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PROJECT REPORT ON EMBEDDED ACCESS CONTROL AND SECURITY SYSTEM USING RFID
A Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Engineering In ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION Submitted by: TARUN(Regd No.0501229084) Under the guidance of Prof. Subhendu Behera Dept. of Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering Dhaneswar Rath Institute of Engineering & Management Studies, Cuttack.
DHANESWAR RATH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & MANAGMENT STUDIES CUTTACK (Affiliated To Biju Patnaik University of Technology) Dept. of Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering Certificate
Certified that the project work entitled “Monitor Environment” is a bonafide work carried out by:
and Control of Greenhouse
Chinmayananda Das (Regd No.0501229084) in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering under Biju Pattnaik University Of Technology, Rourkela, during the year 2005-2009. It is certified that all corrections/ suggestions indicated for Internal Assessment have been incorporated in the report and deposited in the departmental library. The project report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of the project work prescribed for the said degree. Signature :
Project Guide: Name: Date: Internal examiner: examiner: Name:
HOD Dept. of AE&I: Name: Date: External Name:
Project Incharge: Name: Date:
The completion of any project brings with it a sense of satisfaction, but it is never complete without thanking those people who made it possible and whose constant support has crowned our efforts with success. One cannot even imagine the power of the force that guides us all and neither can we succeed without acknowledging it. Our deepest gratitude to Almighty God for holding our hands and guiding us throughout our lives. I would also like to express our gratitude to Prof. Subhendu Behera Head of the Department, Applied Electronics and Instrumentation DRIEMS, Cuttack for encouraging and inspiring us to carry out the project in the department lab. I would also like to thank our guide, Er. J. N Mishra Dept. of A p p l i e d Electronics and Communication for his expert guidance, encouragement and valuable suggestions at every step. We also would like to thank all the staff members of AE&I dept. for providing us with the required facilities and support towards the completion of the project. We are extremely happy to acknowledge and express our sincere gratitude to our parents for their constant support and encouragement and last but not the least, friends and well wishers for their help and cooperation and solutions to problems during the course of the project. Also our friends at 8051projects.net who provided solutions at times when we were against the wall in need of help.
libraries. there was the conventional swiping system using bar code readers. we have added a keypad for entering a password. Earlier. Thereby it achieves a two level security. with the help of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). it can be carried using non-contact devices. In order to avoid tress passing and in cases of theft of cards. It finds quite an important application in Pay roll calculation. . Acting as a substitute for security personnel. Our project is based on automating the access control and security operations involved in an organization. Then is the access control at various points inside the organization. defense weapons storage places (where only certain persons are authorized to enter). which can be retrieved by the reader only. Now. both for the employees and the operator. RFID cards are provided to employees. this gives a better reliability and ease of use. these cards carry their own identification number in a coded format. industrial monitoring and so on.EMBEDDED ACCESS CONTROL AND SECURITY SYSTEM USING RFID SYNOPSIS The ongoing growth of technology has necessitated the use of more simpler and effective systems as a replacement to the existing ones. Our primary application that we have focused on is access control of employees of different grades inside the same building. By means of this the authentication of the employees can be verified.
2 Basic Tag assembly 3.4 How Tags communicate 3.5 Creation of tow higher frequency side bands 3.1 Typical RFID System 3.9 Block diagram of 125kHz RFID reader 3. ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES 2.12Block diagram of Access control 3.2 Features of the 125 kHz RFID reader 3.3 Basic Tag IC architecture 3. 1.CONTENTS NAME OF THE CHAPTER PAGE NO.14 Circuit Diagram of the system 4.13Block diagram of the system 3.11 Typical application 3.10Output signal from reader 3.7 Block diagram of the Chip 3.8 Modulation Signal and modulated signal 3. LIST OF FIGURES - 3. 6 Typical pin details of the Chip inside the RFID card - LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABSRIVIATION . 2. 3.
