V3.1.0.

1

cover

Front cover

ITIL (IT Infrastructure Library) Foundation
(Course Code SM25)

Student Notebook
ERC 1.0

IBM Certified Course Material

Student Notebook

Trademarks IBM® is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Other company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.

September 2004 Edition
The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is distributed on an “as is” basis without any warranty either express or implied. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques is a customer responsibility and depends on the customer’s ability to evaluate and integrate them into the customer’s operational environment. While each item may have been reviewed by IBM for accuracy in a specific situation, there is no guarantee that the same or similar results will result elsewhere. Customers attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments do so at their own risk. © Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2004. All rights reserved. This document may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Note to U.S. Government Users — Documentation related to restricted rights — Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to restrictions set forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

TOC

Contents
Course Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Course Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv ITIL Foundation Course: IT Infrastructure Library Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi ITIL Foundation Course: Objectives and Contents of the Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii ITIL Foundation Course: ITIL Defines a Three-Tiered Structure of Certification Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii ITIL Foundation Course: Process Chart Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xix Unit 1. What ITIL Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Unit 01: What ITIL is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 What ITIL is: ITIL: de facto standard for service management built on industry “best practice” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 What ITIL is: Main characteristics of ITIL are: IT services are business-oriented, and provision of quality customer service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 What ITIL is: Originally created by the UK's Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 What ITIL is: The BSI roadmap to make ITIL a standard for service management 1-7 What ITIL is: ITIL is a library of books that aim to describe best practices for IT infrastructure management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 What ITIL is: The ITIL books describe best practices in IT management, with a special focus on service management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 Most people think of ITIL as service support, but the increasing popularity of ITIL should be leveraged against a broader spectrum of services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 What ITIL is: Service management focuses on the tactical and operational processes of service support and service delivery and their relationships, including security management (separate ITIL book) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 What ITIL is: ITIL processes in service support represent many of the reactive processes within IT operations (operational) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14 What ITIL is: Service Delivery focuses on what service the business requires in order to provide adequate support to the business users (tactical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15 What ITIL is: Service support process (operational processes) relationships and their interaction with the CMDB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 What ITIL is: Service delivery process (tactical processes) relationships . . . . . . . 1-17 What ITIL is: Other ITIL books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18 What ITIL is: Customers across the globe are asking more and more about ITIL 1-19 What ITIL is: ITIL implementation: Adopt and Adapt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20 Unit 2. Process Implementation Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Unit 02: Process Implementation Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Process Implementation: What is a process? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

Contents

iii

Student Notebook

Process Implementation: A process flows across the organizational hierarchies within a company and sometimes flows across company boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4 Process Implementation: Why do we need processes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5 Process Implementation: What are the benefits? (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6 Process Implementation: What are the benefits? (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7 Process Implementation: What are the benefits? (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8 Process Implementation: Mission-critical changes or reorganizations within an IT corporation require new processes or needs to improve existing processes . . . . . .2-9 Process Implementation: Continuous processes improvement is also a trigger . .2-10 Process Implementation: Why implement service management? . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-11 Process Implementation: Service and Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-12 Process Implementation: Service, Process, Procedure, and work instructions . . .2-13 Process Implementation: Project Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-14 Process Implementation: Factors who will influence the success of an ITSM project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-15 Process Implementation: People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-16 Process Implementation: Each task within a process is executed by a role . . . . . .2-17 Process Implementation: ITSM Project (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-18 Process Implementation: ITSM Project (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-19 Process Implementation: From the above model, 5 phases of a ITSM project are definable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-20 Process Implementation: Ongoing quality improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-21 Process Implementation: Communication Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-22 Process Implementation: Global Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-24 Process Implementation: Process Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-25 Process Implementation: High-Level Design of a Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-26 Process Implementation: A Process Implementation considers both an initial process design and an improvement of the existing environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-27 Process Implementation: A review is important for quality assurance . . . . . . . . . .2-28 Process Implementation: A review is important for quality assurance . . . . . . . . . .2-29 Process Implementation: Critical success factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-31 Process Implementation: Possible problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-32 Process Implementation: Project costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-33 Unit 3. Service Desk (SPOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Unit 03: Service Desk (SPOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2 Service Desk: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3 Service Desk: The Service Desk is the Single Point of Contact [SPOC] between the users and the IT Services Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-4 Service Desk: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-5 Service Desk: The Service Desk is traditionally seen as a group of specialists who have the required knowledge to process any kind of request or incident . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-6 Service Desk: The Importance of the Service Desk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-7 Service Desk: Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-8 Service Desk: Service Desk Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-9 Service Desk: Service Desk Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-10 Service Desk: Processes within the Service Desk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11 Service Desk: Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-12
iv ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

TOC

Service Desk: There are 3 Service Desk Types (1): the Local Service Desk . . . . 3-13 Service Desk: There are 3 Service Desk Types (2): Central Service Desk . . . . . 3-14 Service Desk: There are 3 Service Desk Types (3): Virtual Service Desk . . . . . . 3-15 Service Desk: User empowerment (self-help) enhances customer satisfaction while lowering support cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 Service Desk: A crucial success factor is standardized working methods . . . . . . 3-17 Service Desk: Setting up a Service Desk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 Service Desk: Benefits and Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 Service Desk: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 Service Desk: Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 Service Desk: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 Unit 4. Incident Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Unit 04: Incident Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Incident Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Incident Management: Mission statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 Incident Management: Definition: Incident, Problem and “Known Error” . . . . . . . . 4-5 Incident Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 Incident Management: Activity incident handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 Incident Management: The status of an incident reflects its current position in its lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 Relationship with other IT services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Incident Management: Use of standard registration, documentation, and methods is basis of success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 Incident Management: Classification: Find service affected, match against SLA, and assign priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 Incident Management: Priority order for handling incidents is primarily defined by impact and urgency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 Incident Management: Each priority is related to a certain recovery time… . . . . . 4-14 Incident Management: … This results in an appropriate escalation . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15 Incident Management: Escalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17 Incident Management: Escalation – Trigger and Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18 Incident Management: Escalation – Escalation Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19 Incident Management: Escalation – Example of an Escalation Matrix . . . . . . . . . 4-20 Incident Management: Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21 Incident Management: Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22 Incident Management: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23 Incident Management: Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 Incident Management: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25 Unit 5. Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Unit 05: Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Problem Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Problem Management: Mission statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Problem Management: Some definitions: Problem, Known Error, and RFC . . . . . . 5-5 Problem Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Problem Management: Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 Problem Management: Activity: Problem Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

Contents

v

Student Notebook

Problem Management: Activity: Error Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-10 Problem Management: Activity: Proactive Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-11 Problem Management: Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-12 Problem Management: Reactive - Proactive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13 The Complete Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14 Problem Management: Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15 Problem Management: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-16 Problem Management: Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-17 Problem Management: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-18 Unit 6. Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Unit 06: Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-2 Change Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3 Change Management: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4 Change Management: Some definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-5 Change Management: Why Change Management is so important . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7 Change Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-8 Change Management: The Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-9 The Process Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-10 Change Management: Content of a Request for Change (RFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-11 Change Management: Categorization: Minor – Significant – Major . . . . . . . . . . . .6-13 Change Management: Prioritization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-14 Change Management: Composition of the Change Advisory Board (CAB) should reflect user, customer, and service provider view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-15 Change Management: Optimization can be reached through correlation of RFCs on related CIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-16 Change Management: Interfaces to other SM processes (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-17 Change Management: Interfaces to other SM processes (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-18 Change Management: Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-19 Change Management: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-20 Change Management: Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-21 Change Management: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-22 Unit 7. Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Unit 07: Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2 Configuration Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3 Configuration Management: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-4 Configuration Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-5 Configuration Management: Definition: Configuration Item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-6 Configuration Management: Definition: Configuration Item – Scope and Level of Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-7 Configuration Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-9 Configuration Management: Configuration Management Database (CMDB) – Structure Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11 Configuration Management: CMDB – Status of CI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-12 Configuration Management: Interfaces with all other processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-13 Configuration Management: Relationship with Release and Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-15
vi ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

. . . . 8-16 Release Management: Costs . . . . . Configuration Management: Licence Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration Management: Summary . . . . . . . . . . 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-20 7-21 7-23 7-24 Unit 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8 Service Level Management: Service Level Management Activities . . 9-9 Service Level Management: Manage relationship with customers and suppliers (internal and external) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 Service Level Management: Why Service Level Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5 Release Management: Why Release Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12 Service Level Management: Service Level Agreement (SLA) – Basic Structure . . . . . . . . . . 9-17 Service Level Management: Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Student Notebook TOC Configuration Management: CIs and their relations to other processes . . . 9-13 Service Level Management: Service Level Agreement (SLA) – Legal Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents vii . . . . . . 9-2 Service Level Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Service Level Management: SLM – Balance service capabilities and service requirements . . . . . . . . . 9-3 Service Level Management: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration Management: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13 Release Management: Benefits . . 8-8 Release Management: Major Activities of Release Management . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 9-14 Service Level Management: Elements of a Service Spec Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 Service Level Management: Different points of view: Communication . . . . . . . 9-6 Service Level Management: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18 Service Level Management: Best Practices . . . . . . . . . .V3. . . Release Management . . . . . . . Configuration Management: Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15 Service Level Management: Benefits . . . . . . 8-11 Release Management: DSL and DHS . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 Release Management: Goal . . . 8-12 Release Management: Software Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Unit 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 Release Management: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Unit 08: Release Management . . . . . 8-3 Release Management: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11 Service Level Management: Content of a Service Level Agreement (SLA) . . . . . . . . . . Configuration Management: Variant and Baseline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7 Service Level Management: Tasks . Configuration Management: Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Unit 09: Service Level Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18 Release Management: Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19 Release Management: Summary . . . . . . . . . 9-19 © Copyright IBM Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Level Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16 Service Level Management: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17 Release Management: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 Release Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 Release Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration Management: Benefits . . . .

. .11-21 Unit 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-20 Availability Management: Summary . . . . . . . . .12-7 Financial Management: Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-4 Capacity Management: Why Capacity Management? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-20 Capacity Management: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-5 Capacity Management: Capacity Management has three sub-processes . . . . . .11-14 Capacity Management: Benefits and Costs . . . 11-1 Unit 11: Capacity Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-7 Availability Management: Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-13 Availability Management: Risk Management is also an aspect of availability . . . . . Capacity Management . . . . . . . . . . . .10-19 Availability Management: Best Practices .10-18 Availability Management: Risks .11-10 Capacity Management: Iterative Activities .10-21 Unit 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-2 Availability Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-9 Availability Management: Availability Measurements (1) . . . and Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-16 Availability Management: Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Module 10: Availability Management . . . .11-6 Capacity Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-10 Financial Management: Process – Charging (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-3 Capacity Management: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Student Notebook Service Level Management: Summary . . . . . . . .11-2 Capacity Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . .11-17 Capacity Management: Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-11 Capacity Management: Capacity Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-5 Financial Management: Why Financial Management for IT Services (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-4 Financial Management: Why Financial Management for IT Services (1) . . . . . . . .12-11 viii ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial Management for IT Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-3 Financial Management: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-16 Capacity Management: Risks . . . . . . . . Availability Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-20 Unit 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-6 Availability Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-14 Availability Management: Availability Reporting . . . . . . .12-2 Financial Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-12 Capacity Management: Capacity Database . . . . . . . . . . .11-8 Capacity Management: Input & Output . . . . Downtime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-8 Availability Management: Uptime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-3 Availability Management: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-4 Availability Management: Definitions (1) . . . . . . . .12-6 Financial Management: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . © Copyright IBM Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-11 Availability Management: Availability Measurement (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 Unit 12: Financial Management . . .12-8 Financial Management: Process – Budgeting and Accounting Activities (mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-5 Availability Management: Definitions (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-12 Availability Management: Availability Measurement Example (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-14 Security Management: Process – Evaluate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18 Security Management: Benefits and Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial Management: Costs types – Example: Printing a report . . . . . . . . . . . . Security Management . 12-12 12-14 12-17 12-18 12-19 12-21 12-22 12-24 12-25 Unit 13. . . . . Financial Management: Best Practices . . . . 14-13 Security Management: Process – Implement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19 Unit 14. . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6 Security Management: Information Security Incident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16 Security Management: Process – Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 ITSCM Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . .0. . .V3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16 ITSCM: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial Management: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11 ITSCM: The continuity strategy involves the selection of recovery options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4 Security Management: Definitions: CIA . . . . . Financial Management: Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-8 Security Management: Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20 © Copyright IBM Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15 Security Management: Process – Maintain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1 Unit 13: IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) . . . . . . . 14-3 Security Management: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-18 ITSCM: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial Management: Example of IT Accounting . 13-6 ITSCM: Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11 Security Management: Process – SLA . . . . . . . 13-9 ITSCM: Some events that have caused problems . .1 Student Notebook TOC Financial Management: Cost Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 ITSCM: Test and Review . . . . . . . . Contents ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8 ITSCM: Risk of events that can cause disaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3 ITSCM: Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial Management: Links to other processes . . . . . . . . 14-5 Security Management: Why Security Management? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial Management: Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5 ITSCM: Definitions: Business Continuity Management (BCS) and ITSCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4 ITSCM: Why ITSCM . . . . . . . . 14-10 Security Management: Process – Control . . . . . Financial Management: Cost Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10 ITSCM: Risk Analysis as part of BCM Requirements definition . . . . . . 14-1 Unit 14: Security Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 ITSCM Management: Integration into the IPW Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19 Security Management: Summary . . . . . . 14-17 Security Management: Level of measures . 13-15 ITSCM: Benefits and Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7 Security Management: Security Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 ITSCM: Continuity Plan Invocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7 ITSCM: Continuity Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) . . .Input from Customer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9 Security Management: Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12 Security Management: Process – Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

Student Notebook x ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 .

Prerequisites None Objectives Upon completion of the course. and concepts of the work processes used to manage an IT infrastructure. a process-like approach to business organization.0. the student will be able to: • Understand the importance of an IT infrastructure • Describe the best practices for IT service • Develop a process-like approach to business organization • Describe the ITIL management framework • Understand the basic terms and concepts of the work processes used to manage an IT infrastructure © Copyright IBM Corp. Take the ITIL Foundations Certification Exam upon course completion. Course Description xi . Build your awareness of the best practice approach to IT service support and service delivery.1.V3. the ITIL management framework. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. The ITIL contains a comprehensive description of the processes involved in managing IT infrastructures.1 Student Notebook pref Course Description ITIL (IT Infrastructure Library) Foundation Duration: 2 days Purpose Learn the basics of Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure Library (ITIL) and discover the importance of a systematic approach to management. basic terms. Gain an understanding of the importance of an IT infrastructure and IT service for an organization. Audience This course is intended for people working in the field of IT service management.

© Copyright IBM Corp. availability management. and release management • Service delivery set: service level management. and operational perspectives • Service support set: configuration management. tactical. and financial management for IT services • Links with the security management process • Example examination Curriculum relationship The Foundation Certificate in IT Service Management is a prerequisite for the Practitioner's and Manager's Certificate in IT Service Management. and acceptance • Introduction to the ITIL booklets of best practices • ITIL scope. xii ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. infrastructure. problem management. and process terms • Characteristics of the ITIL sets and process groups • Strategic. IT service continuity management. 2004 .Student Notebook Contents Topics include: • ITIL best practice: history. change management. service desk incident management. purpose. capacity management.

1. Agenda xiii .V3.1 Student Notebook pref Agenda Day 1 ITIL Introduction Service Desk Incident Management Problem Management Change Management Configuration Management Release Management Exercise Day 2 Recap Discussion SLM Availability Management Capacity Management Financial Management Continuity Management Security Management Examination © Copyright IBM Corp.0. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

Student Notebook xiv ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp.

2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1.V3.0.1 Student Notebook pref Course Introduction © Copyright IBM Corp. Course Introduction xv .

Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITIL Foundation Course IT Infrastructure Library Overview ITIL – Planning to Implement Service Management Technology Business 4 Service Management The Business Perspective Service Support ICT Infrastructure Management Service Delivery Security Management Application Management ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: xvi ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 0-1. ITIL Foundation Course: IT Infrastructure Library Overview SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp.

who.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 0-2. which are organization-dependent! 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1 Student Notebook pref IBM Global Services ITIL Foundation Course Objectives and Contents of the Course Objectives – Understand the ITIL Framework (what.V3. why.1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0. where. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Course Introduction xvii . ITIL Foundation Course: Objectives and Contents of the Course SM251. and how) – Understand the benefits of adopting ITIL – Use the same language for Service Management – Pass for the Foundation Certification Exam Contents – Overview of the 2 ITIL core modules: • 5 Processes of Service Support und 1 Function • 5 Processes of Service Delivery • Security Management for IT Services – – – – – – – Activities of each ITIL process Benefits/difficulties/costs of implementing ITIL process Links with other ITIL processes ITIL process roles and responsibilities Order of implementation within ITIL process Success factors within an ITIL implementation No details of procedures within process.

or Masters certificate. xviii ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 0-3. So. The Foundations Certificate is the first level and covers Service Management essentials. such as Change Management. when someone holds ITIL certification. ITIL's highest level of certification is the Service Manager.Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITIL Foundation Course ITIL Defines a Three-Tiered Structure of Certification Training Practitioners (9 certificates) Availability Mgmt (5 days) Incident Mgmt (5 days) Problem Mgmt (5 days) Configuration Mgmt (5 days) Service Level Mgmt (5 days) Change Mgmt (5 days) 1 hour Multiple Choice Foundations Essential (2 days) 1 hour Multiple Choice Service Manager Service Support (5 days) 3 hours Essay Examination Prerequisites assessed by Examination Board Service Delivery (5 days) 3 hours Essay Examination 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and Service Managers must pass two 3-hour essay-based exams: one for Service Support.0 Notes: ITIL defines three levels of certification. Furthermore. These each concentrate on a specific process area within Service Management. the exam board must assess and validate that each person sitting for the Service Manager exam has met all of the defined prerequisites. Service Manager classes involve two weeks of intense study. Foundations classes typically last 2 days. © Copyright IBM Corp. and culminate with a 1-hour multiple choice exam. 9 Practitioner Certificates are available. and one for Service Delivery. you know what you're getting because the levels of certification and testing are independently defined and verified. Next. Each of the Practitioner classes lasts 5 days and ends with a 1-hour multiple choice exam. ITIL Foundation Course: ITIL Defines a Three-Tiered Structure of Certification Training SM251. 2004 .

V3. and the position of a process within the operational or tactical activities of the business. is the IPW Process Model.0. and the most referenced by itSMF (IT Service Management Forum).1. The IPW Model is neither a complete nor a perfect plot of ITIL processes. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. ITIL Foundation Course: Process Chart Reference SM251. however. © Copyright IBM Corp. It will.1 Student Notebook pref IBM Global Services ITIL Foundation Course Process Chart Reference Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington Redwood and KPN Telecoms 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: The chart which aims to show the flow of ITIL processes. just to show some interfaces between processes. Course Introduction xix . be used during the training.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 0-4. a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN.

Student Notebook xx ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp.

V3.1. Unit 1.0. and explain why it is increasingly popular to help managing IT. References BS 15000-1:2002 BS 15000-2:2003 PD 0005:2003 PD 0015:2002 IT Service Management (Part 1: Specification for Service Management) IT Service Management (Part 2: Code of Practice for IT Service Management) IT Service Management – A Manager’s Guide Service Management – Self-Assessment Workbook © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 1. We will start with a short history. then discover ITIL. What ITIL Is 1-1 . you should be able to think about how a formalized framework can help a company manage its asset. What ITIL Is What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to ITIL. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit.

Unit 01: What ITIL is SM251.0 Notes: 1-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-1. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 01 What ITIL is Contents of this module: What ITIL is ITIL history Contents of ITIL books Popularity and benefits of ITIL 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

it looks at the entire lifecycle of managing applications from a service point of view. and is of most interest to customers who see process as important. you need to think about all of the service management elements to make the lifecycle effective. when you are gathering requirements.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-2. but it does not explain in detail how to do it. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1. What ITIL is: ITIL: de facto standard for service management built on industry “best practice” SM251. • Application management is NOT application development. for SAP. • ITIL is a library of books on what you need to do to manage IT as business. For example. Unit 1. as it is clear what service providers know and deliver Formalize the use of procedures so that they are more reliable to follow Improved quality of service – more reliable business support Better motivated staff through better management of expectations and responsibilities 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. • The ITIL framework places a strong emphasis on process. and reduce risks To provide codes of practice in support of total quality Benefits of implementing ITIL Enhanced customer satisfaction. but not a step-by-step methodology A holistic approach to IT infrastructure management ITIL by its widespread use became a de facto standard The aims in developing the IT Infrastructure Library are To facilitate the quality management of IT services.V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services What ITIL is ITIL: de facto standard for service management built on industry “best practice” What is ITIL? ITIL stands for Information Technology Infrastructure Library A set of books that describe best practices for IT infrastructure management An internationally-recognized set of best practices in the public domain • Provides guidance. © Copyright IBM Corp. How will the application be configured? Will it be available at the required service levels? How will new releases be deployed? How will it be supported? And so on. the ITIL book on Service Support is most often referenced. increase effectiveness. What ITIL Is 1-3 .0 Notes: • Service support is currently the most popular topic worldwide in terms of customer popularity. Instead. and in doing so increase the efficiency with which the corporate objectives and business requirements are met To improve efficiency.

Student Notebook • All books are released except for The Business Perspective which will cover the business value chain (customer/IT/business). it is mostly an overview of ITIL's value to the business. business alignment (how an organization is set up. how it is governed. and managing the relationship between IT and business). 2004 . and emphasizes that IT should have a business perspective. © Copyright IBM Corp. 1-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

People Processes Partners 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services What ITIL is Main characteristics of ITIL are: IT services are business-oriented. and outsourcing organizations). Unit 1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. and provision of quality customer service SM251. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. What ITIL is: Main characteristics of ITIL are: IT services are business-oriented.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Products Figure 1-3. vendors.0. processes. and provision of quality customer service Other Characteristics of ITIL – Service and customer focused – Helicopter view of processes and activities – Provides a common language. What ITIL Is 1-5 .V3.1. and partners (suppliers. This makes education very important to provide this common language to all people in the process. architectures or technologies IT management is all about the efficient and effective use of the four Ps: people. – Independent of organizational structures. products (tools and technology).

ITIL is a registered mark of OGC. What ITIL is: Originally created by the UK's Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) SM251. and so on) Consolidated in 1999 into ITIL Version 2.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-4. security management. ITIL has subsequently been used as the basis for the development of a British Standard for Service Management. and the business perspective 2001: the CCTA is incorporated within the Office of Government Commerce (OGC). application management. © Copyright IBM Corp. Two books to improve consistency and focus on service management were published – Service Support and Service Delivery These two core books were supplemented by new books that cover implementation planning.Student Notebook IBM Global Services What ITIL is Originally created by the UK’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) Origin and History of ITIL Originated from UK government in late 1980s (CCTA Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency First publications appeared in 1989 Further developed by incorporating public and private sector best practice (IBM.0 Notes: 1-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Microsoft. 2004 . 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. infrastructure management. HP.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-5.1. What ITIL Is 1-7 . © Copyright IBM Corp.V3. ITIL has subsequently been used as the basis for the development of a British Standard for Service Management.0.ISO Standard PD0015 PD0005 OGC questionnaire ITIL In-house processes & procedures 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Code of Practice [PD0005] .Self-assessment Workbook [PD0015] .Rewrite PD0015/PD0005 .Formal certification scheme . IT Service Management (Part 1: Specification for Service Management) • BS 15000-2:2003.0 Notes: ITIL consists of modules containing advice and guidance on best practice relating to the provision of IT services. IT Service Management – Self Assessment Workbook These documents provide a standard against which organizations can be assessed and certified with regard to the quality of their IT Service Management processes. The standard and ITIL are aligned.Early adopters Feedback Standard BS15000 What to achieve Specification Code of Practice Guidance Management overview Process definitions Deployed solution .Rewrite as Part 1 & 2 . 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Specification [BS15000:2000] . What ITIL is: The BSI roadmap to make ITIL a standard for service management SM251. and the standard has itself been recently revised and is now defined in the following set of documents: • BS 15000-1:2002. Unit 1. IT Service Management (Part 2: Code of Practice for IT Service Management) • PD 0005:2003. IT Service Management – A Manager's Guide • PD 0015:2002.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services What ITIL is The BSI roadmap to make ITIL a standard for service management British Standards Institution (BSI) 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2006 .

The BS 15000 standard is now progressing towards an international (ISO) standard on Service Management. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp. The scheme was designed by the itSMF and is operated under their control. 1-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook A BS 15000 Certification scheme was introduced in July 2003. A number of auditing organizations are accredited within the scheme to assess and certify organizations as compliant to the BS 15000 standard and its content.

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services What ITIL is ITIL is a library of books that aim to describe best practices for IT infrastructure management Content of ITIL “Currently ITIL consists in a set of books. What ITIL Is 1-9 . not a step-by-step “how-to” for managing IT services. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Instead it focuses on best practice that can be utilized in different ways according to need. ITIL provides guidance. which document and place existing methods and activities in a structured context.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-6. What ITIL is: ITIL is a library of books that aim to describe best practices for IT infrastructure management SM251. It describes what needs to be done. not a methodology.0 Notes: ITIL is a framework." ITIL as a Guidance "ITIL does not cast in stone every action you should do on a day to day basis because that is something that will differ from organization to organization.1.V3. but it does include a rich body of documentation.0. Unit 1." 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. but the advice it offers may be implemented in a variety of ways. © Copyright IBM Corp.

2004 . The models show the goals. with a special focus on service management ITIL – Planning to Implement Service Management Technology Business 8 Service Management The Business Perspective Service Support ICT Infrastructure Management Service Delivery Security Management Application Management ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. consistent. IT Service Management is concerned with delivering and supporting IT services that are appropriate to the business requirements of the organization. and coherent set of best practices for IT Service Management processes. ITIL provides a comprehensive. because that is something which will differ from 1-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: The most widely used processes within the ITIL framework are those in Service Management. inputs. Being a framework. promoting a quality approach to achieving business effectiveness and efficiency in the use of information systems. which can be incorporated within IT organizations.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-7. general activities.Student Notebook IBM Global Services What ITIL is The ITIL books describe best practices in IT management. What ITIL is: The ITIL books describe best practices in IT management. ITIL processes are intended to be implemented so that they underpin. © Copyright IBM Corp. but do not dictate. the business processes of an organization. and outputs of the various processes. ITIL describes the contours of organizing Service Management. ITIL does not cast in stone every action you should do on a day-to-day basis. with a special focus on service management SM251.

It provides a framework in which to place existing methods and activities in a structured context. the IT Infrastructure Library can be used within organizations with existing methods and activities in Service Management. Using ITIL does not imply a completely new way of thinking and acting. What ITIL Is 1-11 . Thanks to this framework of proven best practices.V3. © Copyright IBM Corp. Instead. it focuses on best practice that can be utilized in different ways according to need. By emphasizing the relationships between the processes. any lack of communication or cooperation between various IT functions can be eliminated or minimized.1 Student Notebook Uempty organization to organization.1. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Unit 1.0.

but the increasing popularity of ITIL should be leveraged against a broader spectrum of services SM251. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Most people think of ITIL as service support. Most people think of ITIL as service support.0 Figure 1-8. but the increasing popularity of ITIL should be leveraged against a broader spectrum of services • • • • • • Service Desk Configuration Management Incident Management Problem Management Change Management Release Management Planning to implement service management • • • • • Service Level Management Availability Management Capacity Management Financial Management for IT Services IT Services Continuity Management • Not Published (4/2004) • Draft being reviewed (IBMers on review team) Service management The business The business perspective Service support ICT Infrastructure management • • • • Design and Plan Deployment Operations Technical Support The technology Service delivery Software Asset Management Security management • IT Infrastructure Security Management • Security setup from the IT manager's point of view Application management • • • • • What is the vision? Where are we now? Where do we want to be? How do we check our milestones? How do we keep momentum? • • • • Organization & Roles Process Overview Tools & Technology Partners and SAM • • • • • • Manage the Business Value Align Service Delivery with Business Strategy Drivers and Organizational Capability Application Lifecycle Management Organization Roles and Functions Control Methods and Techniques © 2004 IBM Corporation 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 1-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp.

