1 (1.5) Partition wall (during installation) Note: When considering seismic force.7] (1.3 [0.1 (0.0) 1.1 (1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T.0) 1.5) 1.0) outer wall 1.0 (-) 1.9 (0.1 Loads and Load Factors (a) Breakwaters Conditions Deadweight Hydrostatic pressure Internal earth pressure Bottom slab reaction Internal water pressure Uplift pressure Variable bottom slab reaction Variable internal water pressure Wave force Hydrostatic head between chambers Remarks 0.0) Bottom slab (while afloat) outer wall (while afloat) Partition wall (during installation) 0.1 (0.0) 1.9 (0.0) 1.0) outer wall 1.1 [0.9 (1.0) Bottom slab Under waves 0.0) 1.5) (b) Quaywalls Conditions Deadweight Hydrostatic pressure Internal water pressure Internal earth pressure Bottom slab plate reaction under permanent load Surcharge Bottom slab reaction during an earthquake Hydrostatic pressure during installation Load during execution Hydrostatic pressure in still water Remarks Under ordinary conditions 0.5) Bottom Slab (while afloat) During execution 1.2 [0.5) During execution 1.5) Bottom slab (bottom slab reaction considering surcharge during no earthquake) 1.1 (1.0) 0.1 (0.

5.1D + 1. T-1. The values in the brackets [ ] are the load factors to be used when a smaller load yields the larger design load of the members. -245- . 2) For the symbols in the table.0D + 1.1S Serviceability limit state 0.1Sf 1.4.1 ~ 1.2 ~ 1.3 Load Factors and Influence Coefficient on Crack Width for Rear Wall (Breakwater) Direction of load Load from outside Load from inside Design conditions While afloat In the lowest water level under no wave Ultimate limit state 1.3.2DS 1.0D ＋ 1.1 Design Loads for Front Wall (Breakwater) (b) Rear wall (parallel to center line: land side) Table T.2.4. see Fig.1.1.T-1.1 are the load factors to be used when studying the ultimate limit state.1.4.1.4. T.3H .PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (2) The values in the upper rows of the respective boxes in Table T-1.1.9D 1.0S + 1.5Sf 1. T.0DS Note: 1) The load from outside is chosen as the larger one of the above two load conditions. (a) Front wall (parallel to centerline: seaside) Table T. (3) Loads during execution have a shorter duration of action than other conditions.4. The load factors and the influence coefficients on crack width are listed in Tables T.1D ＋ 1.0D 0. the influence coefficient on crack width (kp. and only occur during execution. The values in the parentheses ( ) in the lower rows show the influence coefficient on crack width in the serviceability limit state.4.1S + 1. (4) The design loads for outer walls of breakwater caissons are shown in Figs.5Sf 1. see Fig .1. Fig.0H .4.4.1.4.4.4.0. Therefore.2 Load Factors and Influence Coefficient on the Crack Width for Front Wall (Breakwater) Direction of load Load from outside Load from inside Design conditions Under wave crest While afloat Under wave trough Ultimate limit state 1.1Sf Serviceability limit state 1. kr) in the serviceability limit state can be set at 0.0S Note: For the symbols in the table.

5 Load Factors and Influence Coefficient on Crack Width for Outer Wall (Quaywall) Direction of load Load from inside Load from outside Design conditions In the lowest water level Wile afloat Ultimate limit state 1.2 Design Loads for Rear Wall (Breakwater) (c) Sidewall (perpendicular to levee normal) Table T.0D ＋ 1.5.1S ＋ 1.4.4. Under waves (trough) During exception (while afloat) Hydrostatic pressure Internal earth pressure Internal water pressure in the lowest water level Variable internal water pressure caused by the fluctuation of water surface Fig.1.1D ＋ 1.1.0DS Note: For the symbols in the table. T.1D ＋ 1.1S 1. The load factors are listed in Table T.4.2DS Serviceability limit state 0. T. see Fig.1. T-1.4 Load Factors and Influence Coefficient on Crack Width for Sidewall (Breakwater) Direction of load Load from outside Load from inside Design conditions While afloat Under wave trough Ultimate limit state 1.5Sf Note: For the symbols in the table.1.4. Table T.5Sf 1. T.4.3 Design Loads for Sidewall (Breakwater) (5) The design loads for the sidewalls of quaywall caissons are shown in Fig.1Sf Serviceability limit state 1.4.0S ＋ 1.4.1Sf 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Under no waves During execution (while afloat) Hydrostatic pressure Internal earth pressure Internal water pressure in the lowest water level under no wave Fig.4.1. see Fig.0S 0.0D ＋ 1.3. -246- .4.4.1. T-1.

The load can be calculated by using the equations listed in Table T.4 (b) Design Loads for Sidewalls (Quaywall) (6) The loads for the bottom slabs of breakwater caissons while Table T.1.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (a) Under ordinary conditions (loads from inside) Internal earth pressure Internal water pressure Fig.0m Fig. T. T. The waves (D0) composite load under no waves (D0) is treated as a Variable bottom slab reaction Variable permanent load.4 (a) Design Loads for Sidewalls (Quaywall) (b) While afloat (loads from outside) Hydrostatic pressure Draft + 1.1.1.4. The composite load under waves consists (ΔR).7 in accordance with the classification in Table T. and the uplift pressure (U) as shown in Fig.5.6 Load Categories under afloat are calculated by multiplying the load characteristic Wave Force (Breakwater) by the load factors and the influence coefficient on the crack Load category Load width given in Table T.4.4.5 Design Load of Bottom Slab (Breakwater) -247- . Under no waves Under waves Weight of filling Weight of concrete lid Weight of bottom slab Hydrostatic pressure Weight of filling Weight of concrete lid Weight of bottom slab Hydrostatic pressure Bottom slab reaction under wave force Bottom slab reaction under no waves Composite load under no wave forces Variation bottom slab reaction Uplift pressure Fig. T.4.4. T.4.4.1.4.1. uplift pressure (U) of the composite load under no waves (D0).1.1.4.1.1.5.1. T.6. the variable bottom slab reaction (ΔR ). The loads acting on the bottom slabs of breakwater Composite load under no Permanent caissons after construction are shown in Fig.

1D0 + 1.0W ¢ 0.4.1 | R|.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. 2) (*) When variable bottom slab reaction (ΔR) acts downwards.9D + 1. T. if 1.6.0F + 0.0U (*) (*) ΔR ↑ ΔR ↓ ΔR ↑ ΔR ↓ Serviceability limit state All － W↑ W↑ W↓ W↑ W↓ W↑ W↓ Note: 1) W = D0 + ΔR + U.0R¢ + 1.7U 0. The resultant force that is composed of the weight of filling and concrete lid.1.1D0 + 0. Table T. T.5Sf Note: For the symbols in the table.1F + 0.1 for load factor: gf ) (0. (During earthquake) Weight of concrete lid Weight of filling Weight of bottom slab Hydrostatic pressure Hydrostatic pressure Weight of bottom slab (While afloat) (Under ordinary conditions) Surcharge in normal condition Surcharge during an earthquake Bottom slab reaction during an earthquake R Bottom slab reaction under ordinary condition Fig.6 Design Loads of Bottom Slabs (Quaywall) (8) For examination of the bending moment for partition walls.4. hydrostatic pressure and bottom slab reaction is treated as the permanent load.1.5W Study not required 0.8W 0. Loads acting on the bottom slab are shown in Fig.4. -248- .2|ΔR|>1.3U 1. the design load is the hydrostatic head between chambers during installation.3U 0. see Fig.1| R|.1.0F + 1.s (7) The design loads of bottom slabs of quaywall caissons while afloat are calculated by multiplying the load characteristic by the load factors given in Table T.4.4. Therefore.5S (1.1.7 (1.1R + 1. the design load should be determined in the condition where the dislodging load is largest among the design loads indicated for the bottom slab and sidewall.1.3) U.4. For examination of dislodging. T-1.9D0 + 1.8.7U 1.3U 1.0D + 1. The design values are as follows: Ultimate limit state: Serviceability limit state: 1.8ΔR + 1.8ΔR + 0.8 Load Combinations (Quaywall) Ultimate limit state Under ordinary conditions During an earthquake While afloat 0.3U 1.1.5 for influence coefficient on crack width: kp) The symbol S represents the load characteristic.7U 0.2ΔR + 0. the combination of loads is replaced by the equation 0.0ΔR + 1.2 |ΔR| cannot exceed that of 1.2ΔR + 1. The summation of the loads D0.1S 0. ΔR and U should be done by considering the direction of each load.9D0 + 1. The design loads can be calculated by the equation listed in Table T.1| R|+0. the value of 1.9D + 1. Surcharge is treated as the variable load and the bottom slab reaction in an earthquake is also treated as the variable load.9D0 + 0.1D0 + 1.0R + 1.2ΔR + 1.0D0 + 1.1Sf Serviceability limit state (*) 1.9Df + 1.9D0+1.4.1D0 + 0.7 Combination of Load with Load Factors or Influence Coefficient on Crack Width (Breakwater) Limit state Condition Wave crest Ultimate limit state Wave trough Direction of ΔR and W Load factors and combination of load 1.2ΔR + 0.5Df + 0.1.8ΔR + 1.6.

1.1. if any).1. without subtracting buoyancy (kN/m2) w0： characteristic specific weight of sea water (kN/m3) H0： water depth with an allowance of about 1.7 Water Pressure Acting on Outer Wall (1. T. (2) Bottom Slab The external load acting on the bottom slab should be the value obtained by subtracting the deadweight of the bottom slab from the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom slab. T.4.w Draft Allowance 1. T. ② The water pressure on bottom is calculated with the draft mentioned above.w = w0H0 . If the hydrostatic pressure more than this might act on a caisson temporarily during launching. However.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 1.1.8) p2 = pw .1.1) where p2： characteristic pressure acting on the bottom slab (kN/m2) pw： characteristic hydrostatic pressure acting on the bottom slab with an allowance of about 1.4.4.0m M Fig.4.3 External Forces during Launching and Floating When launching and floating a caisson fabricated on a dry dock. [Technical Notes] (1) Outer Wall The design water pressure distribution on the outer wall should be considered as follows (see Fig.0 m.8 External Force Acting on the Bottom Slab Fig.0 m added to the design draft of caisson.4. T. (see Fig. or ordinary slipway. 1.4.4. Hydrostatic head Fig. it shall be considered separately. T.7): ① The draft of caisson is increased by 1. [Technical Notes] The whole caisson should be regarded as a simple beam to examine the section force during fabrication. when the caisson is raised by a jack or is placed on a launch truck to be moved to a slipway or caisson platform.4. floating dock.0 m added to the design draft of caisson (kN/m2) w： characteristic deadweight of the bottom slab (including the weight of filling material as counterballast. ③ The water pressure distribution is taken as a triangle shape with the bottom value calculated above and extending to the crest of outer wall.2 External Forces during Fabrication When a caisson is being fabricated on a dry dock or floating dock. external forces during fabrication may not be considered. the hydrostatic pressure at the design draft shall be increased by an allowance as a safety factor to determine the external force.11 Hydrostatic Head across Chambers -249- . concentrated loads of selfweight shall be applied on the caisson as design loads.

4. The symbols in Fig. wave force should be taken into account when wave crests act on the walls. the external water level should be taken at the depth (H1/3)/2 below LWL.4. T-1. (see Fig.4. Depending on the locality. and by sea water freezing. (2) Internal Water Pressure The internal water pressure should be the head difference between the water levels in the caisson and the lowest water level (LWL) outside the caisson.13. The wave forces acting on the front wall shall also be considered in the design of the caissons for breakwaters. A breakwater caisson covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks is also subject to impacts of wave-dissipating blocks to the front walls. the earth pressure is disregarded when the filling consists of concrete blocks or fresh concrete. [Technical Notes] (1) Earth Pressure of Filling (a) The distribution of the composite load often takes an irregular shape. b = H (d) When a concrete lid or crown is placed so tightly above the caisson. the effect of surcharge on the concrete lid or crown can be neglected.12 Earth Pressure of Filling -250- . (3) Wave Force For the front walls of caissons parallel to the centerline of the breakwater. (see Fig. 1. The effects of these are not known.12 are defined as follows: q ： characteristic surcharge on top of filling (kN/m2) g '： characteristic submerged specific weight of filling material (kN/m3).6. However.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 1. T.4.1.5 External Forces after Construction [1] Outer Walls The earth pressure of filling and the internal water pressure shall be considered as the external forces on the outer walls.4. Therefore. (c) It should be assumed that the earth pressure increases to the depth equal to the width of the chamber.4. the irregular distribution can be modified as an equivalent uniform or triangular distribution. however. (b) The coefficient of earth pressure is set at be 0.12).1. Fig. For design purposes. T. it is also affected by collisions of drifting ice or driftwoods.4 External Forces during Installation [Technical Notes] (1) Hydrostatic pressures acting on the sidewalls and bottom slab are not considered as the external force during installation. K： coefficient of earth pressure of filling. (2) The hydrostatic head between chambers should be applied to the partition walls as the external forces.1. (4) Distribution of Internal Earth and Water Pressures The distributions of internal earth and water pressures for the walls of several caissons are shown in Fig. in case of wave troughs acting on the front walls parallel to the centerline of breakwater or the sidewalls perpendicular to the centerline. the upper sections of the walls should be reinforced as a precautionary measure.4. T1.6 b： width of chamber (m) . T. generally g '=10 kN/m3 can be used. beyond which it remains at a constant value.11). K = 0. However.

PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (a) Breakwaters (front walls) Internal earth pressure Internal water pressure Composite load (b) Breakwaters (rear walls parallel to the centerline or sidewalls perpendicular to the centerline) Internal earth Internal water Composite load pressure pressure Internal earth pressure Internal water Composite load pressure (c) Quays (outer walls parallel or perpendicular to the centerline) Wave pressure (d) Wave forces Internal earth pressure Composite load Fig. the -251- . (2) Footings The bottom reaction.13 Internal Earth and Water Pressures Acting on Caisson Walls [2] Bottom Slab (1) For the bottom slab fixed with the outer walls and partition walls.4. weight of footing with buoyancy considered. T. hydrostatic pressure. uplift. and surcharge on the footing shall be considered as the external forces acting on the footing. For design purposes. weight of concrete lid.1. however. the bottom reactions. and surcharge shall be considered as the external forces. weight of bottom slab. weight of filling. [Technical Notes] (1) Bottom slab (a) The distribution of the composite load often takes an irregular shape.

-252- .3) b e = -.4.4) characteristic reaction at the front toe (kN/m2) characteristic reaction at the rear toe (kN/m2) characteristic vertical resultant force per unit length (kN/m) H： characteristic horizontal resultant force per unit length (kN/m) e： eccentricity of resultant force of V and H (m) b： width of bottom (m) 1 b¢： distribution width of bottom reactions in case of e > -. However.5) 644474448 2 V p 1 = -. (d) Uplift pressure When wave forces act on the caisson.4. when the concrete lid or concrete crown is placed so tightly above the caisson. T1.0 kN/m3 for reinforced concrete.b (m) 6 Mw： characteristic moment for point A by the vertical resultant force (kN•m/m) Mh： characteristic moment for point A by the horizontal resultant force (kN•m/m) 1B (c) Hydrostatic pressure The hydrostatic pressure acting on the bottom slab should be considered at the design tide level. the characteristic secific weight can be set as 22.0 kN/m3 (h) Surcharge The weight of soil on top of the caisson and superimposed load should be considered for the surcharge acting on the bottom slab.b 6 6447448 6447448 6e V .b 6 (1. (e) Weight of filling The specific weight of the filling material is normally determined by the tests of the material to be used.1.---------------3æb ö -. For design calculations. T. the uplift pressure should be considered. e è2 ø b b ¢ = 3 æ -.4. eö è2 ø where p1： p2： V： (1. For design calculations. The value e is calculated using equation (1. For calculating the uplift.4. (g) Weight of bottom slab The weight of the bottom slab should be the dry weight without influence of buoyancy.4.4) (see Fig.4. 1B Fig. the characteristic specific weight can be set as 24.14 Bottom Reaction (f) Weight of concrete lid The weight of the concrete lid should be the dry weight without influence of buoyancy. Chapter 5 Wave Force should be referred to. x 2 Mw M h x = -------------------V (1. (b) Bottom reaction The characteristic bottom reaction should be calculated according to equations (1.3) and (1.6 kN/m3 for plain concrete and 24.4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN irregular distribution can be modified as an equivalent uniform or triangular distribution.4.5) 1 ①If e ≦ -.14). the effect of the surcharge on top of the concrete lid or concrete crown upon the bottom slab through the filling can be neglected.p 2 = æ 1 -----ö -è bøb 1 ②If e > -.p 1 = æ 1 + -----ö -è bøb 6e V .