MICROCONTROLLER-AT89S52 3.1 EXISITING TECHNOLOGIES & NEED FOR RFID 1. INTRODUCTION 1.2 RFID TECHNOLOGY 1. RF BASED ACCESS CONTROL 2.1 DISCRIPTION 8.4 DESCRIPTION - 7. APPLICATION & CONCLUSION APPENDICES REHERENCES - .1 BLOCK DIAGRAM 2.3 WORKING OF RFID TAGS 1.2 WORKING 2.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 2.4 WORKING OF THE RFID READER - 6.5.
the card reader is a proximity card reader. When a person of a particular designation is not supposed to be allowed in a given entrance. which bears the database. In our project.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The concept of access control is brought about using a card. The employee enters it using a keypad interfaced with the controller. Then he/she is requested for a password. whereas the controller was programmed with Hi-tech C. If the employee is authentic. a corresponding card reader and a control panel interfaced with the server. designation. which is the micro controller. The server is loaded with the details about the employee for that number. The controller used is PIC AT8952. The reader reads the data and sends it to the control panel. The employees can be permitted in a given entrance as per his/her designation. The access control is employed at this point. The card is a proximity card with a unique identification number integrated in it. The controller again checks it with the server for authenticity. The control panel checks whether he/she is allowed to enter the particular door or not. his access locations in the organization and other necessary details. such as the name. This controller checks the validity of the data with the server. then he/she is allowed access in the particular entrance. The server database was created using MS Access and the programming parts were carried out with VB. he/she is not even requested for a password. .
a person at each point will not be an economical way of implementing it. The employees sign a register at the entrance before getting in. It is a much common sight to see a bar code reader in the companies. However. Workers started to practice buddy punching. This led to the bar code readers. which uses contact less card readers. Then came were the punch cards. Employees possess cards. the cards are required to touch the readers. a requirement for the same application using RF is desired. A further improvement is the RF ID card technology.000 in the first year.1. But. for their co-workers. Then the access is given after checking the authenticity of the card. With growth of technology and giant leap in the field of Radio frequency transmission. This is still being practiced in most of the companies. when there is a necessity of providing control at many locations inside the company. These are used to check with the employee’s identification. which are punched when they enter into the building. the bar code readers are contact readers where. The employees swipe the card in the provided slot. The company expanded the system from Control Module after it saved an estimated $100. the disadvantages are that. This acted as a starting to the automation of the access control. This was a substitute to the security and emerged as a new technique in access control. But it had disadvantages.1 EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES & NEED FOR RFID We have seen the security personnel checking the employees’ identification cards at the entrances to avoid illegal entry. Concerns about buddy punching-the practice where employees fraudulently clock their co-workers in or out to give them credit for time that wasn't actually worked-led Continental Airlines to implement a fingerprint ID system to augment their automated employee time and attendance recording system. Bringing the card nearer to the reader suffices for the reader to read the contents of .
which has a range of 30 to 300 GHz. such as a tag or label. which are expressed in kilohertz. 1. perhaps even a parameter such as temperature. Bar code systems use a reader and coded labels that are attached to an item. RFID can be supplied as read-only or read / write. which has a range of 10 to 30 kHz. RFID is a flexible technology that is convenient. can be attached to virtually anything – from a vehicle to a pallet of merchandise.2 RFID TECHNOLOGY RF technology is used in many different applications. Radio waves transfer data between an item to which an RFID device is attached and an RFID reader. or gigahertz. megahertz. to extremely high frequency (EHF). This simplifies the usage for the employees. The term RFID (radio frequency identification) describes the use of radio frequency signals to provide automatic identification of items. In addition. and well suited for automatic operation.the card. RFID devices. does not require contact or line-of-sight to operate. can function under a variety of environmental conditions. It combines advantages not available with other identification technologies. . Radio frequencies range from very low frequency (VLF). radar. The device can contain data about the item. because the technology is difficult to counterfeit. radio. RFID provides a high level of security. such as television. easy to use. such as what the item is. and automatic identification systems. Bar code uses optical signals to transfer information from the label to the reader. RFID uses RF signals to transfer information from the RFID device to the reader. This technology is crawling into the companies and has the potential to substitute the preceding technologies. RFID is similar in concept to bar coding. what time the device traveled through a certain zone. whereas RFID uses a reader and special RFID devices that are attached to an item. and provides a high level of data integrity. Radio frequency (RF) refers to electromagnetic waves that have a wavelength suited for use in radio communication. cellular phones. Radio waves are classified by their frequencies.