0. including security management (separate ITIL book) Capacity Management Availability Management Service Delivery Provide quality.1 Student Notebook Uempty What ITIL is IBM Global Services Service management focuses on the tactical and operational processes of service support and service delivery and their relationships. What ITIL Is 1-13 . costeffective IT Services IT Service Continuity Service Level Management Financial Management Release Management Service Support .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-9. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. including security management (separate ITIL book) SM251.Provide stability and flexibility for IT service provision Problem Management Configuration Management Change Management Incident Management Security Management 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Unit 1.V3. What ITIL is: Service management focuses on the tactical and operational processes of service support and service delivery and their relationships.1.

11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Release Management Ensure that all technical and non-technical aspects of a release are dealt with in a coordinated approach.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-10. What ITIL is: ITIL processes in service support represent many of the reactive processes within IT operations (operational) SM251. maintaining. and verifying the versions of all configuration items. controlling.Student Notebook IBM Global Services What ITIL is ITIL processes in service support represent many of the reactive processes within IT operations (operational) Service Desk Central point of contact between users and the IT service organization. Incident Management Restore normal service operations as quickly as possible. Change Management Ensure standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient. and authorized handling of all changes in the IT infrastructure. prompt.0 Notes: 1-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Problem Management Prevent and minimize the adverse effect on the business of errors in the IT Infrastructure. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 . Configuration Management Provide a logical model of the IT infrastructure by identifying.

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services What ITIL is Service Delivery focuses on what service the business requires in order to provide adequate support to the business users (tactical) Service Level Management Maintain and improve IT service quality through a constant cycle of agreeing. and reviewing IT service achievements.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. What ITIL is: Service Delivery focuses on what service the business requires in order to provide adequate support to the business users (tactical) SM251. What ITIL Is 1-15 . Security Management Manage a defined level of security on information and IT services.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-11.0. Unit 1. 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Financial Management for IT Services Provide cost-effective stewardship of IT assets and resources used in providing IT services. Capacity Management Ensure that capacity and performance aspects of the business requirements are provided in a timely and cost-effective manner. monitoring. reporting. Availability Management Optimize the capability of the IT infrastructure and supporting organization to deliver a costeffective and sustained level of availability to satisfy business objectives. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. IT Service Continuity Management Ensure that the required IT technical and service facilities can be recovered within the time scales required by Business Continuity Management.1.V3.

0 Notes: Explain the links between processes. © Copyright IBM Corp. and users Incidents Queries Enquiries Communications Updates Workarounds Management tools Incidents Incident management Incidents Service desk Service reports Incident statistics Audit reports Problem management Problem statistics Trend analysis Problem reports Problem review Diagnostic aids Audit reports Customer Survey reports Changes Release Change management Change schedule CAB minutes Change statistics Change reviews Audit reports Release management Release schedule Release statistics Release reviews Secure library Testing standards Audit reports Releases Configuration management CMDB reports CMDB statistics Policy standards Audit reports Incidents Problems Known errors Changes CIs Relationships Configuration management database 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Configuration Management is shown as the basic process. customers. What ITIL is: Service support process (operational processes) relationships and their interaction with the CMDB SM251. 1-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-12.Student Notebook IBM Global Services What ITIL is Service support process (operational processes) relationships and their interaction with the CMDB The business.

and users Availability management Communications Updates Reports Queries Enquiries Availability plan AMDB Design criteria Targets/thresholds Reports Audit reports Capacity management Capacity plan CDB Targets/thresholds Capacity reports Schedules Audit reports Service level management Requirements Targets Achievements SLAs. SLRs.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services What ITIL is Service delivery process (tactical processes) relationships The business. customers.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-13.0. What ITIL Is 1-17 .0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Unit 1. UCs Service reports Service catalog SIP Exception reports Audit reports Financial management for IT services Financial plan Types and models Costs and charges Reports Budgets and forecasts Audit reports IT service continuity management System Management tools Alerts and Exceptions Changes IT continuity plans BIA and risk analysis Requirement definition Control centers DB contracts Reports Audit reports 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. What ITIL is: Service delivery process (tactical processes) relationships SM251.V3. OLAs.

Applications Management . Partnerships and Outsourcing.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-14.Student Notebook IBM Global Services What ITIL is Other ITIL books Planning to Implement Service Management . 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Operations Management. and how to set about reaping those benefits. What ITIL is: Other ITIL books SM251. Computer Installation.covering Network Service Management. expanding the issues touched on in Software Lifecycle Support and Testing of IT Services. Issues covered include Business Continuity Management. with emphasis being placed on clear requirement definition and implementation of solutions. Management of Local Processors. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: These books are not in focus for the foundation. 1-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.embracing the Software Development Lifecycle. Surviving Change. and Transformation of business practices through radical change. 2004 .explains the steps necessary to identify how an organization might expect to benefit from ITIL. and for the first time. and Acceptance. The Business Perspective . Applications Management also provides more detail on Business Change. Systems Management. ICT Infrastructure Management .concerning the understanding and provision of IT service provision.

based on what the business requires. And support services should become more competitive. What ITIL Is 1-19 . along with job expectations.V3. © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services What ITIL is Customers across the globe are asking more and more about ITIL Benefits of ITIL More professional staff Enhanced customer satisfaction as service providers know and deliver what is expected of them Better service quality and responsiveness Properly aligned roles and responsibilities ITIL incorporates a QM strategy Long-term cost reduction for IT services Improved alignment of IT with the business and improved service delivery ITIL brings a cross-organizational focus on business results and customer satisfaction 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and better service quality and responsiveness.0 Notes: ITIL is focused on improving service quality to the customer. 2004 Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. repeatable. Unit 1. and consistent set of IT processes.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-15. a long-term reduction in the cost of IT services. What ITIL is: Customers across the globe are asking more and more about ITIL SM251. Service providers should see better resource utilization — and resources will be allocated based on business demands — and staff will be more professional and motivated because skill requirements and capabilities. Communications between IT departments should improve because the linkages between processes will be documented and understood. Service providers should see improvements in service delivery because they will have a single definable. and they should be able to implement IT infrastructure more quickly to support new business requirements. are better understood. Customer satisfaction should increase because service providers will know and deliver what is expected of them. Customers who adopt the ITIL framework can expect to see improved alignment of IT with the business. scalable. Customers should see a reduction in system outages as proactive planning and quality measures are implemented.0. Roles and responsibilities will be properly aligned and understood. Service providers will also benefit from the adoption of ITIL.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 1-16. procedure. © Copyright IBM Corp. 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Adapt ITIL best practices to achieve business objectives specific to each company. ITIL does not define: Every role.Student Notebook IBM Global Services What ITIL is ITIL implementation: Adopt and Adapt ITIL describes what needs to be done but not how it should be done. or organization design Every tool. every tool requirement. 2004 .0 Notes: 1-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and task required to be implemented ITIL does not claim to be a comprehensive description of everything within IT. Adopt ITIL as a common language and reference point for IT Service Management best practices and key concepts. job. but IT management “best practices” observed and accepted in the industry. What ITIL is: ITIL implementation: Adopt and Adapt SM251. every required customization Every process.

What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit. and how ITIL and Service Management bring value to companies to develop their business. Process Implementation Strategy What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to IT service management as a coordinated set of processes. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. with the ultimate objective of creating visible value for users and business customers.0.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 2. 2004 Unit 2. 2-1 .V3.1. how they evolve. then look at what processes are. We will start with defining the need for processes. you should be able to think about how processes can help a company manage its assets better. © Copyright IBM Corp.

© Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 02 Process Implementation Strategy Content: Understand processes and their benefits Introduce new processes or improve existing processes IT service management project Success factors. Unit 02: Process Implementation Strategy SM251. problem areas.0 Notes: 2-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 . costs 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation What is a process? ITIL focus on Processes A process is a sequence of interrelated activities that collectively take an input.. Process result metrics should be incorporated in regular management reports. The output produced by a process has to conform to operational norms that are derived from business objectives. with the objective of performing the process in an effective and efficient way. Processes. once defined. should be under control.. If products conform to the set norm. Process Implementation: What is a process? SM251. and produce an output which achieves a specific objective CONTROL Policy Budgets . and managed).0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-2.0 Notes: Process control can similarly be defined as: the process of planning and regulating... 2-3 . Degrees of control over processes can be defined. © Copyright IBM Corp. the process can also be considered efficient. the process can be considered effective (because it can be repeated. and then metrics can be built in to manage the control process. Input Requests Incidents Alerts Requirements . add value to it. once under control. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 Unit 2.V3. If the activities are carried out with minimum effort. measured. ENABLE People Tools Knowledge Resources 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1. Process Output Changed environment a report a resolved incident . they can be repeated and become manageable..

© Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 2-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation A process flows across the organizational hierarchies within a company and sometimes flows across company boundaries 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-3. 2004 . Process Implementation: A process flows across the organizational hierarchies within a company and sometimes flows across company boundaries SM251.

1.V3.” managed in ways which facilitate alignment with clients' business objectives. Process Implementation: Why do we need processes? SM251.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.” 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. measurements -Consistent. responsibilities. structured working practices -Policy decisions. and objectives -Clear interfaces and two-way communication paths with other processes.0. scope.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Why do we need processes? Process serves as a foundation for the definition of the remaining elements of the management system-organization and technology Processes capture and document: -Ownership. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-4. controlled. 2004 Unit 2. people. repeatable service that can be objectively measured against contract deliverables and service levels Processes enable: -Efficient and effective service to meet both client and provider needs -Cost and quality improvement “Service-focused processes enable IT technology and organization to be “Service-focused processes enable IT technology and organization to be managed in ways which facilitate alignment with clients' business objectives. and tools Processes ensure a stable. 2-5 .

with the remainder caused by technology failures and disasters -Up to 70% of ROI derives from process improvements rather than tools The implementation and continual improvement of effective processes utilizing best practices enable delivery of a service in which these errors are reduced ””Processes are critical to maintain effective business operations.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation What are the benefits? (1) Gartner has reported that: -Around 70% of systems management technology implementations fail due to neglect of process and organization considerations -Approximately 80% of unplanned downtime is caused by process and people issues. © Copyright IBM Corp.” 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 2-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 . Process Implementation: What are the benefits? (1) SM251.” Processes are critical to maintain effective business operations.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-5.

0. Process Implementation: What are the benefits? (2) SM251.1. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2-7 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation What are the benefits? (2) A cross-organizational focus on commitment versus profitability Customer Commitments Profitability EFFICIENCIES 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.V3. 2004 Unit 2.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-6.

© Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation What are the benefits? (3) A cross-organizational focus on business results and customer satisfaction Delivery Costs Customer Satisfaction • Measurable • Auditable • Service Level Compliant 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-7. 2004 . Process Implementation: What are the benefits? (3) SM251.0 Notes: 2-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-8. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 Unit 2.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Mission-critical changes or reorganizations within an IT corporation require new processes or needs to improve existing processes Which problems do IT organizations face today? Service costs not allocatable Difficulties to justify investments Service improvements not measurable A few people with too many responsibilities Reluctance to change organizational culture Lack of relationship management Which challenges do IT organizations face today? Should quality of IT services be improved? Is a merger with another organization planned? Are any mission-critical business changes planned? – Server consolidation – Additional clients to manage Is any OS migration planned? 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2-9 . Process Implementation: Mission-critical changes or reorganizations within an IT corporation require new processes or needs to improve existing processes SM251.0.V3.1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

0 Notes: 2-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-9. documented. and available for all concerned? Are process inputs measurable and repeatable? How efficiently is the existing IT organization providing services? Method and tools used for process modeling and audit? How are IT processes tool supported? How difficult will it be to introduce or to change a process? 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp. Process Implementation: Continuous processes improvement is also a trigger SM251. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation Continuous processes improvement is also a trigger Does the IT organization have the capability to provide the required service with the required quality? Are IT processes aligned with business processes? How are main processes integrated with each other? Are processes clearly defined.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-10.V3.1.0. Process Implementation: Why implement service management? SM251. 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. imposed cost constraints”.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Why implement service management? The specific goals of IT are to develop and maintain IT services that: Develop and maintain good and responsive relationships with the business Meet the existing IT requirements of the business Are easily developed and enhanced to meet future business needs. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2-11 . within appropriate timescales and costs Make effective and efficient use of all IT resources Contribute to the improvement of the overall quality of IT service within the imposed cost constraints One of the main objectives of ITIL is to assist IT service provider One of the main objectives of ITIL is to assist IT service provider organizations “to improve IT efficiency and effectiveness while organizations “to improve IT efficiency and effectiveness while improving the overall quality of service to the business within improving the overall quality of service to the business within imposed cost constraints”.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 Unit 2.

© Copyright IBM Corp. and organization Providing applications and reporting Availability of applications © 2004 IBM Corporation ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. monitoring customer Process 5 Deploy Solution A delightful dining experience Service Building the infrastructure 12 Contacting potential customer Determine the required quality of service Implement required processes. 2004 .0 Notes: 2-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation Service and Process Preparing tables Process 1 Manage Facilities Greeting and seating Process 2 Handle Customer Interaction Offer selection. taking order Process 3 Understand Customer Requirements Preparing order Process 4 Realize Solution Delivering order. Process Implementation: Service and Process SM251. tools.0 Figure 2-11.

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Service. and work instructions A Service can be defined as: A specific output that provides customer value. and work instructions SM251. 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and who carries them out.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. and is delivered through a series of processes. A set of work instructions defines how one or more activities in a procedure should be carried out. It is a measurable product which is the basis for doing business with customer. Process Implementation: Service. 2004 Unit 2. Process. and varies depending on the organization. Procedure. activities. changes. performed by agents with the intent of satisfying a purpose or achieving a goal.V3.0. and so on. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. A procedure defines who does what. or activities. A Process can be defined as: a connected series of actions. 2-13 . or both. Procedure. A Procedure is a description of logically related activities. Process.1. A procedure may include stages from different processes.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-12.

Process Implementation: Project Management SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp.“ result at a predefined time using predefined resources.“ 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation Project Management When implementing new processes in an organisation.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-13. change direction. there are benefits to running the activity as a project.0 Notes: 2-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. or stop. 2004 . A project can be defined as: A project can be defined as: ”A temporary organization that is needed to achieve a predefined ”A temporary organization that is needed to achieve a predefined result at a predefined time using predefined resources. One of the benefits of adopting a project approach to this activity is that it is possible to undertake the necessary investigations and have designated decision points where a decision can be made to continue with the project.

Customers 4.0 Figure 2-14.1. Staff 4.V3. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 Unit 2. Infrastructure 2. Strategy 6. 2-15 . Culture & 6. Customers 5. Process 1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Factors who will influence the success of an ITSM project 1. Process 2. Infrastructure 3.0. Staff 3. Culture & Organization Organization 2 3 6 1 4 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Process Implementation: Factors who will influence the success of an ITSM project 5 © 2004 IBM Corporation SM251. Strategy 5.

Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation People implement the staff training plan and make this an ongoing activity. 2004 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-15.0 Notes: 2-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. know-how to enable process I – informed is informed about the process and the process quality 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Process Implementation: People SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp. and make this part of their function description delegate tasks and authorizations as low as possible in the organisation. focusing on both social and technical skills assign roles within the ITIL model to people. Authority matrix: The ARCI model A– accountability control the results of a process R – responsibility is responsible for the process and process activities C – consulted provide expertise.

Process Implementation: Each task within a process is executed by a role SM251.0.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 Unit 2.1. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-16.V3. 2-17 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Each task within a process is executed by a role Typical roles within IT Service Management (ITSM) Process owner Process manager Process team member (internal and external) 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

Process Implementation: ITSM Project (1) SM251.0 Notes: 2-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 . budget.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-17. an organization should have a vision about what the results are intended to be. 18 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation ITSM Project (1) Before starting a project. By defining the means necessary to achieve the project result. it is possible to isolate these assets (people. and so on) from the day-to-day activities. This increases the success rate of the project.

0. Visions and business objectives Where do we want to be? Where are we now? Assessments How do we get where we want to be? Process change How do we know we have arrived? Metrics 19 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Process Implementation: ITSM Project (2) SM251. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation ITSM Project (2) The following process model should be used by the organization as the framework for the process improvement/introduction project.V3. 2004 Unit 2. 2-19 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-18.

© Copyright IBM Corp. Process Implementation: From the above model.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-19. 5 phases of a ITSM project are definable Assessment the current situation Production of the project plan Definition of processes -Process model -Procedures -Authority matrix -Roles and responsibilities Specification -Management information -Quality assurance methods -Support tools Communication Strategy Organization -Management reports -Procedures -Tool Implementation/Improvement Project Review 20 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 . 5 phases of a ITSM project are definable SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation From the above model.0 Notes: 2-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

after which a phase of consolidation prevents the “circle” from “rolling down the hill” as illustrated in the figure. © Copyright IBM Corp. a series of improvements have been made to processes that require documentation (both to allow processes to be repeatable and to facilitate recognition of the achievement of some form of quality standard). check. Deming proposed the Deming Cycle (or Circle).V3. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: For quality improvement. Process Implementation: Ongoing quality improvement SM251. 2-21 .1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Ongoing quality improvement Maturity Level The Deming Cycle Clockwise direction Quality improvement Continuous step by step OPTIMIZED 5 Do MANAGED 4 Plan Act Quality Assurance P D C A = Plan = Do = Check = Act Check DEFINED 3 REPEATABLE 2 Consolidation of the level reached (e.0. The four key stages are plan. do. Often. The consolidation phase enables the organization to take stock of what has been taking place and to ensure that improvements are embedded.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-20. and act. BSI) INITIAL 1 Time Scale 21 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.g ISO 9001. 2004 Unit 2.

A well-planned and executed communication plan will have a direct positive contribution to the success of the project. A Service Management project will involve a lot of people but. typically. Managing communications effectively involves the following nine steps: 2-22 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Communication is more than a one-way information stream. © Copyright IBM Corp. the outcome will affect the working lives of many more. 2004 .0 Notes: Managing change can only succeed with the correct use of communication. In order to ensure that all parties are aware of what is going on and can play a relevant part in the project. Implementing or improving Service Management within an organization requires a change of mindset by IT management and IT employees as well as IT customers and users. Communication around this transformation is essential to its success. It requires continuous attention to the signals (positive and negative) of the various parties involved. Process Implementation: Communication Plan SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-21. it is advisable to clarify how the project will communicate with all interested parties. 22 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Managing communications effectively involves the following nine steps: Describe the communications process in the change process from the start Analyze the communication structure and culture Identify the important target groups Assess the communication goals for each target group Formulate a communication strategy for each target group Choose the right communication media for each target group Write a communication plan Communicate Measure and redirect if necessary. In order to ensure that all parties are aware of what is going on and can play a relevant part in the project.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation Communication Plan Managing change can only succeed with the correct use of communication. it is advisable to clarify how the project will communicate with all interested parties. A good communication plan should be built on a proper concept of what communication is.

Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. means.1. a communication plan shows how actions. A communication plan describes how target groups. and budgets are to be allocated for the communication process. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 Unit 2. and media are connected in a timeframe. Much like a project plan. people.1 Student Notebook Uempty • Describing the communications process in the change process from the start • Analyzing the communication structure and culture • Identifying the important target groups • Assessing the communication goals for each target group • Formulating a communication strategy for each target group • Choosing the right communication media for each target group • Writing a communication plan • Communicating • Measuring and redirecting if necessary.0.V3. 2-23 . contents.

2004 . Process Implementation: Global Consideration R SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation Global Consideration Process ct pl a n ff ff ev ie w © 2004 IBM Corporation O oj e s gn es High-level process model gn Si O Detailed process description Process implementation Pr Si As s Product Define tool requirements Tool selection Installation & configuration People Awareness ITIL training Process workshops 23 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Figure 2-22. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 2-24 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Process Description To document processes.V3. the following should be described: A description of related activities with a defined goal Which input for the process Interfaces to other processes Definition of process parameters (who. Process Implementation: Process Description SM251.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 Unit 2.0.1. what. where. when) The benefits of process description: Process integrity Consistent view Comparable procedures Easy check and review 24 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-23. 2-25 .

attributes) Inputs Activities Outputs Process goals and implementation strategies 25 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. parameters. Process Implementation: High-Level Design of a Process SM251. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation High-Level Design of a Process Organization strategy Organization targets Evaluation (Control points.0 Notes: 2-26 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-24.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-25. Process Implementation: A Process Implementation considers both an initial process design and an improvement of the existing environment SM251. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation A Process Implementation considers both an initial process design and an improvement of the existing environment Inputs / Premises High-level process flow Procedures Roles and responsibilities Tool (installed and configured) Personal (skills and know-how) Management commitment Enabler team in relation to the ”authority matrix“ – Awareness und acceptance by customer/user Develop a training plan – Define target groups – Define training content after workshops – – – – – – – Develop a timetable – Setup of workshops and training events – Presentations – Handouts and documents – Marketing material Plan of workshops and deployment Specify time and goals of coaching phase Plan of the Initial Process Review and Adjustment phase 26 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2-27 . 2004 Unit 2.0.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3.

2004 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-26. Process Implementation: A review is important for quality assurance SM251.0 Notes: 2-28 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation A review is important for quality assurance Post-Project Review Achievement of the project's objectives Performance against plan (estimated time and costs versus actuals) Effect on the original plan and business case over the time of the project Statistics on issues raised and changes made Total impact of changes approved Statistics on the quality of the work carried out (in relation to stated expectations) Lessons learned Auditing for compliance using defined quality parameters and metrics 27 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

0 Notes: As the project draws to a close.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Define Improve ITIL Best Practices Service Management Control Evaluate 28 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2-29 .1. Process Implementation: A review is important for quality assurance SM251.0.V3. it is important to analyze how the project was managed and to identify lessons that were learned along the way.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-27. An End Project Report typically covers: • Achievement of the project's objectives • Performance against plan (estimated time and costs versus actuals) • Effect on the original plan and business case over the time of the project • Statistics on issues raised and changes made • Total impact of changes approved • Statistics on the quality of the work carried out (in relation to stated expectations) • Lessons learned • A post-project review plan © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 Unit 2. This information can then be used to benefit the project team as well as the organization as a whole. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

this task will be easier once you have determined the required service levels and internal service requirements. If necessary. if at all. but what information is required should be clearly thought through from the start of the project so that measurement is possible during the post-project review. 2004 . However. The nature of the information required will vary depending on how you decide to judge each aspect. © Copyright IBM Corp. Quality parameters need to be quantified for your own circumstances. Generic quality parameters for IT Service Management: Generic quality parameters that need to be considered include: • Customer satisfaction • Staff satisfaction • Efficiency • Effectiveness Appropriate information should be collected to rate the organization’s performance relative to these parameters. delivery of benefits needs to be assessed at a point after the project products have been put into use. Process-specific parameters Process-specific metrics for each process are discussed in each of the process-specific chapters of this book.Student Notebook Post-project review The business case will have been built from the premise that the outcome of the project will deliver benefits to the business over a period of time. 2-30 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Both of these can be used to improve future business cases. There are two types of quality parameters: process-specific and generic. Each of the benefits mentioned in the business case should be assessed to see how well. or unexpected problems. Thus. follow-up actions may be identified to improve the situation that then exists. it has been achieved. The post-project review is used to assess whether the expected benefits have been realized. you can determine whether the IT organization is effective and efficient. as well as to investigate whether problems have arisen from use of the products. Other issues to consider are whether there were additional benefits. Auditing for compliance using quality parameters Process quality parameters can be seen as the “operational thermometer” of the IT organization. Using them.

0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 Unit 2. and business activities.0. 2-31 . Process Implementation: Critical success factors SM251. and deliver business-driven rather than technologydriven services Enhance customer satisfaction Improve value for money.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-28. and service quality Deliver an infrastructure for the controlled operation of ongoing services by formalized and disciplined processes Equip staff with goals and an understanding of customers' needs 29 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Critical success factors Successful Service Management processes should: Be of sound design. concerns. but rigorous in their expectation of discipline in the manner of their following Provide a good understanding of the customer requirements. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. resource utilization.1.V3. adapted to the culture of the organization in question.

Student Notebook IBM Global Services Process Implementation Possible problems Problems with Service Management processes that may be encountered include: Excessively bureaucratic processes. so that service targets are rarely hit No discernible improvement 30 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 2-32 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. with a high percentage of the total support headcount dedicated to administering Service Management Inconsistent staff performance for the same process (often accompanied by noticeable lack of commitment to the process from the responsible staff) Lack of understanding on what each process should deliver No real benefits. or quality improvements arising from the implementation of Service Management processes Unrealistic expectations. service-cost reductions. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-29. Process Implementation: Possible problems SM251.

and training in business awareness) • Documentation costs © Copyright IBM Corp. Process Implementation: Project costs SM251. project team for implementation. 2004 Unit 2. training in specific tools.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Process Implementation Project costs The costs associated with the implementation and running of the processes are roughly categorized as follows: Project management costs Project delivery costs (consultancy fees. The costs of implementing IT Infrastructure Library processes clearly vary according to the scale of operations. The costs associated with the implementation and running of the processes are roughly categorized as follows: • Project management costs • Project delivery costs (consultancy fees. and training in business awareness) Documentation costs Ongoing staff and accommodation costs (for running the processes. Process Implementation Strategy Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and what the ongoing running costs of the Service Management processes will be. it is essential to be clear about what the project costs are. 2-33 . process owner) Equipment and software Training costs (including awareness. 31 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. project team for implementation.V3. including subsequent training needs).0. while the running costs form a commitment for the organization that may involve long-term contracts with suppliers.1. process owner) • Equipment and software • Training costs (including awareness.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 2-30. training in specific tools. Project costs are one-off costs.0 Notes: When building the business case for a project.

2004 .Student Notebook • Ongoing staff and accommodation costs (for running the processes. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2-34 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. including subsequent training needs) The costs of failing to provide effective processes can be considerable.

2004 Unit 3.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 3. © Copyright IBM Corp. the single point of contact between the users and the IT Services organization.V3. you should be able to think about the responsibilities and obligations of the service desk. and understand the benefits of the ITIL framework. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit.1. 3-1 . Service Desk (SPOC) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Service Desk (SPOC) What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to the Service Desk.0.

Unit 03: Service Desk (SPOC) SM251. benefits. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 03 Service Desk (SPOC) Content: Service Desk – objective and overview Responsibilities and obligations Important aspects – – – – User interaction Service Desk technologies Operational standards Implementation considerations Costs.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-1.0 Notes: 3-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. risks Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.

1. 2004 Unit 3. Service Desk (SPOC) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0. Service Desk: Integration into the IPW Model SM251.V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Desk Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 3-3 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-2.

.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-3.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Desk The Service Desk is the Single Point of Contact [SPOC] between the users and the IT Services Organization ITIL defines customers and users Customers People (generally senior managers) who commission.. sometimes referred to as "the business" Users People who use the services on a day-to-day basis Incident Problem Change . and own the IT services. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 3-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. pay for. Service Desk: The Service Desk is the Single Point of Contact [SPOC] between the users and the IT Services Organization SM251.. 2004 . Service Desk Users IT Service Organization Customers 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

the Service Desk is there to: provide a central communication interface recover interrupted service as soon as possible Requests Requests Incidents Incidents Service Desk as Single Point of Contact 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Desk Mission Statement The Service Desk is the focal point for all service requests from the business users to the IT organization To record and manage the life cycle of incidents. a Service Desk or Service Desk organization is recommended.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-4. Service Line. Service Desk: Mission Statement SM251.1. and First-Level Support are used as synonyms for Service Desk. Help Desk. with an emphasis in rapid restoration of service with minimal business impact. Service Desk (SPOC) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 3-5 .0.V3.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. For the users. 2004 Unit 3.