(c) Weight of footing The weight of footing is the submerged weight with buoyancy considered.3) or (1. Converted design load Composite load Internal earth pressure + internal water pressure (kN/ m2) Internal earth pressure + internal water pressure between partition wall and outer wall. T.4.1. T. [Technical Notes] (1) The design load to examine dislodging of an outer wall from the partition walls should be determined with respect to the load distribution shown in Fig.0 kN/m3. The characteristic value of the specific weight of footing in air can be set as 24. T. it shall be examined.4.4.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (2) Footing (a) The design loads acting on the footing should be determined with respect to the load distributions as shown in Fig. T.4. the earth pressure of filling and the internal water pressure acting on the outer wall shall be considered. p : Bottom reaction (kN/m2) w : Weight of footing (with buoyancy considered) (kN/m3) w1: Surcharge on the footing (kN/m2) p1: Composite load (kN/m2) Fig.4).4. (b) In the examination of dislodging of the bottom slab from the partition walls. Fig. assuming that they act in the joint between the partition walls and the outer wall. T. -253- . the weight of overburden soil and/or surcharge of quaywalls should be considered for the surcharge acting on the footing.15 (b) Bottom reaction The bottom reactions acting on the footing should be the values calculated according to equations (1.17 (3) Partition Wall The load sharing divisions are based on those for ordinary slab supported by beams.1. the following loads shall be considered: ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ weight of filling surcharge weight of bottom slab weight of concrete lid bottom slab reaction uplift pressure hydrostatic pressure (2) When a load is possibly generated due to the unevenness of the ground bearing capacity.1.4.4. (d) Surcharge The weight of wave-dissipating concrete blocks of breakwaters.16 Design Load to Examine Dislodging of Outer Wall from Partition Walls.1.16. (2) The design load to examine dislodging of the bottom slab from the partition walls should be determined with respect to the load distribution shown in Fig.1.15 Design Load of Footing [3] Partition Walls and Others (1) Partition Walls (a) In the examination of dislodging of an outer wall from the partition walls due to tensile failure.

T-1. T. 1. the caisson can be assumed as a cantilever beam with the span equivalent to 1/3 of the length or width of the caisson (see Fig. (2) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Outer side: 7 cm Inner side: 5 cm -254- . (3) The span used in calculations is the central interval.5. T. (2) The span used in calculations is the central interval.3 Bottom Slab [Technical Notes] (1) The bottom slab surrounded by outer walls and partition walls should be designed as a slab fixed on four sides.1 Outer Wall [Technical Notes] (1) An outer wall should be designed as a slab fixed on three sides and free on one side. safety in the ultimate limit state should be verified for dislodging failure of outer walls or bottom slab from partition walls. (4) The covering of reinforcements should not be less than 5 cm.5 Design of Members 1.18 Examination on the Unevenness of Ground Bearing Capacity 1.17 Design Load to Examine Dislodging of Bottom Slab from Partition Walls (4) Examination of External Load by Unevenness of Ground Bearing Capacity When examining the external load by the unevenness of ground bearing capactiy. 1.5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN M : Design load acting on bottom slab (kN/m2) 2 : Load acting in joint between partition wall and bottom slab (kN/m) 2@: Converted design load (kN/m) Fig.5.4. (3) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Outer side: 7 cm Inner side: 5 cm Fig.1.1.4.18).4.2 Partition Wall [Technical Notes] (1) The partition wall should be designed as a slab fixed on three sides and free on one side. (2) After installation.

-255- .2).2).5. a part of the haunch with the gradient steeper than 1:3 should be disregarded.5. (4) The span of bottom slab used in calculation should be set on the central interval (see Fig. T.5.4 Others [Technical Notes] The whole caisson should be examined as a simple beam when lifted with jacks for transportation or when making analysis for differential settlement after installation. 1. T.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (3) Footing should be calculated as a cantilever slab. (5) The cross section used to examine bending of footing should be the front surface of the outer wall (see Section A-A of Fig.2 Span Used to Design Bottom Slab and Footing 1.6 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane The load acting on the hooks shall appropriately be calculated by considering the weight of the caisson and the bonding of the bottom slab to the floor of caisson fabrication yard.1. The cross section for examining shear of footing should be located at the distance equivalent to 1/2 of the footing height from the front of the caisson.1. Footing Portion fixed on four sides Fig.1. T.5. To calculate the height of footing.

05 and 0. [Technical Notes] Figure T.10.2. respectively. (2) Design shall follow the limit state design method.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks 2. The design seismic coefficient in (a) and (b) is taken as 0. T-2.1 shows the relationship between the block width and the wall height as well as the L-shaped block height.1 Sequence of Design of L-Shaped Block 2. T. Assumption of dimensions of L-shaped block members ↓ Determination of design external forces During suspension After construction ↓ Design of members (Design of bottom slab) Design conditions ↓ Calculate section force ↓ Examine bending (Design of front wall) ↓ Calculate section force ↓ Examine bending (Design of buttress) ↓ Calculate section force ↓ Examine bending ↓ Examine dislodging (Design of footing) ↓ Calculate section force ↓ Examine bending ↓ Examine shear ultimate limit state { [1] serviceability limit and [2] state ultimate limit state { [1] serviceability limit and [2] state ultimate limit state { [1] serviceability limit and [2] state [1] ultimate limit state ultimate limit state { [1] serviceability limit and [2] state ultimate limit state { [1] serviceability limit and [2] state Fig.1.1. [Technical Notes] (1) The design of L-shaped blocks can be made according to the sequence depicted in Fig. considering the water depth and tidal range. As the design seismic coefficient increases.1 General (1) The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of ordinary L-shaped blocks. -256- .2 Determination of Dimensions The dimensions of the members L-shaped block shall be determined by considering the following: (1) Capacity of the facilities for fabricating L-shaped blocks (2) Hoisting capabilities of the crane (3) Water depth in which L-shaped blocks are installed to form a quaywall (4) Tidal range (5) Elevation of coping [Commentary] The crown height of an L-shaped block is determined for ease of execution of the superstructure. the width increases compared with the height.1. based on the past examples of construction.2.

Therefore. In addition.2. (4) The calculation methods of bottom reaction are described in 1.36 > 0.05 (b) Design seismic coefficient kh = 0. -257- . The angle of friction of the wall should be taken as δ= 15º. T.26 15 14 14 D 1 1.1 General The following shall be considered as the loads acting on the structural members of L-shaped blocks:.3 Loads Acting on Members 2.2.02 > 2.10 Fig. T. Chapter Ⅱ 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure. (2) Loads acting on the structural members of L-shaped blocks are illustrated in Fig.4.3.3.5 External Forces after Construction.1.75 > 1 1.1 Combination of Loads and Load Factors.1 Relationship between Height and Width of L-Shaped Blocks 2. The latter involves setting-up of the block before the installation work. (1) Front Wall (a) Surcharge and earth pressure by backfilling stones or soil (b) Residual water pressure (2) Footing (a) Bottom reaction (b) Deadweight of footing (3) Bottom Slab (a) Surcharge (b) Weight of backfill (c) Deadweight of bottom slab (d) Bottom reaction (4) Buttress (a) Reaction from the front wall (b) Reaction from the bottom slab (c) Earth pressure and residual water pressure acting on the rear of buttress. (d) Load during suspension of the L-shaped block (e) Load while setting up the L-shaped block [Technical Notes] (1) Load combinations and load factors are the same as described in 1. the load at setting up the block examined be examined in the design.97 9 9 2 D D D Height Height 8 8 D 2 7 7 6 6 5 D 1 5 D h1 2 h2 4 4 3 > 3 > 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Width > m Width > m (a) Design seismic coefficient kh = 0.2.75 13 12 12 11 11 m 10 1 m D D 10 D 2 0.4.54 > 0. the following loads shall be considered during execution. (5) There are vertical and horizontal methods for placing concrete when manufacturing L-shaped blocks.53 13 D 2 1. (3) The calculation methods of earth pressure acting on L-shaped block members are described in PartⅡ.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 15 D 1 1.

the structural safety of members in design shall be taken into account. This is inconvenient when designing the members.2 shows examples of converting loads. 2. T. T.3.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN q h! K q Dead weight Bottom reaction (a) Load acting on front wall and buttresses (b) Load acting on footings (c) Load acting on bottom slab Notation q: surcharge (kN/m2) g1: specific weight of soil above residual water level (kN/m3) g2: specific weight of soil below residual water level (kN/m3) gw: specific weight of water (kN/m3) h1: thickness of soil layer above residual water level (m) h2: thickness of soil layer below residual water level (m) h3: tidal range (m) h4: thickness of bottom slab (m) K1: coefficient of earth pressure of soil above residual water level K2: coefficient of earth pressure of soil below residual water level w: deadweight of bottom slab (kN/m2) Fig.1 Loads Acting on L-Shaped Blocks 2. Converted load distribution for member design Converted load distribution for member design Footing Load distribution Bottom slab (i) Load distribution ( ii ) (a) Earth pressure (b) External loads on footing and bottom slab Fig. T.3. When doing so.3.2 Converting Methods of Load Distribution -258- . care should be taken not to produce weak points in the strength of members.2. Therefore. Fig.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation The loads acting on an L-shaped block can be converted to multiple loads of uniform distribution for the convenience of calculation.2.3. [Technical Notes] Normally. the loads acting on L-shaped blocks are not uniform loads.3. the loads may be converted into multiple uniform loads.2 Earth Pressure The earth pressure to be used for design of the structural members of L-shaped blocks shall be the earth pressure used for stability calculation of the quaywall. When converting loads.

1 Assumption of Span of Member and Load 2. the front wall should be designed as a cantilever slab supported by a buttress.4. T.2 Length and Load of Footing -259- .4. (3) The covering of reinforcements should not be less than 7 cm in principle. When it is advantageous in design to treat the front wall as a slab supported on two or three sides.2 Footing [Technical Notes] Front wall (1) Footing should be designed as a cantilever slab supported by the front wall. If one buttress is considered as a support. (4) The covering of main reinforcements of a front wall should not be less than the following values in principle: Sea side: Land side: 7 cm 5 cm (5) The span of the front wall and the loads acting on it can be taken as shown in Fig. F earth pressure + residual water pressure 1 F earth pressure + residual water pressure 1 . Therefore.2.2. the front wall may be regarded as being supported on two or three sides.4 Design of Members 2.2.1 Front Wall [Technical Notes] (1) Front wall should be designed as a slab supported by buttresses. the front wall can be designed as a cantilever slab or a continuous slab supported by buttresses. the front wall of L-shaped blocks with large heights are not greatly affected by support of the bottom slab. the bottom slab should = be designed as a cantilever slab supported by the buttress. If one buttress is considered as a support. (2) The length and load of footing should be as shown in Fig. T. If two or more buttresses are considered as supports.4. the front wall is supported by the bottom slab as well as by buttresses. in principle. however.4. while the arrangement of reinforcing at the bottom slab attachment becomes complicated. (3) The loads should be assumed to act on the whole span of the front wall. T. T.3 Bottom Slab [Technical Notes] = : length of footing = (1) The bottom slab should be designed as a slab fixed on one or more butp tresses. and if two or p = (Bottom reaction) .2.4. 2 span of member Support Buttress Front wall span of member 2 Buttress Front wall Buttress 1 Support (a) For one buttress (b) For two or more buttresses Fig. it should be designed as a continuous slab. the front wall should be designed as a continuous slab. = Footing 2.2.(Weight of footing) more buttresses are considered as supports. Thus.4. (6) Structurally. (2) The span of a front wall should be measured between the centers of the buttresses. Generally.4.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 2.1. the descriptions in this document are not necessarily applied. Fig.

4.4. (7) If the front wall and bottom slab are designed as specified in this chapter.5 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane Hooks for suspension shall be designed in accordance with 1. 2. Therefore. (4) Buttress should be designed in the cross sections parallel to the bottom slab. as shown in Fig. T2. front wall. crown Superstructure p H Notation p： lh： b： H： sum of earth pressure and residual water pressure element length of buttress width of block height of block b Fig. (6) Of the loads acting on the bottom slab. For the same reason as stated in 2. -260- . it should be designed as a cantilever slab or a continuous slab supported by buttresses as standard. (3) The load should be assumed to act on the whole span of the bottom slab. the load behind the buttress can be ignored. However. T.1 Front Wall [Technical Notes] (6). the bottom slab may be designed as a slab with supports on two or three sides. The amount of reinforcement for the connection should be calculated independently from that of stirrups against shear stresses.3. However.4 Buttress [Technical Notes] (1) Buttress should be designed against the reaction from the bottom slab and front wall. The loads of backfill and surcharge act only on the clear span of the bottom slab. the bottom reaction acts on the whole span. the descriptions in (1) is not necessarily applied. (8) The element length of buttress should be the total height of block including the bottom slab.4.6 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane.3 Length and Load of Buttress 2. (3) Buttress should be designed as a cantilever beam supported at the bottom slab against the reaction from the front wall. since it is troublesome to consider it precisely in design and it does not greatly affect the design of bottom slab. and bottom slab should be tightly connected. (2) Buttress should be designed as a T-beam combined with the front wall. (6) The covering of reinforcements of buttress should be 5 cm or larger. the loads of backfill and surcharge may be taken as acting on the whole span. (5) Buttress.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) The span of a bottom slab should be measured between the centers of the buttresses.2. the bottom slab may be regarded as supported by the front wall as well as by buttresses. (4) The covering of main reinforcements of the bottom slab should not be less than the following values in principle: Bottom side: 7 cm Upper side: 5 cm (5) Structurally. when advantageous in design to treat the bottom slab as a slab with supports on two or three sides. The load acting on the buttress includes that of the superstructure.4.

[Technical Notes] (1) Cellular blocks using the limit state design method should generally be designed in the sequence depicted in Fig. When using cellular blocks for breakwaters or revetments subject to actions of for wave forces. T. Determination design external forces During suspension During execution After construction ↓ Design of members Design conditions ↓ Front wall ↓ Rear wall ↓ Sidewall ↓ Partition wall ↓ Bottom slab ↓ Footing ↓ Hooks for suspension [1] ultimate limit state [2] serviceability limit state Fig.1.2.1 Sequence of Design of Cellular Blocks 3.2 Determination of Dimensions 3.3.1 Shape of Cellular Blocks The shape of cellular blocks shall be determined to insure the stability of the entire structure.1. an appropriate design method has to be adopted after fully ascertaining the characteristics of the block shape. Some special types have bottom slabs such as those placed on the lowest level. the fatigue limit state should be examined separately. 3.1.2 Determination of Dimensions The dimensions of cellular blocks shall be determined by considering the following items: (1) Capability of the facility for fabricating cellular blocks (2) Hoisting capability of the crane (3) Water depth in which cellular blocks are piled up to form a wall (4) Tidal range -261- . When designing cellular blocks. (2) For the design of individual members for various types of cellular blocks. the design methods in Chapter 1 Caissons or Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks can be used according to respective types.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS Chapter 3 Cellular Blocks 3. They can be used as a wall by piling up several blocks.1 General (1) The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of ordinary cellular blocks. (2) Design shall follow the limit state design method.2. T-3. [Commentary] “Cellular blocks” generally refer to blocks consisting of sidewalls without bottom slabs such.

2 Earth Pressure of Filling and Residual Water Pressure (1) Front Wall. Rear Wall. (4) The loads in Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks can be used for the loads during execution.3.1 Loads Acting on Cellular Blocks (3) Wave pressure is only taken into consideration when an impulsive wave pressure acts on the blocks.1.3.3 Loads Acting on Cellular Blocks 3. (2) Partition Wall The partition wall shall be designed against dislodging failure of the sidewalls from the partition wall due to the earth pressure of filling and residual water pressure. the effect of surcharge on top of the concrete lid or crown can be neglected. If concrete is placed so tightly above the cellular block. the stress of sidewalls by the inner filling is considerably reduced by the active earth pressure and residual water pressure in the backfill. When fully backfilled as a wall. Combination of Loads and Load Factors can be referred to.1 General Loads acting on cellular blocks are as follows: (1) Earth pressure of filling (2) Residual water pressure (3) Deadweight of blocks (4) Weight of coping (5) Surcharge (6) Bottom reaction (7) Loads during execution (8) Wave force [Technical Notes] (1) The rear wall is subject to backfill earth pressure and residual water pressure. 3. -262- . and Sidewalls The earth pressure of filling and residual water pressure shall be considered when designing the front wall. sidewalls should be designed for the condition during the execution process when the inner filling alone is executed before start of backfill. T3.3.4.1. Sidewall (front wall) Earth pressure of filling + residual water pressure Sidewall Sidewall Sidewall (rear wall) Fig. But these are mutually cancelled out by the earth pressure of the inner filling.3. T.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (5) Elevation of coping (6) Solidification of whole blocks when piled up in stages 3. (2) The earth pressure of the filling and the residual water pressure acting on cellular blocks are shown in Fig. Therefore. (5) For the combinations of loads and the load factors to be taken into account in design. the descriptions in 1.3. and therefore such loads need not be examined. rear wall and sidewalls.