Hence an active tag is capable of transmitting to a reader independently. We have used the passive type of tag operating at a frequency of 125 kHz in our project. 1. The reader usually provides the excitation.5 GHz. The classification is done on basis of the tags ability to transmit the code embedded in it. an RFID system includes applicationspecific software.RFID technology uses frequencies within the range of 50 kHz to 2. whereas the passive tag needs an external excitation for to transmit the code. . Further each of the tags either active or passive has their own frequency of operation. An RFID system typically includes the following components: • An RFID device (transponder or tag) that contains data about an item • An antenna used to transmit the RF signals between the reader and the RFID device • An RF transceiver that generates the RF signals • A reader that receives RF transmissions from an RFID device and passes the data to a host system for processing In addition to this basic RFID equipment.3 WORKING OF THE RFID TAGS The RFID tags based on the mode of operation are classified as Active and Passive tags.
The basic assembly process consists of first a substrate material (Paper.2: BASIC TAG ASSEMBLY . Epoxy Resin or Adhesive Paper. using techniques such as wire bonding or flip chip. PVC. upon which an antenna made from one of many different Conductive materials including Silver ink.PACKAGING Tags are manufactured in a wide variety of packaging formats designed for different applications and environments. Aluminum and copper is deposited. is optionally added to allow the tag to support some of the physical conditions found in many applications like abrasion. PET. Next the Tag chip itself is connected to the antenna.). Finally a protective overlay made from materials such as PVC lamination... Figure 1. impact and corrosion.
The chip clock is also normally extracted from the reader signal.TAG IC’S Figure 1. and convert it via a rectifier into a supply voltage. This does not mean that they are simple to design! In fact very real challenges exist such as. Other important circuits allow the chip to transfer power from the reader signal field. RFID tags are quite dumb. .3 mm2 In terms of computational power. managing noisy RF signals and keeping within strict emission regulations. Most RFID tags contain a certain amount of NVM (Non volatile Memory) like EEPROM in order to store data. achieving very low power consumption. when you consider that the size of a UHF tag chip is around 0. The result is impressive.3: BASIC TAG IC ARCHITECTURE RFID tag IC’s are designed and manufactured using some of the most advanced and smallest geometry silicon processes available. containing only basic logic and state machines capable of decoding simple instructions.
– Factory programmed These are the simplest type of tags. This leads to the following 4 classes. Following this no . The memory is then disabled from any further updates. However. Data can then either be written by the tag manufacturer or by the user – one time. where the data. together with a number of leading companies. * See Appendix 1 for picture of the card employed in the project TAG CLASSES One of the main ways of categorizing RFID tags is by their capability to read and write data. CLASS 1 – WRITE ONCE READ ONLY (WORM) – Factory or User programmed In this case the tag is manufactured with no data written into the memory. The EPC is similar in concept to the UPC (Universal Product Code) used in barcodes today.The amount of data stored depends on the chip specification. developed the idea of a unique electronic identifier code called the EPC (Electronic Product Code). Having just a simple code of up to 256 bits would lead to smaller chip size. and only announce their presence when passing through an antenna field. EPC global has also defined five classes CLASS 0 – READ ONLY. In 1999 The AUTO-ID center (now EPC Global) based at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in the US. greater data capacity and storage (memory size) leads to larger chip sizes. and can range from just simple Identifier numbers of around 96 bits to more information about the product with up to 32 Kbits. (EPC) is written only once into the tag during manufacture. which is usually a simple ID number. and hence more expensive tags. Class 0 is also used to define a category of tags called EAS (electronic article surveillance) or anti-theft devices. which have no ID. and hence lower tag costs. which is recognized as the key factor for wide spread adoption of RFID in the supply chain.