Definition of clear processes to support the activities of Service Desk members (Incident Management process). 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp. Service Desk: The Service Desk is traditionally seen as a group of specialists who have the required knowledge to process any kind of request or incident SM251. but mainly in the “immediate recovery of the user’s service”. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Desk The Service Desk is traditionally seen as a group of specialists who have the required knowledge to process any kind of request or incident The Function Service Desk can reach a high efficiency using the following measures: Definition of the “service” mentality in the Service Desk documentation. The importance of the Service Desk is seen particularly in its special role as interface between IT and the user.0 Notes: 3-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-5. Definition of close relationships between Service Desk and other important ITSM processes. such as Problem Management. thus the Service Desk represents the IT organization from the user’s point of view. The task of the Service Desk does not only consist of “resolving an incident”.

directly performs customer-oriented service. Service Desk (SPOC) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. ... centrally evaluates incident reports. 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.. Service Desk: The Importance of the Service Desk SM251. . proves the effectiveness of changes and improvements performed... ..1. reduces customer requests on a long-term basis. recognizes problems early... ...1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Desk The Importance of the Service Desk The Service Desk ..0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 3-7 . .0.. interacts with the users... .. supplies information about IT productivity.. .. is a decisive factor of the acceptance of IT.V3. is able to organize support with high availability economically. performs organized support.. coordinates second.... instead of disorganized support performed in a rush.. ... 2004 Unit 3..0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-6.. .... ...... recognizes the current needs of the user. . strives to provide a faster and more direct incident recovery...... .and third-level support.

2004 . The Service Desk informs about: current status of services usability planned changes Service quality supports customer relations. complaints. This function is held by an internal organization unit.. requirements. .. and so on. and especially competency..0 The Service Desk is a function of Service Management and not a process within Service Management.. information.. Communication is key for quality of service. dedication . IT services demands a position which fulfils this task with... 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 3-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. All requests.. claims.. and information is passed from there via the Service Desk to the customer. Because of the importance of communication with users.. SPOC – Single Point of Contact.. wishes. © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-7. are transferred via the Service Desk to the relevant departments.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Desk Communication Communication is one of the success factors for IT services management. Service Desk: Communication SM251.

Service Desk: Service Desk Responsibility SM251. 2004 Unit 3.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Desk Service Desk Responsibility The Service Desk is responsible for: Servicing the user contact point Controlling incident recovery Supporting the running of the business Providing management information SPOC Incident Mgmt 1st Level Support Reporting 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 3-9 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-8.0. Service Desk (SPOC) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3.1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

© Copyright IBM Corp.and 3rd-line support Helping to identify problems by recording all incidents Providing management information and recommendations for service improvement Communicating planned changes to users 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. including forwarding to second level. until closure and verification with the user Requesting incident classification and initial support.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-9. within Service Level Agreements (SLA) Keeping customer informed on request status and priority Initiating escalation procedures in relation to the SLA Coordinating incident handling until resolution with 2nd. 2004 .0 Notes: 3-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Service Desk: Service Desk Activities SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Desk Service Desk Activities Call handling Recording and tracking service requests. including incidents.

0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. delivery of information material user user informed informed user user admin admin request request entry entitlement check initiation of measures change user with user with change change direct solution incident incident registration. information if required.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-10.1. 2004 Unit 3.0. Service Desk (SPOC) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Service Desk: Processes within the Service Desk SM251. 3-11 .V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Desk Processes within the Service Desk user user request request creation of ticket advise. analysis transfer 2nd level callback documentation customer information satisfied satisfied user user tracking and escalation complaint complaint complaint entry handling recover satisfaction initiation of follow-up actions satisfied satisfied user user 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Service Desk

Inputs and Outputs

Telephone requests Request via e-mail/voice/ video Requests via Internet/ browser

Fax requests Hardware/ application events

Escalations Service Desk

Management information and monitoring

External service support

Product support

Sales & Marketing

Contract support

Internal service support

12

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 3-11. Service Desk: Inputs and Outputs

SM251.0

Notes:

3-12 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Service Desk

There are 3 Service Desk Types (1): the Local Service Desk
There is no “universal” type of Service Desk. Choosing which one to adopt depends on a number of factors: Establishment of identical processes and procedures in all locations Transfer of local skills to other Service Desks Assurance of compatibility of hardware, software, and network Usage of identical escalation processes and identical codes for impact, severities, priorities, and status in all locations
Local Service Desk
First-Level-Support User 1 User 2 User 3

Desktop Support

Network Support

Application Support

System & Operation Support

Vendor Support

13

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 3-12. Service Desk: There are 3 Service Desk Types (1): the Local Service Desk

SM251.0

Notes:
These three slides describe the key factors of each service desk type.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 3. Service Desk (SPOC)
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

3-13

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Service Desk

There are 3 Service Desk Types (2): Central Service Desk
Customer location 1 Customer location 2 Customer location 3

Central Service Desk

First-level support

Reduced operational costs Consolidated management overview Improved usage of available resources

Second-level support

Desktop support

Network support

Application support

System & operation support

Other manufacturer support

14

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 3-13. Service Desk: There are 3 Service Desk Types (2): Central Service Desk

SM251.0

Notes:

3-14 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Service Desk

There are 3 Service Desk Types (3): Virtual Service Desk
“Follow the sun” Common, agreed-on language should be used for data entry Depends on the technology in use (not every tool is able to build a VSD)
Amsterdam Service-Desk Seattle Service Desk

Virtual
Sydney Service Desk

Service Desk

Service Management database

location 1

location ‘n’
local user other manufacturer/ supplier service desks
© 2004 IBM Corporation

remote user
15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

Figure 3-14. Service Desk: There are 3 Service Desk Types (3): Virtual Service Desk

SM251.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 3. Service Desk (SPOC)
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

3-15

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Service Desk

User empowerment (self-help) enhances customer satisfaction while lowering support cost
User value: Empowers them with ability to resolve problems at their own pace Benefit from the ability to get assistance in context Spend less time on call resolution Avoids costly and inconvenient re-imaging solutions Consistent 7x24 support experience Support Center Value: Self-support tools and self-healing tools eliminate calls to the call center Arms the agent with information about the user prior to initiating contact Remote control and chat improve agent productivity Increases customer satisfaction Reduces dependency on desk-side support Allows support professionals to focus on the incidents that do require assistance

16

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 3-15. Service Desk: User empowerment (self-help) enhances customer satisfaction while lowering support cost

SM251.0

Notes:

3-16 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Service Desk

A crucial success factor is standardized working methods
In order to ensure efficiency, person-independent quality, integrity of data, and traceability, a highly standardized working method is necessary. Therefore, actions are mainly performed: supported by tools with electronic forms on standard solution and configuration databases For help, one can refer to a support manual, which contains all procedures and necessary information.

17

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 3-16. Service Desk: A crucial success factor is standardized working methods

SM251.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 3. Service Desk (SPOC)
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

3-17

0 Notes: 3-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. you will have to consider the following points: Number of expected calls Structure of the Service Desk: central or local Tools (hardware. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 . several phases with defined milestones Marketing of new services 18 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. the following points have to be considered: Business goals that users aim for Support by management Involvement of users to find a common understanding Involvement of members of staff Explain to those involved the benefits and their responsibilities In project management quick wins. and working procedures of the users Service Desk processes Workload distribution between first-.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-17. and telephone systems) The way business operates. and third-level support Know-how of Service Desk team For setting up a Service Desk. Service Desk: Setting up a Service Desk SM251. second-.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Desk Setting up a Service Desk For the conceptual design of a Service Desk. software.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-18.0. and current costs for employees. employees.V3. 2004 Unit 3. premises and telephony 19 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Service Desk: Benefits and Costs SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Desk Benefits and Costs Benefits: Complete incident control Effective support of the specialist department Higher user productivity Improved relationship between IT and users Significant management information Costs: Costs vary depending on type and volume of Service Desk tasks Include purchase price for hardware. and premises. 3-19 . software.1. Service Desk (SPOC) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

0 Notes: 3-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Service Desk: Risks SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-19.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Desk Risks Without Service Desk: Users don’t know whom to contact in case of an incident Incidents are not registered and get forgotten Incident escalation cannot be addressed properly IT specialists are interrupted by user calls Higher effort for resolving problems No conclusive management information With Service Desk: The Service Desk could become a bottleneck when there are more incidents or users than expected User still contact the specialists if they had been doing this in the past Tensions between Service Desk and other IT service fields are likely. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp. especially if the Service Desk does not escalate in compliance with regulations or even report directly to IT management 20 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Desk Best Practices Standardized documentation of caller data Automatic ID allocation of the request. 2004 Unit 3.0. sending of return receipt and feedback form Selective administration of user data in the Configuration Management Data Base Usage of CTI and ACD technologies (voice calls. Service Desk (SPOC) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3.1. 3-21 . Service Desk: Best Practices SM251. routing. and so on) Utilization of system monitoring for early detection of service impairment Staff from second-level support are temporarily deployed in Service Desk Large Service Desks are structured in teams with special know-how and are supported by skill routing Working with super users CTI = Computer Telephony Integration ACD: Automatic Call Distribution 21 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-20.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Desk Summary Service Desk is a function. not a process within Service Management Service Desk is the focal point for all service requests from business users directed to the IT organization (including third-party providers). Service Desk: Summary SM251. Central. and Virtual Service Desk 22 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 .0 Notes: 3-22 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and manages them within Service Level Agreements Service Desk responsibilities include: – – – – Single Point of Contact (SPOC) Incident Management First-level support Reporting Service Desk is the window on the level of service offered by the IT organization to the business Keeps users up-to-date with the status of their service request Provides management information on relevant topics regarding the service Three Service Desk types: Local. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 3-21.

0. 4-1 .1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 4. Incident Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Incident Management. and understand the benefits of the ITIL framework. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp.V3.1. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit. and its relationship with the Service Desk. 2004 Unit 4. you should be able to think about the responsibilities and obligations of this service.

2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 04 Incident Management Content: Incident Management – objective and overview Some definitions Responsibilities and obligations Important aspects: – – – – Incident lifecycle Incident recording Incident priority Escalation Benefits and risks Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-1.0 Notes: 4-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Unit 04: Incident Management SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp.

V3. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-2.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 4-3 . 2004 Unit 4. Incident Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251.0.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

and minimize the adverse impact on business operations. Incident Management: Mission statement SM251.0 Notes: 4-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. within Service Level Agreement limits. after an incident has occurred to that service. as quickly as possible. The Service Desk is responsible for monitoring the resolution process of all registered incidents.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management Mission statement The primary goal of incident management is to restore normal service operation. Goals of Incident Management: Restore the service as quickly as possible. 2004 . Practice shows that handling both of failures in the infrastructure and of service requests is similar. Minimum disruption to users’ work Management of an incident during its entire lifecycle Support of operational activities 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and both are therefore included in the definition and scope of the process for Incident Management. The process is mostly reactive. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-3. To react efficiently and effectively therefore demands a formal method of working that can be supported by software tools. indeed the Service Desk is the owner of all incidents.

1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Definition: Incident. not part of the standard operation of a service. Incident Management: Definition: Incident. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-4. 2004 Unit 4.0. which causes.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. “Known Error” A problem which is successfully diagnosed and for which a workaround has been identified 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 4-5 . Problem and “Known Error” SM251.V3. an interruption or reduction in the quality of that service Problem (Unknown Error) The unknown cause of one or more incidents (which are not resolved in any case when finalizing the incident) Normally a problem record is raised only if investigation is warranted. or may cause. Problem and “Known Error” Incident An event.

0 Notes: Help desk and incident control: Even if the incident is transferred to second.or third-level support.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management Tasks Support of operational processes User Interface Incident Incident Management Management Management Information Incident Control Problem Management 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 . 4-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. and so on. the service desk is responsible for the management of the incident. giving feedback to the user.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-5. Incident Management: Tasks SM251.

tracking. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Activity incident handling Progress control Incident ownership.0 Notes: Incident management activities: • Incident handling • To restore normal working conditions as quickly as possible • Incident monitoring • Registration of incidents © Copyright IBM Corp. 4-7 . Incident Management: Activity incident handling SM251. 2004 Unit 4.0.0 Figure 4-6. monitoring.1. and communication Identification and registration of incidents First classification and support Responsibility Yes Service Request? No Analysis and diagnosis Service Request Procedure Reporting Quality assurance Troubleshooting and recovery Incident closure © 2004 IBM Corporation 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

Some examples of status categories might include: • New • Accepted • Scheduled • Assigned/dispatched to specialist • Work in progress (WIP) • On hold • Resolved • Closed 4-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Incident Management: The status of an incident reflects its current position in its lifecycle SM251. sometimes known as its workflow position. 2004 .0 closed © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-7.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management The status of an incident reflects its current position in its lifecycle Incident detection and recording new accepted Classification and initial support planned Yes Service Request? No Investigation and diagnosis on hold Resolution and recovery Service Request Procedure assigned in process solved Incident closure 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp. Everyone should be aware of each status and its meaning.0 Notes: The status of an Incident reflects the current position in its lifecycle.

When responding to the customer. 4-9 . This allows any member of the service team to provide a customer with an up-to-date progress report. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. it is important that the incident record be maintained. important to retain the description of the original symptoms. which is found to be have been caused by a network failure. © Copyright IBM Corp.1. It is. the customer may have reported a printer not working.V3. however. Examples of update activities include: • Update history details • Modify status (such as “new” to “work-in-progress” or “on hold”) • Modify business impact or priority • Enter time spent and costs • Monitor escalation status An originally reported customer description may change as the incident progresses.0.1 Student Notebook Uempty Throughout an Incident lifecycle. it is better initially to explain that the printer incident has been resolved rather than to talk about resolution of network problems. 2004 Unit 4. both for analysis and so that you can refer to the complaint in the same terms used in the initial report. For example.

information evaluation. 2004 . evaluation. © Copyright IBM Corp. tracking. Ownership. tracking. information Process for Service Request CMDB CMDB Investigation and diagnosis Investigation and diagnosis Resolution and recovery Resolution and recovery Incident closure Incident closure Problem Problem errors errors DB DB Change Management 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 4-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Problem Management © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-8.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Desk Data center Data center operation operation Net operation Net operation Organization Organization Other sources Other sources Report of an incident Incident detection and recording Incident detection and recording Classification and initial support Classification and initial support Service Request? Ownership. Relationship with other IT services SM251.

time Category History 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1. documentation. Incident Management: Use of standard registration. time Status Effect. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. severity.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-9. and methods is basis of success Data about an incident Identification & registration of incidents First classification and support Service Request? No Analysis and diagnosis Yes Service Request Procedure Troubleshooting and recovery Reporter of the incident Name.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Use of standard registration. documentation. 4-11 . priority Service Level Incident Closure Affected system Inventory number. and methods is basis of success SM251. 2004 Unit 4. user ID Phone number Department Department number Affected person Incident ID Date. CI ID Class/ type/ model Symptom description Category Free text description Problem editor Transfer to Performed actions Solution Date.V3.

Criteria for assigning impact should be set up in consultation with the business managers and formalized in SLAs. Impact is a measure of the business criticality of an incident or problem. incidents. 4-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-10. © Copyright IBM Corp. match against SLA. will depend upon: • Impact on the business • Urgency to the business • Size. and complexity of the incident • Resource availability. often equal to the extent to which an incident leads to degradation of agreed service levels. for coping in the meantime. Impact is often measured by the number of people or systems affected. and therefore the amount of effort to be put into the resolution of. match against SLA. and its impact on the business. 2004 .0 Notes: One of the important aspects of managing an incident is to define its priority: how important it is. Incident Management: Classification: Find service affected. scope. and assign priority Identification & registration of incidents First classification and support Classification: Yes Service Request Procedure Service Request? No Analysis and diagnosis Troubleshooting and recovery Incident Closure Impact – Reflects business criticality of the incident – Reflects extent to which an incident leads to degradation of SLA.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management Classification: Find service affected. such as number of users that suffer Urgency – Reflects required speed of solving an incident Workload – Reflects expected effort to solve the incident Priority – Reflects order in which to solve the incidents Priority = Impact x Urgency 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. The responsibility for its definition lies with Service Level Management within the parameters set in the Service Level Agreement (SLA). The priority with which incidents need to be resolved. and recovery from. and for correcting the fault. and assign priority SM251.

1. 2004 Unit 4. must be recovered immediately Urgency Priority 4 Limited damage. does not need to be recovered immediately Impact 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Incident Management: Priority order for handling incidents is primarily defined by impact and urgency SM251. should be recovered immediately Priority 1 Significant damage. 4-13 .0. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-11. does not need to be recovered immediately Priority 3 Significant damage.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Priority order for handling incidents is primarily defined by impact and urgency A simple priority matrix example Priority 2 Limited damage.V3.

does not need to be recovered immediately Priority 4: Limited damage.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management Each priority is related to a certain recovery time… Priority 1: Significant damage. does not need to be recovered immediately 1 hour 2 hours 4 hours 8 hours 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 4-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Incident Management: Each priority is related to a certain recovery time… SM251. 2004 . must be recovered immediately Priority 2: Limited damage.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-12. should be recovered immediately Priority 3: Significant damage.

2004 Unit 4. and primarily takes place because of a lack of knowledge or expertise.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management … This results in an appropriate escalation Functional versus hierarchical escalation Managing Board Information / Support (Escalation) Hierarchical Escalation Incident Mgt. functional escalation also takes place when agreed time intervals elapse. Hierarchical escalation can take place at any moment during the resolution process when it is likely that the resolution of an incident will not be in time or satisfactory. In case of a lack of knowledge or expertise.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-13. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Incident Management: … This results in an appropriate escalation SM251. 4-15 . Functional Escalation Transfer or integration of further knowledge carriers 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.V3. equipment. The automatic functional escalation based on time intervals should be planned carefully and should not exceed the (SLA) agreed resolution times. or both (exception) • Functional (horizontal escalation): for example.1. ask a specialist (second-line support) Transferring an incident from first-line to second-line support groups or further is called functional escalation. It can take place during every activity in the resolution process.0. Preferably. asking management for more human resources. There are two levels of escalation possible: • Hierarchical (vertical escalation): for example. hierarchical escalation is generally performed manually (by the © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: Escalation is the mechanism that assists timely resolution of an incident.

this takes place long enough before the (SLA) agreed resolution time is exceeded so that corrective actions by authorized line management can be carried out. Preferably. when it is likely that a timely resolution will fail. 4-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Automatic hierarchical escalation can be considered after a certain critical time interval.Student Notebook Service Desk or other support staff). 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp. for example hiring third-party specialists.

Escalation can usefully improve service provision only if it is accepted by all parties.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Incident Management: Escalation SM251. The definition of an escalation comprises: escalation trigger escalation measures escalation levels The combination of the three keys results in an escalation matrix with escalation paths The escalation procedures should be clearly agreed between all involved parties. 2004 Unit 4.1.0. 4-17 . 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.V3. Escalation should not be misused as a proof of guilt.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-14.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Escalation Objective of an escalation or escalation procedure is the avoidance or minimizing of material or immaterial damage.

© Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management Escalation – Trigger and Measures Escalation trigger The escalation trigger indicates at which opportunity. increased.0 Notes: 4-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. such as to the higher hierarchical level. or incident the procedure of processing a problem will be intensified. incident processing is intensified. state. increased. Increased assignment of resources: budget. 2004 . or changed in order to recover the service. staff. such as calling in third level or the vendor.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-15. material 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. after exceeding the reaction time one hour before the expiration of the recovery time when exceeding the recovery time after the third transfer VIP Escalation measures Once an escalation has been released. or changed in order to recover the service. This results in raising of three general possible measures: Organisational measurements. Incident Management: Escalation – Trigger and Measures SM251. Information.

2004 Unit 4. very high priority of the disrupted service 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1. or changed. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. threatening exceeding or already expired recovery time. Incident Management: Escalation – Escalation Levels SM251. increased.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Escalation – Escalation Levels Escalation Levels Escalation levels ensure that for repeated occurrences of an escalation trigger.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-16.0. the according measures are intensified.V3. Reasons for increasing the escalation level can be the following: threatening exceeding or already expired reaction time. 4-19 .

2004 .0 Figure 4-17.0 Notes: 4-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. Incident Management: Escalation – Example of an Escalation Matrix SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management Escalation – Example of an Escalation Matrix Escalation steps Priority 1 very urgent and very important urgent and important urgent and not important not urgent and important not urgent and not important to inform measures to inform measures to inform measures to inform measures to inform measures © 2004 IBM Corporation 0 1 2 Measures 3 4 2 3 4 5 18 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 4-21 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-18.0.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Input and Output Input Incident reports from Service Desk and Monitoring Information about users. service levels Information about solutions.1. Incident Management: Input and Output SM251. tested workarounds Information about changes performed Output Requests for change to Change Management Information about incidents or problems to Problem Management Solved and closed incidents Information to the user Reports to management 19 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.V3. system configuration. 2004 Unit 4.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

Incident Management: Benefits SM251.0 Notes: 4-22 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management Benefits Reduced business impact of incidents by timely resolution Proactive identification of possible enhancements Management information related to business-focused SLA Improved monitoring Improved management information related to aspects of service Better staff utilization: no more interruption-based handling of incidents Elimination of lost incidents and service requests Better CMDB information Better user/customer satisfaction 20 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-19.

1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Risks Potential problem areas: No management/staff commitment. 4-23 . 2004 Unit 4.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-20. hence no resources Lack of clarity of business needs Badly-defined service goals Working practices not reviewed or changed No service levels defined with customer Lack of knowledge on resolving incidents The quality of the Configuration Database No integration with other processes Resistance to using process 21 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Incident Management: Risks SM251.V3.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0.

Interpersonal skills are essential for service desk personnel. they may revert to calling their favorite support specialist and bypass the service desk. Consider how many of your technical staff are currently skilled and trained to manage the customer interface for your department or organization. Some service desks may have just a "dispatching" role concerning incoming calls. but knows that this is not always practical. as every contact with the customer is an opportunity to improve the customer’s perception of the IT function. and other individuals may then have to handle the incoming incidents from a technical point of view. once an incident has been reported. 4-24 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: The integration with Service Level management means that the service desk is aware of the availability and constraints within the provision of services.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-21. It is important to engender in customers and users the confidence that. it will be professionally managed. they might stop calling on IT altogether.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Incident Management Best Practices Integration with Service Level Management Qualified processing of requests instead of simple transfer More important than just a cost reduction is the increase of the company’s efficiency Separation of incident and problem management 22 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. It would be preferable. In some cases. rather than just registering calls and routing them. this is. of course. Support departments often mistake “quick fixes” for good service. If that confidence is not present. 2004 . The customer wants a fix or response. In some cases. © Copyright IBM Corp. true. Incident Management: Best Practices SM251. however. to have broad-skilled service desk operators who do handle the incidents themselves.

0. Escalation (functional and hierarchical) 23 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Incident Management: Summary SM251. correct prioritization enables optimum staffing and use of other resources to customer satisfaction.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 4-22. as quickly as possible.V3. Incident Management process – – – – – Incident detection and recording Classification and initial support Investigation and diagnosis Resolution and recovery Incident closure Prioritization primarily determined by impact on business and urgency with which a resolution or workaround is needed. Incident Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. within Service Level Agreement limits. and to minimize the adverse impact on business operations.1. after an incident has occurred to that service.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 Unit 4.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Incident Management Summary The goal of incident management is to restore normal service operation. 4-25 .

Student Notebook 4-26 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 .

1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 5. 2004 Unit 5. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework.0. Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1.V3. Problem Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Problem Management. © Copyright IBM Corp. and its relationship within IT Services. you should be able to think about the mission of this service. 5-1 .

and changes – Proactive/reactive problem management Benefits.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-1. risks Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 05 Problem Management Content: Problem Management – objective and overview Some definitions Responsibilities and obligations Important aspects – Incidents. costs. Unit 05: Problem Management SM251. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 5-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. problems.

5-3 . 2004 Unit 5.1.0.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Problem Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-2.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3. Problem Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251. Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-3. Problem Management: Mission statement SM251. Problem Management seeks: To find the root cause of problems and to initiate corrective action Permanently reduce number and severity of incidents and problems by identifying improvements in the infrastructure 2 aspects: Reactive: identify and solve problems in response to one or more incidents Proactive: analyze trends of incidents.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Problem Management Mission statement The goal of Problem Management is to minimize the adverse impact of Incidents and problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT Infrastructure. In order to achieve this goal. and identify and solve problems before they occur 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 5-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp. and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors.

Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. for which the cause is unknown.0. 5-5 . Known Error A problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which a workaround has been identified Request for Change (RFC) Request for Change to any component of an IT infrastructure or to any aspect of an IT service 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. reports generated from support software. A known error is a condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem. 2004 Unit 5.0 Notes: A problem is a condition often identified as a result of multiple incidents that exhibit common symptoms.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-4. Known Error. Known Error. but for which the impact is significant. © Copyright IBM Corp. and the subsequent development of a workaround. and user-group meetings can also result in the identification of problems and known errors. Problem control focuses on transforming problems into known errors.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Problem Management Some definitions: Problem. Problem Management: Some definitions: Problem. indicative of a single error. This is proactive Problem Management. Problems can also be identified from a single significant incident. Structural analysis of the IT infrastructure. and RFC SM251. and RFC Problem The unknown cause of one (significant) incident or multiple incidents exhibiting common symptoms (which are not resolved in any case when finalizing the incident) Normally a problem record is raised only if investigation is warranted.V3. Error control focuses on resolving known errors structurally through the Change Management process.

2004 .0 Notes: The Problem Management process is intended to reduce both the number and severity of incidents and problems on the business. What is required includes: • The information to be indexed so that it is easily referenced by simple and detectable triggers from new incidents • Regular inspection to ensure the continued relevance of documentation in the light of changing: .Technology . © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Problem Management Tasks Incident Management Problem Control Problem Problem Management Management Incident Control Error Control Management Information RFCs 6 Change Management © 2004 IBM Corporation ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. This is not simply a matter of producing documentation. Therefore.In-house skills 5-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Problem Management: Tasks SM251.0 Figure 5-5.Business practices and requirements . part of Problem Management's responsibility is to ensure that previous information is documented in such a way that it is readily available to first-line and other second-line staff.Available external solutions .

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 Unit 5. Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. typically based on an integrated Service Management tool which can capture it at logging or first-analysis stage of the incident handling process.0.Frequency and impact of recurring incidents . and their role in providing feedback on its relevance and ease of use • A suitable repository for the information. 5-7 .Interpretation of internal best practice • That the process should be subject to a detailed review • Staff using the information to be trained to understand the depth and power of the information available. how to access and interpret it.V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty .1.

error control. © Copyright IBM Corp. Identify root cause (CI at fault).0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-6. 2004 . but more carefully managed to avoid reoccurrence.0 Notes: 5-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Problem Management Scope Problem control. Proactive Problem Management: Analysis of trends from incident records provides view on potential problems before they occur 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Similar to incident control. and provide the Service Desk with information and workaround. Error Control: Progresses from known errors until elimination by implementation of a change. and proactive Problem Management are all within the scope of the Problem Management process Problem Control: Handle problems in an effective way. Problem Management: Scope SM251.

Progress Control Identification and Registration Classification Responsibility Assign Resources Reporting Investigation and Diagnosis Quality Control Definition Known Error 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Problem Management: Activity: Problem Control SM251. Impact on service levels assessed.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Also when major Incident occurs.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-7. 2004 Unit 5. 5-9 . or are recurring. impact. CMDB helps! Determine: category. Problem classification: determine effort required to detect and recover failing CI. These problems are closed with appropriate categorization code.0. Problem investigation and diagnosis: leading to a known error (which includes a workaround for the associated incident).V3.1. priority. Find underlying cause. Procedural errors do not become known errors.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Problem Management Activity: Problem Control Problem Control is concerned with: Problem identification and recording: if incidents cannot be matched against known errors and problems. urgency.