The symbols in Fig.2 are as follows: q： characteristic value of surcharge (kN/m2) g1： specific weight of filling material above the residual water level (kN/m3) g2： specific weight of filling material below the residual water level (kN/m3) in general. K = 0. (2) Partition Wall The characteristic values of loads against dislodging failure of partition walls and sidewalls should be those of the earth pressure acting on the shaded parts in Fig. the earth pressure of the filling should not be considered ② The earth pressure should be assumed to increase from the crown of block to a height equal to the inner width b1 of the cellular block. and it should be constant beyond it. when the inner width of the lower cellular block is less than that of the upper block (in case of cellular block partitioned by walls).3.3.3. g1=18 kN/m3 and g2 =10 kN/m3 can be used.3. However. the earth pressure obtained for the upper block can be extended to the lower block. Part Ⅱ. -263- . Rear Wall.3.3. T. and Sidewalls (a) Earth pressure of filling ① The coefficient of earth pressure should be set as 0.4.6. K： coefficient of earth pressure of filling. T. However.3.5 [1] Outer Walls. if the filling is blocks or fresh concrete.6 b1： inner width of block chamber (m) .2.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall can be referred to for a calculation of water pressure in this case. 5. T.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS [Technical Notes] (1) Front Wall. b1 = H1 (b) The earth pressure of the filling of cellular block should be in accordance with that of caissons (see 1. T3. the increase of the residual water level difference should be examined. ②For breakwaters When used as breakwaters or revetments and the wave trough acts on the front of the block. ③ The earth pressure acting on cellular blocks piled up in stages is calculated in a manner as shown in Fig.) Residual water level Fig.2 Calculating Earth Pressure of Filling (c) Residual water pressure ① For quaywalls Residual water pressure is calculated from the head difference between the residual water level and LWL.3.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Sidewall (front wall) Partitition Sidewall (rear wall) Load bearing area Earth pressure of filling + residual water pressure per 1 m of width Earth pressure of filling + residual water pressure per lm Fig.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation The load acting on a cellular block can be converted to multiple loads of uniform distribution for the convenience of calculation in accordance with 2. -264- . T. (c) The span used for calculations is measured between the centers of the connected walls.3 Load for Examination of Dislodging Failure of Sidewalls from Partition Wall 3.3.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation. (c) The span used for calculations is measured between the centers of the connected walls. the partition wall should be designed against the earth pressure caused by the difference.3. (c) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than 7 cm in principle. 3.3.4 Design of Members 3.3.4. (3) Footings (a) Footings may be designed as cantilever slabs supported by the sidewalls.1 Rectangular Cellular Blocks The members of rectangular cellular blocks shall be designed as appropriate in view of their structural types. (b) The span of footing is the distance from the front of the sidewall to the tip of the footing. [Technical Notes] (1) Sidewalls (a) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Outer side: 7 cm Inner side: 5 cm (b) The section force generated in a rectangular cellular block is solved by assuming the block as a rigid box frame for each unit height against the equivalent uniform load converted from the actual load distribution. (b) When any difference of filling height between neighboring chambers may occur during execution. (2) Partition Wall (a) The section forces acting on partition walls are calculated in the same way as that of sidewalls. (d) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than 5 cm in principle.

3.2 Other Types of Cellular Blocks The members of other types of cellular blocks shall be designed as appropriate for their structural shapes. T.3.4.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 3. the unbalanced moment at the supports is regarded to be transferred to the sidewalls. (b) The span of the front wall should be measured between the centers of sidewalls connected to it. [Commentary] Examples of other types of cellular blocks are shown in Fig.4.4. T. When the front wall protrudes beyond the both sides of the frame.4 Load on Cantilever Portion of Front Wall (d) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Sea side: 7 cm Land side: 5 cm -265- .). (c) The load from the back of a front wall should act in the whole span of the front wall (see Fig. Sidewall Front wall member span load strength Fig.3.3.3. T.3 Examples of Other Types of Cellular Blocks [Technical Notes] (1) Front Wall (a) The front wall should be designed as a slab supported by the sidewalls.4.4. (units: m) Caisson type with bottom slab Rectangular type with flange I-shaped type with bottom slab I-shaped type Fig.4. T.

3. T3. The symbols used in Fig.5). When using cellular blocks for breakwaters.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Rear Wall (a) Filling is often done first during the execution. (b) The load to the rear wall should be the earth pressure of filling. Fig.5 are as follows. the covering of main reinforcements on the outside should preferably be 7cm or larger. the wall come into direct contact with seawater. the rear wall may be designed in the same way as for the front wall.5 Forces and Moments on Sidewall of the Cellular Black Front wall Rear wall Side wall (4) Bottom Slab When a bottom slab is used for a cellular block. PF： characteristic value of reaction from the front wall (kN) MF： characteristic value of moment transmitted from the front wall (kN•m) PB： characteristic value of reaction from the rear wall (kN) MB： characteristic value of moment transmitted from the rear wall (kN•m) l： distance between supports (m) (b) The span of the sidewalls is the distance between the centers of the front and rear walls. the strength of the sidewalls should be examined for the earth pressure due to the height difference. In these cases therefore. T. (c) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than 5 cm in principle. The active earth pressure behind the wall is not considered in principle. (c) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less then 5 cm. T.4. it may be designed against the following loads: ① Loads on the bottom such as the weight of filling material and surcharge ② Deadweight of the bottom slab ③ Bottom reaction -266- .3. Therefore.4. and the design conditions of rear walls are the same as for the front wall. (3) Sidewalls (a) Sidewalls are in principle designed against the reactions and transferred moments from the front and rear walls (see Fig.4. (d) When the height difference of the filling is expected during execution.

A) Fig.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS Chapter 4 Upright Wave-Absorbing Caissons 4. there are the horizontal slit and perforated wall types. [Commentary] Upright wave-absorbing caissons having slits in the front wall and internal water retaining chambers with wave dissipating function are now being used for constructing quays and breakwaters. (1) Earth pressure (2) Earth pressure of filling (3) Residual water pressure (4) Wave force (5) Uplift pressure -267- Ordinary caisson part Side wall slit column Slit column Slit column Partition slit column Sidewall Front view (C . hydraulic model experiments suited to the conditions should be performed. Upper beam Ceiling slab Front wall Back wall Upper beam Side wall slit column Ordinary caisson part Slit column Partition slit column Lower beam Lower wall Lower wall Base plate Side wall Partition Slit column Lower beam Lower wall Bottom slab Sectios (B .2 External Forces Acting on Members The following external forces acting on the members of wave-absorbing caissons shall be taken into consideration for each limit state as necessary.B) Base plate Water chamber Partition Plan view (A . but they can be roughly divided into permeable and impermeable types. The limit state design method shall be used.4.4. T.11. Various shapes and types of construction are now available for wave-absorbing caissons. As to the slit shape. In addition.1. T.1.1 General The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of upright wave-absorbing caissons used for quaywalls. breakwaters. (2) The names of members of the relatively common vertical slit caisson are shown in Fig.C) . and then appropriate design should be carried out. the characteristics of various structures should be fully surveyed.1 General [Technical Notes] (1). The general design method for these upright wave-absorbing caissons has not been fully established.1 Names of Vertical Slit Caisson Members 4. the vertical slit type is the most widely used. In designing the structural members. [Technical Notes] (1) Upright wave-absorbing caissons can be designed in the sequence given in 1. and revetments.

[Commentary] Wave forces acting on the members of slit caissons vary significantly.4. Therefore.1 Combination of Loads and Load Factors. seismic effects may be ignored when calculating the earth pressure of filling.2.2. [Technical Notes] (1) Load combinations and load factors are the same as described in 1. (3) If the top of the water chamber is completely sealed by the ceiling slab.1 lists the external forces taken into account when designing the members of the water chamber of wave-absorbing caisson. (2) Part Ⅱ .8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson should be referred to for external forces acting on structural members.4. and this could produce a greater impulsive uplift pressure than that of no ventilation 2).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (6) Collision force from drifting objects (7) Weight of caisson and filling (8) Weight of superstructure (9) Surcharge (10) Reaction from fender (11) Bottom reaction (12) Loads during execution Of these. reaction from fender. as well as referring to past cases of implementation. appropriate hydraulic model experiments are recommended in accordance with the individual conditions prior to design. 5. T.2. an impulsive pressure may be generated by the compression of the air trapped woth the top at the instant when the front of incoming wave shuts off the slits or perforations.2 3) shows an example of changes in the uplift pressure intensity pe1 when the opening ratio of ventilation holes ε is changed in a model experiment.4. (4) Figure T. -268- . Provision of ventilation holes with a suitable opening ratio in the ceiling slab can reduce impulsive pressure due to air compression. and external forces during execution.2 Experimental Results on Changes in Uplift Pressure due to Opening Ratio of Ventilation Holes (5) Table T. the wave surface collides directly with the ceiling slab. Normally. Symbol Ventilation opening ratio Uplift pressure when 1 = 0 Uplift pressure corresponding to 1 1 Fig.5% to 1.2.0%. depending on the structure of the water chamber and whether or not it has a ceiling slab 1). If too great. wave force. 3). uplift pressure. The opening ratio of these holes should be carefully designed. the air pressure acting on the ceiling slab can 1 be reduced by 30% to 50% compared with that on an unventilated slab by providing ventilation holes with the opening ratio of around 0.4.

Field data analysis -”.2. Hitoshi SASAKI: “Experimental study on wave forces acting on perforated wall caisson breakwaters”.. Ken-ichirou SHIMOSAKO. 1. No. Rept of PHRI. 3) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO.1 External Forces for Design of Members of Water Chamber of Wave-absorbing Caisson Member Member number Design load Water pressure while afloat Wave pressure (parallel/perpendicular to centerline) Impact force from driftwood and other drifting objects Axial force transmitted from upper beam Wave pressure (including wave force transmitted from partition wall) Water pressure while afloat (including wave force transmitted from sidewalls) Wave pressure ( ditto ) Vertical loads from above and below Water pressure while afloat (reaction transmitted from slit column) Wave pressure (wave force acting on the beam itself and slit column reaction) Water pressure while afloat (reaction from slit column and lower wall. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable front wall . residual water pressure Bottom reaction. pp.Analytical model for compression of an enclosed air layer -”. 1980.4. bottom slab weight. T. water head difference. Vol. 2. 4. Wave pressure (upwards. 23. downwards) Surcharge Deadweight Slit column Partition slit column Sidewall slit column ① ② ③ Front wall Upper beam ④ Lower beam Lower wall Sidewall Partition Rear wall Bottom slab ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧ ⑨ ⑩ Ceiling slab ⑪ Note: Member numbers are those shown in Fig.1. and water pressure while afloat in various cases of loads. 2) Sigeo TAKAHASHI. No.4. Tsutomu MURANAGA: “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable front wall . Vol. load acting on the beam itself) Wave pressure (ditto) Water pressure while afloat Wave pressure Water pressure while afloat Wave pressure Design wave pressure acts on both sides separately in the direction parallel to centerline Fender reaction Wave pressure Earth pressure. No. 1991 (in Japanese). 3-31 (in Japanese).PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS Table T. Rept of PHRI.1 4.19. (2) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Parts washed by seawater: 7 cm Other parts: 5 cm [References] 1) Shigeo TAKAHASHI. Rept of PHRI. Shigeo TAKAHASHI.3 Design of Members [Technical Notes] (1) The span used in calculations is the distance between the centers of support members. Vol. 1984 (in Japanese). 30. -269- .

the member sections consist of a combination of different materials to achieve the functions of the structure.2 Determination of Dimensions. are used in breakwaters.2 Example of a Hybrid Caisson Structure 5. The limit state design method shall be used. C.5. Figure C.1. Hybrid caissons.2 shows an example of a hybrid caisson structure.1 shows two types of structure members of hybrid caissons commonly used in the port and harbor structures. like conventional steel reinforced concrete caissons. By combining several different materials.1 General The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of a hybrid caisson that is a composite structure of steel plates and concrete. (2) Figure T.5.1.5. [Commentary] In this chapter. In this chapter the term “hybrid caisson” is used as general term for caissons using these two structural types. Concrete Concrete Shear connectors (example of headed studs) Steel reinforcement Steel plate Steel reinforcements Steel frame Fig. composite structures achieve superior structural strength properties that are not possible using a single material alone. Partition (steel stiffened plate) Steel Steel plate Studs reinforcement Side wall (composite slab) Footing (SRC slab) Concrete Base plate (SRC slab) Base steel frame Fig. One is a composite member structure with steel plates arranged on one side only.5. -270- .1. quays.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 5 Hybrid Caissons 5. and coastal revetments. The other is an SRC structure with H-shaped steel embedded inside it. T.1 Hybrid Structure Members [Technical Notes] (1) The “Hybrid Caisson Design Manual” 1) and others may be used as reference for the design of hybrid caissons. In “composite structures”.1.2 Determination of Dimensions Dimensions of hybrid caissons shall be determined in accordance with 1. caissons with a composite structural type of steel plates and concrete are defined as hybrid caissons.

and to be easily fabricated and executed. (2) Shearing Force The shearing force of composite slabs can be analyzed in the same manner as that of reinforced concrete slabs. In composite slabs.4 Design of Partitions Partitions of hybrid caissons shall be designed to be sufficiently safe against external forces acting on them and to function as supporting members for sidewalls and base plates. [Technical Notes] (1) SRC members can normally be classified as follows. the section stress of composite slabs can be calculated as a double reinforced concrete member by converting the steel plates to equivalent reinforcements. 5.4.4.4.3 Design External Forces Design external forces shall be the same as described in 1. headed studs and shape steel are most commonly used as the shear connectors.4.5 Design of Members. 5. by taking full account of the structural characteristics due to differences in the structural type of the steel frame.1 Section Force The section force to be examined in the design of members shall be the same as described in 1.3 Design of SRC Members The steel and reinforced concrete (SRC) members shall be designed against the bending moment and shearing force.4 Design of Members 5.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 5. the section stress can be calculated as a reinforced concrete member by converting steel frames to equivalent reinforcements. 5.5 Design of Corners and Joints Corners and joints shall be designed to smoothly and firmly transmit section forces. the shear stress can be calculated as a reinforced concrete by converting steel frames to equivalent reinforcements. The required quantity and arrangement of shear connectors should be designed in consideration of preventing the steel plate separating from the concrete (especially when compressive stress is active) and securing the transmission of horizontal shear force occurring on the interface between steel plate and concrete. -271- . it should be calculated as a composite of the independent steel frame member and the reinforced concrete member. 5.4. (3) For shearing force. depending on the structural type of steel frames: (a) Full-web type (b) Truss web type (2) For the bending moment. 5. steel frames themselves can resist against the shearing force.2 Design of Composite Slabs Composite slabs shall be designed in consideration of the following: (1) Bending moment (2) Shearing force (3) Integration of steel and concrete [Technical Notes] (1) Bending Moment For the bending moment. if the web is of truss type. (3) Integration of Steel and Concrete Shear connectors are particularly important structural elements for the integration of materials in a hybrid structure. and they can be duly considered in design.4 Design External Forces. If it is of full-web type. When the fixing of steel frame ends with concrete is insufficient in full-web type.

it is usual to set steel plate on the inside and concrete on the outside so to avoid direct contact of steel plate to fresh seawater. [Technical Notes] Steel materials used on the outside of hybrid caissons are generally covered with concrete or asphalt mats. Tech. the fatigue strength in welded parts should be examined. 2) Hiroshi YOKOTA: “Study on mechanical properties of steel-concrete composite structures and their applicability to marine structures”. direct contact between the steel plates of members and the marine environment is generally avoided. 5. Note of PHRI. It is also desirable to provide shear reinforced steel materials (haunches) against concrete tensile stress of the inside of joints. ISBN-4-900302-44 (in Japanese). corrosion control should be applied such as coating methods to splash zone or tidal zone and cathodic protection methods in seawater. For corrosion control. It is also in contact with filling sand in a static state and with residual seawater. and attaching shear connectors and shear resistance steel. No. the safety of the hybrid caisson against fatigue strength should be examined. For coastal revetments and quaywalls. where the members are frequently subject to repeated load.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] To secure sufficient strength at corners and joints. -272- . however. Thus. [Technical Notes] Hybrid caissons use a large number of welded joints for connecting steel plates. the influence from such repeated load is small. The inside is isolated from the external atmosphere by means of concrete lids.4.5 Corrosion Control Corrosion control in hybrid caissons shall be employed as appropriate in consideration of their structures and the design and execution conditions. When designing breakwaters. Therefore. 5.750. 1999. [References] 1) Coastal Development Institute of Technology (CDIT): “Design Manual for Hybrid Caissons”. it is desirable to firmly connect the steel materials on the tensile side to those of the compressive side. If steel plates are in direct contact with seawater.6 Safety against Fatigue Failure Hybrid caissons shall be sufficiently safe against fatigue failure. 1993 (in Japanese). when designing hybrid caissons.