Tags of this type usually act as simple Identifiers CLASS 2 – READ WRITE This is the most flexible type of tag. and therefore contain more memory space than what is needed for just a simple ID number. which can be recorded by writing into the tags memory. These are like miniature radio devices that can communicate with other tags and devices without the presence of a reader. .further writes are allowed and the tag can only be read. CLASS 4 – READ WRITE – with integrated transmitters. CLASS 3 – READ WRITE – with on board sensors These tags contain on-board sensors for recording parameters like temperature. not only reduces very rapidly with distance. The available power from the reader field. This means that they are completely active with their own battery power source. pressure. but is also controlled by strict regulations. resulting in a limited communication distance of 4 . As sensor readings must be taken in the absence of a reader. and is still obliged to use the reader field to communicate back to the reader. and motion. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TAGS Passive tags use the reader field as a source of energy for the chip and for Communication from and to the reader.5m when using the UHF frequency Band (860 MHz – 930 MHz). Semi-Passive (battery assisted backscatter) tags have built in batteries and therefore do not require energy from the reader field to power the chip. resulting in greater distances of up to 100 meters. where users have access to read and write data into the tags memory. Distance is limited mainly due to the fact that tag does not have an integrated transmitter. This allows them to function with much lower signal power levels. They are typically used as data loggers. the tags are either semi-passive or active.
Figure 1. Unlike passive tags.Active tags are battery-powered devices that have an active transmitter onboard. active tags generate RF energy and apply it to the antenna.4: How Tags communicate LF. which employs inductive coupling of the tag to the magnetic field circulating around the reader antenna (like a transformer). passive tags use one of the two following methods. These are near field. and the far fields for longer read range UHF and microwave RFID systems. HF Tags . which use similar techniques to radar (backscatter reflection) by coupling with the electric field. The near field is generally used by RFID systems operating in the LF and HF frequency bands. HOW TAGS COMMUNICATE Near and Far fields In order to receive energy and communicate with a reader. This autonomy from the reader means that they can communicate at distances of over several kilometers. and far field.
and not easily detected due to the weak coupling between the reader and tag. The higher the frequency the less turns required (13. 13. the real information is often instead modulated in the side bands of a higher sub. whilst the reader has the power to transmit and modulate its field.5: Creation of two higher frequency side-bands Anti-collision . The tags receiver circuit is able to detect the modulated field.56 MHz typically uses 3 to 5 turns). and decode the original information from it. which when set to the right frequency (ex. The tag chip accomplishes this same effect by changing its antenna impedance via an internal circuit. which is more easily detected by the reader Figure 1. will maximize the energy transfer from reader to tag.56 MHz). The coils themselves are actually tuned LC circuits. if the information is contained in the same frequency as the reader. then it will be swamped by it. Communication from reader to tag occurs by the reader modulating (changing) its field amplitude in accordance with the digital information to be transmitted (base band signal). The result is the well-known technique called Amplitude modulation (AM). How communication is therefore achieved back from tag to reader? The answer lies in the inductive coupling. However. Just as in a transformer when the secondary coil (tag antenna) changes the load and the result is seen in the Primary (reader antenna). In fact it’s a little more complicated than this because.carrier frequency.Tags at these frequencies use inductive coupling between two coils (reader antenna and tag antenna) in order to supply energy to the tag and send information. To solve this problem. a passive tag does not. which is modulated at the same frequency as the reader signal.
the reader can then either remove it from the list. The number of tags that can be identified depends on the frequency and protocol used. and can typically range from 50 tags/s for HF and up to 200 tags/s for UHF.. The user can manually program the 128 bits of user memory by using a contact less programmer. which at the reader end is seen as a signal collision and an indication of multiple tags. Figure 1. There are many different types of algorithms (Binary Tree. Once a tag is selected. The device develops a sufficient DC voltage for operation when its external coil voltage reaches approximately 10 Vpp. the reader is able to perform a number of operations such as read the tags identifier number. After finishing dialoging with the tag. Aloha. • One-time contactless programmable (developer kit only) • Read-only data transmission after programming .. The device is a One-Time Programmable (OTP) integrated circuit and operates as a read-only device after programming. or put it on standby until a later time. or in the case of a read/write tag write information to it. This process continues under control of the anti collision algorithm until all tags have been selected.If many tags are present then they will all reply at the same time.. THE 125 KHZ RFID CARD The card used in our project is a passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) device for low-frequency applications (100 kHz-400 kHz). This device has a total of 128 bits of user programmable memory and an additional 12 bits in its configuration register. The device is powered by rectifying an incoming RF signal from the reader.6: TYPICAL PIN DETAILS OF THE CHIP INSIDE THE RFID CARD FEATURES • Factory programming and memory serialization. The device requires an external LC resonant circuit to receive the incoming RF signal and to send data. The reader manages this problem by using an anti-collision algorithm designed to allow tags to be sorted and individually selected.). which are defined as part of the protocol standards.