Error assessment: initial assessment of means required to solve the problem and raising of an RFC. the error is closed. 2004 . Recording error resolution: solution for each known error should be in the PM system. and thus to prevent any recurrence of incidents. 5-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and known error status is assigned.0 Notes: Error identification and recording: faulty CI is detected. made available for incident matching. © Copyright IBM Corp. The actual work done is under control of Change Management. but error control is responsible for monitoring progress in resolving known errors and the continuing impact of the problem. Error assessment: initial assessment of means required to solve the problem and raising of an RFC. 9 Progress Control Error Identification & Recording Responsibility Error Assessment Reporting Record Error Solution RFC Change successful Quality Control Close Error and Associated Problems ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. the error is closed together with all associated Incident records. The objective is to change IT components to remove known errors affecting the IT infrastructure. Also the decision can be that some errors are not solved because. Problem Management: Activity: Error Control SM251. Error identification and recording: faulty CI is detected. Potentially. but error control is responsible for monitoring progress in resolving known errors. Error Closure: After successful implementation of the change.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Problem Management Activity: Error Control Error control covers the processes involved in successful correction of known errors. made available for incident matching Error closure: After successful implementation of the change. Recording error resolution: solution for each known error should be in the PM system. for example. Monitoring against SLA should happen. Monitoring problem and error resolution progress: Change Management is responsible for implementing RFCs. it is too expensive. and known error status is assigned. Monitoring problem and error resolution progress: Change management is responsible for implementing RFCs. Hence close interaction between both (PM might raise CAB). interim status given.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-8. together with all associated incident records.

0. thus minimizing the adverse impact on the service and business-related costs. 5-11 . Providing information to organization: Providing insight in effort and resources spent by organization in diagnosing and resolving problems and known errors to management.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-9. or causing most impact to the business (volume of incidents. Problem Management: Activity: Proactive Problem Management SM251. 2004 Unit 5. permanent fixes. cost to the business). 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Targeting support action: towards problem areas requiring most support time.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Problem Management Activity: Proactive Problem Management Proactive problem management activities are concerned with identifying and resolving problems and known errors before Incidents occur. Trend analysis: identify “fragile” components and their reason. number of users impacted. Requires availability of sufficient historical data. Also information on workarounds.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. and status information should be given to Service Desk. Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3.

service Turnaround time of closed problems Expected solution period for unresolved problems Items that are important for Service Desk Status of problems Information on bypasses 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. impact.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-10. and costs Problems categorized into: status. 2004 . use of tools. user group Turnaround time of closed problems Elapsed time and expected resolution period for unresolved problems Temporary corrective actions Items that are important for Service Level Management Number of problems categorized into: user group. category.0 Notes: 5-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Problem Management: Reporting SM251. impact.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Problem Management Reporting Reporting on problem management serves an internal purpose as well as an external purpose Items that can be reported to IT management: Time spent on research and diagnosis Brief description of actions taken Planning unresolved problems with regard to use of people. © Copyright IBM Corp. category. service.

Problem Management: Reactive .0 Notes: Problem Management should focus on proactive function. otherwise improvement is necessary.Proactive SM251.1.the reoccurrence of incidents Identify trends Problem identification and problem diagnosis 2nd / 3rd level support for incidents 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 5. Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. But this process should ideally mature from reactive to proactive.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Problem Management Reactive . its main focus is reactive. 5-13 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-11. When Problem Management is introduced in an organization. © Copyright IBM Corp.V3.the occurrence of incidents .Proactive Reactive Proactive Avoid problems in other systems and applications Monitoring of change management Initiate changes in order to avoid: .0.

2004 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-12.Student Notebook IBM Global Services The Complete Picture Incident Mgmt Registration Registration Recording Recording Problem? Classification Classification Tracking Tracking Tracking Tracking Classification Classification Diagnosis Diagnosis Error? Tracking Tracking Problem Control Identification Identification Recording Recording Error Control identification identification Recording Recording Assessment Assessment Diagnosis Diagnosis Change Mgmt Change Change Management Management Service Request? Assign RFC? Support Support Diagnosis Diagnosis Resolution Resolution Problem Resolution Problem Resolution Solution Solution Error / problem Error / problem Incident closure Incident closure Change Change Evaluation (PIR) Evaluation (PIR) Process for Service Requests Incident closure Incident closure 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. The Complete Picture SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 5-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

• Permanent solutions. achieved via the capture. and good for the productivity and morale of the IT service providers. Problem Management helps generate a cycle of rapidly increasing IT service quality. • Improved organizational learning. The process provides the historical data to identify trends. using historical data to identify trends Higher first call resolution rate at Service Desk: Problem management creates incident workaround data for rapid incident closure 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. retention. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: • Improved IT service quality. Problem Management: Benefits SM251. 5-15 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Problem Management Benefits The benefits of taking a formal approach to problem management include the following: Improved IT service quality: removal of structural errors improves quality of service Incident volume reduction: Structural errors generating Incidents are removed Permanent solutions: Problems resolved stay resolved Improved knowledge on organization: Problem Management learns from past experience. and availability of incident resolution and workaround data within a knowledge database available to the Service Desk at call logging. • Incident volume reduction. and the means of preventing failures and of reducing the impact of failures. Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Problem Management is instrumental in reducing the number of incidents that interrupt the conduct of business. The Problem Management process is based on the concept of learning from past experience.V3.0. resulting in improved user productivity. There will be a gradual reduction in the number and impact of problems and known errors as those that are resolved stay resolved.1. 2004 Unit 5. High-quality reliable service is good for the business users of IT. Problem Management enables a better first-time fix rate of incidents at the Service Desk. • Better first-time fix rate at the Service Desk.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-13.

Problem Management analyzes the root cause of incidents.0 Notes: 5-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-14. © Copyright IBM Corp. 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Problem Management: Risks SM251. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Problem Management Risks Potential problem areas: Simultaneous assignment of support agents to incident and problem management Less common tools of the individual departments Insufficient communication between system development and problem management in regard to known errors Lack of discipline in the support team Note: While Incident Management focuses on quick resolution of incidents.

Problem Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-15. Incident Management (fighting fires) Problem Management (find root cause) 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 5. the development environment should also be involved in the process.V3. Problem Management: Best Practices SM251. 5-17 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Problem Management Best Practices Make a clear separation between incidents and problems (clear fields of responsibility with their own measurement criteria and KPIs) Focus on minimizing or avoidance of incidents In addition to the production environment.0.

2004 . Problem Management: Summary SM251.0 Notes: 5-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. both reactively and proactively – Better use of resources Problem management activities – Problem control – Error control – Proactive problem management Problem: the root cause is known Known error: root cause is known.Reactive 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Problem Management Summary The goal of problem management is to minimize the impact of incidents and problems on the business that are caused by errors within the IT infrastructure and to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors. through: – minimizing the impact of incidents (quick fix) – tracing (and removing) errors in the IT infrastructure to obtain the highest possible stability of IT services. Stabilize IT services. but the definitive fix is not provided Proactive .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 5-16. a workaround is provided.

and its relationship within IT Services. Change Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Change Management.1. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework.0.V3. 6-1 . you should be able to think about the mission of this service. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 6. 2004 Unit 6. © Copyright IBM Corp. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit.

0 Notes: 6-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. Unit 06: Change Management SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 06 Change Management Content: Change Management – objective and overview Some definitions Responsibilities and obligations Important aspects: – – – – RFC content Categorization and prioritization of changes Change Advisory Board (CAB) Interface to other processes Benefits and risks Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-1. 2004 .

V3. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0.1. Change Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251. 6-3 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 6.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-2.

To make an appropriate response to a change request entails a considered approach to assessment of risk and business continuity. The goal of the Change Management process is to ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all changes. Change Management: Mission Statement SM251. change impact. to minimize the impact of change-related incidents on service quality. and change approval. Goal of Change Management: Efficient and cost-saving Efficient and cost-saving implementation of implementation of authorized changes authorized changes with minimum risk with minimum risk for existing and new IT infrastructure for existing and new IT infrastructure 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-3. 6-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. It is particularly important that Change Management processes have high visibility and open channels of communication in order to promote smooth transitions when changes take place. This considered approach is essential to maintain a proper balance between the need for change against the impact of the change. in order to minimize the impact of change-related incidents upon service quality. © Copyright IBM Corp. and to improve the day-to-day operations of the organization.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Change Management Mission Statement Change Management ensures that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all changes. but many changes can come from proactively seeking business benefits such as reducing costs or improving services. 2004 . resource requirements.0 Notes: Changes arise as a result of problems. and consequently to improve the day-to-day operations of the organization.

Problems can also be identified from a single significant incident. for which the cause is unknown. 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. there may not be time to convene the full Change Advisory Board (CAB).1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Some definitions Change: Process of moving from one defined state to another Request for Change (RFC) Request for Change to any component of an IT infrastructure or to any aspect of an IT service Change Advisory Board (CAB): Body which approves changes and assists Change Management in assessment and prioritization of changes CAB/EC: CAB Emergency Committee. Change Management: Some definitions SM251. and the subsequent development of a workaround. reports generated from support software. but for which the impact is significant. Post Implementation Review (PIR): Assessment of implemented changes after a predefined period of time. When major problems arise. Structural analysis of the IT infrastructure. indicative of a single error.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-4.0. Such a body is known as the CAB Emergency Committee © Copyright IBM Corp. Problem control focuses on transforming problems into known errors. 6-5 . Error control focuses on resolving known errors structurally through the Change Management process. This is proactive Problem Management.0 Notes: A problem is a condition often identified as a result of multiple incidents that exhibit common symptoms. 2004 Unit 6. Convened for urgent changes. A known error is a condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem.1. and user-group meetings can also result in the identification of problems and known errors.V3. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. or when emergency decisions have to be made. and it is therefore necessary to identify a smaller organization with authority to make emergency decisions.

based on the criteria listed above and any other criteria that may be appropriate to the business. 2004 . This is intended to ensure that the composition of the CAB will be flexible. Change procedures should specify how the composition of the CAB and CAB/EC will be determined in each instance.Student Notebook (CAB/EC). 6-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. to make appropriate decisions in any conceivable eventuality. both from a business perspective and from a technical standpoint. in order to represent business interests properly when major changes are proposed. It will also ensure that the composition of the CAB/EC will provide the ability. © Copyright IBM Corp.

That is why a very strict procedure for effective change management makes sense. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3. 2004 Unit 6. Such problems cause enormous costs and are becoming less acceptable.1. Finally. each development .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-5. they impact the implementation of many other ITSM best practices.either relating to capacity management or a service desk corresponds with changes which again stand for a risk. 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0. All these factors require an IT environment in which management and control of changes are very precisely managed.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. This module describes the best practices for change management. Change Management: Why Change Management is so important SM251. Experience shows that a high percentage of problems with regard to IT service quality can be traced back to a change of a system.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Why Change Management is so important IT becomes an increasingly critical factor for business. Users demand increasing services in order to be able to fulfil their tasks. 6-7 . Business demands continuous change as new technologies are adopted.

implementation. categorization. authorization. testing. based on business impact and urgency. assessment.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Change Management Tasks Management of RFCs (change requests) Authorize and plan changes Change Change Management Management Review of all implemented changes Monitoring of change realization. and implementation 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. a central programme of change agreed by all areas. 6-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Changes must be carefully managed throughout their entire lifecycle from initiation and recording. testing.0 Notes: Most activities of change management involve control and decide (approval or rejection). Change Management: Tasks SM251. 2004 . One of the key deliverables of the process is the Forward Schedule of Change (FSC).0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-6. and eventually their review and closure. through filtering. © Copyright IBM Corp. building. scheduling.

2004 Unit 6.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-7. 6-9 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management The Process Implementation RFC Management RFC Preparation Realization CAB Test Implementation Classification Prioritization Approval Planning Rejection Authorization Rejection Evaluation/PIR Backout 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.0.1. Change Management: The Process SM251. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: Implementation and management activities within change management.V3.

© Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Acceptance and Documentation PIR Proof of Success Release Manager Release Manager Implementation Control and Authorization Decline / Reject Review End Test Test Service Planning Service Planning Building Control and Approval Realization of Simple Changes Changes Scheduling and Planning Processing/ Classification -RegistrationRFC RFC Rejected 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-8.0 Notes: 6-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. The Process Steps SM251. 2004 .

The reasons include: • Required resolution of an incident or problem report • User or customer dissatisfaction expressed via customer liaison or Service Level Management • The proposed introduction or removal of a new CI • Qproposed upgrade to some component of the infrastructure • Changed business requirements or direction • New or changed legislation • Location change • Product or service changes from vendors or contractors. 2004 Unit 6.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-9.0 Notes: Requests for Change (RFCs) are triggered for a wide variety of reasons. from a wide variety of sources.0.V3. Change Management: Content of a Request for Change (RFC) SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Content of a Request for Change (RFC) Sponsor and Change Requester Software Hardware Change Advisory Board (CAB) SLA CIs CIs Documentation and so on Purpose RFC RFC Category Priority Resource Cost Estimation and so on Environment What? Why? When? Impact on Business Services 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1. 6-11 .

or — as is increasingly the case — be held electronically. and telephone number of person proposing the change • Date that the change was proposed • Change priority • Impact and resource assessment (which may be on separate forms where convenient) • CAB recommendations where appropriate (which may be held separately. The following items should be included in an RFC form. or both) • Location of release or implementation plan 6-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .Student Notebook RFCs can be concerned with any part of the infrastructure or with any service or activity. © Copyright IBM Corp. where necessary) • Description and identity of item(s) to be changed (including CI identification(s) if Configuration Management system is in use) • Reason for change • Effect of not implementing the change • Version of item to be changed • Name. whether paper or electronic: • RFC number (plus cross-reference to problem report number. Here are some examples: • Hardware • Software • Documentation • Telecommunications facilities • Engineering cover • Training courses • IT infrastructure management procedures • Tactical plans • Environmental infrastructure RFCs can. of course. perhaps on the company intranet. date and time. be in paper form. where convenient) • Authorization signature (could be electronic) • Authorization date and time • Scheduled implementation (release identification. location. with impact and resource assessments.

The Change Manager should have delegated authority to authorize and schedule such changes. The categorization process examines the impact of the approved change on the organization in terms of the resources needed to effect the change. or both. The RFC should be referred to the organization's top Management Board or other appropriate body for discussion and a policy decision. Change Management: Categorization: Minor – Significant – Major SM251.0 Notes: The issue of risk to the business of any change should also be considered prior to the approval of any change. or both. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and few “build” or additional “runtime” resources required. 6-13 .0.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Categorization: Minor – Significant – Major Category of changes is based on impact to environment (risk to the business). Category 3 (Major Changes): Major impact.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-10. significant build or runtime resources required. Category 1 (Minor Changes): Minor impact only. Change Management should examine each RFC and decide how to proceed based on the (predefined) category into which the RFC falls. 2004 Unit 6.V3. or impact likely upon other parts of the organization. Category 2 (Significant Changes): Significant impact. including the range of priority ratings identified © Copyright IBM Corp. very large amount of build or runtime resources required.1. Note that the structure and complexity of these categories will very much depend on the needs of the business. The Change Advisory Board should be convened in order to authorize and schedule such changes.

To be allocated medium priority for resources.0 Notes: Every RFC should be allocated a priority that is based on the impact of the problem and the urgency for the remedy. Change Management: Prioritization SM251. Low: A change is justified and necessary. as a higher priority than is really justified may result. Change Management should be responsible for assigning this priority. Resources to be allocated accordingly. High: Severely affecting some users. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-11. 2004 . if necessary. This priority rating is used to decide which changes should be discussed and assessed first. Risk assessment is of crucial importance at this stage. Immediate action required. Medium: No severe impact. but can wait until the next scheduled release or upgrade. testing. and implementation resources. To be given highest priority for change building. but rectification cannot be deferred until the next scheduled release or upgrade. but it should not be left to the initiator alone. Immediate: Causing loss of service or severe usability problems to a larger number of users. or impacting a large number of users. The CAB will need information on business consequences in order to assess effectively the risk of implementing or denying the change. or some equally serious problem. 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. The priority of RFCs ideally should be decided in collaboration with the initiator and. a mission-critical system. 6-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Change Management Prioritization Every RFC should be allocated a priority that is based on the impact of the problem and the urgency of the remedy. either by Change Management or by the CAB if necessary. with the CAB.

or vice versa.1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Composition of the Change Advisory Board (CAB) should reflect user. and that these possible impacts are detected and presented appropriately. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. customer. © Copyright IBM Corp. To mitigate possible negative impacts from either direction.0. 2004 Unit 6. 6-15 .0 Notes: The Change Advisory Board (CAB) is a decision authority. There will also be a need to have managers from different areas of the organization within the CAB. Change Management: Composition of the Change Advisory Board (CAB) should reflect user. customer.V3. and service provider view SM251. The Change Manager is the executive authority within the CAB. There will be occasions when a proposed infrastructure change will potentially have a wider impact upon other parts of the organization (such as application development projects or business operations). which is made up for the most part of people from other functions within the organization. CAB is an ITIL term.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-12. it is imperative that the infrastructure and other Change Management systems be appropriately interfaced. and service provider view Change Manager (Executive) CAB/EC CAB/EC CAB CAB Release Manager Manager Finance Dept Service Level Manager Application Manager Experts. Note also that it is Configuration Management who are responsible for ensuring that information regarding the possible implications of a proposed change is made available. Technical Consultants Problem Manager Services Staff CAB/EC = Emergency Committee 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

Thus it is possible to globally estimate the impact of an RFC in the whole IT environment. and will reduce bureaucratic expenditure. this will give the support team a better view of the realistic impact on the business.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Change Management Optimization can be reached through correlation of RFCs on related CIs Original request for Original request for change change Configuration Management Software CI to be changed Correlating education CI Correlating operating CI Correlating hardware CI Summarized request for change Summarized request for change Realistic impact of changes and reduction of bureaucratic expenditure 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-13. Change Management: Optimization can be reached through correlation of RFCs on related CIs SM251.0 Notes: Configuration Management enables visualization of related CIs. 6-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. It would be useful to consider the impact of an RFC on related CIs. 2004 .

. Status Distribution Release Management Release Management Change Report Update CMDB Configuration Management Configuration Management Inform customers Service Desk Service Desk 15 Generate new services Service Design Service Design © 2004 IBM Corporation ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Change Management: Interfaces to other SM processes (1) SM251.0.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Interfaces to other SM processes (1) Initiate change Capacity Management Capacity Management Security Management Security Management Configuration Management Data Base Configuration Management Data Base Service Desk Service Desk Problem Management Problem Management Account Management Account Management (for customers) (for customers) Service Build and Test Service Build and Test Identify affected CIs Configuration Management Configuration Management Determine effects of planned changes Reports RFC Security Management Security Management Capacity Management Capacity Management Availability and IT Services Availability and IT Services Continuity Management Continuity Management Service Level Management Service Level Management Financial Mgmt IT Services Financial Mgmt IT Services Change Management Process Transfer .. 6-17 .0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. ... 2004 Unit 6.0 Figure 6-14.1.V3.

2004 . if required. Change Management: Interfaces to other SM processes (2) SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Change Management Interfaces to other SM processes (2) Change Change Management Management Approve change Configuration Management Configuration Management Determine impact Release Release Management Management Check distribution of new software or. © Copyright IBM Corp. the hardware change Capacity Capacity Management Management Determine impact on business and IT performance Configuration Configuration Management Management Determine affected areas Configuration Configuration Management Management Documentation update CMDB 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 6-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-15.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-16. better service quality) Better productivity of IT staff.0. as duties are better planned. and fewer wrong changes Ability to absorb larger volume of changes Better perception of IT by the business Reduction in number of changes with adverse impact because of poor CM Reduction in number of incidents because of changes Low number of urgent changes 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 6.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Change Management: Benefits SM251. 6-19 .V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Benefits Better alignment of IT services to business requirements Increased visibility and better communication of changes Improved risk assessment Reduced adverse impact of changes on service quality and SLA Fewer backed out failed changes Better problem and availability management due to management information on accumulated changes Better productivity of users (fewer disruptions. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-17.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Change Management Risks Potential problem areas: Tracking of the change lifecycle easily leads to overload for a paper-based system Employees try to bypass change management Untested backup procedures – failing blackout procedures Integration of external suppliers Cultural conflicts – lacking acceptance of the change management process Frequent refusal due to lack of strategic expedience Possible stagnancy due to continuous analyses 18 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 . Change Management: Risks SM251.0 Notes: 6-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

Change Management: Best Practices SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Change Management Best Practices Concurrent integration with configuration and release management Include the development environment in the change management process separately from the production environment Assign process responsibility. if possible. 6-21 .0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3. 2004 Unit 6.1. Change Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. independently from the organisation’s hierarchy Conceive separate procedure for urgent changes and standard changes instead of using the normal change management process 19 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-18.0.

support the ongoing needs of business CAB and Emergency Committee Severity/Priority: urgent. and consequently to improve the day-to-day operations of the organization. low Effect . Implement only authorized changes. medium. authorize and plan changes.0 Notes: 6-22 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Change Management: Summary SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Change Management Summary The goal of the change management process is to ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all changes. minimize risk and costs. Request for Change (RFC) applies to all components of the IT infrastructure Tasks – Requests for change management.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 6-19. in order to minimize the impact of change-related incidents upon service quality. 2004 . high. monitor realization. © Copyright IBM Corp.Category: none to significant effect Back-out procedure Process is always closed with change review 20 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. test and implementation.

Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 7. 2004 Unit 7.1. Configuration Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Configuration Management. you should be able to think about the mission of this service. © Copyright IBM Corp. and its relationship with IT Services. 7-1 . and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit.0.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-1. costs. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 7-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. risks Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 07 Configuration Management Content: Configuration Management – objective and overview Some definitions Responsibilities and obligations Important aspects: – Configuration Management Database (CMDB) – Interfaces to other SM processes – Variant and baseline – License management Benefits. Unit 07: Configuration Management SM251. 2004 .

7-3 .V3. Configuration Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1. 2004 Unit 7.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-2. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

including their versions. and configuration documentation. labelling each item. and their documentation All changes. and verifying the versions of Configuration Items (CIs) in existence. software. Configuration Management: Mission Statement SM251. service level agreements. monitoring.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-3. registration. and reporting of IT components. controlling. It includes allocating identifiers and version numbers for CIs. © Copyright IBM Corp. their interrelationships. and history of the components in general Relationships between the different components Exceptions between configuration records and the real infrastructure 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Configuration Management covers the identification. CI and CMDB are both ITIL terms. and relationships. recording.0 Notes: Configuration Management is concerned with selecting and identifying the configuration structures for all the infrastructure's CIs.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Configuration Management Mission Statement Configuration Management provides a logical model for the infrastructure or a service by identifying. constituent components. including their “owner”. and management of: All the Configuration Items of the IT infrastructure in scope All configurations. errors. 2004 . and entering it on the Configuration Management Database (CMDB). Items that should be under the control of Configuration Management include hardware. and associated documentation. versions. maintaining. 7-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. The goal of Configuration Management is to provide IT infrastructure control through the identification.

business units.1. locations. 2004 Unit 7. 7-5 . configuration status accounting of all current and historical data concerned with each CI throughout its lifecycle Documentation of the relationship between all CIs Tracing records about any CI Ensuring that only authorised changes on a Configuration Item have been implemented Reviews and audits that verify the physical existence of CIs and check that only authorised and identifiable CIs are accepted and correctly recorded in the Configuration Management system.0.V3. suppliers. known errors. including incidents.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Tasks Configuration Management is responsible for: Specification of versions. 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 IT IT Infrastructure Infrastructure Planning Identification & naming Status proof Control CMDB Verification and audit © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-4. and problems. © Copyright IBM Corp. and corporate data about employees. Configuration Management: Tasks SM251.0 Notes: CM is responsible for records and data associated with a CI. and procedures.

and problems. © Copyright IBM Corp. network components. business units. and procedures.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-5. known errors. mobile units. equipment. software. and facilities. including individual versions of the CI and their configuration documents. environments. Examples include services. Examples of CIs: • • • • • Personal computers Network components Service Level Agreements Manuals Applications What do you think is part of your IT infrastructure? 7-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Configuration Items: Are required to provide services Should be clearly identifiable Are submitted for changes Have to be administered CI CI Configuration Items have: A category Relationships An attribute A status CI CI CI 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Other records and data associated with a CI include incidents. desktops. and corporate data about employees. servers. suppliers. Configuration Management: Definition: Configuration Item SM251. applications. or documentation.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Configuration Management Definition: Configuration Item All components that are part of the IT infrastructure are called Configuration Items (CIs). locations. 2004 . Configuration identification includes allocating identifiers for CIs.0 Notes: CIs may be hardware. licences. telecommunication services.

2004 Unit 7. The attributes of CIs also depend on the need for information.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Definition: Configuration Item – Scope and Level of Detail Service L Service L e e v v e e l l o o f f d d e e t t a a i i l l Hardware Hardware Software Software DocumenDocumen. The scope of the Configuration Management database is defined by the area of responsibility of the IT organization. Configuration Management: Definition: Configuration Item – Scope and Level of Detail SM251. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0.0 Notes: All configuration items that are under control of the IT organization are registered in the Configuration Management Database (CMDB). 7-7 . The distinction between Configuration Management and Asset Management is the recognition of relationships between CIs. CIs have relationships to each other. The level of detail is defined by the need for information of the IT management processes. the control of the information.Environment Environment tation tation Network printer PC Software bundle Local printer USV DBMS HD Keyboard CPU SLA W.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-6.P.1. Every extra detail will bring more work to keep it up to date. © Copyright IBM Corp. e-mail scope scope 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and the costs and benefits. the control of the information. and the costs and benefits of a CMDB.V3.

) • Is related to (attribute) (serial number. location. status) 7-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook Examples of these relationships: • Hierarchically subjected to (parent-child relation) • Is part of (a processor is part of a PC) • Interfaced with (a system is connected to a printer) • Uses (a program uses a subroutine) • Is a copy of (program is a copy of ...

including their respective “owner” and the relationships between them. such as an approved change request. identification. Configuration identification includes allocating identifiers for CIs. telecommunication services. including individual versions of the CI and their configuration documents. 2004 Unit 7.0. CIs may be hardware. or documentation. desktops. © Copyright IBM Corp. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. for example tracking the status as a CI changes from one state to another. “live”. 7-9 . equipment. such as “development”. applications.0 Notes: Configuration identification is the selection. modified.V3. “test”. Configuration status accounting is the reporting of all current and historical data concerned with each CI throughout its lifecycle. network components. or “withdrawn”. mobile units. software.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Tasks Configuration identification Configuration Control Configuration Configuration Management Management Verification and Audit Status Accounting 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. replaced. and facilities. Configuration control is concerned with ensuring that only authorized and identifiable CIs are recorded from receipt to disposal. It enables tracking of changes to CIs and their records. Configuration Management: Tasks SM251.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-7. licences. and labelling of the configuration structures and CIs. It ensures that no CI is added. Examples include services. servers. or removed without appropriate controlling documentation. environments.

© Copyright IBM Corp. in other words the registered data within the CMDB will be verified with the actual data. at regular intervals. 2004 . Furthermore. 7-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. verification must take place.Student Notebook The first audit must be conducted after the implementation of configuration management.