Part V Foundations .

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In such cases. see Part II. For settlement of foundations. Chapter 13 Liquefaction. (3) When the bearing capacity of foundation ground is not large enough for supporting the structures. When the foundation ground consists of loose sandy soil. (2) When the foundation ground consists of soft clayey soil. see Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundations. the weight of the structures should be reduced or the foundation ground should be improved. the stability and the settlement of foundation shall be carefully examined. When the foundation ground consists of loose sandy soil. liquefaction due to an earthquake can make the structure collapse or significantly damage its functions. countermeasures such as pile foundation and soil improvement shall be applied as necessary. or Chapter 6 Stability of Slopes. appropriate types of foundations shall be selected by taking account of the importance of structures and soil conditions of the ground. see Chapter 7 Soil Improvement Methods -273- .PART V FOUNDATIONS Part V Foundations Chapter 1 General (1) In the design of ports and harbor facilities. the effect of liquefaction due to an earthquake shall be also studied. Chapter 3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations. For the design of pile foundations. see Chapter 5 Settlement of Foundations. For liquefaction due to an earthquake. (3) For soil improvement methods. (2) For stability of foundations. [Commentary] (1) When structures are constructed on the soft foundation ground. see Chapter 2 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations. excessive settlement or deformation may arise owing to the lack of the bearing capacity.

In comparison with studies on the bottom bearing capacity of foundations.2. short side length.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground (Notification Article 41.1) Fs where qa： Fs： b： g1： B： Nr . there are not many on the side resistance.1 for several shapes of foundations. [Technical Notes] (1) The shape factor β is given in Table T-2. the bearing capacity of a foundation is the sum of bottom bearing capacity and side resistance.1. the safety factor shall be given an appropriate value after due consideration of the characteristics of the structure.5 ~ 0. the foundation shall be analyzed in principle as a shallow foundation. 2. see 2. If the embedded length of a shallow foundation is less than the smallest width of the foundation.2.1B/L B . the side resistance is much smaller than the bottom bearing capacity and may be ignored in the design. Clause 2 ) The following equation shall be used to calculate the allowable bearing capacity of foundation on sandy ground. Nq： g 2： D： allowable bearing capacity of foundation considering the buoyancy of underwater part (kN/m2) safety factor for the bearing capacity of sandy ground shape factor of foundation unit weight of soil below the level of foundation bottom (or submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/m3) smallest width of foundation (m) bearing capacity factors unit weight of soil above the level of foundation bottom (or submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/m3) embedded length of foundation (m) [Commentary] When loads on foundations increase. long side length -274- . (2) When an eccentric or inclined load acts on a foundation. 1 q a = ---. The intensity of load required for this shear failure is called the ultimate bearing capacity.2. In this case. The allowable bearing capacity of a foundation is calculated by dividing the ultimate bearing capacity by a safety factor.2.2. The bearing capacity factors Nr and Nq are determined by the internal friction angle fd as shown in Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 2 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 2. [Commentary] (1) Generally. Clause 1 ) When the embedded length of a foundation is less than the smallest width of the foundation. settlement of foundations occurs in proportion to the loads. L. settlement suddenly increases and shear failure of the ground occurs. T-2.3 Rectangular 0.5 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads. Table T.5 Square 0. When the load becomes sufficiently great and reaches a certain value.4 Circular 0.1 General (Notification Article 41. Bottom bearing capacity is evaluated with the intensity of the pressure to make the foundation bottom pushed into the ground and to cause plastic flow of soil.1 Shape Factors Shape of foundations β Continuous 0.( bg 1 BN r + g 2 DN q ) + g 2 D (2. The side resistance of a foundation is the friction or the adhesion resistance between the sides of the foundation and the soil.

1). B c0 . Clause 3) When the undrained shear strength of clayey ground increases in proportion to the depth of subsoil.2.5 as a general rule. it shall be standard to calculate the allowable bearing capacity of a foundation on clayey ground with equation (2.1) is used to calculate the allowable bearing capacity of foundation on sandy ground.+ g 2 D è Lø F s where qa： Nc0： n： B： L： c0： F s： g 2： allowable bearing capacity of foundation considering the buoyancy of underwater part (kN/m2) bearing capacity factor for foundation shape factor of foundation smallest width of foundation (m) length of foundation (m) undrained shear strength of cohesive soil at the foundation bottom (kN/m2) safety factor for the bearing capacity of clayey ground unit weight of soil above the level of foundation bottom (submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/m3) D： embedded length of the foundation (m) [Commentary] As the undrained shear strength of clayey ground in coastal areas usually increases linearly with depth.1) q a = N c0 æ 1 + n -. An appropriate value of safety factor shall be selected in consideration of the characteristics of the structure.1 Relationship between Bearing Capacity Factors Nr and Nq and Internal Friction Angle φd (2) Allowable Bearing Capacity on Sandy Ground When equation (2.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground (Notification Article 41.3. the bearing capacity of foundation should be calculated by the equation that takes account of the effect of shear strength increase. T. the safety factor should not be less than 2.2.PART V FOUNDATIONS Bearing capacity factor Internal friction angle Fig.2.3. 2. -275- .(2.ö ---.

1 Circular Arc Analysis to Calculate the Bearing Capacity of Multilayered Ground -276- .3. T.3. The safety factor of bearing bearing capacity should not be less than1. Load intensity 0 0 0 Fig. T. The safety factor for the circular arc passing through the bottom edge of the foundation is calculated with the circular arc analysis of the modified Fellenius method. with the condition that the overburden pressure above the level of foundation bottom is taken as surcharge load as shown in Fig. is liable to occur.2) (kB/c0 ≦ 4) q a = -..4 Bearing Capacity of Multilayered Ground (Notification Article 41.4. where excessive settlement could significantly damage the functions of the superstructures.5 as a general rule.14c 0 ) + g 2 D F where the symbols are the same as those in equation (2.2. In this case.5 in such cases as crane foundations. 1 (2.2) can be used to calculate the allowable bearing capacity of clayey ground within a range of kB/c0 ≦ 4 in the case of continuous foundations. a punching shear failure. T. The safety factor should not be less than1. on the basis of the data of bearing capacity factors shown in Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) Safety Factor for Bearing Capacity of Clayey Ground Whose Strength Increases with Depth.3.018kB + 5.4.2. the safety factor of the bearing capacity needs to be 2.1.3. [Technical Notes] The bearing capacity of the ground consisting of multiple soil layers is generally calculated by the circular arc analysis. If the clayey layer thickness H is significantly less than the smallest width of the foundation B (i. the bearing capacity shall be examined by the circular arc analysis. 2.3. T2.1 Bearing Capacity Factor Nco and Shape Factor n of Clayey Ground Having Strength Increase with Depth (2) Practical Equation for Calculating Allowable Bearing Capacity Equation (2.5B).5 or greater. H < 0. in which the clayey layer is squeezed out between the surcharge plane and the bottom of clayey layer. Clause4) When a foundation ground consists of multiple soil layers. an appropriate value of safety factor shall be used for the design in consideration of the characteristics of the ground and structure. where k is the undrained shear strength increment per unit depth. The bearing capacity against this kind of squeezed-out failure can be calculated by the following equation 1): * Fig.1. The safety factor should be increased to 2.1). When a slightest settlement or deformation of ground significantly impairs the functions of superstructures such as bridge cranes.( 1.5 as a general rule.e.2.

Thus the method of calculating the bearing capacity should fully reflect the characteristics of two-layer system.) ---. for calculating the bearing capacity of foundations. seismic force is assumed not to act on the rubble mound and the ground. The eccentric and inclined loads mean that the load inclination ratio is equal to or greater than 0.ö S Ha 1 + ( tan a tan f ) ¤ F s S W sin a + è -ø R where Fs： safety factor against circular failure according to the simplified Bishop method W： total weight of slice element per unit length (kN/m) a： angle at which the bottom of a slice element intersects the horizontal plane (º) R： radius of circular arc slip circle (m) H： horizontal external force acting on soil inside the circular slip surface (kN/m) a： arm length from the center of circular slip surface to the acting position of horizontal external force H (m) c： undrained shear strength in clayey ground.0 + 0.1. As shown in Fig. T. 1 ( cb + W ¢ tan f ) sec a (2. the start point of the slip surface is set symmetrical about the acting point of resultant load to one of the foundation edges that is closer to the load acting point. The safety factor calculated by the following equation shall have an appropriate value in view of the characteristics of the structure.1 (b) and (c). Therefore. -277- . the effects of eccentric and inclined loads should also be taken into consideration. this method is applied under the condition that eccentric and inclined loads act. the vertical load acting on the rubble mound is converted into a uniformly distributed load acting on the width 2b¢ as specified in Fig.5. [Technical Notes] (1) Analysis of Bearing Capacity by Circular Arc Calculation Based on the Simplified Bishop Method Analysis through circular arc calculation based on Bishop method is more precise than the analysis based on the modified Fellenius method. and wave force. In this case.5. The strength constants of the ground as well as action formats of external forces and loads shall be determined as appropriate in view of the structural characteristics of facilities. When calculating the bearing capacity during an earthquake. in situ prototype experiments. Normal gravity type structures are supported with a two-layered system such that a rubble mound layer is set on the foundation ground.5 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads (Notification Article 41. Clause 5) The circular arc analysis is used as a standard method when examining the bearing capacity for eccentric and inclined loads acting on a foundation of gravity type structures.1 (a).2. T.2.1) qa = (4. and case studies on existing breakwaters and quaywalls 2).5 --. seismic force.PART V FOUNDATIONS B cu (2. The circular arc analysis based on the simplified Bishop method shall be used in this case. The combined result of these forces usually yields an eccentric and inclined load.4. or apparent cohesion under drained condition in sandy ground (kN/m2) b： width of a slice element W¢： effective weight of a slice element per unit length (sum of soil weight and surcharge) (the submerged unit weight when submerged) (kN/m) f： internal friction angle under drained condition for sandy ground (º). earth pressure. the value is 0º for clayey ground [Commentary] Gravity type quaywalls and breakwaters are subject to external forces such as the deadweight.S --------------------------------------------1 æ -.1) F s = ----------------------------------------------. except when a vertical load acts on horizontally layered sandy ground.5. The horizontal force is assumed to act at the bottom of structure. It is known that the circular arc calculation based on the simplified Bishop method can well evaluate the bearing capacity of this type of foundation. Therefore.+ g 2 D H F where qa： allowable bearing capacity of foundation considering the buoyancy of the underwater part (kN/m2) B： smallest width of foundation (m) H： thickness of clay layer (m) cu： mean undrained shear strength in layer of thickness H (kN/m2) g 2： unit weight of soil above the level of foundation bottom (or submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/m3) F： safety factor D： embedded length of foundation (m) 2. This has been proved by a series of researches including laboratory model experiments.

2. Figure T. See [Technical Note] (2) in 6.5. The continuous solid line in the figure represents the value under the assumption that the apparent cohesion is cd = 20 kN/m2 and the internal friction angle is fd = 35º.2. It should be noted that the strength parameter for cohesion cd = 20 kN/m2 is the apparent cohesion. as in the other cases of circular arc analyses.2. applying the strength parameters obtained by triaxial compression tests 2).1 Table T. If strength tests are not conducted. triaxial compression tests using samples with similar gradation should be conducted in order to estimate the strength parameters of rubbles accurately.0 or greater When subgrade reaction has a trapezoidal distribution When subgrade reaction has a triangular distribution Combined force of load Rubble mound Subsoil Fig.2. T. T.2. The above standard values have been obtained Fig. taking account of changes of the internal friction angle fd of crushed stones due to the confining pressure. Standard values of the safety factor are listed in Table T.5.2 or greater 1.1 Safety Factors for Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads (Simplified Bishop’s Circular Arc Method) Quaywalls Ordinary condition During an earthquake Under storm waves 1.2.2 shows the result of triaxial compression tests on various types of crushed stones and rubbles 2). the dependency of fd0 on the confining pressure @ -278- . the values of apparant cohesion cd = 20 kN/m2 and internal friction angle fd = 35º are applied as the standard strength parameters for rubbles generally used in port construction Lateral pressure (kN/m2) works. Here.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Safety Factor The safety factor is expressed as the ratio of the resisting moment due to shear resistance to the sliding moment due to external forces and soil weight.5. It shows that as the confining pressure increases. Therefore.1 Analysis of Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads (3) Strength Parameters for Mound Materials and Foundation Ground (a) Mound materials Model and field experiments on bearing capacity Experimental values subject to eccentric and inclined loads have verified ? 20 that high precision results can be obtained by conducting circular arc analyses based on the simplified Bishop method.2 Relationship between fd0 and Lateral on the safe side consideration based on the results of Confining Pressure s3 large-scale triaxial compression tests of crushed stones and the bearing capacity analysis of existing breakwaters and quaywalls.0 or greater Breakwaters 1.5.1 Stability Analysis Using Circular Slip Surface Method. Large-scale triaxial compression test results of crushed stone have confirmed that the strength parameters of large diameter particles are approximately equal to those @0 obtained from similar gradation materials with the same coefficient of uniformity 3).5. fd0 decreases due to particle crushing.

In many cases. 1987 (in Japanese). 2) Masaki KOBAYASHI. 22. Vol.3 Relationship between N-value and φd Obtained by Triaxial Tests on Undisturbed Sand Samples [References] 1) Hakujyu YAMAGUCHI: “Soil Merchanics (New Editon)”. Figure T. If weak stones with a compressive strength of less than 30 MN/m2 are used as a part of the mound. No.3. -279- . Even the N-values are less than 10. according to the past studies. This is because no correction has been made regarding the effective surcharge pressure in situ. Kenjirou NAKASHIMA. of PHRI. 1983 (in Japanese). 26. 2.5. Based on the results of bearing capacity analysis of the structures damaged in the past.2. internal friction angles of around 40º have been obtained. (b) Foundation ground Foundations subject to eccentric and inclined loads often cause shallow surface slip failure.PART V FOUNDATIONS is well described by taking the apparent cohesion into account. These standard values can be applied only to the stone material with an unconfined compressive strength in the parent rock of 30 MN/m2 or more.3 collates the results of triaxial compression tests on undisturbed sand in Japan (dotted points) and presents a comparative study of the formulas proposed in the past. 1985. Hiraku ODANI: “A new method for calculating the bearing capacity of rubble mounds”. Tech. Rept. In these cases. Note of PHRI.5. the bearing capacity for eccentric and inclined loads is problematic for design not under normal conditions but under dynamic external forces such as wave pressure and seismic force. the strength may be determined by the method indicated in Part Ⅱ. GIHOUDOU. 11. Kunio TAKAHASHI. No. 699. 3) Yoshihiro SHOJI: “Study on shearing properties of rubble with large scale triaxial compression test”. Rept. Chapter 9 Bearing Capacity.2. of PHRI. pp. the strength parameters will be around cd = 20 kN/m2 and fd = 30º 4). 1991 (in Japanese). the values given below are applied as the standard values of fd in foundation ground. the friction angle fd is usually estimated from the N-value. Range according to Meyerhof Triaxial test results φ = 20N + 15 according to Osaki N-value Fig.3 Shear Properties. “Strength characteristics of rubble by large scale triaxial compressin test”.4. No. T. Vol. 273-274 (in Japanese). Sandy ground with N-value of less than 10: Sandy ground with N-value of 10 or more: fd = 40º fd = 45º If the ground consists of cohesive soil. If the foundation ground is sandy. Masaki KOBAYASHI. The estimation formulas employed up to now have tended to underestimate fd in case of shallow sandy grounds. Masaaki TERASHI. it is important to evaluate the strength near the surface of foundation ground. 4) Jun-ichi MIZUKAMI.

and it may be taken as (2/3)f for the case between concrete and sandy soil.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations 3.2. the bearing capacity of the deep foundation shall be calculated by an appropriate method in view of the characteristics of both the ground and the structure. Equation (3. (3. 1 B D2 (3.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground) Dqa: increment of allowable bearing capacity due to resistance of foundation sides (kN/m2) (2) Side Resistance of Deep Foundations Caution is required concerning evaluation of the side resistance of deep foundations.2 Vertical Bearing Capacity The allowable vertical bearing capacity of a deep foundation shall be determined as appropriate in view of the structural type.2. the increment of allowable bearing capacity Dqa is obtained by dividing the total friction resistance by the bottom area of foundation and the safety factor.1 General (Notification Article 42) When the embedded length of a foundation is larger than the smallest width of the foundation.1) q a = q a1 + Dq a where qa: allowable bearing capacity of deep foundation (kN/m2) qa1: allowable bearing capacity of foundation bottom (kN/m2) (see 2. Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure) g 2 : unit weight of soil above the level of foundation bottom (or submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/ m3) D: embedded length of foundation (m) m: coefficient of friction between foundation sides and sandy soil. and ground conditions.2). m = tan(2/3)f B: width of foundation (m) L: length of foundation (m) In equation (3.2. [Commentary] (1) Allowable Vertical Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations Generally. the surrounding ground may be disturbed during construction and the adequate amount of bearing capacity due to side resistance may not always be obtained. [Technical Notes] (1) Frictional Resistance at the Sides of Foundations in Sandy Ground Equation (3.2.2) is used to calculate the increment of allowable bearing capacity due to the frictional resistance at foundation sides in sandy ground.1). 1 1 D (3.2. the allowable vertical bearing capacity of a deep foundations is calculated as the sum of the allowable bearing capacity due to the side resistance of foundation and the allowable bearing capacity of foundation bottom.2. the foundation shall be examined in principle as a deep foundation.3) f = --. However.2. 2.3) is generally used to calculate the mean side friction strength f corresponding to the embedded length D. 3. The total friction resistance is calculated as the product of the mean side friction strength f multiplying with the embedded length D and the total contact surface area between the sandy soil and foundation sides. In such a case.ö ------K a g 2 m Fè Lø B where F: safety factor (the same value as used for qa1) Ka: coefficient of active earth pressure (d = 0º) (see Part Ⅱ. depending on structural type and method of construction. This is because.ò0 g zK a m dz = -. -280- .K a gDm 2 D The friction angle between the foundation sides and sandy soil should not be greater than the internal friction angle of soil f.4) may be used to calculate the increment of allowable bearing capacity due to the cohesive resistance at foundation sides in clayey ground. as expressed by equation (3. the deformation of deep foundation should be estimated by assuming the ground having characteristics of spring.æ 1 + -. if the amount of structural deformation is to be examined. methods of construction.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground.2.2) Dq a = -. (2) Cohesive Resistance of Foundation Sides in Clayey Ground Equation (3.