ASK. The variation of coil voltage controlled by the modulation transistor results in a perturbation of voltage in reader antenna coil. the device can be easily used as an alternative or second source for most of the existing low frequency passive RFID devices available today. Manchester Biphase Figure 1. PSK • Data encoding options: . Because of its many choices of configuration options. FSK. PSK). The modulation transistor damps or undamps the coil voltage when it sends data. and data length. FSK. the data transmitted from the device can be reconstructed. By monitoring the changes in reader coil voltage. Differential Biphase. data encoding method.7: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE CHIP The configuration register includes options for communication protocol (ASK.• 96 or 128 bits of One-Time Programmable (OTP) user memory (also supports 48 and 64-bit protocols) • Typical operation frequency: 100 kHz-400 kHz • Ultra low-power operation (5 µA @ VCC = 2V) • Modulation options: . These options are specified by customer and factory programmed during assembly.NRZ Direct. The device has a modulation transistor between the two antenna connections (VA and VB). . data rate.
igure EMBEDDED ACCESS CONTROL AND SECURITY SYSTEM USING RFID 1.4 WORKING OF THE RFID READER The reader is the one of the key element in the system it is responsible for initiating the operation of the system. Figure 1. It consists of a plastic tube that accommodates the read only integral circuit (IC) and the antenna realized by the LC circuit. which implements all the important functions for the system. The identifying data are stored in the 128-bit PROM realized as an array of laser programmable fuses. The data are sent bit serially as a code.9: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE 125 KHZ RFID READER . The reader is a complete transponder.
The frequency of operation is selected by tuning the reader by means of the LC circuit. Figure 1. The circuit is similar to circuits employed it RFID systems.10: OUTPUT SIGNAL FROM READER Table 1: FEATURES TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT The block diagram shown below describes a typical application circuit. the card and the reader interaction shown.Figure 1.11: Typical Application .
. either as independent efforts or through an integrated approach. Logical access control enables enterprises and organizations to limit access to data. from small entrepreneurial companies to large corporate enterprises and government bodies of all sizes.* See Appendix 2 for picture of the Reader employed in your project CHAPTER 2 RFID BASED ACCESS CONTROL Managing access to resources is assuming increasing importance for organizations everywhere. Administering access to resources means controlling both physical access and logical access. networks and workstations to those authorized to have such access. The Physical access control protects both tangible and intellectual assets from theft or compromise.
. which indicates whether the card is valid and entry. which is unlocked when entry is authorized.1 OVERVIEW OF THE RFID BASED ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM The access control system is composed of three elements: • • • A card (an identity credential) that is presented to a door reader.2. is authorized. A door or gate. A door reader.
ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS The system is made up of the following components • • • • • • • ID credential Door reader Door lock Control panel Access control server Software Database Figure 2.Behind the scenes is a complex network of computers and software that incorporates robust security functionality.1: Block Diagram of Access control .
The reader extracts data from the card. date and door entered. Enabling control panels to perform the decision function has the advantage of requiring less communication between the control panels and a central access control server. The access control server periodical provides control panels with data that enable the control panel software to determine whether the user is authorized for access. The access control system components are described in detail ID credential A number of different id technologies are currently in use for access control: magnetic stripe. The access control server compares the data received from the card with the information about the user that is stored in a database. the time. barium ferrite. which is usually mounted next to a door or entrance portal. In a centralized system. In a distributed system. the access control sever sends a signal to the control panel to unlock the door. processes it and sends it to the control panel. Access control software determines the user’s access privileges and authorization.ACCESS CONTROL PROCESS The access control process begins when the user presents the card to the reader. wiegand strips. contact smart cards and contact less smart cards. The control panel first validates the reader and then accepts the data transmitted by the reader. The control panel then sends out a signal to the appropriate door lock. which unlocks the door. The control panel then performs the access control server functions described above and makes the decision to allow or deny entry. the control panel transmits the data to the access control server. and any other information that a company may require to ensure security. When access is authorized. 125 kHz proximity card technology. What happens next depends on whether the system is centralized or distributed. . the control panel allows or denies entry.