2 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-8.1 Module 1. The CMDB should hold the relationships between all system components.1 Program 1. or paper-based systems. known errors. 2004 Unit 7. and releases.2. local databases.1 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and corporate data about employees.2. The CMDB is likely to be based upon database technology that provides flexible and powerful interrogation facilities.2 Suite 2 Suite 2 Program 1. including incidents. © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Program 1.2 Module 1.1. The CMDB also contains information about incidents. problems. known errors. locations.0.0 Notes: Many organizations are already using some elements of Configuration Management. often using spreadsheets.V3. 7-11 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Configuration Management Database (CMDB) – Structure Overview IT Infrastructure IT Infrastructure Hardware Hardware CI Categories Software Software Network Network Documentation Documentation Suite 1 Suite 1 Superordinated CI (Parent) Program 1. and problems. which includes a Configuration Management Database (CMDB). changes. Configuration Management requires the use of support tools. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.3 Program 1.2 Program 1. In today's large and complex IT infrastructures.3 Subordinated CI (Children) Module 1. suppliers.2.2. Physical and electronic libraries are needed along with the CMDB to hold definitive copies of software and documentation. and business units.0 Module 1. Configuration Management: Configuration Management Database (CMDB) – Structure Overview SM251.

for instance “under development”. 2004 n . for example tracking the status of a CI as it changes from one state to another. Also. or “withdrawn”. 7-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. It covers the reporting of all current and historical data concerned with each CI throughout its lifecycle. Configuration Management: CMDB – Status of CI in m ai te s dr aw SM251. This enables changes to CIs and their records to be traceable. “being tested”. status accounting is an activity within Configuration Management.0 Figure 7-9. (in ve t © Copyright IBM Corp.0 d re d lo k ne Notes: Status is a mandatory attribute of a CI. “live”.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Configuration Management CMDB – Status of CI tio n uc od nt en ) pm en an ce wi th © 2004 IBM Corporation t pr st oc or de pl an de In in Li ve in Lifecycle of a CI CMDB scope 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

Configuration Management: Interfaces with all other processes SM251. such as Release Management. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Strategic processes Finance Architectures Configuration Management Data Base (CMDB) Other modules Service Level Management IT Continuity Management 11 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-10.1. 2004 Unit 7. 7-13 .V3. This information supports all other Service Management processes.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Interfaces with all other processes Start Problem finding and solution process Incident Problem Known error RFC Approved change Changed.0 Notes: Configuration Management provides information to other processes of Services Management. Change © Copyright IBM Corp.0. implemented Closure ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. The Configuration Management process interfaces with all other processes: • • • • • • • • • • Service Desk / Incident Management Problem Management Change Management Release Management Service Level Management Availability Management Capacity Management IT Service Continuity Management Financial Management for IT Services Security Management Providing accurate information on CIs and their documentation. tested.

for erasure or destruction. The CMDB and secure libraries facilitate the restoration of IT service in the event of a disaster. Such changes can be used to trigger investigations by IT management into possible changes that may be needed for data protection. © Copyright IBM Corp. For example. by identifying the required CIs and their location (provided. Enabling the organization to reduce the use of unauthorized software. For example. Illegal copies can easily be identified. maliciously. and Contingency Planning. and whether the actual inventory matches the official one. Incident Management. Facilitating adherence to legal obligations. Providing Problem Management with data on trends. Configuration Management information supports the rollout across distributed locations by providing information on the versions of CIs and changes incorporated into a release. Contributing to contingency planning. Making software changes visible. Configuration Management helps IT management to know what its assets are supposed to be. This makes it more difficult for these CIs to be changed accidentally. Unauthorized software. if a computer were stolen then it would have to be replaced. Configuration Management maintains an inventory of all items of software within an IT infrastructure. By providing this information. who is responsible for their safekeeping. Supporting and improving Release Management. and so any reduction in their occurrence should bring benefits to the organization. Capacity Management. licence renewal dates. This information on problem trends supports the proactive prevention of problems. for use in improving the IT services. CIs that come to light. It is easy to produce from this list expected maintenance costs and licence fees. of course. Configuration Management provides a complete list of CIs. Controlling valuable CIs. licence management.Student Notebook Management. efficiently. all increase complexity and support costs. Improving security by controlling the versions of CIs in use. and may well have not been paid for. such as from particular suppliers or development groups. if a new product is available that requires a minimum configuration. Configuration Management can provide information for upgrade planning and replacements. or for erroneous versions to be added. CI life expiry dates. Problem Management. and regulatory compliance. Such data will relate to trends in problems affecting particular CI types. and effectively. 7-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and CI replacement costs (provided that this information is stored). Helping with financial and expenditure planning. maintenance contracts. Configuration Management contributes to IT directorates' financial planning. that are not on this list are not authorized. and non-standard and variant builds. 2004 . that they are themselves properly backed up). Allowing the organization to perform impact analysis and schedule changes safely. This reduces the risk of changes affecting the live environment. via configuration audits or calls to the Service Desk.

areas.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Relationship with Release and Change Management Change Change Management Management Release Release Management Management Configuration Configuration Management Management Configuration Management Database Register RFC and assign ID Impact analysis Documentation and configuration audit Reporting of affected CIs. Configuration Management: Relationship with Release and Change Management SM251. these processes are often planned alongside Configuration Management.V3.0.0 Notes: Configuration Management has a strong relationship with Change and Release Management.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-11. © Copyright IBM Corp. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 7-15 . 2004 Unit 7.1. and people Update documentation Definitive Software Library Approve change Distribution of software and hardware documentation Implementation (includes pre-release testing for software) Post-implementation review Close RFC Closure Update documentation Store changed CIs according to quality required Example: release of new software 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Therefore.

Student Notebook IBM Global Services Configuration Management CIs and their relations to other processes Incident Record Incident Record Change Record Change Record CI CI Problem Record Problem Record Known Error Record Known Error Record Service / SLA Service / SLA 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-12. © Copyright IBM Corp. Configuration Management: CIs and their relations to other processes SM251. 2004 .0 Notes: 7-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

but with minor differences (for example. for example after a change. A configuration baseline is used to assemble all relevant components in readiness for a change or release. that is recorded.1.V3. which captures both the structure and details of a configuration. Although the position may be updated later. and to provide the basis for a configuration audit and regression. © Copyright IBM Corp. a different CI should be used. and documentation. It serves as a reference for further activities.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Variant and Baseline Variant Configuration items with same base functionality. then use of a variant should be considered. a printer with additional RAM is a variant of a printer). otherwise.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-13. 7-17 . Baseline (basis of comparison) A configuration baseline is the configuration of a product or system established at a specific point in time. 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: General guidance is: if a CI can be regarded as slightly different from another related CI. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0. An application or software baseline provides the ability to change or to rebuild a specific version at a later date. Configuration Management: Variant and Baseline SM251. and report on a configuration baseline. or changes made to the one will probably have to be made to the other. or a position. protect. its contents. the configuration baseline remains fixed as the original state and is thus available to be compared with the current position. A configuration baseline is also a snapshot. The Configuration Management system should be able to save. 2004 Unit 7. and problems affecting one are likely to affect the other.

Software licence structures. need to be understood and communicated to service-provider staff and Customers. Company directors. Responsibility for controlling and auditing software licences should be unambiguous and should involve purchasing and Asset or Configuration Management. Configuration Management: Licence Management SM251. from purchase to disposal. 7-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Configuration Management enables an enterprise to monitor and control software licences. and corporate and multi-licensing schemes. are liable to face imprisonment and fines if illegal software is found to be in use within their enterprise. 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: Licence Management is part of Configuration Management. senior managers. senior managers. Purchase of unnecessary licences wastes resources. from purchase to disposal. and others are liable to face imprisonment and fines if illegal software is found to be in use within their enterprise.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-14. and others. Company directors. 2004 . Configuration Management enables an enterprise to monitor and control software licences. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Configuration Management Licence Management Responsibility for controlling and auditing software licences should be unambiguous and involves purchasing and Asset or Configuration Management. but this can be resolved by links to disciplinary procedures detailed within the organization’s Security Policy. This may be difficult when Users find it so easy to purchase and download software from the Internet.

V3.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-15.1. 2004 Unit 7. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Benefits Improved Asset Management Helps to minimize risks of changes Provides accurate information on CIs and their documentation Improves security by controlling the versions of CIs in use Facilitates adherence to legal obligations Helps in financial and expenditure planning Supports Release Management and Service Level Management 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 7-19 . Configuration Management: Benefits SM251.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

because Configuration Management allows handling of a large volume of changes. Staff costs for developing and running procedures Hardware and software configuration identification Hardware and software for the CMDB & DSL Customization of Configuration Management tool Integration with other Service Management tools Training and education 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp. thus keeping quality. 2004 . Configuration Management control reduces risks of viruses.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Configuration Management Costs Costs are outweighed by benefits.0 Notes: 7-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-16. wrong software. theft. and so on. fraud. Configuration Management: Costs SM251.

Commitment is lacking.0 Notes: CIs are defined at the wrong level with too much detail (so that staff become involved in unnecessary work) or too little detail (so that there is inadequate control). When changes and releases are being scheduled. past experience of the time taken to complete Configuration Management activities should be taken into account. Examples of poor Change Management and Configuration Management can often convince managers of the need for better control. not what is required. Tactical schedules are over-ambitious.V3. Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. it is difficult to introduce the controls that some staff would prefer to avoid.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Risks Potential problem areas: CIs with too much or too little detail Interfaces to other systems in which CI information is stored Keep the information in the CMDB accurate Roles and responsibilities Lack of configuration control Overambitious schedules and unrealistic expectations No commitment from management 18 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Without a firm commitment to the processes from managers. Configuration Management: Risks SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-17. Implementation is attempted without adequate analysis and design. Configuration Management may be perceived as a bottleneck if adequate time is not built into schedules to allow staff to carry out their duties. The end result is. 2004 Unit 7.1. consequently. © Copyright IBM Corp. 7-21 . IT management needs to be proactive in providing automated facilities for activities on the critical path and to make it clear that time should be allowed for Configuration Management.0.

Expectations of what the tool can do are unrealistic. Consequently. Expectations of what the Configuration Management process can do are unrealistic. 7-22 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. it is much less effective and the intended benefits may not be realized. Configuration Management has been implemented in isolation. and changes. In almost all cases it is advisable to choose an automated solution from the outset. Asset and Configuration Management cannot and should not be expected to make up for poor project management or poor acceptance testing.Student Notebook The process is perceived to be too bureaucratic or rigorous. individuals and groups use this as an excuse for not following the process. and install software from the Internet. © Copyright IBM Corp. Staff and managers may expect a Configuration Management tool to deliver a total solution and end up blaming the tool for processes or people that appear insufficient for the task. download. If Configuration Management is implemented without Change Management or Release Management. The chosen tool may lack flexibility. Problems can occur when the Configuration Management tool does not allow for new requirements or does not support all CI categories. 2004 . which will in turn require additional resources. Proper configuration control is not in place. problems. Configuration Management may be difficult where Users have the ability to purchase. Processes are inefficient and error-prone. For example. The process is routinely circumvented. This is often the case where manual processes are in use. Attempts should be made to overcome this problem by making such people aware of the benefits of Configuration Management. Poorly controlled installations and test environments will affect the quality of releases and result in additional incidents. Some people will try to circumvent Configuration Management in the interests of speed or with malicious intent.

Configuration Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-18. 2004 Unit 7. Configuration Management: Best Practices SM251.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 7-23 .V3.1." 19 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Configuration Management Best Practices Early establishment of configuration management Show the extraordinary significance of the database thus created Enforce the compliance of change management processes Meticulous selection and design of support tools Inventory should be tool supported and automated "You can only control what you know or what is documented.0.

0 Notes: 7-24 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. maintaining. relationships. attribute. identification and registration.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 7-19. status. and verifying the versions of Configuration Items (CIs) in existence. control. role for the evaluation of change effects. Configuration Items: categories.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Configuration Management Summary Configuration Management provides a logical model of the infrastructure or a service by identifying. Activities: planning. verification and audit. controlling. status accounting. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp. unique reference number Configuration Management Database (CMDB) Scope and level of detail of CMDB (value of information) Variant and Baselines Licence Management Configuration Management process supports all other service management processes 20 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. reporting. Configuration Management: Summary SM251.

© Copyright IBM Corp.1. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 8. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework.V3. 2004 Unit 8. and its relationship within IT Services.0. Release Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Release Management. you should be able to think about the mission of this service. 8-1 . Release Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Unit 08

Release Management
Content:
Release Management – objective and overview Responsibilities and obligations Some definitions Important aspects: – Definitive software library/definitive hardware store – Software release Benefits, costs, risks Best practices Summary

2

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 8-1. Unit 08: Release Management

SM251.0

Notes:

8-2

ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Release Management

Integration into the IPW Model

Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 8-2. Release Management: Integration into the IPW Model

SM251.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 8. Release Management
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

8-3

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Release Management

Mission Statement
Release Management takes a holistic view of a change to an IT service, and should ensure that all aspects of a release, both technical and non-technical, are considered together. Release Management should be used for: Large or critical hardware rollouts, especially when there is a dependency on a related software change in the business systems, in other words not every single PC that needs to be installed Major software rollouts, especially initial instances of new applications along with accompanying software distribution and support procedures for subsequent use if required Bundling or batching related sets of changes into manageable-sized units

Release Management undertakes the planning, design, building, configuration, and testing of hardware and software to create a set of release components for a live environment. Activities also cover the planning, preparation, and scheduling of a release to many customers and locations.

4

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 8-3. Release Management: Mission Statement

SM251.0

Notes:
Software Control & Distribution (SC&D) is more than just application software. Software items are operating systems software, middleware configurations, and application software. In addition to startup scripts and configuration scripts, firmware is also included under software items.

8-4

ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Release Management

Goal
Plan and oversee successful rollout of software and hardware releases Design and implement efficient procedures for distribution and installation of changes to IT systems Ensure changes in hardware and software are traceable, authorized, tested, and correct Communicate and manage expectations to the customer during planning and rollout of releases Agree content and rollout plan for the release, through Change Management Implement software and hardware releases in operational environment using controls from Configuration Management and Change Management Ensure that all master copies of all software are secured in the DSL and that the CMDB is updated

5

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 8-4. Release Management: Goal

SM251.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 8. Release Management
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

8-5

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Release Management

Why Release Management
Software is increasingly considered as an important capital value with even a strategic importance. The control of software is therefore mandatory. Some of the most important aspects are: Preventive measures (for example, to avoid pirate copies) Consistency (for example, compatibility of client programmes with server programmes) Licences (for example, software should not be used by more than the agreed number of users simultaneously) Release management is responsible for the storage of authorized software (selfdeveloped, purchased or licensed applications, or utility software), the release of software in a production environment, the distribution of software to remote locations, as well as the implementation of software to make it operational.

6

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 8-5. Release Management: Why Release Management

SM251.0

Notes:

8-6

ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Release Management

Tasks
Control of the Definitive Software Library (DSL) and DHS

Definition of release guidelines

Release Release Management Management
Monitoring of the release creation

Distribution of software, hardware, and linked CIs

Performing software and hardware audits (using CMDB)

Management of the releases

7

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 8-6. Release Management: Tasks

SM251.0

Notes:
The Release Management process takes a holistic view of changes to IT services, considering all aspects of a release, both technical and non-technical. Release Management is responsible for all legal and contractual obligations for all hardware and software in use within the organization. In order to achieve this and to protect the IT assets, Release Management establishes secure environments, both for hardware in the Definitive Hardware Store (DHS), and for software in the Definitive Software Library (DSL).

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 8. Release Management
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

8-7

Student Notebook IBM Global Services Release Management Definitions Release: a collection of authorized changes to an IT service. Release Management: Definitions SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-7. © Copyright IBM Corp. Also for master copies of documentation. Reduces probability of outdated or incompatible software in use. 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Definitive Hardware Store: secure area containing definitive hardware spares.0 Notes: 8-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and CIs impacted by planned and past releases. longer time to implement. Definitive Software Library (DSL): Secure compound containing all definitive authorized versions of all SW CIs (master copies). CMDB: contains definitions of planned releases. and implemented together. Delta Release: includes only those CIs in the Release Unit that have actually changed since the last release. 2004 . Full Release: all components of the Release Unit are built. Package Release: grouping of Full and Delta Release to reduce the frequency of releases. tested. Reduced likelihood of untested errors. Often divided into: Major software releases and hardware upgrades Minor software releases and hardware upgrades Emergency software and hardware fixes Release Unit: portion of IT infrastructure that is normally released together.

Training Training Live Live Environment Environment Distribution & Distribution & Installation Installation SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Release Management Major Activities of Release Management Development Environment Development Environment Build & Configure Build & Configure Release Planning Release Planning Controlled Test Environment Controlled Test Environment Release Acceptance Release Acceptance Roll-Out Planning Roll-Out Planning Communication. Procurement Procurement 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. including user manuals.V3. Development. 8-9 . Release Management: Major Activities of Release Management Notes: The main components to be controlled are: • Application programs developed in-house • Externally developed software (including standard off-the-shelf software as well as customer-written software) • Utility software • Supplier-provided systems software • Hardware.0 CMDB with Definitive Software Library (DSL) CMDB with Definitive Software Library (DSL) Fit-for-Purpose Fit-for-Purpose Testing Testing Release Policy Release Policy Design. Configuration Management records should be updated during build © Copyright IBM Corp. This figure outlines the major activities in Release Management and their position in the lifecycle of a change. to operation in the live environment. Preparation. Development. from development or purchasing. and hardware specifications • Assembly instructions and documentation. 2004 Unit 8.0. Communication.1. Design. through testing and implementation. Preparation. All deliverables need to be managed effectively. Release Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-8. through customization and configuration.

2004 . 8-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. A release should be under Change Management. © Copyright IBM Corp. and the content and timing of a release should be authorized in advance via the Change Management process.Student Notebook and release to ensure that there are trusted releases that can be reverted to in case of problems.

Interactions SM251. 2004 Unit 8.0 Notes: Some subprocesses of release management. 8-11 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services User User Individual software installation Individual Individual programs programs Service Service Provider Provider Individual Individual programs programs Installation and configuration Installation and configuration of individual programmes of individual programmes Installation of updates Installation of updates Software roll-out Software Software installation installation Software Software transmission transmission Installation Installation monitoring monitoring Configuration Configuration Function testing Function testing Software Software management management System reload Base system Base system Reinstallation of the base system Reinstallation of the base system User-specific configuration User-specific configuration System System support support Update of the CMDB Configuration Configuration Hardware inventory Hardware inventory Documentation of the Documentation of the software configuration software configuration Transmission of error Transmission of error protocols protocols CMDB CMDB Application support Applications Applications Remote operation of the Remote operation of the application application Guidance to users Guidance to users Configuration check Configuration check Application Application support support System support System System technology technology Update // configuration of PC and ISDN Update configuration of PC and ISDN technology technology Updates and Updates and patches patches Installation Installation of updates of updates System System support support Directed Directed information flow information flow Time 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-9.V3. Release Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1. © Copyright IBM Corp.0.

2004 . consist of one or more software libraries or file-storage areas that should be separate from development. as well as software developed on-site. or live file-store areas. It contains the master copies of all controlled software in an organization. 8-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. they should be returned to the DHS or replacements obtained. DHS . This one storage area may. Once their (temporary) use has ended. Release Management: DSL and DHS SM251.An area should be set aside for the secure storage of definitive hardware spares. The DSL should include definitive copies of purchased software (along with licence documents or information).0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-10. Logical Storage Quality Control (Viruses / Licence / Test / Completeness) Release issue DSL Physical Distribution Physical Storage Software and linked Configuration Items 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. These are spare components and assemblies that are maintained at the same level as the comparative systems within the live environment. Details of these components and their respective builds and contents are comprehensively recorded in the CMDB.0 Notes: The Definitive Software Library (DSL) is the term used to describe a secure compound in which the definitive authorized versions of all software CIs are stored and protected. test. Details of these components and their respective builds and contents should be comprehensively recorded in the CMDB. © Copyright IBM Corp. Master copies of controlled documentation for a system will also be stored in the DSL in electronic form. These can then be used in a controlled manner when needed for additional systems or in the recovery from major incidents. in reality.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Release Management DSL and DHS DSL = Definitive Software Library contains the master copies of all controlled software in an organization DHS = Definitive Hardware Store secure storage of definitive hardware spares These are spare components and assemblies that are maintained at the same level as the comparative systems within the live environment.

There is less temptation to short-circuit testing of supposedly unchanged CIs and of the interfaces from changed CIs to unchanged ones. and implemented together. effort. The disadvantage is that the amount of time.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Release Management Software Release Release Unit Determines the content of the software package Network Computer Mainframes Software Management System Release Types Full Release (All software CIs from the release are built. Although in some circumstances the testing of a delta release (see below) may need to be as extensive as that for an equivalent full release. delta releases.) Package Release (individual releases (full units. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: Please note the following for the slide: Full Release The major advantage of full releases is that all components of the release unit are built. distribute. and implement the release will increase. tested. 2004 Unit 8.) Emergency Fix Internet Software Software Distribution Distribution CDs Laptops Client/Server PCs Planning 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1. tested.0. and computing resources needed to build.V3.) Delta Release (includes only those CIs within the Release unit that have actually changed or are new since the last full or delta release. distributed. There is no danger that obsolete versions of CIs that are incorrectly assumed to be unchanged will be used within the release. the amount of building effort required to test a delta release is normally less than for a full release. or both) are grouped together to form Package Releases. Release Management: Software Release SM251. test. Release Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and implemented together. Any problems are therefore more likely to be detected and rectified before entry into the live environment.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-11. 8-13 .

a very large number may enforce a full release • The possible risk to the business if compatibility errors are found in the release (for example. a delta release contains only those modules that have changed. and under what circumstances. or whether a delta release is preferable. if the release unit is the program. or both. distributing. a delta release may be more appropriate. and implementing the delta release (for example.Student Notebook Regression testing as part of the process of implementing a full release allows a large number of components to be retested to ensure that there is no degradation in system function or behavior. it is recommended that. the Change Advisory Board (CAB) should make a recommendation. There may be occasions when release of a full unit cannot be justified. if implementation is to be via non-technical staff. where appropriate and where the resulting larger amount of change can be confidently handled without problems. release is one that includes only those CIs within the release unit that have actually changed or are new since the last full or delta release. 2004 . For example. Delta Release A delta. In making its recommendation. or both) are grouped together to form “package releases”. is it easier to implement a complete new release than a delta release?) • The completeness of impact analysis information to make an informed and objective decision. would it be preferable to wait for a full release than to risk interface problems arising with a delta release?) • The resources available for building. delta releases. individual releases (full units. A decision should be made on whether delta releases are allowed. or are new. with the decision being taken on a case by case basis. An example of a full release could consist of the complete release of a new version of client desktop software. testing. In such cases. There is no single “correct” choice. or partial. and hence the resources and effort required • The urgency of the need for the facilities to be provided by the release to the users • The number of CIs (below the release unit level) that have changed since the last full release. on whether the release unit stipulated in the release policy is appropriate. Package Release To provide longer periods of stability for the live environment by reducing the frequency of releases. It is recommended that delta releases be allowed. For example. since the last full release of the program or the last delta release of the modules. © Copyright IBM Corp. If all these 8-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. or client desktop hardware. In each case. the CAB should take into account: • The size of a delta release in comparison with a full release. changes to one system or suite will often require changes to be made to others. based upon all the relevant facts.

in different suites and systems. © Copyright IBM Corp. When making a decision on what to include in the package. a number of new and initial versions of individual modules. are actually made concurrently. the amount of change that can be handled comfortably. not to exceed. care should be taken to ensure that the full impact of all individual parts on each other part is understood and has been properly assessed. A package can.1. together with the release of a complete new desktop system (both hardware and software). Release Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Both full and delta releases may be included. The use of package releases can reduce the likelihood of old or incompatible software being wrongly kept in use. It can also encourage organizations to test the interworking of these suites and systems fully. 8-15 .1 Student Notebook Uempty changes have to be made at the same time. they should be included in the same package release.V3. It can encourage organizations to ensure that all changes that should be made concurrently.0. however. in any particular package release. Care should be taken. contain an initial version of a new TP service. 2004 Unit 8. several new versions of batch programs. for example.

because releases are built properly (quality control. under Change Management) More stable environment. as changes are bundled into releases.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Release Management Benefits Greater success rate in hardware and software release.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-12. hence fewer implementations required Better expectation level because of release schedule Audit trail of changes Control and safeguarding of hardware and software assets Higher rate of changes can be absorbed without affecting IT QOS by using a release comprising multiple changes Lower probability of illegal copies in environment Easier detection of wrong versions and unauthorized copies Reduced time to release and fewer delays 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. testing. 2004 . Release Management: Benefits SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 8-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. hence improved QOS delivered to the business Consistency in the release processes of hardware and software environments Less disruption of service to business by synchronizing releases having impact on different components Assurance that hardware and software in use is of known quality.

database – Security for DSL – Hardware and equipment.0 Notes: This slide discusses the costs of building the DSL and the DHS. 2004 Unit 8. For secure release distribution.V3. The staff who support the process and the tailoring of the process will generate expense. Release Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 8-17 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Release Management Costs Resources – Software: supported software tools.0. © Copyright IBM Corp. especially data storage – Spare components (DHS) – Network resources (remote control) Staff: – Salary. training – Tests Tailoring of the process 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Release Management: Costs SM251. a secure network is needed.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-13.1.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-14. 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 . Education is required.0 Notes: 8-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Release Management Risks Potential problem areas: Establishment of version and release guidelines with external suppliers Bypass defined procedures Creation of the definitive software library DSL integration using automatic software distribution Ensure that version numbering guidelines comply with releases Staff resistance to procedures because of lack of knowledge of benefits. © Copyright IBM Corp. Release Management: Risks SM251.

and package guidelines Release Management process also for additionally purchased software (not only for self-developed software) 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 8. Release Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. version.1. and Configuration Management (control and administration) Control of each software item using release.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Release Management Best Practices Physical storage of all operational software in the definitive software library (DSL) Distribution of each software item from the DSL.V3.0. 8-19 . Integration of Release Management (operational). Change Management (control).0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-15. Release Management: Best Practices SM251. Use of the DSL as source for distribution.

and Emergency Fix DSL and DHS Process relationship – Release Management (Operational) – Change Management (Control). configuration. software audits Release types: Full.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 8-16. Responsibilities: control of the DSL. definition. Release Management: Summary SM251. design. – Configuration Management (Control and Administration). 2004 . Delta Release. Package. building and management of software releases. 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. A Release is a collection of authorized changes to an IT service. The focus is to protect the live environment and services through the implementation of formal procedures and release checks. building. © Copyright IBM Corp. and testing of hardware and software to create a set of release components for a live environment.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Release Management Summary Release Management undertakes the planning.0 Notes: 8-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. distribution of software CIs.

Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Service Level Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Service Level Management.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 9. you should be able to think about the mission of this service. 9-1 . and its relationship within IT Services.1. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit. © Copyright IBM Corp.0.V3. 2004 Unit 9. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-1. Unit 09: Service Level Management SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 09 Service Level Management Content: Service Level Management – objective and overview Responsibilities and obligations Some definitions Important aspects: – Service Level Agreement (SLA) – Service spec sheet Benefits. risks.0 Notes: 9-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp. costs Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

V3. Service Level Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-2.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1. 9-3 . Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 Unit 9.

© Copyright IBM Corp. agreeing. The emphasis must be on agreement. monitoring.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management Mission Statement The goal for Service Level Management is to maintain and improve IT service quality.0 Notes: Service Level Management is the name given to the processes of planning. The following belong to the scope of Service Level Management:: Service relationship customer . Service Level Management (SLM) is essential in any organization so that the level of IT service needed to support the business can be determined. Service Level Agreements (SLA). and reporting upon IT service achievements and instigation of actions to eradicate poor service. Service Level Management: Mission Statement SM251. What is an SLA? A written agreement between an IT service provider and the IT customer(s). otherwise the SLA could quickly fall into disrepute and a culture of blame prevent any true service quality improvements from taking place. which are managed through the SLM Process. monitoring. 2004 .supplier Improved specification and knowledge of service demands Higher flexibility and reaction readiness of the service provider Balanced relation between customer demands and service costs Measurable service level Objective conflict solution Quality improvement (continuous review) 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and monitoring can be initiated to identify whether the required service levels are being achieved . and SLAs should not be used as a way of holding one side or the other to ransom. Through these methods. a better relationship between IT Services and its customers can be developed. SLAs provide the basis for managing the relationship between the provider and the customer. A true partnership should be developed between the IT provider and the customer. through a constant cycle of agreeing. provide specific targets against which the performance of the IT organization can be judged. defining the key service targets and responsibilities of both parties. why not.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-3. drafting.and if not. coordinating. in line with business or cost justification. 9-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and the ongoing review of service achievements to ensure that the required and cost-justifiable service quality is maintained and gradually improved. and reporting on SLAs. so that a mutually beneficial agreement is reached.