[Commentary] The lateral bearing capacity of a deep foundation is governed by the horizontal subgrade reaction of the foundation sides and the vertical subgrade reaction at the the bottom of foundation.1) p = Kxy where p： subgrade reaction (kN/m2) K： rate of increase in coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction with depth (kN/m4) x： depth (m) y： horizontal displacement at depth x (m) N P h p M kW l W q q 2a Fig. [Technical Notes] (1) When a resultant force at a bottom of fandation acts inside the core (when the eccentricity of total resultant force acting at the bottom of foundation is within one-sixth of the foundation width from the central axis of the foundation) and the distributions of horizontal and vertical subgrade reaction are assumed as in Fig.1 When Resultant Force Is inside the Core A linear distribution has been assumed for vertical subgrade reaction. T. and the method of construction. the maximum horizontal subgrade reaction p1 and maximum vertical subgrade reaction q1 can be estimated by assigning an adequate value of safety factor against the passive earth pressure and the ultimate bearing capacity in their respective positions. This means that the soil is unsuitable to be regarded as effective contact surface.3.1 Mean Adhesion Types of ground Soft cohesive soil Medium cohesive soil Hard cohesive soil Very hard cohesive soil Compacted cohesive soil qu 25 ~ 50 50 ~ 100 100 ~ 200 200 ~ 400 400 or greater (Units: kN/m2) ca * 6 ~ 12 12 ~ 25 25 ~ 30 30 or greater * : With soft cohesive soil.1.5 or greater for important structures and 1.è F Lø B where c a : mean adhesion (mean value in embedded part below the ground water level) (kN/m2) Dc: embedded length of foundation below the groundwater level (m) (3.3.2) and (3.3.4) refers to the mean value in the embedded part below the ground water level.1 for the practical values of mean adhesion in clayey soil.2. Therefore.2. structural characteristics. Therefore. (3. This assumption is equivalent to the relationship between the displacement y and the subgrade reaction p of equation (3. (2) Assumption on the Distribution of Subgrade Reaction The distribution of horizontal subgrade reaction shown in Fig.3. the distribution becomes trapezoidal as shown in Fig. T.ö ----.3 Lateral Bearing Capacity The lateral bearing capacity of a deep foundation shall be determined as appropriate in view of ground conditions.3.3. T.1.1 may be assumed as being a quadratic parabola with 0 at the ground surface. (3) Safety Factor The safety factor to be applied in using equations (3.c a .2. the soil above the groundwater level is subject to dry shrinkage in summer. side resistance should not be taken into account.4) In case of deep foundations in clayey ground.5 or greater for others.2. T.2.3. the mean adhesion c a in equation (3.3. when a resultant force acting at the bottom of foundation is inside the core.4) should be 2.2.3.3. 3.3. See Table T. -281- .PART V FOUNDATIONS 2 B Dc Dq a = -. Table T.3.1) when the foundation rotates as a rigid body.æ 1 + -.

8) 3 ( kWl + 4M 0 4N 0 e 4We + 3P 0 l ) 2 (3. l ( kWl + 4M 0 4N 0 e 4We + 3P 0 l ) (3.5) and (3.3. h： depth at which horizontal subgrade reaction becomes maximum (m) (see equation (3. In this case.3.3.3.3.3. the maximum subgrade reaction p1 (kN/m2) in the frontal side is obtained from equation (3.3. N 0 + w 1 l 3aK¢ ( kw 1 l 2 + 4P 0 l + 6M 0 ) --------------------.6) where l： 2b： 2a： A： P 0： M 0： N 0： k： K¢： K 1： K 2： embedded length (m) maximum width (perpendicular to horizontal force) (m) maximum length (m) bottom area (m2) horizontal force acting on the structure above ground level (kN) moment due to P0 at ground level (kN m) vertical force acting at ground level (kN) horizontal seismic coefficient coefficient ratio. When the foundation bottom is rectangular with the length of 2a (m) and the width of 2b (m).7) 2l ( kw 1 l 2 + 4P 0 l + 6M 0 ) · (4) When Resulant Force at the Bottom Is outside the Core When the resultant force acting at the base of foundation is not inside the core. h is obtained by equation (3.3.3.2.9) h = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 ( kWl + 6M 0 6N 0 e 6We + 4P 0 l ) where h： depth at which horizontal subgrade reaction becomes maximum (m) (see Fig.2 1).8) p 1 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4bl 2 ( kWl + 6M 0 6N 0 e 6We + 4P 0 l ) The value of p1 calculated by equation (3. a triangular distribution of vertical subgrade reaction is assumed as shown in Fig.3.3.4).3.3) and (3. respectively.3.3) p 1 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4bl 3 ( l 3 + 24aK¢a 3 ) ( kw 1 l 2 + 4P 0 l + 6M 0 ) N 0 + w 1 l 3aK¢ ( kw 1 l 2 + 4P 0 l + 6M 0 ) (3.2) A b ( l 3 + 24 a K¢a 3 ) The maximum horizontal subgrade reaction p1 (kN/m2) and the maximum vertical subgrade reaction q1 (kN/m2) in this case are obtained by equations (3.3.3.3. K¢= K2 /K1 rate of increase in the coefficient of vertical subgrade reaction (kN/m4) rate of increase by depth in the confficient of horizontal subgrade reaction (kN/m4 ) (see equation (3.3.7)) qa： vertical bearing capacity at bottom level (kN/m2) (see equation (3.3.3.9).3. -282Fig.3) and (3.2.2 When Resultant Force Is Not inside the Core .5) p 1 ≦ -.3.3. respectively.4) must satisfy equations (3. T.3. T. 1 (3.10).6).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (3) When Resultant Force at the Bottom Is inside the Core The condition under which the resultant force at the bottom is inside the core is expressed as in equation (3.1)) F： safety factor for horizontal bearing capacity kw 1 l 4 + 3P 0 l 3 + 4M 0 l 2 + 8aK¢a 3 ( kw 1 l + P 0 ) h = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(3.5). the values of p1 and q1 obtained by equations (3.+ -------------------------------------------------------------------A b ( l 3 + 24aK¢a 3 ) When examining the lateral bearing capacity of deep foundations.3.≧ -------------------------------------------------------------------(3. the value of e is calculated by equation (3.2) W： deadweight of foundation (kN) e： eccentric distance (m) The distance e is defined as shown in Fig. T. 3 [ kw 1 l 4 + 3P 0 l 3 + 4M 0 l 2 + 8 a K¢a 3 ( kw 1 l + P 0 ) ] 2 (3.3. It is because the tensile resistance cannot take place between the of foundation bottom and the ground.0 for rectangular shape and a = 0.3.pp F q1 ≦ q a (3.588 for circular shape) .2). T.3.3. pp： maximum passive earth pressure at the depth h (kN/m2) (see Part Ⅱ Cahpter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure).1)) w1： deadweight of deep foundation per unit depth (kN/m) a： coefficient determined by bottom shape (a = 1.8) should satisfy equation (3.3.4) q 1 = --------------------.3. In this case.

[Reference] 1) Kunio TAKAHASHI. Masatoshi SAWAGUCHI: “Experimental study on the lateral resistance of a well” Rept. the safety factor should generally be 1. However. Vol. (5) Safety Factor When applying the above caluculation methods. by referring to reference 1). 16. of PHRI. 64748 -283- .3-34 (in Japanese).D 3 (3. this substitution should be applied on the basis of the appropriate judgement.1 for others.11) 3 2b = -.5 or greater for important structures and 1.D 4 where D: diameter of circle (m) In this way. the horizontal bearing capacity can be estimated at a safer side by approximately 10%.10) e = a ----------------4bq a In the case of a circular foundation bottom. the calculation may be made by replacing it with a rectangular foundation bottom having length 2a and width 2b defined by equation (3. 1977. pp.3. No. 4. p 2a = -.11).PART V FOUNDATIONS W + N0 (3.3.3.

before the start of construction execution.4. Next. loading conditions. the standard allowable axial bearing capacity should be the value obtained from the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles being divided by the safety factor. Therefore.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundations 4. In the past cases of earthquake damage. (2) Further examinations would be required if permanent deformation of the ground is expected to remain after an earthquake. This is because the duration of earthquakes is comparatively short and the strength of soil against impact load increases generally. The safety factor against the ground yield phenomena will be 1. it is known that liquefaction had occurred in loose sand strata. (b) The minimum safety factor during an earthquake may be set lower than that under ordinary conditions.1. 4. The final result is the allowable axial bearing capacity of piles to be used in the design of pile foundations.0. [Technical Notes] (1) Table T.1 lists the guideline for the minimum values of safety factors. Friction piles are easily affected by such phenomena. The values are based on the following principles: (a) The minimum value of 2. pile conditions. it may be doubtful if a high strength of soil during an earthquake can be employed for foundation design. -284- . test piles should be driven and the design should be confirmed through various studies.5 to 2. Regarding the dynamic properties of soil. First.5 against the phenomena of ultimate ground failure.1 General (Notification Article 43. (2) The bearing capacity of piles is greatly affected by the methods and execution of construction. (3) Piles group means the group of piles in which the bearing capacity and deformation of each pile are reciprocally affected by others. the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles is determined.5 for the safety factor under ordinary conditions means that the safety factor is 2. the safety factor of friction piles during an earthquake should be given a greater value than that of bearing piles. and this greatly reduced the bearing capacity of piles. The pile length and construction method should be modified to reflect the test results. Clause 1) The allowable axial bearing capacity of piles shall be determined on the basis of the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles divided by the safety factor as the standard value. sensitive clay may lose its strength due to violent shaking. When calculating the ultimate axial bearing load of single piles by loading tests and static bearing capacity formulas. and then it is divided by the safety factor to obtain the standard allowable axial bearing capacity.1. The safety factor should have the value that guarantees the safety of piles against ground failure. [Commentary] The safety factor used when calculating the standard allowable axial bearing capacity from the ultimate axial bearing capacity takes account of deviations in ground conditions.2 Standard Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity The standard allowable axial bearing capacity shall be calculated by dividing the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles by an appropriate value of safety factor. The safety factor shall be determined as appropriate in view of the characteristics of the structures and the ground. For example. the factors (1) to (6) listed above are examined and the standard allowable axial bearing capacity should be lowered if necessary. Therefore.1 Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity of Piles 4. many unknown matters remain. Furthermore it shall be appropriately determined by taking the following factors into consideration to the extent as necessary. etc. (1) Allowable compressive stress of pile material (2) Decrease of allowable stress at pile joints (3) Decrease of allowable stress due to slenderness ratio of piles (4) Effect of piles group (5) Negative skin friction of piles (6) Settlement of piles [Commentary] (1) The above provision presents a guideline for judging the axial bearing capacity of piles in pile foundations. Therefore.1.

the ultimate load may be taken as P3 at the point B.settlement curve. [Commentary] Pile loading tests are a kind of full scale experiments that can obtain the ultimate bearing capacity directly. estimation by static bearing capacity formulas is permissible.1 Yield Load and Ultimate Load -285- .4 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Loading Tests When the ultimate load can be confirmed by the load . Piles embedded in the sandlayer do not usually reach such the load. The ultimate load is indicated by P2 at the point where the load . In such cases. in loading tests. [Technical Notes] (1) Yield Load and Ultimate Load Relationship between the load and the total settlement by a static loading test is indicated schematically in Fig. For the structures that are particularly important or are critical in terms of human life. Sometimes it may be difficult to conduct loading tests prior to design. the value shall be taken as the ultimate axial bearing capacity. 4.3 Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity of Single Piles It is desirable to obtain the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles by conducting loading tests in situ. On the other hand.1. however. In such cases. T.1. provided that the judgement by experts in the field of geotechnical engineering supports it. larger values of the safety factor may have to be applied.1. The yield load is indicated by P1 at the point A.4.PART V FOUNDATIONS (3) If the values of safety factor in Table T. loading tests should be conducted at an early stage of construction and the appropriateness of the allowable bearing capacity adopted in the design should be confirmed.1. and the pile behavior estimated on this basis is consistent with detailed observation results on actual structures of the same type in the vicinity. a lower value of safety factor is permissible. [Commentary] Estimating methods of the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles are as follows: (1) Estimation by loading tests (2) Estimation by static bearing capacity formulas (3) Estimation by existing data It is desirable to estimate the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles by conducting axial loading tests in situ. the yield load shall be confirmed and the ultimate load may be estimated from the yield load. the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles may be estimated by static bearing capacity formulas.5 2. If it is difficult to conduct the loading tests. 4.4.5 1. where the initial gentle inclination becomes clearly steeper and the curve shows the maximum curvature.0 4.1. Total settlement Load Fig.1. it may be possible to apply the value of safety factor lower than the minimum values on the basis of adequate research and prudent judgement. Table T.4. the load settlement curve suddenly turns downward and a small increase of load produces a large amount of settlement. However. An example is the case that detailed soil surveys and loading tests are conducted. In such cases. Even when estimating the ultimate axial bearing capacity by the methods other than loading tests and deciding the allowable bearing capacity on this basis. When the ultimate load cannot be confirmed from the load . Here.settlement curve. the loading conditions are different from the actual conditions in respect of the number of piles and the duration of the loading. This is the most rational method to estimate the allowable bearing capacity in the design.1 Guidelines for Minimum Values of Safety Factor Ordinary condition During an earthquake Bearing piles Friction piles 2. due to limit of construction period and/or economical constraint.settlement curve becomes vertical.1.1 are applied. ordinary port and harbor structures under ordinary design conditions should be safe.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Ultimate Load It is not always possible to confirm the ultimate load by loading tests due to the constraint of capacity of test equipment. and the value of obtainable adhesion should be examined. R u = 8c p A p + ca A s where cp： ca： cohesion at pile toe (kN/m2) mean adhesion for total embedded length of pile (kN/m2) (4. [Technical Notes] (1) When using bearing capacity formulas. When using this method. the bearing capacity should be carefully estimated.2) (4. due attention should be paid to the ground characteristics and the pile conditions. or vertical loading tests should be conducted to confirm the characteristics of bearing capacity of the ground in question.2 times the maximum test load. attention shall be paid to the ground and pile conditions. construction methods. (a) Pile driven by hammer ① Equation (4.1) can be applied directly to this kind of hard ground. As the principles of this method differ from those of pile driving by hammer.1.2 times the yield load obtained from loading tests.1.5 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas When estimating the ultimate axial bearing capacity by static bearing capacity formulas.1. the ground should be compacted by the method of hammer pile driving instead of vibratory pile driving in the course of final driving. R u = 300NA p + 2NAs where Ru： ultimate bearing capacity of pile (kN) Ap： toe area of pile (m2) As： total circumferential area of pile (m2) N： N-value of the ground around pile toe N： mean N-value for total penetration length of pile The N-value is calculated by equation (4.1. Furthermore. 1) When yielding does not occur during loading tests.2) N 1 + N2 N = -----------------2 where N1： N-value at the toe of pile N2： mean N-value in the range from the toe of pile to the level 4B above B： diameter or width of pile (m) (4. In such cases the ultimate load is calculated as 1.1. The adhesion value may be calculated as follows: : c £ 100 kN ¤ m 2 ca = c 678 -286- .1.1.1. since the N-values larger than 50 may not be reliable. the ultimate load is taken as 1. In either case.1. particular attention should be paid to differences in the construction methods.1) Caution is required here for estimating the ultimate bearing capacity of piles supported by the ground with an N-value of 50 or more.3) (4. it remains to be confirmed whether the first term in the right-hand side of equation (4. (b) The vibratory pile driving method (vibrohammer method) is increasingly being used for driving piles because of the capacity increase of pile-driving machinery in recent years. This judgement is based on the results of research by Yamakata and Nagai on steel pipe piles and statistical studies by Kitajima et al.3) may be used when estimating the ultimate bearing capacity of piles driven into clayey ground by hammer. and the application limitation of formulas.4) c a = 100 kN ¤ m 2 : c > 100 kN ¤ m 2 Here. ② Equation (4. This is because there are theoretical problems2) in calculating pile adhesion from the ground cohesion c or the unconfined compressive strength. it is necessary to have a reasonable assurance that the actual ultimate load will be larger than the ultimate load estimated in this way. 4.1) may be used when estimating the ultimate bearing capacity of the piles driven into sandy ground by hammer.