This type of credential only validates that the information is authentic. When the card is within the range of the excite field. Either the information is immediately sent to the control panel. accommodating some combination of both the contact less card and the pin pad. panel is not the same as what was read from the card. Information is permanently recorded on the credential and when the credential is presented to a reader the information is send to the system. so that they can be stocked in inventory and easily added to or swapped out of an access control system. the internal antenna on the card converts the field energy into electricity that powers the chip on the card. or the reader analyzes the data before sending it to the control panel. allow power radio transmitter and receiver. Both methods are widely deployed.Some credential technologies are read only. When the reader is used with a contact less card. These readers are typically one-factor readers and are generic. When the reader has received all required data. compare it with the PIN entry and manipulate the credential data so that what the reader sends to the control. Readers that analyze data must be integrated into the access control system. That is. they must interpret and manipulate the data sent by the card and then transmit the data in a form that is usable by the control panel. How the reader responds depends on the type of credential presented and the organization security policy. constantly transmitting an RF field called an excite field. The process of authenticating the card to the reader and the reader to the card is called mutual authentication. The chip then uses the antenna to transmit data to the reader. Such a system can offer an increased level of security. It does not confirm that the person presenting the credential is the person authorized to possess it. it typically processes the information in one of the two ways. The simplest readers send data directly to the control panel. . The reader can determine the legitimacy of the card. These readers do nothing to evaluate the data or determine the legitimacy of the credential. it acts as a small. DOOR READER The door reader can have one or more interfaces.
Cards and readers implemented with different technologies can exchange data in different formats. sirens. while the card reader is located in an insecure or open area. or it may pass the data to the access control server to make this decision. The controller connects to the electro-mechanical door lock. The database contains updated information on users’ access rights. Depending on the system design. the access control sever receives the card data from the . Finally. a relay switch in our project.CONTROL PANEL The control panel (often referred to as the controller or simply the panel) is the central communication point for the access control system. software and a database. the control panel makes the decision to turn ON the relay and pass the transaction data to the host computer and unlocking signal to the reader. However. lights). the control panel may process data from the card reader and the access control server and make the final authorization decision. the control panel stores data format information. It is important for the control panel to generate the unlocking signal. It typically supplies power to the interfaces with multiple readers at different access points. since the control panel is located inside the facility or in a secure room. In a centralized system. the panel must either reject the data or truncate 9 bits. if a reader sends 35 bits of data and the control panel is designed to read only 26 bits. The data format control how the panel interprets received data. And finally the control panel is usually controlled to an access control server. ACCESS CONTROL SERVER The head – end system (also referred to as back-end system or host system) includes the access control server. Typically. For example. It can be connected to different alarms (example – Buzzer. the control panel needs to know how to interpret and process this data. This information identifies what portion of the data stream received from a card is used to make access control decisions.
and indicates whether the person can be admitted. Like the pattern of teeth on a door key. Each access control system has its own format. the next few parity and so on. Data format refers to the bit pattern that the reader transmits to the control panel. the formats are kept secret to prevent an unauthorized person or company from duplicating a card. ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM DATA FORMATS The access control systems data format is a critical design element. The operational range is determined by many factors. including both the system’s design specifications and the environment in which the reader is placed. Factors that affect the operational range are: . In a decentralized system. the next few a unique credential ID number. The format specifies how many bits make up the data stream and what these bits represent. Most systems are decentralized. The software correlates the card data with the data in the database. the access control server periodically sends updated access control information to the control panels and allows them to operate independently. OPERATIONAL RANGE One important characteristic of access control system operation is the distance from the reader at which the credential is effective (called the operational range). The operational characteristics for centralized or decentralized systems are determined from the specific implementing organization’s access control requirements. For example.control panel. determines the person’s access privileges. making the authorization decision for the credential presented based on data stored in the panel. the first few bits represent the facility code. making every vendor’s code unique.
• • • • • • • • Antenna shape Number of antenna turns Antenna material Surrounding materials Credential orientation to the reader Electrical parameters of the chip Anti-collision features Field strength of the reader BLOCK DIAGRAM Figure 2.2: Block Diagram of System .
The user has to flash his card to the reader.WORKING COMPONENTS SETUP The system is constructed by means of the following major components. • • • 125 KHZ RFID card 125 kHz Proximity card reader At89S52 Micro controller 3 X l matrix keypad 16 X 2 LCD module Relay control RS 232 interface cable Server • • • • • USER SECTION The users. say employees in an organization are provided with the 125 kHz RFID cards. the reader in turns detects the card and .