2004 Unit 9. Due to organizational and cultural effects. A Service Level Agreement (SLA) is important for the judgement and execution of most activities in the IT organization. the SLM process is one of the most important but also the most complex. 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. SLAs provide the basis for managing the relationship between the provider and the customer.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-4.V3. 9-5 . An essential element in the service management level process is the service level agreement (SLA). Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. The SLA can also serve as a catalyst to demonstrate the necessity of further important ITSM processes and their contributions to the fulfilment of the SLA. a "contract" between the IT organization and its customers. Qualitative as well as quantitative details such as performance and availability of those services are specified within the SLA.0. that specifies the services to be delivered.1. Service Level Management: Why Service Level Management SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Why Service Level Management Service Level Management (SLM) is responsible for the qualitative and quantitative management of the services provided by the IT organization to its customers. It formalizes the relationship between the customer organization and the IT organization.

0 Notes: 9-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-5. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management SLM – Balance service capabilities and service requirements Demand for IT services Offer IT services Requirement Customer Primary Issues: •Cost. Service Level Management: SLM – Balance service capabilities and service requirements SM251. Convenience •Satisfaction Capabilities Service Provider Primary Issues: •Efficiency •Effectiveness Knowledge of business requirement Knowledge of business requirement Knowledge of the service catalog Knowledge of the service catalog 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 .

9-7 . Operational Level Agreement (OLA): agreement between IT service provider and other internal service providers on which the service depends.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3. Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0. Service Level Requirement (SLR): list of all customer requirements for the service. Service Improvement Program (SIP): Management can instigate a SIP to identify and implement whatever actions are necessary to overcome any difficulties and restore service quality. 2004 Unit 9.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Definitions Service Level Agreement (SLA): agreement between IT service provider and the IT customer(s). 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1. Also lists users of the service and their maintainers. Underpinning Contract (UC): contract with external IT service providers (for hardware or software). detailing key service targets and responsibilities of both parties. Service Level Management: Definitions SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-6. Service Catalog (SC): list of all IT services provided which can come into scope for SLAs.

Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management Tasks Service catalog Demand of service level Service level agreement Customer relationship care Service Level Service Level Management Management Operational level agreements and contracts (UC) Service specification sheet (service specification) Monitoring.0 Figure 9-7. review. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: The tasks which belong to SLM activities include those shown on the slide. 9-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 . and evaluation Service improvement program © 2004 IBM Corporation 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Service Level Management: Tasks SM251.

V3.0 Agree on SLAs and maintain Service Catalog © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-8.0 Notes: The main activities within the SLM process are shown on the slide. SLA Define offerings with OLAs and Underpinning Contracts Report to the customer and IT organization Monitor and evaluate service levels versus SLAs 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 9-9 . © Copyright IBM Corp.1. Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0. 2004 Unit 9. Service Level Management: Service Level Management Activities SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Service Level Management Activities Identify existing service levels and new requirements Review and adjust service provision.

Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management Manage relationship with customers and suppliers (internal and external) Business Context SLA IT Provider Service Level Management Internal IT Provider OLA IT Organizations Network Operating HW . IT customer SLA UC Service Portfolio External Provider Service Level Agreement (SLA) A written agreement between an IT Service Provider and the IT Customer(s). © Copyright IBM Corp. An OLA has no legal part. 2004 . the IT organization needs an underpinning contract with its suppliers. Underpinning Contract (UC) A contract with an external supplier covering delivery of services A UC should have a commercial and a legal part. 9-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. A UC is a SLA with the external supplier or provider‘s point of view © 2004 IBM Corporation ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. To ensure delivery of service. Service Level Management: Manage relationship with customers and suppliers (internal and external) SM251.0 Figure 9-9. 10 Operational Level Agreement (OLA) A contract or agreement with an internal supplier covering delivery of services. an SLA is a mandatory contract.0 Notes: To define the service which a IT organization should provide. An SLA should have a commercial and a legal part...

disputes. Service Level Management: Different points of view: Communication SM251. penalties Staff point of view: Operational specification. service time.. Technical: Tools. 2004 Unit 9. education.0. Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. metrics collection procedures 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Different points of view: Communication Negotiation of service level agreements The communication between all individuals concerned is a key factor for effective and efficient SLAs! Legal: Contract law. .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-10..0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3. methods. charging Customer’s point of view: Reaction time. handling.1. 9-11 . administration SLA Commercial: Accounting.

date. definitions Quality objectives. escalation. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 . signatures SLA release management and service change procedures Management reporting. dates. and others are not. parties.0 Concerned parties. review methods Service Level Service Level Agreement Agreement General information: contact persons. care and support Service specification sheet 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. contents.0 Notes: Not a fixed rule: some of the content items are mandatory. 9-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. roles and responsibilities © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-11. Service Level Management: Content of a Service Level Agreement (SLA) SM251. penalties.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management Content of a Service Level Agreement (SLA) Name. signatures Version numbers.

0.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Recourse claims for non-compliance of SLAs -> liability regulation . Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 9-13 .. Service Level Management: Service Level Agreement (SLA) – Basic Structure SM251..V3. products • Type of service or product Definition and scope of business Customer requirements Process steps description for the product handling • Prerequisites that have to be fulfilled by the customer or client • Agreed quality standards Availability “Deadlines” for same-day handling Quality degrees Emergency regulation (reference to emergency concepts) Incidents Claims and escalation procedures • Action plans Reports Periodic checks Q circle • Costs accounting and charging • Bonus/Malus Regulation 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 9.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Service Level Agreement (SLA) – Basic Structure • Validity • Name of the client or customer • Business field.1. + signatures of the contract partners Figure 9-12.

restrictions. liability. measuring method § Reporting § Failure of provision § Penalties § Warranty. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management Service Level Agreement (SLA) – Legal Contents § Preamble § Change Management § Scope § General conditions § Cooperation duties of the customer § Consulting § Education § Performance description § Backup and data protection § Limitations. Service Level Management: Service Level Agreement (SLA) – Legal Contents SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-13. exclusions § Priorities § Escalations § Other obligations § Secrecy § Costs and performance clearing § Performance control.0 Notes: 9-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. damages § Duration of contract § Extraordinary termination § Conversion § Claim to working results § Venue § Writing § Final provision 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

such as required resources and skills. delivery. parties Service description.0 Notes: The specification sheet specifies in detail what the customer wants (external). contingency.0. recovery action Service Service specification specification sheet sheet Supplied products and accessories Security. Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 9-15 . 2004 Unit 9. date. duration.V3. Service Level Management: Elements of a Service Spec Sheet SM251. security 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Service levels. © Copyright IBM Corp. performance © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-14. terms of delivery and financial terms Procedures for changes. signatures Service time and location.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Elements of a Service Spec Sheet Name. backup and recovery.1. and what consequences this has for the service provider (internal). availability. date.

0 Notes: 9-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Service Level Management: Benefits SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management Benefits Improvement in IT service quality and reduction of service outages can lead to significant financial savings Satisfied customers and better customer relationship Clearer view between both parties on roles and responsibilities Specific targets that have to be achieved and that can be measured and reported Focusing of IT effort on what the business thinks is key IT and customers have consistent expectations on the level of service required Identification of weak areas that can be remedied subsequently SLM underpins supplier management and vice-versa IT services are designed to meet Service Level Requirements SLAs can be the basis for charging.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-15. and are the demonstration of what customers receive for their money. 2004 . 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.

1. Service Level Management: Risks SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-16.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Risks Potential problem areas: Monitoring actual achievements and having the same perception as the customer. 9-17 .V3.0. Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 Unit 9. This impacts the following: – Committing only to achievable targets – Verifying targets prior to agreement – SLAs based on desires rather than achievable targets Inadequate resources and time – SLA management done in the margin of … Too low seniority for SLA manager SLAs not supported by adequate UCs and OLAs Unclear definition of responsibilities of each party. making some things fall between the “cracks” IT-based rather than business-aligned Business not knowing its requirements Not focused SLAs SLAs being considered as overhead rather than chargeable service 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-17. 2004 . Staff: salaries.0 Notes: 9-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. training. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management Costs The costs for SLM should be viewed as investment and added value. Service Level Management: Costs SM251. consultancy – initial and ongoing Support tools and hardware Marketing costs 18 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

2004 Unit 9.1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Service Level Management Best Practices Show the winning of business oriented to SLA Clearly differentiate Service Level Management (Process) from Service Level Agreements (Contract) Charging on SLA basis and not globally Clear definition in a clear language of SLA for all parties SLA Definition only as an activity of the Service Level Management process Each SLA should be supported by its own OLAs and UCs 19 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Service Level Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-18. 9-19 . Service Level Management: Best Practices SM251.0.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3.

and monitoring of higher service overall contracts. though a constant cycle of agreeing. Service Level Management: Summary SM251. reaction times.0 Notes: 9-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. preparation. as well as plans for improving service and quality SLA: Service Level Agreement (duration. negotiation. OLAs and UCs.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 9-19. monitoring. availability. and reviewing IT service achievements. drafting of SLRs.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Service Level Management Summary The goal of SLM: to maintain and gradually improve business-aligned IT service quality. service description. which is a major prerequisite for running the service organization as a business. signature) The quality of IT services supports the company’s success! 20 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. improvement of service quality (customer-oriented) through measurable service levels Responsibilities: care of customer relations. reporting. SLAs. planning and maintenance of the service catalog. transfer rate. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp. and through instigating actions to eradicate unacceptable levels of service Important reasons for implementing Service Level Management: alignment of expectations.

What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 10. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. you should be able to think about the mission of this service.V3. 2004 Unit 10. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework. and its relationship within IT Services. © Copyright IBM Corp. 10-1 .0. Availability Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Availability Management.1.

© Copyright IBM Corp. and availability – Availability measurement – Availability reporting Benefits and risks Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. downtime.0 Notes: 10-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Module 10: Availability Management SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Module 10 Availability Management Content: Availability Management – objective and overview Responsibilities and obligations Some definitions Important aspects: – Uptime.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-1. 2004 .

0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Availability Management Integration into the IPW Model Implementing your Service Desk infrastructure IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-2. Availability Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251. 2004 Unit 10.0. 10-3 .

and supporting organisation.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-3. and management of services availability. appropriate agreements exist with third-party suppliers – Changes are suggested in order to avoid future service downtime Ensures that SLA-agreed availability is met 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Availability Management Mission Statement Availability management ensures that IT delivers the right levels of availability required by the business to satisfy its business objectives and to deliver the quality of service demanded by its customers. Goal of Availability Management: Forecast.0 Notes: 10-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. in order to provide cost-effective availability improvements that can deliver proven business enhancements to customers. Availability Management should look continuously to optimize the availability of the IT Infrastructure. planning. © Copyright IBM Corp. The measurement and monitoring of IT availability is a key activity to ensure that availability levels are being met consistently. 2004 . Availability Management: Mission Statement SM251. to ensure that: – All services are based on appropriate and latest CIs – For CIs not supported internally. Availability Management should ensure that the required level of availability is provided. services.

resolution.V3. It is a measure of the three Availability. and resilience of the IT infrastructure Reliability: measured by Mean Time Between System Incidents (MTBSI) Ability to work without operational failure Depends on the probability of failure of each component. • Security focuses on the Confidentiality. Integrity. 2004 Unit 10.0. • Maintainability is the ability to retain in. an operational state.1. and restoration of data and IT service 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. recovery from failures. and the preventive maintenance applied to prevent a failure from occurring Maintainability: measured by the Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) Ability to be retained or restored to an operational state Depends on anticipation. Availability Management: Definitions (1) SM251. Ability of an IT service or component to perform its required function at a stated instant. © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Availability Management Definitions (1) Availability: measured by Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). or over a stated period of time Underpinned by reliability. serviceability. or restore a service or component to. • Reliability is the level of freedom from operational failure of the IT service or component. detection. and Maintainability capabilities of the IT service and components that must be done.0 Notes: Availability Management • Availability is the ability of an IT service or component to perform at a stated instant. diagnosis. or over a stated period of time. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. • Serviceability on its own cannot be measured as a specific metric. 10-5 . the resilience built into the IT infrastructure. and Availability (CIA) of data. Reliability. maintainability.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-4.

reliability. and maintainability provided by the contractual agreements with the IT service providers Resilience: or Fault Tolerance Ability of an IT service to remain operational in spite of malfunction by one or more subcomponents 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 10-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Availability Management Definitions (2) Serviceability: cannot be measured as a specific metric Ability to maintain the availability. Availability Management: Definitions (2) SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-5. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 .

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Availability Management Tasks Monitoring.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-6. and Assessment Availability planning Availability plan Availability Availability Management Management Availability Improvement Identification Availability Requirements 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 10.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3.0. 10-7 . Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1. Review. Availability Management: Tasks SM251.

reliability. © Copyright IBM Corp. and user perspectives Monitoring requirement for IT components that allow the detection of deviations in availability Availability Plan for the proactive improvement of IT infrastructure availability 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Availability Management: Inputs and Outputs SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-7.0 Notes: 10-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Configuration and monitoring data SLA achievements Outputs: Availability and recovery design criteria for new or enhanced IT services Availability techniques that will be deployed to provide additional infrastructure resilience Availability Management Availability reporting to reflect the business. Information on IT service and component failures coming from incidents and problems. 2004 . Business Impact Assessment (BIA) for each vital business function underpinned by the IT infrastructure.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Availability Management Inputs and Outputs Inputs: Availability. and maintainability requirements of the business for new or enhanced IT services. IT support.

10-9 . the standard incident “lifecycle”.Mean Time to Repair DOWNTIME Maintainability MTBF . Every incident passes through several major stages. A good technique to help with the technical analysis of incidents affecting the availability of components and IT services is to take an incident “lifecycle” view. has been expanded to provide additional help and guidance.0 Notes: A guiding principle of Availability Management is to recognize that it is still possible to gain customer satisfaction even when things go wrong.1.0. particularly in the area of “designing for recovery”. © Copyright IBM Corp. as described within Incident Management. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. One approach to help achieve this requires Availability Management to ensure that the duration of any incident is minimized to enable normal business operations to resume as quickly as possible. 2004 Unit 10. Availability Management should work closely with Incident Management and Problem Management in the analysis of unavailability incidents.V3.Mean Time Between Failure UPTIME Availability (Serviceability) MTBSI .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Availability Management Uptime. For Availability Management purposes. The time elapsed in these stages may vary considerably. and Availability MTTR Recognition Repair Recovery Incident Diagnosis Recovery Incident MTBF MTBSI Time MTTR .Mean Time Between System Incident Average Reliability Reliability 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Downtime. and Availability SM251. Downtime.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-8. Availability Management: Uptime.

Student Notebook MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) is the average elapsed time from the time an IT service or supporting component is fully restored until the next occurrence of a failure to the same service or component MTBSI (Mean Time Between System Incidents) is the average elapsed time between the occurrence of one failure and the next failure MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) is the average elapsed time from the occurrence of an incident to resolution of the incident. 2004 . 10-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp.

such as electronics and aviation. This information is needed to help formulate availability targets for IT components and IT services.0 Notes: This slide shows some of the simple mathematics required to enable component and total Infrastructure Availability to be calculated. these output calculations can be input to any availability modeling tools that are available. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3. although the agreed conditions for the provision of the service are fulfilled. The examples provided in this section are fairly straightforward. The statistical analysis of incident data and the forecasting of availability are a rich study field in many industries outside IT. with the calculations presented being sufficient to provide adequate estimates of availability.1. Availability Management: Availability Measurements (1) SM251. Additionally. 2004 Unit 10. Where more detailed estimates of availability are required.Downtime Agreed service time 100 X 1 But what does 98% availability mean? 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. it may be necessary to research more complex mathematical calculations.0. © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Availability Management Availability Measurements (1) When is a service not available? ”A service is not available to a customer if the locally required functions cannot be used. 10-11 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-9." A simple calculation of availability in %: Agreed service time .

2004 . if both are in operation => AxB= Availability = 1 – not available 1 – both are not available = 1 – (A not available) x (B not available) = 1 – 0.0 Notes: The availability percentage for each IT component within the total IT infrastructure may be different.1 * 0.9 = 0. The levels of resilience provided positively influence the availability percentage for the total infrastructure. This slide shows the serial and parallel configuration calculation of availability. Availability Management: Availability Measurement (2) SM251. and as such it is necessary to provide a calculation that reflects the total infrastructure availability.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Availability Management Availability Measurement (2) Serial Parallel Availability = 90% Disk A Disk A Availability = 90% Disk B Availability = 90% Disk B Availability = 90% Availability only then.99 or 99% 0.9 * 0.1 = 0. 10-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-10.81 or 81% 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.

V3.0. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 Unit 10. Availability Management: Availability Measurement Example (3) SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Availability Management Availability Measurement Example (3) Example of availability in a parallel or a serial architecture 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-11. 10-13 .

or both within the IT infrastructure and service design Risk Analysis involves the identification and assessment of the level (measure) of the risks calculated from the assessed values of assets and the assessed levels of threats to. © Copyright IBM Corp. Risk Analysis should be undertaken during the design phase for the IT infrastructure and service to identify: • Risks that may incur non-availability for the IT components within the IT infrastructure and service design • Risks that may incur confidentiality. integrity exposures.0 Notes: The identification of risks and the provision of justified countermeasures to reduce or eliminate the threats posed by such risks can play an important role in achieving the required levels of availability for a new or enhanced IT service.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-12. those assets. 10-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Availability Management Risk Management is also an aspect of availability Assets Threats Weaknesses Risk analysis Risk management Risks Risks Countermeasures Planning for possible downtimes Management of downtimes 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and vulnerabilities of. 2004 . Availability Management: Risk Management is also an aspect of availability SM251.

1.V3. and the reduction of those risks to an acceptable level. This approach.1 Student Notebook Uempty Risk Management involves the identification. 2004 Unit 10.0. and adoption of countermeasures justified by the identified risks to assets in terms of their potential impact upon services if failure occurs. © Copyright IBM Corp. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. ensures that coverage is complete together with sufficient confidence that: • All possible risks and countermeasures have been identified • All vulnerabilities have been identified and their levels accurately assessed • All threats have been identified and their levels accurately assessed • All results are consistent across the broad spectrum of the IT infrastructure reviewed • All expenditure on selected countermeasures can be justified. selection. when applied via a formal method. 10-15 .

Based on the above example. these traditional measures are based on a combination of an availability percentage (%).3%.The inverse of the above. time lost. Some examples of these traditional measures are as follows: % Available . Generally good availability for the IT organization – Does not support continuous improvement Future measured variables (CCTA acceptance): Impact by user minutes lost (user productivity) Impact by business transaction 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. then this is a much larger relative difference. such that if the service level target was 98.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-13. if the target for non-availability was 1. 2004 . 10-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. then it does not seem that bad. Traditionally. It tends to emphasize the “big number”.5% and the achievement was 98. This representation. these measures have concentrated on component availability.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Availability Management Availability Reporting Classical reporting measures % available % unavailable Duration of unavailability in hours Frequency of failure Impact of failure Problems with classical measures: – Fails to reflect IT availability as experienced by the business and users – Conceal “hot spots”. is much more useful as a component availability measure than as a service availability measure.5% and the achievement was 1. % Unavailable . It is typically used to track and report achievement against a service level target.7%. This can encourage a complacent behavior within the IT support organization. as such.0 Notes: The IT support organization has for many years measured and reported on its perspective of availability. has the benefit of focusing on non-availability. however. and the frequency of failure. Typically. © Copyright IBM Corp. and have been somewhat divorced from the business and user views.The truly “traditional” measure which represents qvailability as a percentage and. Availability Management: Availability Reporting SM251.

where tangible benefits to the business and users have been delivered. this would represent a trend leading to an additional 4 days of non-availability to the business over a full year. this is no longer being viewed as acceptable. © Copyright IBM Corp. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0. the users. and the business is keen to better represent availability in measure(s) that demonstrate the positive and negative consequences of IT availability on their business and users. All other measures suffer from a potential to mask the real effects of service failure. It depends upon mature incident recording. but the method of measurement and reporting does not make this visible. However. It helps provide a good indication of reliability from a user perspective. the “%” target has been met even though significant business disruption has occurred and customer complaints have been received. Furthermore. It is best used in combination with Duration to take a balanced view of the level of service interruptions and the duration of time lost to the business. 10-17 . Duration . whereby regular reporting shows the SLA as being “met”. This provides a more “human” measure that people can relate to. despite periods of instability. are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the IT service • Do not easily support continuous improvement opportunities to drive improvements that can benefit the business and the users • Can mask IT “added value”. Impact of failure . the disadvantages of this approach are that they: • Fail to reflect IT availability as experienced by the business and the users • Can conceal service “hot spots”.1. This type of measure and reporting is more likely to encourage focus on service improvement. The traditional IT approach to measurement and reporting provides an indicator of IT availability and component reliability which is important for the internal IT support organization. this method of measurement and reporting can often hide the benefits delivered to the business from IT improvements. to the business and users.Achieved by converting the percentage unavailable into hours and minutes.1 Student Notebook Uempty This method of reporting is more likely to create awareness of the shortfall in delivering the level of availability required. but the business.V3. The business may have. However. 2004 Unit 10.Used to record the number of interruptions to the IT service. for many years. where the inability of users to perform their business tasks is the most important piece of information captured.This is the true measure of service unavailability. or both. If the weekly downtime target is 2 hours but one week the actual was 4 hours. This often fuels mistrust between the business and IT where. The traditional IT availability measures can simply mask real IT “added value” to the business operation. While the traditional IT availability measurement and reporting methods can be considered appropriate for internal IT reporting. accepted as a fait accompli that the IT availability that they experience is represented in this way. these measures fail to reflect availability from their perspective and are rarely understood. Frequency of failure .

implemented. and managed to consistently meet that target Improvement of capability of the IT infrastructure to attain the required levels of availability to support the critical business processes Improvement of customer satisfaction and recognition that availability is the prime IT deliverable Reduction in frequency and duration of incidents that impact IT availability Single point for availability is established within the IT organization (process owner) Levels of IT availability provided are cost-justified and support SLAs fully Shortcomings in provision of availability are recognized and coped with in a formal way Mindset moves from error correction to service enhancement: from reactive to proactive attitude 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 10-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Availability Management: Benefits SM251. 2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Availability Management Benefits IT services with an availability requirement are designed.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-14.

2004 Unit 10.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-15.V3. Availability Management: Risks SM251. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Availability Management Risks Potential problem areas: Costs of availability management are seen as overhead and are too high It is difficult to quantify the availability demands of the user and to determine their costs Lack of available resources with the required skills Gathering of availability data requires many tools to underpin and support the process Vendor dependency Broad knowledge of IT infrastructure 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 10-19 .1.

© Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-16. 2004 . Availability Management: Best Practices SM251.0 Notes: 10-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Availability Management Best Practices Separation of design and measurement Usage in connection with capacity. financial management for IT services. and IT service continuity management Determination of metrics using this process 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. and supporting organization to deliver a costeffective and sustained level of availability that enables the business to satisfy its business objectives. services. 10-21 . Aspects: Availability. 2004 Unit 10. Reliability. Availability Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Maintainability.V3.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 10-17. Serviceability Risk Management Measures of Availability: – – – – MTBSI (Mean Time Between System Incidents) MTTR (Mean Time To Repair ) MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) Calculation of Availability 18 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Availability Management: Summary SM251.1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Availability Management Summary The goal of the Availability Management process is to optimize the capability of the IT infrastructure.

© Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook 10-22 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .

1. you should be able to think about the mission of this service. Capacity Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Capacity Management. and its relationship within IT Services. © Copyright IBM Corp.0. 2004 Unit 11. 11-1 .V3. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework. Capacity Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 11.

Unit 11: Capacity Management SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-1.0 Notes: 11-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 11 Capacity Management Content: Capacity Management – objectives and overview Responsibilities and obligations Important aspects – Capacity planning – Capacity Database (CDB) Benefits. 2004 . risks. © Copyright IBM Corp. costs Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-2.1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 11-3 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Capacity Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 11.V3. Capacity Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Capacity Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251.

However.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Capacity Management Mission Statement Capacity Management is responsible for ensuring that the capacity of the IT infrastructure matches the evolving demands of the business in the most cost-effective and timely manner. used to deliver the services required by the business.0 Notes: 11-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and to ensure that all the current and future capacity and performance aspects of the business requirements are provided cost-effectively. required. the organization's operation (the current provision of IT services). in order that the service levels which are of IT resources. 2004 . Capacity Management needs to understand the business requirements (the required provision of IT services). and the IT infrastructure (the means of provision of IT services). in order that the service levels which are agreed with the company are fulfilled in a timely manner. Capacity Management is also about understanding the potential for service provision. One of the result of the activities of Capacity Management is a documented capacity plan. acceptable. The goal of Capacity Management: Ensure Ensure required. acceptable. New technology needs to be understood and. © Copyright IBM Corp. cost-effective capacity costcost-effective capacity of IT resources. agreed with the company are fulfilled in a timely manner. Capacity Management needs to recognize that the rate of technological change will probably increase and that new technology should be harnessed to ensure that the IT services continue to satisfy changing business expectations. if appropriate. 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-3. Capacity Management: Mission Statement SM251.

the customer requires services The expenditure for IT capacities needs to be continuously justifiable It provides information on current and planned resource utilization of individual components.0. faster hard disk. Capacity Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. larger bandwidth) – When to perform upgrades – not too early.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-4. customer dissatisfaction – How much the upgrade will be – planning elements and predictions will influence budget planning Capacity management is based on: – Business requirements – Existing structures of the company – Existing IT infrastructure The customer does not require capacity. 2004 Unit 11. in order to avoid bottlenecks. allowing decisions on which components to upgrade.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Capacity Management Why Capacity Management? There are a number of reasons why an organization should implement Capacity Management. Capacity Management provides the required information about: – Which components need to be upgraded (such as main memory. otherwise expensive overcapacities cannot be used. and how much it will cost. 11-5 . and consequently.1.V3. when to do so. Capacity Management: Why Capacity Management? SM251. and not too late. bad performance. 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

within which there are various activities. and implemented in a timely fashion. This is performed by staff with knowledge of all the 11-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. analyzed. The sub-processes of Capacity Management are: Business Capacity Management: This sub-process is responsible for ensuring that the future business requirements for IT services are considered. as detailed in the targets in the SLAs and SLRs.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Capacity Management Capacity Management has three sub-processes Demand Management Business Capacity Management Service Capacity Management Resource Capacity Management Capacity Plan Capacity Database Iterative activities (Performance Mgmt) 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 . and that the collected data is recorded. is monitored and measured. action is taken to ensure that the performance of the services meets the business requirements. It is responsible for ensuring that the performance of all services.0 Notes: Capacity Management consists of a number of sub-processes. These future requirements come from business plans outlining new services. forecast. planned.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-5. operational IT services used by the customers. This can be achieved by using the existing data on the current resource utilization by the various services to trend. or model the future requirements. Service Capacity Management: The focus of this sub-process is the management of the performance of the live. © Copyright IBM Corp. and so on. improvements and growth in existing services. As necessary. and reported. development plans. Capacity Management: Capacity Management has three sub-processes SM251.