T. If unconfined compressive strength qu (kN/m2) has been measured by undisturbed samples. or the soil classification of the bearing stratum. however. the end bearing area of steel piles can be considered closed.1) indicates the end bearing capacity in the case of complete plugging. an example is pile installation by inner excavation. The state of plugging of actual piles depends on the penetration depth and associated ground stress. T.1). Soil enters the interior of steel pipes or the space between the flanges of H-shaped steel during the pile driving. (2) Even if there is no shoe on the pile toe. However. In such cases the closed area ratio should be examined. the value of qu should be reduced to 1/2 or 1/3 of the measurement depending on the progress of cracking in natural ground.6 mm or less are shown and the closed area ratio is estimated by assuming that the first term of equation (4. (4. According to this figure. In recent years.1. The closed area ratio varies greatly depending on the properties of the ground and the method of pile installation. it should first be ascertained through loading tests. It is thus difficult to obtain the ratio by theoretical calculation. equation (4. the closed area ratio ranges from 30% to 140%.1.1. the use of pile installation method not involving pile driving by hammer has been increasing in port and harbor construction projects. But complete closure cannot be expected in the case of large-diameter piles.PART V FOUNDATIONS (c) In recent years. steel pipe piles of 1. Fig.1. Ratio of pile end load in loading tests to 300·N·Ap Outer diameter 700 mm or more Outer diameter 650 mm or less Ratio of embedded length to bearing stratum to inner diameter of pile Fig.3. as shown in Fig. (4) Bearing Capacity of Soft Rock When piles are supported on soft rock or hard clay. and the method of installation.4. the bearing capacity may be calculated by equation (4.3 Plug Effect of Open-ended Pile -287- . This is based on the following principle.4. properties of the ground. T.5) R u = 5q u A p Further.2 End Bearing Area of Steel Piles (3) Closed Area Ratio The closed area ratio is not determined simply by the diameter or the width of piles. Past data suggest the closed area ratio of 100% when the diameter of steel pipe piles is less than 60 cm or the short side of H-shaped steel piles is less than 40 cm. Here.100 mm diameter or more have been commonly used. T. the value of qu should not exceed 2´10 4 kN/m2.2. any data for the closed area ratio of these pipes have not been reported and therefore the closed area ratio for the pipe piles mentioned above are unknown. until the internal friction between the soil and the surface of steel pile becomes equal to the end resistance of pile.1. In any event.5) may alternatively be used. In such cases. the characteristics of the bearing capacity of piles in question should be confirmed by vertical loading tests. piles with a diameter of 1117.4. This means that the ratio cannot be judged only by the diameter of steel pipes or the embedded length ratio to the bearing stratum. the outer edge alone of the closed area is taken as the perimeter.4.1.1. Since the closed area ratio is affected by the installation and ground conditions in actual sites. as shown by the shaded areas in Fig.1. The Steel Pipe Pile Association collated measured examples of the closed area ratio. For piles with a larger diameter or width. In this case. there have been several theoretical calculation methods and laboratory experiment results. It also depends on the penetration length of piles. This balance prevents soil from entering and has the same effect as the case when the open end section is closed.

including the necessity of decrease of bearing capacity due to installation accuracy.1.1 General. 4.£ 120 ï d a = í l l ï ----. If loading tests are conducted on foundation piles. -288- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. the allowable axial bearing capacity of piles shall be decreased in consideration of the accuracy of installation. 4.5.1. (2) When decreasing the bearing capacity due to the slenderness of piles. Clause 2) The allowable axial bearing capacity of piles shall not exceed the value obtained by multiplying the effective section area of piles by the allowable compressive stress of pile materials.1. [Technical Notes] (1) This provision takes account of the fact that the inclination of piles during installation reduces their bearing capacity.1. the bearing capacity of pile group may be studied as a single. the following values may be used as references: (a) For non-steel piles ì ï ï a = í ï ï î 0 : l -. (2) On-site circular welding by semi-automatic methods is generally employed for the splicing of steel pipe piles used in the field of port and harbor construction works. 60 : -. [Technical Notes] (1) When spliced piles are used. the joints are the weak points of the piles. Therefore.7) 4. the splicing work shall be executed under appropriate supervision and reliability of joints of spliced pile shall be confirmed by appropriate inspection. which is mentioned in 4. deep foundation formed with the envelope surface surrounding the outermost piles in the group of piles. it is not necessary to decrease the allowable axial bearing capacity. 60 : d l -.6) (b) For steel piles ì l ï 0 : -. (3) Provisions for the joints can be found in 4.6 Examination of Compressive Stress of Pile Materials (Notification Article 43.8 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Slenderness Ratio For piles with a very large ratio of length to diameter. it may not be necessary to decrease the axial allowable bearing capacity due to existence of joints.> 60 d (4. the ultimate bearing capacity can be determined.£ 60 d l -. When such highly reliable jointing methods are applied under appropriate supervision and the reliability of the joints has been confirmed by inspection. in this case the decrease due to the slenderness ratio may not necessarily be taken into account.3 Joints.> 120 ï 2d d î where a： rate of reduction (%) l： pile length (m) d： pile diameter (m) (4.7 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Joints (1) If it is necessary to splice piles. Therefore.1. unless the safety of bearing capacity confirmed by loading tests.1. the allowable axial bearing capacity should be decreased in consideration of the effect of the joints against the overall bearing capacity of the pile foundation.9 Bearing Capacity of Pile Group When a group of piles are examined as a pile group.1. (2) If joints are sufficiently reliable.

1.1. 2.4 Pile Group Foundation (a) Fig.9) is replaced by equation (4.4.( R g u g 2 A g L ) ý -F î þn where Ra： allowable bearing capacity per pile against failure as a block (kN) g2'： mean unit weight of the whole block including piles and soil (kN/m3) (mean unit weight is calculated using submerged unit weight below the groundwater level (taking account of buoyancy) and using the wet unit weight above ground water level. This is because it varies depending on the properties of the ground and the arrangement of piles. 4). (4.4 work as a single unit when the intervals between the piles are small.10). T.1. ì1 ü1 ¢ (4.PART V FOUNDATIONS [Technical Notes] Terzaghi and Peck state that a failure of a pile group foundation does not mean the failure of individual piles but the failure as a single block 3).1 Negative Skin Friction -289- .1. where c is cohesion and g2' ≒ g2 (g2： mean unit weight of soil above the pile tip level).8).1.7cA g æ 1 + 0.1.1. Consolidation settlement Positive skin friction Negative skin friction (b) Perimeter U Weak layer L Bearing stratum Fig.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground.1.1.8) R g u = q d A g + sUL where Rgu： bearing capacity of pile group as a single block (kN) qd： ultimate bearing capacity at the block bottom (kN/m2) (see 2. The ultimate bearing capacity of pile group in this case is expressed by equation (4.1. C.9).10) The allowable bearing capacity of each pile when used in a pile group is the smaller of the allowable bearing capacity of single piles or the allowable bearing capacity against block failure given by equation (4.10).1.4. ü B 1 ì R a = -----.) n： number of piles in pile group F： safety factor (see 4. This is based on the principle that the soil and piles inside the shaded area in Fig.9) R a = í -. equation (4. T4.1.3 -----ö + cUL g 2 A gL ý è B 1ø nF î þ where B： short side length of pile group block (m) B1： long side length of pile group block (m) (4.í 5.9) or (4. The upper limit of the interval between rows of piles to which the above assumptions apply cannot be uniformly defined.1.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground) Ag： bottom area of pile group block (m2) U： perimeter of pile group block (m2) L： embedded length of piles (m) s： mean shear strength of soil contiguous with piles (kN/m2) The allowable bearing capacity per pile is expressed by equation (4.2 Standard Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity) In the case of cohesive soil.

If a sand layer is located between consolidating layers.13) give the maximum value for negative skin friction. but instead turns into a load downwards and places a large burden on the toe of the pile. the thickness of the sand layer should be included in L2. the friction force from the soft layer acts upwards initially and bears a part of the load acting on the pile head. The friction force on the pile circumference now ceases to resist the load acting on the pile head. there is some uncertainty in evaluating the influence of negative skin friction.1. the direction of the friction force is reversed.1. -290- Consolidated layer . The maximum value of negative skin friction in such cases is expressed by equation (4. max = -------------------------------n where Rnf. max： maximum negative skin friction per pile (for piles group) (kN) U： perimeter of pile group (m) H： depth from the ground level to the bottom of consolidating layer (m) s ： mean shear strength of soil in the range of H (kN/m2) Ag： bottom area of pile group (m2) g： mean unit weight of soil in the range of L2 (kN/m3) n： number of piles in pile group (4.1. deep foundation.1. max where Rnf. negative skin friction shall be taken into account when calculating the allowable axial bearing capacity of piles.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. or if a sand layer lies on top of consolidating layer. f s in clayey ground is sometimes taken at qu/2.11).4.5). the creep characteristics of the soft clayey layer.1. and the deformation characteristics of the bearing stratum.1.1. the maximum value may be obtained from equation (4.4. T. as shown in Fig. [Commentary] When a pile penetrates through a clayey soft layer to reach a bearing stratum.11) (2) In the above.1.5 Skin Friction of Pile Group Equations (4. The skin friction in the sand layer is sometimes taken into account for f s .1.10 Examination of Negative Skin Friction If bearing piles penetrate through a soil layer that is susceptible to consolidation. T. The negative skin friction per pile is then calculated by dividing it by the number of piles (see Fig. it should satisfy equations (4. R nf.ö j è 2 ø where Ls2： thickness of sand layer included in L2 (m) Lc： thickness of clay layer included in L2 (m) L s2 + L c = L 2 N s2： mean N-value of the sand layer of thickness Ls2 q u： mean unconfined compressive strength of clayey layer of thickness Lc (kN/m2) (3) In case of pile group.1. That is. the negative skin friction may be calculated by assuming the piles group as a single.1.12). by denoting the allowable axial bearing capacity under normal conditions as Ra . max = æ 2N s2 L s2 + ---------. The actual values will be affected by the amount of consolidation settlement and the speed of consolidation. sUH + A g gL 2 (4.12) Fig.15) as well as guaranteeing the required safety factor for ordinary loads. When the clayey soft layer is consolidated.1.1. qu Lc R nf. In one method. (4) When calculating the allowable axial bearing capacity of piles.11) to (4.13) R nf. max： j： L2： f s： = jL2 f s maximum negative skin friction (for single pile) (kN) circumference of piles (perimeter of closed area in the case of H-shaped steel piles) (m) length of piles in the consolidating layer (m) mean skin friction intensity in the consolidating layer (kN/m2) (4. This friction force acting downwards on the pile circumference is called the negative skin friction or negative friction. the pile itself is supported by the bearing stratum and hardly settles. [Technical Notes] (1) Although the actual value of negative skin friction is not well known yet.4. C.1. the influence of negative skin friction is examined by checking whether the force transmitted to the tip of the pile exceeds both the yield load value of the ground at the tip of the pile and the yield compressive strength of cross section of the pile.14) and (4.

6).1.2 Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles 4. the influence of joints. the skin friction in the bearing stratum may be included in the end bearing capacity (see Fig.1 Maximum Pulling Resistance -291- .1.4.4. T. the safety factor shall take an appropriate value in view of the characteristics of structure and the strength of ground.1.4. max (4.max： maximum negative skin friction (kN) (the smaller of the values for single pile or pile group) sf： compressive stress of pile at yield point (kN/m2) Ae： effective section area of pile (m2) The value for end bearing capacity Rp may be taken at 300NAp in equation (4. the allowable pulling resistance of piles is evaluated on the basis of it by taking account of the stress of pile materials. (1) Allowable tensile stress of pile material (2) Effect of pile joints (3) Action of pile group (4) Upward displacement of piles by pulling [Commentary] The standard allowable pulling resistance of piles is first obtained by dividing the maximum pulling resistance of single piles by an appropriate value of safety factor. If the pile has penetrated into the bearing stratum. the actions of pile group. The factors listed below shall be taken into consideration to the extent as necessary. Displacement Deadweight Maximum pulling resistance Pulling resistance Fig.1.6 End Bearing Capacity 4. In such cases. In a pulling test of piles. C.2 R a ≦ s f A e R nf. and the upward displacement.2.4. max 1.14) R a ≦ -----. 4.15) where Ra： allowable axial bearing capacity (ordinary) (kN) Rp： end bearing capacity of pile (ultimate value) (kN) Rnf.1 General (Notification Article 43.1.1). “maximum pulling resistance” means the maximum value of the pulling load shown in Fig.PART V FOUNDATIONS 1 (4.2. and finally only the deadweight of the pile remains. the load decreases once the upward displacement has exceeded a certain limit. T. Caution should be paid to the difference in magnitude between the maximum load and the ultimate load.1. Clause 3) The standard allowable pulling resistance of piles shall be calculated by estimating the maximum pulling resistance by an appropriate method and dividing it by the safety factor. (4.1. Then.11 Examination of Settlement of Piles The allowable axial bearing capacity of pile shall be determined in such a way that an estimated settlement of pile head does not exceed the allowable settlement determined for superstructures.R p R nf. C.2.1.16) R p = 300NA p + 2N s1 L s1 j where Rp： end bearing capacity of pile (ultimate value) (kN) N： N-value of ground at pile tip Bearing straum Ap： area of pile tip (m2) L s1 = L 1： length of pile inside the bearing straum (sandy ground) (m) N s1： mean N-value for the zone of Ls1 j： circumference of pile (m) Fig. Here.

the value of safety factor may be lowered. the maximum pulling resistance may be estimated from the results of loading tests (pushing direction) and static bearing capacity equations.1 gives guidelines for the minimum values of safety factor when calculating the standard allowable pulling resistance from the maximum pulling resistance of a single pile. for piles driven by hammer. 4. the soil packed into the pile is not always lifted up together with the pile but may be expected to slip-down from the pile. In this case. Therefore.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. however.1. [Technical Notes] (1) Table T. Thus.5 (3) The deadweight of pile acts always as a pulling resistance together with the weight of soil packed inside it. Therefore.1) (4) Lowering of Safety Factor If the ground consists of well compacted high quality sandy soil and the bearing capacity can be estimated with sufficient accuracy on the basis of reliable data such as the results of accurate soil investigations and pulling tests as well as the predictions by reliable analysis methods. [Commentary] Unlike axial bearing capacity.2. there are few comparative data for pulling resistance. However.5. the allowable pulling resistance shall be determined by taking the liquefaction into consideration. [Technical Notes] (1) Estimation of maximum pulling resistance by static bearing capacity formulas may follow the explanation given in 4. the end bearing capacity in the first term of equations (4. When the deadweight of pile is relatively small. and indirect estimations may entail some risk.3 Maximum Pulling Resistance of Single Pile The maximum pulling resistance of a single pile shall be obtained on the basis of the results of pulling tests. Thus pulling tests should be conducted to calculate the maximum pulling resistance of a single pile. (a) When the maximum pulling resistance is calculated by pulling tests R ut1 W p R at = W p + ----------------------F (b) When the maximum pulling resistance is calculated by a static bearing capacity equation R ut2 R at = W p + --------F where Rat： allowable pulling resistance of piles (kN) Wp： deadweight of piles (with buoyancy subtracted) (kN) Rut1： maximum pulling resistance of pile (from pulling tests) (kN) Rut2： maximum pulling resistance of pile (from static bearing capacity formulas) (kN) F： safety factor (4. If the diameter of pile is too large.2 Standard Allowable Pulling Resistance The standard allowable pulling resistance shall be calculated by dividing the maximum pulling resistance of a single pile by an appropriate value of safety factor. -292- . this process of adding the pile deadweight is generally be omitted.2.1 Guidelines for Minimum Values of Safety Factor Ordinary condition During an earthquake 3. the pile deadweight needs not be divided by the safety factor. and it is reasonable to calculate the standard allowable pulling resistance from the maximum pulling resistance by the equations below.4.0 2.2.5. When there is a risk of liquefaction of the sand layer during an earthquake.3) should be ignored. the following equations may be used.2. Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas.2.2.4. skin friction during driving of a pile is considered to be virtually the same as that during pulling of piles. This has been set lower than the value for ordinary conditions because the duration of seismic load is short. in the case of relatively soft cohesive soil.1. (2) The minimum value of safety factor during an earthquake has been established at 2.1) and (4.2) (4. Table T.1.

the following shall be taken into account: (1) In case of spliced piles.2. (3) When determining the allowable pulling resistance of piles.3) and (4.7 (close to the coefficient of earth pressure at rest) is generally used.2. The value of the coefficient of horizontal earth pressure Ks in the case of pulling is considered to be smaller than the value in the case of bearing.2. 4.1. -293- .6) For ca and m.5 Matters to Be Considered for Obtaining Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles When calculating the allowable pulling resistance of piles.2.2. Clause 4) The allowable pulling resistance of pile shall not exceed the value calculated by multiplying the allowable tensile stress of pile materials by the effective cross-sectional area of pile.4 Examination of Tensile Stress of Pile Materials (Notification Article 43. 4.1 General The allowable lateral bearing capacity of a single pile shall be determined as appropriate on the basis of the behavior of the pile when it is subject to lateral forces.4) are to be compared with the value that calculated by using Terzaghi’s equation to obtain the most appropriate value.4) (4. A value between 0. pulling resistance shall be calculated as that of a single block surrounded with the envelope surface of outermost piles in the group of piles. R ut = R f = jLf s S ( c ai + K s q i m )l i f s = ---------------------------------------L where Rut： maximum pulling resistance of pile (kN) Rf： skin friction of pile (kN) j： circumference of pile (m) L： embedded length of pile (m) f s： mean skin friction intensity (kN/m2) cai： adhesion between soil and pile in the i-th layer (kN/m2) Ks： coefficient of horizontal earth pressure acting on pile qi： mean effective overburden pressure in the i-th layer (kN/m2) m： coefficient of friction between pile and soil li： thickness of the i-th layer (m) (4.5 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas.3) maximum pulling resistance of pile (kN) mean N-value for total embedded length of pile total circumference area of pile (m2) mean adhesion for total embedded length of pile (kN/m2) (see 4. (2) In case of pile group.1.3 and 0. In this case.2.3.PART V FOUNDATIONS (a) Sandy ground R ut = 2NA s (b) Clayey ground R ut where Rut： N： As： c a： = ca As (4. the values calculated by equations (4. see 4.3 Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles 4.2.5) (4. pulling resistance of piles below joints shall be ignored. however. the amount of allowable upward displacement of pile heads imposed by the superstructures shall be taken into account. 4. pulling resistance of lower piles may be taken into account within the allowable tensile strength of the joints.5).2.2. as shown in equation (4. after confirming the reliability of the joint. When high-quality joints are installed in steel piles.5 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas) (2) Terzaghi’s equation is sometimes used as a static bearing capacity formula to estimate the maximum pulling resistance of piles.

T.3. T. (2) Piles Subject to Lateral Force The resistance when a pile is subject to lateral forces (horizontal or nearly horizontal external forces) is called the lateral resistance.4.3. Instead. The burden ratio between the lateral and axial resistances is almost wholly determined by the inclination angle of the piles.1 Piles Subject to Lateral Force -294- . This is the simplest form of lateral resistance and called the lateral resistance of pile in a narrow sense. But for the lateral bearing capacity. its allowable value is calculated directly from the behavior of the piles without referring to the ultimate bearing capacity. Piles are called the long pile when the embedded length is longer than their effective length. It is categorized into the three basic forms shown in Fig. A number of methods have been proposed to date.4. With coupled piles. Therefore.6 Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles [Technical Notes]).1 (c). (b) When one batter pile is subject to horizontal force In this case.1 5). However.3. The simplest form of coupled piles is shown in Fig. Piles are called the short pile when the embedded length is shorter than their effective length. (c) When coupled piles are subject to horizontal force Coupled piles are those in which two or more piles with differing axial directions are combined. when the free length of the piles is long. displacement rarely becomes a problem. (a) When one vertical pile is subject to horizontal force (b) When one batter pile is subject to horizontal force (c) When coupled piles are subject to horizontal force Fig. but none of them is sufficient to apply to the calculation of pile head displacement (see 4. Therefore. (b) The displacement of pile head (horizontal displacement) should not exceed the allowable displacement imposed by the superstructure. the bearing capacity may be divided into the lateral and axial resistances and examined separately. [Technical Notes] (1) Embedded Length of Piles The length of embedded part of pile that yields effective resistance against external forces is called the effective length. some part of external force is supported by the axial resistance. since the displacement of coupled piles is far smaller than that of single piles.3. T. most of the external force is supported by the axial resistance of coupled batter piles. it is quite difficult to calculate the pile head displacement. only the lateral resistance occurs and axial resistance is not involved. (2) The allowable lateral bearing capacity of a pile should be determined to satisfy the following two conditions: (a) The bending stress arising in a pile should not exceed the allowable bending stress of pile material. the standard value for allowable bearing capacity is calculated by dividing the ultimate bearing capacity by the safety factor. the lateral resistance is usually ignored in estimating the bearing capacity. the axial bearing capacity alone is considered.4. In this case. (a) When one vertical pile is subject to horizontal force When a horizontal external force acts on a vertical pile.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Commentary] (1) For the axial bearing capacity.

However.3 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Loading Tests When loading tests are conducted to estimate behavior of a single pile subject to lateral force. [Technical Notes] (1) Basic Equation for Beam on Elastic Foundation Equation (4. To calculate the allowable lateral bearing capacity of short piles.3. it is difficult to read clearly the yield load or the ultimate load on the load and pile head displacement curve (except for short piles). the bending stress corresponding to this allowable bearing capacity also needs to be accounted for. the load and pile head displacement curve is not used to obtain the yield load or the ultimate load but to confirm the pile head displacement itself. in addition to the pile head displacement and bending stress mentioned already. the allowable bearing capacity may be obtained from the loading test results by the following method. When the overturning load cannot be ascertained.2 Estimation of Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles (Notification Article 43. [Commentary] Methods of analytically estimating the behavior of a single pile subject to lateral force as a beam rested on an elastic foundation include the relatively simple Chang’s method as well as the Port & Harbor Research Institute (PHRI) method 6).4.= P = pB dx 4 where EI： flexural rigidity of pile (kN·m2) x： depth from ground level (m) y： displacement of pile at depth x (m) P： subgrade reaction per unit length of pile at depth x (kN/m) P p： subgrade reaction per unit area of pile at depth x (kN/m2). p = -B B： pile width (m) Shinohara. In other words. overturning of piles must be considered.3.3.3. Therefore.4 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Analytical Methods When estimating behavior of a single pile subject to lateral force by using analytical methods. the maximum bending stress arising in the pile must not exceed the allowable bending stress of the pile material (see 4.5) m： index 1 or 0 -295- .5 or kN/m2.3. and Hayashi proposed the PHRI method as an analytical method considering the nonlinear elastic behavior of the ground 6).1) is the basic equation for analytically estimating behavior of a pile as a beam on an elastic foundation. The load and pile head displacement curve in lateral loading tests generally takes a curved form from the beginning. it shall be standard to analyze the pile as a beam rested on an elastic foundation. all the due considerations shall be given to the differences in the pile and load conditions in between those of actual structures and loading tests. Furthermore. Therefore.2) to describe the relationship between the subgrade reaction and the pile displacement. Kubo.PART V FOUNDATIONS 4.3. once the allowable pile head displacement is determined. because it can accurately express the actual behavior of single piles. Chang’s method may be used when no significant difference is expected between the two methods. It is because a pile with long embedded length is only subject to small-scale and progressive ground failure phenomena but not to overall failure. That is. when a load equal to the allowable bearing capacity is applied. or estimation methods by combining these results.3. The PHRI method uses equation (4. This method has a significant merit that it can describe the behavior of actual piles more faithfully than other methods. Clause 5) The allowable lateral bearing capacity of piles shall be determined at an appropriate value on the basis of loading tests or analytical methods. d4y (4. [Technical Notes] When loading tests have been conducted under the conditions same as those in actual structures. the maximum test load may be used instead of the overturning load.1) EI ------.2) p = kx m y 0. the load corresponding to this displacement on the load and pile head displacement curve defines the allowable lateral bearing capacity. 4.4 Allowable Stress for Pile Materials). (4. 4. The latter is preferred as the method of analysis.5 where k： constant of lateral resistance of ground (kN/m3.

37).5 lm1 (lm1: depth of the first zero point of bending moment in the PHRI method).4.3) p = k s xy 0. Shinohara.3. It is commented here that for piles to behave as long piles. Kubo and Sawaguchi conducted model experiments on the relationship between the ks value in sandy ground (PHRI method) and B. Therefore.5. its value can be applied to other conditions as well. they must be at least as long as 1. (b) Constants of lateral resistance of the ground The two ground types in the PHRI method are defined as follows.3) and (4. It seems to support a combination of the two theories mentioned above in such a way that the first theory holds true if the pile width B is sufficiently large.4) to reflect the actual state of subgrade reaction. Loading tests should be conducted to obtain more accurate values.3. T.5 (see equation (4. and normally-consolidated clayey ground. and are unaffected by other conditions unlike Chang’s Es.5) (4. the relationship between the inclination angle of the piles and the ratio of the lateral resistance constant of batter piles to that of vertical piles has been obtained as shown in Fig. (d) Effect of pile width There are two ways of considering the effect of pile width. respectively. and the principle of superposition could not be applied.3) and (4.4) The identification of S-type or C-type ground and the estimation of ks and kc are based on the results of loading tests and soil investigation. it was decided not to consider the effect of pile width in the PHRI method. (iii) Actual examples: sandy ground with compacted surface.3. the ground is classified into the S type and the C type. Even if the distribution of N-values with depth does not have the value 0 at the ground level.5 (see equation (4. (e) Effect of pile inclination For batter piles. T. In this way.3. The first is to regard that the pile width B has no effect on the relationship between the subgrade reaction p per unit area and the displacement y.3)) (ii) The N-value by the standard penetration test increases in proportion to the depth. the nonlinear relationships between p and y are introduced as given by equations (4.4). On the basis of these results. In the PHRI method. The constants ks and kc are determined from the ground conditions alone.3. if ks or kc can be obtained by a loading test. the relationship between the increment N of the N-value per meter in depth and the lateral resistance constant ks has been obtained as shown in Fig.4. (iii) Actual examples: sandy ground with uniform density.5) kc： constant of lateral resistance in C-type ground (kN/m2. the increment N may be determined from the mean gradient of N-values passing through the zero point at the ground level.3. The results are shown in Fig.4. the solutions under individual conditions would remain unattainable without help of numerical calculation.3.4)) (ii) The N-value by the standard penetration test is constant regardless of depth.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) PHRI Method (a) Characteristics of the PHRI method In the PHRI method. S-type ground: (4. In the C-type ground. The second.3. T. is to assume that the value of p corresponding to a given y value is inversely proportional to B. (c) Estimation of lateral resistance constants by loading tests Estimations of the lateral resistance constants by using the N-value can only provide approximate values. and heavily-preconsolidated clayey ground. The relationship between the subgrade reaction and the pile displacement for each ground is assumed by equation (4.5 C-type ground: p = kc y 0. ② C-type ground (i) The p-y relationship is expressed as p = kc y0. T. the approximate value of ks or kc may be judged from the distribution of N-values with depth.2.3. -296- . ① S-type ground (i)The relationship between p-y is expressed as p = ks xy0.4.3.3. as proposed by Terzaghi. The results of many full-scale tests have confirmed that this method reflects the behavior of piles more accurately than the conventional methods.3. the relationship between the N-value itself and kc has been obtained as shown in Fig.4.5 where ks： constant of lateral resistance in S-type ground (kN/m3. In the S-type ground. Therefore.

9. Alton. Port Hueneme (MASON) 4. Wagner (Callif. Wagner (Callif.3. T. Wagner-1 (Alaska)-2 17.) No.3. T. Winfield. No. Osaka National Railways 9. Tobata L-IV (TTRI) 6.1 7. Tobata K-III (TTRI) 3. Tokyo National Railways B N-value Fig. Shin-Kasai Bridge (TATEISHI) 15. Kurihama model experiment 14. Hakkenbori No. Tobata No.25 15. Tobata preliminary test-1 (TTRI)-1 12. Tobata K-II (PHRI) 12. Tobata L-II (PHRI) 13. Yahata Seitetsu No. Tobata K-I (TTRI) 2. Tobata L-II (TTRI) 5.9 10.PART V FOUNDATIONS 1.5. Tobata K-I (PHRI) 11.1.2 8. Osaka National Railways (BEPPU) 8.) No.6 10. Tobata K-IV (TTRI) 4.4. Illinois (FEAGIN) 2.6. No. Hakkenbori No.3 Relationship between N-value and kc -297- . Hakkenbori No.9 11. Ibaragigawa (GOTO) 7. Yamanoshita (IGUCHI) N Fig. Tobata preliminary test-2 (TTRI)-2 13. Montana (GLESER) 3. Wagner-1 (Alaska)-1 16.2 6.4. Tokyo National Railways b 18.2 Relationship between N and ks 1. Tokyo National Railways A4 19. Yahata Seitetsu No.15 14.

4.3.4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (kN/m3. T. when θ = 0 k Fig. T.5 Relationship between Pile Inclination Angle and Ratio k = k/k 0 -298- .3.4 Relationship between ks and Pile Width k0 Indoor experiments Field experiments Value of .5) Lateral resistance constant 1st Series 2nd Series 3rd Series Legend maximum pile head displace p-y curve bending moment -ment ks Pile width (cm) Fig.

max = – 0.m2) Situation of pile –M t (M z) Mm (M x) (M z) Deflection curve does not rotate Basic formation yt θt Mt If pile head Basic system (but Mt If pile head does not rotate diagram Ht y0 (yz) l 0 Bending moment ∞ ∞ L lm h diagram (y x) (M x) ∞ ∞ Deflection curve y yt = yt = y0 = yt y0 = H ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 2 Ht = t K1 12EI β 3 Ht 2βH t = 2EI β 3 Bk h 1 + βh Ht 4EI β 3 M H y z = y t – θ tz + t z 2 + t z 3 2EI 6EI Ht yx = e – β x [ ( 1 + βh 0 ) cos β x – βh 0 sin β x ] 2EI β 3 Ht ( 1 + βh ) H t 2 H t 3 yx = e – β x cos β x yz = yt – z + z 6EI 4EI β 2EI β 3 Ht yx = e – β x [ ( 1 + βh ) cos β x + ( 1 – βh ) sin β x ] If t 0.3224 l m = π = 0.3562 β 4β Ht β Ht 2β M s.m) B : Pile diameter (m) EI : Flexural rigidity (kN.5708 2β β L = 3π = 2.max = – Ht 2β ( 1 + 2βh 0 ) 2 + 1 ⋅ exp ( – βl m ) Depth at which M s.max M s. use equations in putting 4EI β 3 h 0 = M t / H t : the same applies below M yx = Ht e – β x ( cos β x + sin β x ) 4EI β 3 yt = Ht βH t = 4EI β 3 Bkh y0 = yt Pile head displacement yt yt = ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 1/2 ( 1 + βh ) 2 Ht + Mt 2EI β 2 3EI β 3 Ground level displacement y0 y0 = 1 + βh 0 Ht 2EI β 3 Pile head inclination -299θt = 0 θt = Mx = – H M z = t ( 1 + βh – 2βz ) 2β H M x = t e – β x [ ( 1 – βh ) cos βh – ( 1 + βh ) sin β x ] 2β Sz = – H t S x = – H t e – β x [ cos β x – βh sin β x ] M0 = M s.max = – l m = 1 tan – 1 1 β βh Ht 1 + ( βh ) 2 ⋅ exp ( – βl m ) 2β 1 + βh K Ht = 2 Ht K1 2β M0 = 0 θt θt = ( 1 + βh ) 2 1 + βh Ht + Mt EI β 2EI β 2 Ht 2EI β 2 θt = 0 Bending moment of pile members M M z = – M t – H tz H M x = – t e – β x [ βh 0 cos β x + ( 1 + βh 0 ) sin β x [ β H t – βx e sin β x β S x = – H t e – β x ( cos β x – sin β x ) Mx = H t – βx e ( cos β x – sin β x ) 2β S x = – H t e – β x cos β x M0 = M s.2079 l m = π = 1.Table T. K 4 12EI β 3 1 + βh K2 = K3 = K1 ⋅ 2β ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 2 4EI β ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 1/2 K4 = ⋅ ( 1 + βh ) ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 2 K 1 = 4EI β 3 K 2 = K 3 = 2EI β 2 K 4 = 2EI β .max occurs lm 1 l m = 1 tan – 1 1 + 2βh 0 β Depth of 1st steady point l0 1 + βh 0 l 0 = 1 tan – 1 β βh 0 βh + 1 l 0 = 1 tan – 1 β βh – 1 L = 1 tan – 1 ( – βh ) β Depth of deflection angle zero point L L = 1 tan – 1 [ – ( 1 + 2βh 0 ) ] β Pile head rigidity factor K1 = PART V FOUNDATIONS K 1.1 Calculations for Piles of Semi-Infinite Length if kh Is Constant [Symbols] : Height of pile head above ground (m) 4 h Differential equations Ht z (M t) : Coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction (kN/m ) 3 Exposed sections: EI EI Protruding above ground of deflection curve 0 (yz) d 4 yz =0 dz 4 d 4 yx + Bk h y x = 0 dx 4 h 0 Embedded underground = 0) Ht h yt θ t H t= H 0 l 0 Mm (M x) L l (y x) lm L lm y0 0 l L (M z) yt M0 and explanation of x symbols (y x) kh h β Bk h / 4EI (m –1) M h0 = h + t Ht h =0 yt = y0 Ht H0 M0 lm M Embedded sections: H t : Lateral force on pile head (kN) M t : External force moment on pile head (kN.3.5708 β 2β l 0 = 3π = 2.max = – 0.3562 β 4β L = π = 3.4.1416 β β Ht β Shear strength of pile members S Sz = – H t S x = – H t e – β x [ cos β x – ( 1 + 2βh 0 ) sin β x ] Pile head bending moment M0 M0 = – Mt Maximum bending moment of embedded parts M s. K 2.7854 β 4β l 0 = π = 1. K 3.