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

areas of technology used in the delivery of end-to-end service, and often involves seeking advice from the specialists involved in Resource Capacity Management. Resource Capacity Management: The focus in this sub-process is the management of the individual components of the IT infrastructure. It is responsible for ensuring that all components within the IT infrastructure that have finite resource are monitored and measured, and that the collected data is recorded, analyzed, and reported. As necessary, action must be taken to manage the available resource to ensure that the IT services that it supports meet the business requirements. In carrying out this work, the Capacity Management process is assisted by individuals with specialist knowledge in the particular areas of technology.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 11. Capacity Management
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

11-7

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Capacity Management

Tasks
Iterative Activities
Analyze Tuning

Business Capacity Management

Service Capacity Management

Capacity Capacity Management Management

Implementation Monitoring

Resource Capacity Management

Demand Management Capacity Database (CDB) Application Sizing

7

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 11-6. Capacity Management: Tasks

SM251.0

Notes:
Ongoing: iterative activities, Demand Management, storage of data in the Capacity Database (CDB) Ad hoc: Modeling and application sizing Regularly: Production of capacity plan

Iterative activities: Monitoring in order to ensure optimum use of hardware and software such that agreed service levels can be achieved. Metrics are: • CPU, memory, file store utilization • Transactions: per second, response time • Batch duration profiles

11-8 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

Distinguish between availability data and performance data. Thresholds should be set based on analysis of previously recorded data. They should be set below targets in SLAs to allow for corrective action before an SLA is breached. Analysis of the collected data to identify trends from which normal utilization and service levels can be established. Report on exception conditions compared with baseline. Predict future resource usage. Analysis should happen on short-term, medium-term, and long-term. Tuning of configurations to improve performance through: • Balancing workloads or disk traffic • Change locking strategy (database, page, table, record, row) • Efficient use of memory Implementation of tuning activities in the live environment should happen through Change Management to limit impact on the customers of the service.

Capacity Database It is a cornerstone of a successful Capacity Management system. It is the basis of performance and capacity reports to be delivered to management and technical personnel. All sub-processes use it. For more details, see notes on page 11-14.

Demand Management • Influence demand for, and use of, resources • Carried out as short-term solution to a capacity problem (like the breakdown of a redundant component that was also in use, hence halving capacity) • Carried out as longer-term solution if difficult to justify expensive upgrade • Exercised through: - Physical constraints or limiting usage - Financial constraints or charging • Can be carried out by any of the three sub-processes.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 11. Capacity Management
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

11-9

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Capacity Management

Input & Output
INPUT
Technologies SLAs, SLRs, and service portfolio Business plans and strategies Maintenance windows Employment and development plans and programmes Planning of future changes Incidents and problems Service reviews SLA violation Financial plans Budgets

SUB-PROCESS
Business Capacity Management Trend, forecast, model, prototype, size, and documentation of future business requirements Service Capacity Management Monitor, analyze, tune, and report on service performance; establish baselines and profiles of use of services Manage demand for service Resource Capacity Management Monitor, analyze, and report on utilization of components, Establish baselines and profiles on use of components

OUTPUT
Capacity plans CDB Minimum requirements and profiles Threshold values and signals Capacity reports (regular, ad hoc, and in special cases) SLA and SLR recommendations Costs and recommendations for further calculations Proactive changes and service improvements Revised maintenance windows Effectiveness review Audit reports

8

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 11-7. Capacity Management: Input & Output

SM251.0

Notes:

11-10 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Capacity Management

Iterative Activities
A number of the activities of Capacity Management need to be carried out iteratively, and form a natural cycle:
Tuning

Set up and maintain the Capacity Database Reporting – Analyzes and reports – Production of the capacity plan Demand Management and Monitoring – Ensure that the future business requirements for IT services are considered – Report on performance against targets contained in SLA – Monitoring of resources – Forecast future capacity requirements Document costs associated with options Assess new technology and its relevance
Implementation Analysis

Monitoring

SLM Exception Resource Utilization Thresholds SLM Thresholds Capacity Management Database (CDB) Reports

Resource Utilization Exception Reports

9

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 11-8. Capacity Management: Iterative Activities

SM251.0

Notes:
Monitors should be established on all the components and for each of the services. The data should be analyzed, using, wherever possible, expert systems to compare usage levels against thresholds. The results of the analysis should be included in reports, and recommendations made as appropriate. Some form of control mechanism may then be put in place to act on the recommendations. This may take the form of balancing services, changing concurrency levels, and adding or removing resource. The cycle then begins again, monitoring any changes made to ensure that they have had a beneficial effect, and collecting the data for the next day, week, or month.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 11. Capacity Management
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

11-11

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Capacity Management

Capacity Plan
The Capacity Plan should be published annually in line with the budgetary cycle. Ideally, it should be updated quarterly, and consists of the following parts: Introduction – Scope of planning – Methods Assumptions and prerequisites Management summary Business evaluations and scenarios Service summary Resource summary Options for service improvement Cost model Recommendations • Business benefit to expect • Potential impact (of not) carrying out recommendations; risks involved – Required resources – Costs: unique and ongoing
10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 11-9. Capacity Management: Capacity Plan

SM251.0

Notes:
Capacity Plan Contains: Introduction Explains background to this issue of the capacity plan: • Current levels of capacity of the organization • Problems and pain points identified due to over- or under-capacity. • Changes since last issue of capacity plan Scope of plan is given (ideally all IT resources). Methods used (how and when information obtained from sub-processes): • Business forecasts from business plans • Workload forecasts from users • Service level forecasts from modeling
11-12 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Options for service improvement Outlines possible options for improving effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery. Resource summary Current and recent resource usage should be documented. Business scenarios Put the plan in the context of the current and future business environment. Service forecasts should be detailed because of new and demised services. Any new recommendations should be made. upgrading network.1. Service summary For each current and recent service provision. reporting on trends. including throughput rates and resulting resource utilization. Current and forecasted cost of providing IT services (data generally coming from IT financial management). 2004 Unit 11. Mention all known business forecasts so that readers can determine what is inside and outside the scope of the plan. Cost model Costs associated with options should be documented.1 Student Notebook Uempty Management summary Highlight main issues. consolidating applications. recommendations and costs. provide a service profile. Recommendations Summary of recommendations made in previous plan and status.0. Capacity Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. options. and so on.V3. Recommendations should be quantified in terms of: • Business benefit to expect • Potential impact in (not) carrying out recommendations • Risks involved • Resources required • Setup cost and ongoing cost © Copyright IBM Corp. 11-13 . Trends should be presented. Resource forecasts coming from service forecasts. rewriting custom built applications.

It contains business data: • Number of accounts • Number of branches • Number of calls into call centers • Number of PCs • Anticipated workloads It contains service data: • Transaction response times 11-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 . financial.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-10. 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp. Capacity Management: Capacity Database SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Capacity Management Capacity Database Capacity Database (CDB) Data in the CDB is stored and used by all the sub-processes of Capacity Management because it is a repository that holds a number of different types of data: business. and probably exists in several physical locations. service. and utilization data. All sub-processes use it. The information in the CDB is used to form the basis of performance and Capacity Management reports that are to be delivered to management and technical personnel. The data is also utilized to generate future capacity forecasts.0 Notes: Capacity Database It is a cornerstone of a successful Capacity Management system. and to allow Capacity Management to plan for future capacity requirements. technical. The CDB is unlikely to be a single database. It is the basis of performance and capacity reports to be delivered to management and technical personnel.

Special interest in reporting on items that affect SLAs.and component-based reports • Exception reporting on capacity and performance for component or service.V3.0. 30% Ethernet) It contains financial data: • Financial plans • IT budgets • External suppliers • CMDB It contains utilization data of resources: • Data of current utilization of components • Lower granularity data on older utilization data of components Can exist in several physical locations.1. © Copyright IBM Corp. Capacity Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty • Times for batch jobs to be processed • SLM thresholds It contains technical data: • Limitations of resources (80% CPU. • Capacity forecasts to predict future growth. 2004 Unit 11. 11-15 . Outputs are: • Service.

0 Notes: 11-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. rental. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Capacity Management Benefits and Costs Benefits Reduced risk of performance problems and failure Cost savings Both achievable through: – Planned buying – Deferring expenditure until really needed (but in a controlled way) – Matching capacity to business need Ensures that systems have sufficient capacity to run the applications required by the business for the foreseeable future Provides information on current and planned resource utilization of individual components allowing decisions on which components to upgrade. and how much it will cost. when to do so.” “Planned buying is cheaper than panic buying.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-11. © Copyright IBM Corp. Capacity Management: Benefits and Costs SM251. such as monitoring tools – Project management – Staff costs – Accommodation Daily management of Capacity Management: – Annual maintenance and upgrades – Ongoing staff costs – Recurring accommodation costs (leasing.” 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. energy) “Planned buying is cheaper than panic buying. Costs Setting up Capacity Management: – Procurement of required hardware and software.

more importantly. of meeting over-ambitious requirements. However. where requirements and expectations should be discussed and agreed between all parties.0. server. Capacity Management needs to discuss with customers the technical feasibility and. TK.0 Notes: Possible problems: Over-expectation Customer expectations often exceed technical capability. The improvements that can be made through regular tuning may not be significant. 2004 Unit 11. Also Demand Management is often constrained by the requirement for constant online access to corporate information.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Capacity Management Risks Potential problem areas: Customer expectations exceed technical capability Unrealistic product information from vendor Wrong estimation of future workload by the customer Precise predictions become more difficult with shorter business planning cycles Considering all service areas (software. if a service or application has been badly designed or implemented. WAN. a large performance gain may be possible. and so on) within the scope of capacity management 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 11-17 . LAN. Capacity Management: Risks SM251. Therefore it is essential that customer expectations for new applications be managed from the outset. The opportunity to achieve this is provided as part of the application sizing activity. the cost implications. PC. It is not always easy or possible to reschedule the use of © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-12. Capacity Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3.1.

Where possible. even the best business planning function cannot always accurately predict demand. Care should be taken when negotiating with vendors for additional performance.Student Notebook services to quieter off-peak periods. even with crude business estimates. however. Also. However. cost efficiencies can be realized. The Capacity Management process always improves over time. before purchasing. Lack of information Time-to-market pressures are placing ever-increasing demands. it is not uncommon to be offered what seems to be the deal of a lifetime. © Copyright IBM Corp. The Internet is a prime example where consumers literally “at the click of a button” are lost forever as they go elsewhere to receive a service. never again to return to a temporarily unavailable or slow site. On face value. Manufacturers’ quoted performance figures are often not achievable within a production environment. 2004 . Internet sites that are suddenly popular are good examples of consumer demand far outstripping supply and causing failed or drastically delayed delivery of information or products. in order to predict increases and decreases in demand for IT capacity. It is not possible to provide consistently high-quality service levels. This is not an excuse. accurate business planning information being made available. For example. cost-effectively. 11-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. There have been numerous recent examples of unprecedented and unpredicted consumer demand for either the latest product or the latest information. The business is much more likely to know how many chocolate bars it is going to sell than the amount of CPU seconds it uses in the process. remember: • The pace of change is rapid: today's special offer is often tomorrow's end-of-line product • Technological advancement: tomorrow's technology will perform faster and have more built-in capacity than today's technology • The overall reducing cost of technology: today's performance and capacity will always be cheaper tomorrow and considerably cheaper in six months’ time. Capacity Management can work effectively. Traditionally. but a statement of fact about the environment within which Capacity Management must function. it would be difficult for an Internet site selling flowers to influence the demand for flowers on or around St Valentine's Day! Vendor influence Where budget and sales target deadlines coincide. and as a result business planning cycles are shorter. performance figures should be verified before purchase through reference site visits and by simulation testing where appropriate. it has always been difficult to obtain accurate business forecasts. without timely. However. it helps if the Capacity Management process understands the business and can talk to the customer in their language. such as “purchase sufficient capacity for today and tomorrow at yesterday’s prices”.

when also asked. and the decision should be based upon: • Business impact of component failure: can monitoring be justified on the basis of potential impact of failure? • Utilization volatility: is utilization subject to a steady growth or decline over time.V3. but it should be. 11-19 . Capacity Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. which usually require to be addressed urgently and thus cost even more.1. when the application is being tested by users just before transition to live running”. the network and client environments are not always included as part of the Capacity Management process. However. It is possible to monitor most aspects of most components in the IT infrastructure. Result There are a number of results and lessons to be learned from the above: • The network is not within the scope of Capacity Management. Another common answer was “During customer acceptance testing. Level of monitoring to be implemented Tools available today provide extremely comprehensive monitoring capabilities. However.1 Student Notebook Uempty Capacity Management in a distributed environment Capacity Management is often considered only as a requirement within the host environment. • Unpredicted and unbudgeted IT costs are incurred to resolve the performance problems. “When is the first time you get involved in capacity planning for new applications to be utilized across the network?” Unfortunately. careful consideration should be given to the level of monitoring to be undertaken. • Potential financial costs are incurred by the business due to application failure. • Huge potential exists for new applications to perform poorly or fail totally. 2004 Unit 11. the most common answer was. could you have provided accurate figures on spare network capacity within the target environment?”. “If you had been involved from the outset. • Customer perception is that IT fails to deliver (again). or do highly volatile changes in utilization occur? • Ability to monitor components: can monitoring and reporting be automated? • Cost of component monitoring and reporting: are costs greater than the potential use that can be made of the data collected? © Copyright IBM Corp. when users complain about poor performance”. when the new application was just a customer requirement.0. Anecdote A group of network managers were asked. “Usually during the first week of live running. only a handful were confident in their ability to do so.

Capacity Management: Best Practices SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Capacity Management Best Practices The Capacity Management process should be reviewed for effectiveness and efficiency at regular intervals to ensure that: – It is producing the required output at the required times for the appropriate audience – Its activities are cost-effective Critical Success Factors Success in Capacity Management is dependent on a number of factors: – – – – – – Accurate business forecasts Knowledge of IT strategy and plans. and that the plans are accurate An understanding of current and future technologies An ability to demonstrate cost-effectiveness Interaction with other effective Service Management processes An ability to plan and implement the appropriate IT capacity to match business needs 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-13.0 Notes: 11-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .

Service Capacity Management.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Responsibilities: Business Capacity Management.1.V3. 2004 Unit 11. Resource Capacity Management Demand Management Capacity Plan and Capacity Database (CDB) “Good Capacity Management ensures NO SURPRISES!” “Good Capacity Management ensures NO SURPRISES!” 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 11-21 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 11-14.0. Capacity Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Capacity Management Summary The goal of Capacity Management is to ensure that all the current and future capacity and performance aspects of the business requirements are provided in a timely and cost-effective manner. Capacity Management: Summary SM251.

2004 . © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook 11-22 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

2004 Unit 12.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 12. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit. and its relationship within IT Services. Financial Management for IT Services What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Capacity Management. you should be able to think about the mission of this service. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework. © Copyright IBM Corp. 12-1 .1.0.

© Copyright IBM Corp. Unit 12: Financial Management SM251.0 Notes: 12-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 12 Financial Management Content: Financial Management – objectives and overview Responsibilities and obligations Important aspects – Costs types – IT accounting – Interfaces to other service management processes Benefits and risks Best practices Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-1.

1. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0. 12-3 . Financial Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251. 2004 Unit 12.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Financial Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-2.V3.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

2004 . and details of how these relate to services performed for the customer – Support management decisions about IT investment by means of detailed business cases. 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-3. to attribute these costs to IT services delivered to customers.0 Notes: 12-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. The goal of IT Financial Management is also: For internally (in-house) oriented IT service providers – Monitoring of the usage of IT components and resources for supplying IT services with regard to cost efficiency For externally oriented IT service providers – Recording of costs incurred. and to assist management decisions on IT investment by providing detailed business cases for changes to IT services. Financial Management: Mission Statement SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Mission Statement Financial Management ensures that the IT organization is able to account fully on the money spent on IT services.

1. 12-5 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Financial Management Why Financial Management for IT Services (1) Because you can provide the best service and nevertheless can go bankrupt Because there are minimal legal requirements for financial reporting Because service providers should be business-oriented Because of increasing economic pressure 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Financial Management: Why Financial Management for IT Services (1) SM251.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.V3.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-4. 2004 Unit 12. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-5. Flexible determination of services which are to be defined. 2004 .0 Notes: 12-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. and with it. financially justified administration of the assets used in the organization Supports management in their daily decision-making in order to plan risk reduction Creates organizational prerequisites for performing cost-objective accounting Cost-objective accounting enables. optimized resource planning Ensures solid. content-related pricing Reporting for planning and controlling Reporting for financial accounting 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Supports the development of a solid investment strategy Enables definitions of performance objectives Enables the measurement of services performed Makes it easier to prioritize resource deployment.. enabling transparent.. It is the basis for the business design of IT services.. Determination of real IT service costs. Financial Management: Why Financial Management for IT Services (2) SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Why Financial Management for IT Services (2) IT Financial Management.. well-measured.

Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Financial Management Tasks IT Financial IT Financial Management Management Budgeting IT Accounting Charging Ensures that business provides sufficient funds to run the IT services it requires Provides management information on the cost of providing IT services supporting business needs Provides sound business method of balancing shape and quantity of IT services with needs and resources of the customers 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0.V3. Financial Management: Tasks SM251. 12-7 .1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-6. 2004 Unit 12.

© Copyright IBM Corp. This simple diagram is used as a basis for the whole item.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Process Cost analysis Cost analysis (accounting) (accounting) external Business IT Business IT requirements requirements IT operational IT operational plan (including plan (including budgets) budgets) Charging Charging internal Charging Charging Financial targets Costing models Charging policies Feedback of proposed charges to businesses 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: This slide looks at methods for an IT organization to predict and calculate the costs of service. 2004 . and discusses ways of estimating the proportion of costs that can be attributed to each customer where an IT service is shared. In summary: Budgeting enables an organization to: • Predict the money required to run IT services for a given period • Ensure that actual spend can be compared with predicted spend at any point • Reduce the risk of overspending • Ensure that revenues are available to cover predicted spend (where charging is in place) IT accounting enables an organization to: • Account for the money spent in providing IT services 12-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-7. Financial Management: Process SM251.

12-9 .0.1. 2004 Unit 12. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty • Calculate the cost of providing IT services to both internal and external customers • Perform cost-benefit or Return-on-Investment analyses • Identify the cost of changes Charging enables an organization to: • Recover the costs of the IT services from the customers of the service • Operate the IT organization as a business unit if required • Influence user and customer behavior © Copyright IBM Corp.V3.

based upon what IT have told them their costs are). and often to implement charging processes as well. Current leading practice is to use IT accounting to aid investment and renewal decisions. This budget is usually set by negotiations with the customers who are providing the funds (although this sometimes happens at an unrefined level. 2004 .0 Notes: The aim of budgeting is that the actual costs match the budget (predicted costs).Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Process – Budgeting and Accounting Activities (mandatory) To understand whether an IT organization is doing the best that it can and to demonstrate this to its customers. it has to both understand the true cost of providing a service and manage those costs professionally. Good budgeting is essential to ensure that the money does not run out before the period ends. In this case. IT Finance Management works with Service Level Management (they may even be the same person) to ensure that the overall costs of running the agreed services should not exceed the predicted costs. it is usual to implement IT accounting and budgeting processes. Financial Management: Process – Budgeting and Accounting Activities (mandatory) SM251. Budgeting is the process of predicting and controlling the spending of money within the organization.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-8. Budgeting enables an organization to: Predict the money required to run IT services for a given period Ensure that actual spending can be compared with predicted spending at any point Reduce the risk of overspending Ensure that revenues are available to cover predicted spending (where charging is in place) Accounting is the set of activities that enable the IT organization to account fully for the way its money is spent. Additional charges are made for work above the agreed service levels (such as office moves. for example 1/12 of each customer's IT budget each calendar month. major roll-out. IT accounting enables an organization to: Account for the money spent in providing IT services Calculate the cost of providing IT services to both internal and external customers Perform cost-benefit or return-on-Investment analyses Identify the cost of changes 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and consists of a periodic negotiation cycle to set budgets (usually annual) and the day-to-day monitoring of the current budgets. the organization needs early warning and accurate information to enable good decisions to best manage the situation. where the business leaders agree proportions of their revenue to be used to fund IT. To do this. 12-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. but to charge a fixed amount for an agreed capacity (determined by the level of service agreed in the Service Level Agreements or SLAs). and to identify inefficiencies or poor value. Where shortfalls are likely to occur. Charging is then often a matter of billing for agreed periods at an agreed rate. © Copyright IBM Corp. unplanned hardware upgrade).

Charging enables an organization to: Recover the costs of the IT services from the customers of the service Operate the IT organization as a business unit if required Achieve transparency for customers Influence user and customer behavior Achieve profit – Use market strength (invisible hand) – Deliver effective services in agreed quality and quantity 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Financial Management Process – Charging (optional) Charging has motivational aspects.V3. Financial Management: Process – Charging (optional) SM251. 12-11 .0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. considering the effects upon both the provider and the customer of the service.1. The objective is to optimize the behavior of both parties in achieving the organization's aims. 2004 Unit 12.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-9. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

applications.) Software costs (OS. •• Important: all major cost elements in the current or proposed IT Important: all major cost elements in the current or proposed IT budget are identified and then attributed to the customers who budget are identified and then attributed to the customers who “cause” them. Transfer costs may be for: • Hardware (an IT organization buying PCs on behalf of a business customer) • Software (the corporate finance department producing control mechanisms for IT to manage their costs) • People (the HR overhead levied by the corporate HR department) • Accommodation (a charge made by the Facilities Management department) 12-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. It may be difficult to break down this cost (into each of the first four categories). this is not a fixed rule. secure areas. overtime. consultancy) Accommodation costs (offices.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Cost Types For producing a cost model.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-10. disk storage. relocation costs. LANs. 2004 . Transfer costs are those that represent goods and services that are sold from one part of an organization to another (often within a multinational or other large organization that has a sophisticated internal accounting system).…) Transfer costs (goods and services that are sold from one part of an organization to another) •• All costs for services can be grouped into the cost types listed. Financial Management: Cost Types SM251. •• Other types are possible. systems management…. “cause” them. company cars. storage. peripherals…. expenses. database. All costs for services can be grouped into the cost types listed.0 Notes: External service and transfer costs need further explanation. Other types are possible. as it is likely to contain elements that are indivisible or that the supplier will not wish to detail. this is not a fixed rule. It is easier and more usual to categorize this as an external service cost. 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. It is now common to buy in services from external parties (external services) that are a mixture of cost types. outsourced services. for example an outsourced service for providing an organization’s application development. the suggested cost types are: Hardware costs (CPU. © Copyright IBM Corp. utilities) External service costs (security.) People costs (payroll costs. or the provision of a data center.

© Copyright IBM Corp. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 12-13 . In this publication.V3.0. because people may forget that internal goods and services represent a cost to the organization and are part of the cost of providing service. Some organizations will insist on these transfer costs being accounted for in each part of the organization.1. a false figure may be reached when assessing costs if a service is dependent upon activity from another part of the organization but this cost is excluded from calculations. Hence.1 Student Notebook Uempty Transfer costs should be visible in the cost model. while others might only use them when modeling costs. it is assumed that it is not necessary to separately identify transfer costs in the cost model examples. 2004 Unit 12. and no money will actually pass across the organization.

This “balance check” can be applied to costs divided in other ways. or a number of. This ensures that the sum of all of the costs attributed to each customer still equals the total costs incurred by the IT organization. Any indirect costs (sometimes called unabsorbed overheads) which cannot be apportioned to a set of customers have then to be recovered from all customers in as fair a way as possible. Variable Costs are those that vary with some factor. for example computer equipment. Examples of this would be a maintenance contract for a server or a corporate software licence (within agreed user limits). and relate to repeating payments whose effects can be measured within a short timeframe. usually less than the 12-month financial year. such as usage or time.0 Notes: The cost-by-customer cost model requires that all major cost elements in the current or proposed IT budget be identified and then attributed to the customers who “cause” them. Operational Costs are those resulting from the day-to-day running of the IT Services organization. which has to be apportioned to all. or a number of. often also referred to as “one-off” costs. the sum of the parts should always equal the whole. such as the network or technical support department. Direct Costs those clearly attributable to a single customer. hardware maintenance and electricity. or a number of.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Cost Classification Capital Costs are the purchase or major enhancement of fixed assets. customers in a fair manner. 12-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. such as the network or the technical support department. Fixed Costs Costs that do not vary even when resource usage varies. or a number of. such as manufacturing systems used only by the Manufacturing division. such as staff costs. customers in a fair manner. and plant. 2004 . Indirect Costs (sometimes called overheads) are those incurred on behalf of all. Indirect costs (sometimes called overheads) are those incurred on behalf of all. usually by uplifting the costs calculated so far by a set amount. 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. customers. Financial Management: Cost Classification SM251. such as by service or location. building. which have to be apportioned to all. customers. this is referred to as the “balance check”. such as manufacturing systems used only by the Manufacturing division.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-11. the costs first have to be identified as either direct or indirect: Direct costs are those clearly attributable to a single customer. To do this. © Copyright IBM Corp.

this is taken as the annual depreciation. 2004 Unit 12. the categories and cost elements for it need to be developed first. while operational expenditure does not. It is important to remember that it is not usually the actual cost of items purchased during the year that is included in the calculation of the cost of the services. Traditionally this was the accommodation and machinery necessary to produce the organization’s product. say by CPU seconds. © Copyright IBM Corp. can be attributed to the Finance department's code in the ledgers (often called a cost center or a charge code). Examples of this would be a maintenance contract for a server. all costs directly associated with the general ledgers. For finance purposes. usually less than the 12-month financial year. To do this requires a model that allows these costs to be spread across a number of customers. Operational costs are those resulting from the day-to-day running of the IT services organization. 12-15 . for example. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. the method of recording and of apportioning costs can be very simple.1 Student Notebook Uempty If the cost model is being produced for the first time.1.V3. from workload predictions. Capital costs are typically those applying to the physical (substantial) assets of the organization. and plant are often also referred to as “one-off” costs. such as buildings. disk storage. and make for timely renewal of capital items. or a corporate software license (within agreed user limits). Hence an understanding of charging policies is necessary when the cost model is drawn up. building. The annual costs must make allowance for the decreasing value of capital items (assets). to a level of detail that meets the needs of IT accounting and of any charging to be performed. for instance a mainframe is running applications for more than one customer. For example. computer equipment. the hardware costs may have to be classified as indirect and apportioned to each customer. costs are classified into either capital or operational when the financial ledgers are reported (the “books”). if Finance are the only customers of the general ledgers and the system on which they run. hardware maintenance. and support. and electricity. print volumes. from a method set by the Finance department (within the boundaries of the country's laws). such as staff costs. because the cost model needs a method of calculating the annual cost of using a capital item (such as a mainframe) to deliver an IT service. If costs are mainly direct. but the annualized depreciation for the year. maintenance.0. and so on. Fixed or Variable Costs that do not vary even when resource usage varies are referred to as fixed costs. although in practice the value of capital expenditure decreases over time (depreciates). servers. including purchase. Usually. Capital costs are the purchase or major enhancement of fixed assets. perhaps because each customer has independent hardware and software. if resources are shared. and applications. and relate to repeating payments whose effects can be measured within a short timeframe. This distinction affects IT accounting. However. This is because capital expenditure is assumed to increase the total value of the company.

using file store at all requires disk controllers and bandwidth. A cost element such as file store may be considered to be variable. such as usage or time. or an additional process run on the server may cause queuing problems resulting in all jobs taking longer to run. and for which it is to the benefit of both supplier and customer to determine the costs exactly. but can be useful when evaluating competing technologies or services. It is sometimes necessary to view a cost as having a fixed element and a variable element. and the production of additional quarterly reports. They are likely to be used for cost elements which cannot be easily predicted. are out-of-hours cover. Examples of charges that might vary. © Copyright IBM Corp. because the underlying cost varies. The danger of this approach is that there are often sharp changes in costs because they cannot be continuously scaled: the next disk drive may require another cabinet. major equipment relocation. 2004 . perhaps for variable charges to be applied. The variable cost of additional disk drives can then be calculated and added to the fixed portion. If a customer requires an additional 10 GB. 12-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. This level of detail is not usually needed in calculating the cost of a service. causing a fixed cost.Student Notebook Variable costs are those that vary with some factor. for example. it may be possible to calculate that the cost of this is £1000. and hence that the cost per GB is £100.

1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Financial Management Costs types – Example: Printing a report Printing out a report: Fixed direct costs – Depreciation of the printer Fixed indirect costs – IT Management team. support team Variable direct costs – Paper consumed for printing Variable indirect costs – Printing another report on the same printer – Ink cartridge 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 12-17 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-12. 2004 Unit 12.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Financial Management: Costs types – Example: Printing a report SM251.0.V3.

© Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 12-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Individual costs .Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Example of IT Accounting Hardware Software Personnel Hardware Software Personnel Facility Facility External services External services Transfer Transfer Cost category calculation Cost category calculation Direct costs (individual costs) Overhead costs Cost centers Cost centre accounting Cost centers Indirect costs (overhead costs) Overhead costs extra charge Cost objective calculation Revenue .Overhead costs = accumulated profit 14 Calculation Calculation Product (groups) ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Financial Management: Example of IT Accounting SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-13. 2004 .

Capacity/Availability Management: Cost information can be used to estimate cost of desired capacity or availability. 12-19 . IT Finance Management liaises with Service Level Management about the costs of meeting current and new business demands. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp. the larger the scope of charging. The more variations to service levels.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-14. the greater is the scope for (and potential benefits of) charging for IT services.V3. Change Management: Influence of changes on cost. their effects on customers.0. The cost of meeting the customer's requirements may have a major impact on the shape and scope of the services that are eventually agreed.The SLA specifies customer expectations and IT Services’ obligations. and charging.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Financial Management Links to other processes Service Level Management: Cost of meeting customer SLA requirements impacts shape and scope of services that are agreed. IT accounting. 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Financial Management: Links to other processes SM251. but also the greater the overheads of budgeting. IT accounting.Cost information can be used to estimate the costs of the desired capacity and availability of the system. the charging policies for the organization. it may be necessary to discuss the costs with individual customers or the organization as a whole. 2004 Unit 12. IT Finance manager cooperates with Service Level manager about the costs meeting business demands and charging policies influencing customer behavior.0 Notes: Financial Management for IT Services interacts with most IT service processes and has particular dependencies upon and responsibilities to: • Service Level Management .1. The more that the SLA allows individual customers to request variations to service levels. and how the policies are likely to influence customer and user behavior. but the larger the overheads of budgeting. Configuration Management: Financial management requires asset and cost information which can be provided through the CMDB. and charging. In planning the capacity. • Capacity Management .

• Configuration Management -Financial Management requires asset and cost information that may be managed by large organization-wide systems. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 . Configuration Management is responsible for managing the data relating to assets (configuration items) and their attributes (such as cost). machine usage. 12-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook Data that is collected so that costs can be determined may also be relevant to capacity assessments. such as staff effort.

created by service failures.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Financial Management Benefits IT accounting supports the IT Service Manager Statements about profitability of the individual IT services Essential decisions about IT services and the required investments Data for justifying IT expenditures Essential planning and budgeting Overview of costs.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-15. 12-21 . 2004 Unit 12. Financial Management: Benefits SM251.0. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1.V3. as a basis for expenditure justification in strategy planning Users can track costs of the services they have used 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.

leading to overly complex or ineffective systems IT accounting relies on planning information provided by other functions within and outside IT services management. so many activities may need to be shared with staff from outside IT Services who may not have this as their priority. © Copyright IBM Corp. which could lead to over-complex or ineffective systems.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-16.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Risks Potential problem areas: New discipline. • The IS strategies and objectives of an organization may not be well formulated and documented. so limited understanding of leading practice in cost modeling and charging mechanisms. Financial Management: Risks SM251. and there is limited understanding of leading practice in cost modelling and charging mechanisms. • Staff combining accountancy and IT experience are rare. and prediction of capacity requirement may not be accurate. 2004 . and may resent the administrative overheads and the limitations on workload. 12-22 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and is sometimes difficult to obtain Combination of IT skills and accountancy skills is rare IS strategy and objectives are not clear. hence prediction of capacity requirement is not accurate Senior management may not realize benefits of IT accounting and charging Resentment of administrative overhead and workload Complex IT accounting and charging makes cost larger than value of information provided Monitoring tools providing resource usage are inaccurate or not cost-efficient 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. delaying the project.0 Notes: There are a number of possible problems in implementing IT accounting and charging: • IT accounting and charging are often new disciplines in IT Services. • IT accounting relies on planning information provided by other processes both within and outside IT Services Management which may not be routinely available. • Senior business managers may not recognize the benefits of IT accounting and charging.

Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. • The monitoring tools providing resource usage information are inaccurate or irrelevant.1 Student Notebook Uempty • The IT organization may not be able to respond to changes in users' demands once costs become an influence.0. © Copyright IBM Corp. or cost too much to develop and maintain. • The IT accounting and charging processes are so elaborate that the cost of the system exceeds the value of the information produced.1..V3. 12-23 . 2004 Unit 12.

and Change Management Customer-specific charging Financing. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Financial Management Best Practices Clear differentiation between accounting and charging Connection with Availability Management. Configuration Management. benchmarks. and investments are very important 18 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: 12-24 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-17. Financial Management: Best Practices SM251. Capacity Management. 2004 .

fixed/variable) 19 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 12-18. direct/indirect. Financial Management: Summary SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Financial Management Summary The goal of Financial Management is to provide cost-effective stewardship of the IT assets and resources used in providing IT services Responsibilities: Budgeting. 2004 Unit 12. accounting. 12-25 .0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Financial Management for IT Services Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3.0. charging Cost classification (capital/operational.1.

© Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook 12-26 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .

and its relationship within IT Services.1. What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit. you should be able to think about the mission of this service. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Continuity Management. © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 13. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework.0. 2004 Unit 13. 13-1 .

0 Notes: 13-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. costs Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. risks. Unit 13: IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) SM251. © Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 13 IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Content: IT Service Continuity Management – objectives and overview Responsibilities and obligations Some definitions Important aspects – – – – – Business impact Risk analysis Service recovery Continuity plan Continuity plan testing and review Benefits.

0. ITSCM Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251.V3.1. 2004 Unit 13.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services ITSCM Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 13-3 . IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-2.

business timescales. and agreed. applications. agreed-to business timescales. 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Goal of ITSCM: The goal for ITSCM is to support the overall Business Continuity Management process by ensuring that the required IT technical and services facilities.Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITSCM Mission Statement The mission for IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) is to support the overall Business Continuity Management process by managing risks to ensure that IT services (including computer systems. and service desks) can be recovered within required. ITSCM: Mission Statement SM251.0 Notes: 13-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. including: – computer systems – networks – applications – telecommunications – technical support and Service Desk can be recovered within required. ITIL Discipline Contingency Planning (disaster planning) was renamed to IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM).. © Copyright IBM Corp. technical support. and is now part of Business Continuity Management.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-3. as it is now sometimes termed) incorporates both a business element (Business Continuity Planning) and a technology element (IT Service Continuity Management Planning). networks. 2004 . telecommunications. The dependencies between business processes and technology are now so intertwined that Contingency Planning (or Business Continuity Management.

Increase dependence on IT services and business protection . 13-5 . 2004 Unit 13. ITSCM: Why ITSCM SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-4. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3. organizations are judged on their ability to continue to operate and provide a service at all times. ITSCM ensures that a business is capable of recovering substantial services and their access in the event of a disaster.1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. Many businesses do not survive the first year after an IT disaster! 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Ensure survival Continuity planning is therefore essential.0.Reduce cost and time effort for recovery .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services ITSCM Why ITSCM In today's highly competitive and service-oriented business environment. ITSCM focus is to: .

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-5. 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. The BCM process involves: – Reducing the risk to an acceptable level – Planning for recovery of business processes should a disruption to the business occur IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) is a part of the overall BCM process and is dependent on information derived from it. It focuses on the continuity of IT services to the business. ITSCM: Definitions: Business Continuity Management (BCS) and ITSCM SM251. the minimum business requirements must be determined. 2004 .0 Notes: 13-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITSCM Definitions: Business Continuity Management (BCS) and ITSCM Business Continuity Management (BCM) is concerned with managing risks to ensure that an organization can continue operating to at least a predetermined minimum level. © Copyright IBM Corp. Before it is implemented.

13-7 . IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. ITSCM: Tasks SM251. testing. 2004 Unit 13.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-6.1. improving.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. and maintaining a continuity plan Risk analysis and risk management 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services ITSCM Tasks ITSCM ITSCM Taking requirements from BCM Making.V3.

An Introduction to Business Continuity Management and A Guide to Business Continuity Management. 2004 . it must fully support the requirements of the business. ITSCM: Continuity Management Process SM251.Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITSCM Continuity Management Process Initiate BCM Business Impact Analysis Risk Assessment Business Continuity Strategy Organizational and Implementation Planning Implement Standby Arrangements Develop Recovery Rules Develop Procedures Initial Testing Implement Risk Reduction Measures Phase 1: Initiation Phase 2: Requirements and Strategy Phase 3: Implementation Education and Awareness Review and Audit Testing Change Management Training Assurance 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. This section considers the four stages of the Business Continuity lifecycle. with particular emphasis on the IT aspects. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: It is not possible to develop an effective ITSCM plan in isolation. 13-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. A full understanding of the Business Continuity process can be obtained through the OGC ITIL publications.0 Phase 4: Operational Management © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-7.

ITSCM: Risk of events that can cause disaster SM251. 13-9 .1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services ITSCM Risk of events that can cause disaster Event Event Theft Theft Virus Virus Hacking Hacking Hardware // Communication Hardware Communication Environment Environment Software Software Fire // Flood // Force Majeure Fire Flood Force Majeure Other Other Percent Percent 36% 36% 20% 20% 16% 16% 11% 11% 7% 7% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 3% Gartner Study 2001 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.V3. 2004 Unit 13.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-8.0.

England (April 1993) Manchester. Italy.0 Notes: 13-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. England (April 1993) Bishopsgate. New York. New Zealand (December 1997) Power Loss: Auckland. England (June 1996) Manchester. SCO (2004) 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Pakistan (August 1996). 1995). USA (January 1994) Bombing :: Bombing – – – – – – – – – – – – World Trade Center.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-9. Japan (March 1995) Power Loss: Auckland. Germany/Poland (2002) Web site denial of service attacks. © Copyright IBM Corp. SCO (2004) Web site denial of service attacks. Oklahoma. Japan (January. London. USA (February 1993) Oklahoma City. London. USA (January 1994) Earthquake: Kobe. Italy. New Zealand (December 1997) •• in 2003 alone: US/Canada. Japan (March 1995) Poison gas: Tokyo Underground System. Los Angeles. USA (September 2001) World Trade Center. Los Angeles. Germany/Poland (2002) Flood: Bangladesh (July 1996). USA (April 1995) Oklahoma City. England (February 1996) Docklands. Microsoft (2003). USA (February 1993) World Trade Center. 1995). New York. New York. Sweden/Denmark in 2003 alone: US/Canada. such as Yahoo (2000). Japan (January. London. Microsoft (2003).Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITSCM Some events that have caused problems Below is a brief list of high-profile events that have caused significant problems to Below is a brief list of high-profile events that have caused significant problems to organizations over the years: organizations over the years: Technical failure: London Stock Exchange (2000) Technical failure: London Stock Exchange (2000) Poison gas: Tokyo Underground System. England (June 1996) World Trade Center. Sweden/Denmark Earthquake: Kobe. London. 2004 . Oklahoma. New York. USA (September 2001) Flood: Bangladesh (July 1996). such as Yahoo (2000). England (February 1996) Bishopsgate. USA (April 1995) Docklands. ITSCM: Some events that have caused problems SM251. Pakistan (August 1996).

where countermeasures (proactive).0. The top section of the figure refers to the risk analysis: if an organization’s assets are highly valued. ITSCM: Risk Analysis as part of BCM Requirements definition SM251. and there is a high threat to those assets. there would be a high risk.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-10. This is an assessment of the level of threat and the extent to which an organization is vulnerable to that threat. and disaster management are applied to manage the business risks by protecting the assets.1.0 Notes: The second driver in determining ITSCM requirements is the likelihood that a disaster or other serious service disruption will actually occur.V3. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and the vulnerability of those assets to those threats is high.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services ITSCM Risk Analysis as part of BCM Requirements definition Assets Threats Weaknesses Risk analysis Risk management Risks Risks Countermeasures Damage Reduction Disaster Management 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. 2004 Unit 13. damage reduction (operation). 13-11 . The bottom section of the figure shows risk management. © Copyright IBM Corp.

2004 . and data used.Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITSCM The continuity strategy involves the selection of recovery options Manual workaround – Can be an effective interim measure but mostly not to be used for more complex business processes Takeover by another organization with similar equipment (reciprocal) – Arrangement with a another organization using similar technology Gradual recovery (cold standby) – Recovery of service about 72 hours – Provision of empty accommodation is foreseen – New Installation Intermediate recovery (warm standby) – Recovery of service about 24 hours – Disaster Recovery center for data recovery only Immediate recovery (hot standby) – For immediate restoration of service (seconds) Using internal. location. portable. ITSCM: The continuity strategy involves the selection of recovery options SM251. fixed. telecommunications. external.0 Notes: Strategy: Recovery options To be considered for: • People and accommodation: alternative premises. Options are: • Do nothing: not a very good idea • Manual workarounds: can be an effective interim measure but mostly not to be used for more complex business processes 13-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. mobile centers 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. water • Critical assets: such as paper records and reference material It should take short-term and long-term recovery into account. Relies on effective backups and good availability management • Critical services: such as power. © Copyright IBM Corp. and mobility of staff • IT systems and networks: recovery of hardware. networks.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-11. software.

and is mostly an extension of intermediate recovery. Times of recovery vary from a second to between 2 and 4 hours. but doesn't work in a distributed environment • Gradual recovery or cold-standby is good for an organization that can wait up to 72 hours for recovery of full IT services. where exclusive access to systems is provided. • Immediate recovery or hot-standby is for immediate restoration of services. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 13-13 . 2004 Unit 13.1.1 Student Notebook Uempty • Reciprocal arrangements with another organization using similar technology is a good solution in a batch processing environment. Typically this is through an equipped disaster recovery center where only data needs to be recovered.0. Disadvantages are the distance and sharing with other customers. © Copyright IBM Corp.V3. Also a mirroring service can be established with regular data transfers. • Intermediate recovery or warm-standby for recovering IT services within 24 hours. Provision of empty accommodation is foreseen but everything else has to be installed (computer equipment and restoration of data).

0 Notes: 13-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .Contacting and alerting external suppliers (hardware.Where are the essential documentations. procedures.Contact information of the crisis management team The plan should contain the following details: .Where the plans are located . software if required). and which staff? .Where are the backup media? .Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITSCM Continuity Plan Invocation The invocation is the ultimate test of BCM and ITSCM plans.The most important actions and points of decision . The following should be known in case of emergency: . © Copyright IBM Corp. PC images.How should the technical staff be mobilized. 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. and so on? . ITSCM: Continuity Plan Invocation SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-12.

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services ITSCM Test and Review Testing of the continuity plan: Should be conducted every 6 to 12 months and after every case of disaster Should be conducted under realistic conditions Review of and changes to the continuity plan: Changes of the ITSCM plan due to change in the IT infrastructure – Custom / Services / SLRs / Risks – Dependencies / Assets / CIs / Personal – Contracts / SLAs / Countermeasures / … ALL critical and major changes should be approved by the Change Advisory Board (CAB) 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.1. 13-15 .V3. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 Unit 13.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-13.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0. ITSCM: Test and Review SM251.

© Copyright IBM Corp. Therefore. ITSCM: Benefits and Costs SM251. there is an obligation to provide continuous services. recovery systems Cost of implementation of backup/recovery strategy taking ITSCM into account Cost of testing recovery plans Cost of maintaining recovery plans Figure 13-14. business partners. such as hospitals. regulators stipulate that financial organizations have sufficient continuity and security controls to meet the business requirements).0 Notes: The advantages of ITSCM include: • Potential lower insurance premiums: The IT organization can help the organization demonstrate to underwriters or insurers that they are proactively managing down their business risks. Within the service community. recovery centers. the risk to the insurance organization is lower and the premiums due should reflect this. and prisons. and stakeholders Competitive advantage over organizations without it 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. emergency services. Failure to demonstrate tested business and ITSCM facilities could result in heavy fines or the loss of trading licenses. Alternatively. 2004 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Costs Cost of organization Cost of implementation Cost of HW to recover critical IT services Contracts for offsite storage.Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITSCM Benefits and Costs Benefits Potential lower insurance premiums Business relationship with the rest of the enterprise is fostered because IT organization is forced to get a better understanding of the business Positive marketing of contingency capabilities. Effective ITSCM allows organization to provide high service levels and thus win business Organizational credibility is increased towards customers. • Regulatory requirements: In some industries a recovery capability is becoming a mandatory requirement (for example. • Business relationship: The requirement to work closely with the business to develop and maintain a continuity capability fosters a much closer working relationship between 13-16 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. the organization may feel comfortable in reducing cover or self-insuring in certain areas as a result of limiting potential losses.

1. and may not be invited to tender for business unless they can demonstrate appropriate recovery capabilities. 2004 Unit 13. In many cases this is a good incentive for customers to continue a business relationship. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. • Positive marketing of contingency capabilities: Being able to demonstrate effective ITSCM capabilities enables an organization to provide high service levels to clients and customers and thus win business. © Copyright IBM Corp. • Competitive advantage: Service organizations are increasingly being asked by business partners. and becomes a part of the competitive advantage used to win or retain customers. • Organizational credibility: There is a responsibility on the directors of organizations to protect the shareholders' interest and those of their clients.V3. customers. business partners.1 Student Notebook Uempty IT and the business areas. stakeholders. and industry peers. and stakeholders to demonstrate their contingency facilities. the growth of call centers in many organizations has meant that the need to maintain customer communications at all times is vital to the ability to retain customer confidence and loyalty. For example. Contingency facilities increase an organization’s credibility and reputation with customers. This can assist in creating a better understanding of the business requirements and the capability of IT to support those requirements. 13-17 .0.

2004 .Student Notebook IBM Global Services ITSCM Risks Potential problem areas: No senior management commitment during implementation or ongoing phase No personal resource for creating ITSCM plans Testing of continuity plans only realistic in the live environment 16 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-15. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 13-18 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. ITSCM: Risks SM251.

0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. continuity plan.0. Activities: risk analysis. as it is now sometimes termed) incorporates both a business element (Business Continuity Management) and a technology element (IT Service Continuity Management). 2004 Unit 13.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services ITSCM Summary The mission of ITSCM is to support the Business Continuity Management process by ensuring that the required IT technical and services facilities can be recovered within required and agreed timescales The dependencies between business processes and technology are now so intertwined that Contingency Planning (or Business Continuity Management.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 13-16. IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. ITSCM: Summary SM251.V3.1. 13-19 . review and test 17 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004 .Student Notebook 13-20 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

What You Should Be Able to Do After completing this unit. 14-1 . 2004 Unit 14. and understand its benefits within the ITIL framework. Security Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty Unit 14.0. you should be able to think about the mission of this service. Security Management What This Unit Is About This unit is an introduction to Security Management.V3. and how it relates with all other IT Services. © Copyright IBM Corp.1.

© Copyright IBM Corp. security incident Responsibilities and obligations Important aspects – Security measures Benefits and costs Summary 2 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Unit 14 Security Management Content: Security Management – objectives and overview Definition: CIA.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-1. 2004 .0 Notes: 14-2 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Unit 14: Security Management SM251.

V3.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services ITSCM Management Integration into the IPW Model Source: IPW Model is a trade mark of Quint Wellington and KPN Telecoms 3 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. ITSCM Management: Integration into the IPW Model SM251.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.1. 2004 Unit 14.0.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-2. 14-3 . Security Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

threats. © Copyright IBM Corp. The goal of Security Management is to counter risks of threats to one of the most important assets for business: the information. Management is responsible for taking appropriate steps to reduce to acceptable levels the chances of a security incident occurring. This is the process of risk assessment and management. 2004 . IT services. such as changed business and IT service requirements. IT architecture elements. IT Security Management enables and ensures that: • Security controls are implemented and maintained to address changing circumstances. 14-4 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. and so on • Security incidents are managed • Audit results show the adequacy of security controls and measures taken • Reports are produced to show the status of information security.0 Notes: IT Security Management is the process of managing a defined level of security for information. Security Management: Mission Statement SM251. and infrastructure. Information is threatened in many ways: Confidentiality Integrity / Accuracy Availability / Accessibility C C II A A – Confidentiality – Confidentiality – Integrity – Integrity – Availability – Availability 4 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-3.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Security Management Mission Statement Security Management is the process of managing a defined level of security on information and IT services. IT Security Management needs to be part of every IT manager's job description. including managing the responses to security incidents.

Confidentiality Protecting sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure or intelligible interception Integrity Safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of information and software Availability Ensuring that information and vital IT services are available and accessible when required 5 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-4. Security Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0. Security Management: Definitions: CIA SM251.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Security Management Definitions: CIA Security Management should protect the value of the information. 14-5 .V3.1. 2004 Unit 14.

– Public networks (Internet) are increasingly used – Internal networks are opened to customers and business partners – Internet usability is increasingly extended (e-commerce.. online banking) – Processes are controlled via networks 6 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Security Management: Why Security Management? SM251.0 Notes: 14-6 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. © Copyright IBM Corp.. 2004 . because.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Security Management Why Security Management? Information is the most important production factor of the world Threat to information = threat to the organization‘s productivity Security Management gets increasingly important.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-5.

or can be intentionally caused.0 Notes: © Copyright IBM Corp. 7 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Security Management: Information Security Incident SM251. Information security incidents can accidentally occur. Security Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Security Management Information Security Incident Information Security Incidents are incidents at which the confidentiality the integrity or the availability of the information is threatened.V3. 2004 Unit 14. 14-7 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-6.0.1.

0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-7. or both Physical security measures Physical separation of the computer room The security organization has to The security organization has to establish and maintain a proper establish and maintain a proper balance between the level of security balance between the level of security and the ability to use the service. The existence of the policy registers and reinforces the corporate decision to invest in the security of information and information processing. and of what is allowable and what is not. and is responsible for defining the corporate security policy. and the ability to use the service. It provides management with guidelines and direction regarding the relative importance of various aspects of the organization. Security measures only add value when used harmoniously. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Security Management Security Measures Security measures make it possible to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with information. Technical security measures Security in a computer system or network Procedural security measures How the staff are required to act in particular cases Work instructions 8 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. in the use of ICT systems and data. Security organization With clear responsibilities and tasks Policies. codes of conduct. 2004 . Security Management: Security Measures SM251. 14-8 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. IT Security Management is governed by that policy.0 Notes: Corporate executive management is accountable to stakeholders and shareholders for security.

The level of security required are defined after the customer or the business security requirements.0. It covers all stages.1.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-8. evaluation and maintenance – under a framework of control – with regular status reporting to the customer closing the loop.V3. to evaluation and audit. Security Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. implementation and operation. through planning. © Copyright IBM Corp. 14-9 . 2004 Unit 14. The process shows the complete route. The slide provides an overview of the ITIL IT Security Management Process. implementation. through planning.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Security Management Process Customer Report SLA Maintain Plan Control Evaluate Implement 9 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Security Management: Process SM251. from the collection of a customer's requirements. from policy setting and initial risk assessment.0 Notes: This slide illustrates the information security process as seen by the business.

2004 .Input from Customer Customer Defines its security requirements based on its business requirements Report SLA Maintain Plan Control Evaluate Implement 10 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Input from Customer SM251. Security Management: Process.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-9.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Security Management Process. © Copyright IBM Corp.0 Notes: 14-10 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

Security Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Security Management Process – Control Customer Report • Define processes. 2004 Unit 14. Security Management: Process – Control SM251.1. • The organization structure between these • The reporting structure or line of command • The way the security plans are established • The process through which these are implemented • The way in which the implementation is evaluated • The process through which the results of these evaluations are used for the maintenance of security plans and the implementation thereof • The reporting structure to the customer © Copyright IBM Corp. roles.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-10. functions. and allocation of responsibilities have to be defined within the sub-processes. roles. functions.0 Notes: Processes. 14-11 .0.V3. responsibilities • Organization structure between sub-processes • Reporting structure/line of command SLA Maintain Plan Control Evaluate Implement 11 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.

2004 .0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-11. © Copyright IBM Corp.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Security Management Process – SLA Customer Report Report SLA Maintain Plan Control The section security in SLA is negotiated between customer and service provider Evaluate Implement 12 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Security Management: Process – SLA SM251.0 Notes: 14-12 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Security Management Process – Plan Customer Report SLA Maintain Plan Control • SLA • Underpinning contracts • OLA • Policy statement Evaluate Implement 13 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. Security Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.1. © Copyright IBM Corp.0. 14-13 . The generic security requirements in the SLA are refined in Operational Level Agreements (OLAs). 2004 Unit 14. These define support requirements internally. Security Management: Process – Plan SM251. The Plan activities may also use policy statements for the IT service providers to which they have to comply.V3.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-12.0 Notes: The Plan activity includes the way the security section of the SLA is established as well as the underpinning contracts.

classification . © Copyright IBM Corp.Security works only if discipline and motivation • Security incident handling responsiveness • Security incident registration .0 Figure 14-13. Security Management: Process – Implement SM251.and reporting © 2004 IBM Corporation Maintain Plan Control Evaluate Implement 14 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.Student Notebook IBM Global Services Security Management Process – Implement Customer Report SLA • Maintaining awareness .measurement .0 Notes: 14-14 ITIL Foundation Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 2004 .

Security Management: Process – Evaluate SM251.0 © 2004 IBM Corporation Figure 14-14.1.V3. 14-15 . © Copyright IBM Corp.1 Student Notebook Uempty IBM Global Services Security Management Process – Evaluate Customer Report SLA Maintain Avoid the atmosphere of phantom security • Internal audits • External audits • Self-assessments • Security incident evaluation Plan Control Evaluate Implement 15 ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1. • Can result in RFCs • Blindly trusting security measures installed long ago will create an atmosphere of phantom security. Security Management Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.0 Notes: Three types of evaluation: • Internal audits • External audits • Self-assessments Evaluation results are used to determine or refine measures taken. Evaluation also assesses standards and policies. 2004 Unit 14.0.

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Security Management

Process – Maintain
Customer Report

SLA

• Collect experiences, lessons learned • Improvements will be considered for the next round of - planning - implementation

Maintain

Plan

Control

Evaluate

Implement

16

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 14-15. Security Management: Process – Maintain

SM251.0

Notes:
It is important to keep security measures up to date, as the threats on the infrastructure, organization, and processes are changing constantly. Maintenance is based on: • The results of the periodic reviews • Insight into the changing risk picture • Changes in the input material (including SLAs)

14-16 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Security Management

Process – Report
Customer Report

SLA

• Show conformity with SLA • Management without information is impossible

Maintain

Plan

Control

Evaluate

Implement

17

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 14-16. Security Management: Process – Report

SM251.0

Notes:
One of the major reasons why information security has been neglected for so long is the absence of historical records. Generally no one has any idea of what kind of security incidents have troubled the organization in the past. • Ignorance • Not exposing the dirty linen Management needs to be aware of the efficiency of the resources spent on security measures and the effectiveness of the measures.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 14. Security Management
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

14-17

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Security Management

Level of measures
Threat

How could the security incident happen?
Prevent Reduction

Security Incident

Detection Repression

Damage Correction

How can it be avoided in the future?
Recovery Evaluation

18

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 14-17. Security Management: Level of measures

SM251.0

Notes:

14-18 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1
Student Notebook

Uempty

IBM Global Services

Security Management

Benefits and Costs
Benefits Can only be qualified with difficulty The costs are nevertheless clear if security is not sufficient Costs Provision of information and training (depends on staff mentality) Staff, hardware, software

19

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 14-18. Security Management: Benefits and Costs

SM251.0

Notes:

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

Unit 14. Security Management
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

14-19

Student Notebook

IBM Global Services

Security Management

Summary
Security Management is responsible for managing and improving a defined level of security on information and IT services. Information Security Incidents are incidents at which – the confidentiality – the integrity – or the availability of the information is threatened. Activities: plan, implement, evaluate, maintain

20

ITIL Foundation Course | Student material v1.0

© 2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 14-19. Security Management: Summary

SM251.0

Notes:

14-20 ITIL Foundation
Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 2004

V3.1.0.1

backpg

Back page

® .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.