2 Coefficient of Lateral Subgrade Reaction Consistency of clay Unconfined compressive strength qu Range of kh1 (kN/m3) (kN/m3) Proposed value of kh1 (kN/m2) Hard 100 ～ 200 16.5) d4 y2 Embedded section: EI ---------. However. For such cases. Although the reversely-calculated values of kh by using the actually observed data decrease in -300- .3.000 or greater 96.4. Figure T.3. as shown in equations (4.4. d4 y1 Exposed section: (0 ≧ x ≧ -h) EI ---------. Other opinions suggest that pile width is irrelevant (see [Technical Notes] (2) (d)).3.000 Table T.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (3) Chang’s Method (a) Calculation equation Using the elasticity modulus of the ground Es = Bkh.3.000 48.3 Value of n h Relative density of sand nh for dry or wet sand (kN/m3) (kN/m3) nh for submerged sand Loose 2. the solution for piles of semi-infinite length can be obtained (see Table T. Terzaghi assumes that the value of kh is inversely proportional to the pile width B. Diagrams are available to simplify this process.4. If shorter than this.6) and (4.8). 64748 (b) Estimation of kh in Chang’s method ① Terzaghi’s proposal8) Terzaghi proposed the following values for the coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction in cohesive and sandy soil: (i) In case of clayey soil 0. Table T.600 10.k h1 B Es = where kh ： B： kh1： Bk h = 0. and repeated calculations have to be made to obtain the value of Es.000 ～ 32.4.000 24.6 shows the relationship between these values and the mean N-values at depths down to b -1 from the ground level. a pile must be treated as having a finite length.800 Very hard 200 ～ 400 32. while kh itself is assumed not to be affected by B. piles of finite length can also be calculated in a similar way to piles of infinite length as long as bL ≧ p.300 Medium 6.000 ② Yokoyama’s proposal Yokoyama 9) has collated the results of lateral loading tests on steel piles conducted in Japan and he reversely calculated kh by using these results.6) (4.3. According to Yokoyama.000 Solid 400 or greater 64.2k h1 coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction (kN/m3) pile width (m) value listed in Table T.4.= 0 dx 4 (4.+ Bk h y 2 = 0 (x ≧ 0) dx 4 By calculating these general solutions (with Bkh as a constant) and inputting the boundary conditions. the elasticity equation of piles are expressed as follows.2 k h = -----.3.3.7) (ii) In case of sandy soil x k h = n h -B E s = Bk h = n h x where x： depth (m) B： pile width (m) nh： value listed in Table T.8) (4. Chang states that Es should be taken at one-third of the value at the depth of ly1 (depth of the first zero-displacement point). In this case.1).9) In sandy soil. The book by Yokoyama 9) describes the method of calculation without repetition.3 (4.2 (4.4. Es is a function of depth and thus cannot be introduced directly into Chang’s method.400 Dense 17. ly1 itself is a function of Es.600 4.3.3.3.000 ～ 64.200 1.3.3. Es = khB is taken as valid for both sandy and clayey soil.

the effect of the pile group on the lateral bearing capacity of individual piles may be ignored.4. Den-en N-value Fig. [Technical Notes] When the interval of the driven piles exceeds the value listed in Table T.4. the effect of pile group action on the behavior of individual piles shall be considered. Shell Ogishima 10. 1.4 Minimum Pile Interval for Lateral Bearing Capacity of Individual Piles Sandy soil Cohesive soil transverse longitudinal transverse longitudinal 1.5 Consideration of Pile Group Action When piles are used as a pile group.4. Tobata L-II 5. Tobata K-III 7. Tobata K-II 6.0 times the pile diameter 4.0 times the pile diameter 4.6 Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles The lateral bearing capacity of a foundation of the structure with coupled piles shall be determined as appropriate in view of structural characteristics of the foundation.3.3. and “longitudinal” means in the direction of the external force. Kasai Bridge 14. In the table.3. Takagawa 12. T. Tokyo Supply Warehouse 13. Tobata 3. This diagram may be used when approximating the value of Es from soil conditions alone without conducting loading tests in situ.4.3.4. “transverse” means in the direction perpendicular to that of the external force.6 Reversely-Calculated Values of kh from Horizontal Loading Tests on Piles 4.3. Table T. [Commentary] (1) Distribution of Horizontal Force in Foundation with a Combination of Vertical and Coupled Piles When a horizontal force acts on a foundation with a combination of vertical and coupled piles. Tobata L-IV 8. Fig. Tobata K-IV 9.5 times the pile diameter 2. Aoyama 15. Tobata K-I 4. -301- . Yamaborigawa 2. Ibaragigawa 11.6 shows the values of kh corresponding to the load at which the bending stress of steel material reaches 100 ~ 150 MN/m2.PART V FOUNDATIONS proportion to the increase of load.3. It may generally be assumed that all of the horizontal force is borne by the coupled piles.5 times the pile diameter 3. T. the force borne by vertical piles is far smaller than that borne by coupled piles under the condition of equal horizontal displacement.

the vertical and horizontal external loads acting on the head of a pair of coupled piles are divided into the axial force of each pile.3.8 Coupled Piles in View of Soil Resistance Due to Deflection Caused by Pile Bending Moment .4. taking account of the lateral bearing capacity of individual piles. T. T. or the settlement and the upward displacement of -302- 64748 (Out-batter pile) (In-batter pile) Fig. The axial force is calculated by using equation (4.10) V i sin q 1 H i cos q 1 P 2 = ------------------------------------------sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) where P1.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles There are two groups of calculation methods for the lateral bearing capacity of coupled piles. T.3. q2： inclination angle of each pile (º) Vi： vertical external load of coupled piles (kN) Hi： horizontal external load of coupled piles (kN) Fig.7). P2： pushing force acting on each pile (or pulling force when negative) (kN) q1. as shown in Fig. The first group only takes account of the resistance from the axial bearing capacity of each pile.3. For example: ① Setting conditions whereby the displacement of each pile is always the same at the point of connection of coupled piles.3.10) or a graphic solution (see Fig. T. V i sin q 2 + H i cos q 2 P 1 = ------------------------------------------sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) (4. This means that the force acting in the axial direction of each pile should be less than the allowable axial bearing capacity (or allowable pulling resistance). ② Calculating the ultimate resistance of the coupled piles on the assumption that the axial and lateral bearing capacities of piles indicate an elasto-plasticity characteristic10).4. [Technical Notes] (1) Estimation of Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles Considering the Axial Bearing Capacity of Piles Only When the resistance forces are borne by axial bearing capacity only.4. on the assumption that the spring characteristics in the axial and lateral directions at the pile head are elastic9). The second group takes account of the resistance from the axial bearing capacity of each pile and the lateral bearing capacity of each pile in consideration of the bending resistance of piles. ③ Calculating the load and displacement at the pile heads.7 Axial Forces of Coupled Piles (2) Estimation of Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles Considering Lateral Bearing Capacity of Individual Piles There are various ways of calculating the lateral bearing capacity of the coupled piles.4.7.3.

The values listed in Table T. w1 N 1 = ----.11) Vertical and horizontal displacements of the pile head are calculated by equation (4. H2： V： H： q1.[ ( m 1 w 1 ) sin 2q 1 + ( w 2 m 2 ) sin 2q 2 ]H } 2 1 ì1 . The symbols used in Table T.12) axial force acting on each pile (compressive force is indicated by positive value) (kN) lateral force acting on each pile (kN) vertical load per pair of coupled piles (kN) horizontal load per a pair of coupled piles (kN) inclination angle of each pile (º) axial spring constant of each pile head (kN/m) lateral spring constant of each pile head (kN/m) vertical displacement of each pile head (m) horizontal displacement of each pile head (m) The subscript numbers attached to the symbols.5 may be used for the spring constants of pile head.8.{ [ m 2 cos q 2 + m 1 cos q 1 cos ( q 1 + q 1 ) + w 1 sin q 1 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ]V D [ m 2 sin q 2 m 1 sin q 1 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + w 1 cos q 1 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ]H } m1 H 1 = ----.3.{ [ m 1 cos q 1 + m 2 cos q 2 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + w 2 sin q 2 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ]V D + [ m 1 sin q 1 m 2 sin q 2 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + w 2 cos q 2 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ]H } 6444444744444448 w2 N 2 = ----. the settlement of each pile at the pile head is proportional to the axial force acting on that pile and also the lateral displacement is proportional to the lateral force acting on that pile.[ ( m 1 w 1 ) sin 2q 1 + ( w 2 m 2 ) sin 2q 2 ]V Dî2 ü + [ m 1 sin 2 q 1 + w 1 cos 2 q 1 + m 2 sin 2 q 2 + w 2 cos 2 q 2 ] ý þ where N1.4. N2： H1. On this assumption.{ [ w 1 sin 2 q 1 + m 1 cos 2 q 1 + w 2 sin 2 q 2 + m 2 cos 2 q 2 ] V D 644474448 1 + -.3. ( 1 + bl ) 3 + 1 ¤ 2 j D( bl ) = --------------------------------------( bl ) 3 ( 1 + bl ) 3 + 2 j D( bl ) = -------------------------------( bl ) 3 b = 4 Es -------4EI -303- . T. The method ① is for calculating the distribution of horizontal force to each pile on the assumption that the axial and lateral resistances of a pile have elastic properties 9). as shown in Fig.11).3.í -. ④ Using the results of loading tests on single piles12).h 1 ¢ = h 2 ¢ = -.h2¢： (4.5 are defined below.3.3.8.PART V FOUNDATIONS piles in the case of ② on the basis of empirical equations11).3. derived from the conditions of force equilibrium and compatibility of displacements. w2： m1.3. ⑤ Assuming that the yield state of each pile will occur in turn and the resistance of the yield member will be constant thereafter until the resistance of coupled piles reach the ultimate bearing capacity. the axial and lateral forces acting on each pile of the coupled piles can be calculated using equation (4. In the coupled piles shown in Figure T. q2： w1. m2： d1¢.{ [ w 2 sin q 2 w 1 sin q 1 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + m 1 cos q 1 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ]V D +[ w 2 cos q 2 + w 1 cos q 1 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + m 1 sin q 1 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ]H } D = ( w 1 + w 2 ) ( m 1 + m 2 ) + ( w 1 m 1 ) ( w 2 m 2 ) sin 2 ( q 1 + q 2 ) (4.4.4.4.{ [ w 1 sin q 1 w 2 sin q 2 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + m 2 cos q 2 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] V D + [ w 1 cos q 1 + w 2 cos q 2 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + m 2 sin q 2 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ]H } m2 H 2 = ----.12) 1 d 1 ¢ = d 2 ¢ = -.3. are “1” for the pushed pile and “2” for the pulled pile when only a horizontal load acts.d2¢： h1¢.

when enough resistance can be obtained by the earth pressure acting on the embedded section of structure alone. even if the bottom is constructed by touching the ground. (2) Horizontal loads shall be supported by piles alone in principle.4. this resistance may be assumed to support the horizontal load. [Technical Notes] (1) Vertical Loads Some gap may appear between the bottom of the structure supported by piles and the ground underneath it as time passes. for the sake of safety the bearing capacity of the ground under a structure should be ignored.5 Spring Constants of Pile Head Bearing piles Axial spring constant of pile head (ω) Cohesive soil Friction piles Sandy soil Without exposed section (λ ＝ 0) Pile head hinged Lateral axial spring constant of pile head (μ) With exposed section (λ ≠ 0) Without exposed section (λ ＝ 0) Pile head fixed With exposed section (λ ≠ 0) AE w = ----------l+l 2AE w = -------------2l + l 3AE w = -----------------3l + 2l ES m = 2EIb 3 = ----2b 3EI m = -----------------------3j l D ( bl ) ES 3 m = 4EIb = ----b 12EI m = -----------------------3j l D ( bl ) 4. There is no simple way of determining whether the passive earth pressure of the ground reaches its ultimate value in response to the pile head displacement corresponding to the allowable lateral bearing capacity of piles.3. T.3. Table T.1 Load Sharing (1) Vertical loads shall be supported by piles alone.4 Pile Design in General 4. In some cases. horizontal loads should be supported by piles alone. Es =khB pile width (m) coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction (kN/m3) The coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction kh may be calculated by multiplying the value of kh obtained in [Technical Notes] (3) (b) in 4.4. These factors must be fully considered when calculating this resistance due to passive earth pressure at the embedded section. No bearing capacity shall be expected for the ground touching with the bottom of structures supported by piles. However it is generally difficult to calculate the resistance due to passive earth pressure in this case. (2) Horizontal Loads In principle.4.4 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Analytical Methods by the factor obtained from Fig. -304- . However. this resistance may be added. in accordance with the inclination of piles. if a structure is displaced to the extent of passive earth pressure obtained by using Coulomb’s equation. If the resistance due to passive earth pressure against the embedded section of structure can be expected.3. Thus.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where l： l： E： A： I： Es： B： k h： embedded length of piles (m) exposed length of piles (m) Young’s modulus of pile material (kN/m2) pile section area (m2) moment of inertia of pile (m4) elastic modulus of subsoil (kN/m2).5. this displacement of the structure could cause the pile bending failure.

the allowable stresses for concrete piles should be lower than those for concrete members used for other structures.4 Allowable Stresses for Pile Materials Allowable stresses for pile materials shall be determined as appropriate in view of their characteristics. and not exceeding 12 MN/m2 30% of design standard strength.3 Design Based on Allowable Stress Method Reinforced concrete piles (RC piles) The values given above may be increased up to 1.3 Distance between Centers of Piles When determining the distance between the centers of piles to be driven.2 Load Distribution Within the same foundation.0 MN/m2 (Types B.3 Design Based on Allowable Stress Method. 6. concrete.4.3 Allowable Stresses. (2) Allowable Stresses for Concrete Piles Table T. 4.PART V FOUNDATIONS 4. 3. 3. or steel.1 Allowable Stress for Concrete Piles Type of pile Allowable stress Type Allowable compressive stress used when determining axial bearing capacity Others Precast concrete piles formed via centrifugal force Prestressed high-strength concrete piles (PHC piles) Concrete piles Allowable compressive stress used when determining axial bearing capacity Allowable bending compressive stress Allowable axial tensile stress and allowable bending tensile stress Allowable bending compressive stress (including cases with axial force) Cast-in-place concrete piles with outer casing Others Allowable bending compressive stress (including cases with axial force) Cast-in-place concrete piles with no outer casing Others Amount 30% of design standard strength. respectively. these piles entail problems of driving or underground construction. the workability.4. 2. C) 25% of design standard strength.0 MN/m2 50% of the allowable stress for concrete defined in Part III. [Technical Notes] (1) Pile Materials Piles used for the construction of port and harbor facilities are made of timber. and not exceeding 12 MN/m2 As specified in Part III. In the construction of structure supported by concrete piles. 3. and not exceeding 6. and not exceeding 12 MN/m2 3. 4. piles shall be so arranged that vertical and horizontal forces acting on individual piles are as equal as possible.1 lists examples of the allowable stresses for concrete piles. Therefore.4. deformation behavior of surrounding ground.2 Allowable Stress for Timber and Part III. see the relevant sections of Part III.4. and behavior as a pile group shall be taken into account.0 MN/m2 70% of the allowable stress for concrete specified in Part III. Ta