CONTROL PANEL (OR) CONTROLLER SECTION This section is about the AT89S52 Micro controller. These details can be retrieved at a future point of time for any processing. PC SECTION (OR) SERVER A server stores all the details pertaining to the users. the PC sends Ok signal to the controller to unlock the door for the user to enter. door entered. it prompts the user to enter his password. If the password is accepted the door is unlocked and the user is provided access. Hence once the reader detects the card. The user can enter the password by means of the keypad provided near the reader. The details are initially fed onto the server database before the cards are issued. The coding as per the desired operation is programmed onto the flash memory of the chip. the details that pertain to the involved access operation such as date & time of entry. etc.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM . are all stored. If the details are genuine. and when the user enters the password it reaches the controller. Further when an user gains access after all the authentication process. The controller in turn forwards it to the PC by means of the RS 232 cable interface provided. If the card is genuine. 2. The database for the users is created using MS access and for the processing operations Visual basic 6 is used in our Project. Hence each user is allocated a with a definite access rights as per the requirements. Thus details of all those who gain entry are stored.checks for the authenticity.
LCD: .Figure 2. they are given to the respective components.3: Circuit Diagram of the System CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION The circuit diagram consists of the following parts: Power supply: The power supply is of two ranges. This was constructed using 7805 and 7812 IC s respectively. They are provided with a 9-0-9 V and a 15-0-15 V step-down transformer. After filter circuits. +5V for the micro controller and +12 V for the relay switch.
Keypad: A 3 X 4 matrix keypad is provided for the user to enter the password. Oscillator: A crystal oscillator of 11. In our project.0592 MHz is connected with capacitor combination to provide the clock frequency for the micro controller. Relay: The relay is used to open or close the door. These relays energize on a signal from the controller. Interfacing with the server: The server. generally a computer. it is used to switch on a 230 V powered AC electric lamp. It is interfaced to the Port D of the controller. usually communicates with the controller through RS 232 serial port cable. The LCD is connected to the micro controller for displaying any text to the user. A potentiometer is used to vary the brightness of the LCD display. when requested by the controller. This is connected through an RS 232 connector and a MAX 232 IC for driving the signals.A 16 X 2 LCD module is used for the display. The relays are driven using driver circuits. The connection is given to the COM port in the computer to . The two electric lamps signify the opening and closing of an electronic door.
(b) Packaging: It may be a 40-pin DIP (dual inline package) or a QFP (quad flat package). assembling.1 CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING A MICROCONTROLLER The basic criteria for choosing a microcontroller suitable for the application are: 1) The first and foremost criterion is that it must meet the task at hand efficiently and cost effectively.connect the controller with the computer. Among the other considerations in this category are: (a) Speed: The highest speed that the microcontroller supports. 16-bit or 32-bit microcontroller can best handle the computing needs of the task most effectively.4. This is the cable through which the controller accesses the database. RFID Card Reader MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52) 4. (c) Power consumption: This is especially critical for battery-powered products. (g) Cost per unit: This is important in terms of the final cost of the product in which a microcontroller is used. In analyzing the needs of a microcontroller-based project. (d) The number of I/O pins and the timer on the chip.bit. (f) How easy it is to upgrade to higher –performance or lower consumption versions. and prototyping the end product. 2) The second criterion in choosing a microcontroller is how easy it is to develop products . or some other packaging format. it is seen whether an 8. This is important in terms of space.
Thus the microcontroller AT89S52. By supplier is meant a producer besides the originator of the microcontroller. 4.4. the 8051 family has the largest number of diversified suppliers. debugger. Currently of the leading 8-bit microcontrollers. It is used in a wide variety of applications from .2 DESCRIPTION: The 8051 family of microcontrollers is based on an architecture which is highly optimized for embedded control systems.around it. satisfying the criterion necessary for the proposed application is chosen for the task. 3) The third criterion in choosing a microcontroller is its ready availability in needed quantities both now and in the future. Key considerations include the availability of an assembler. technical support. In the case of the 8051. compiler. this has originated by Intel several companies also currently producing the 8051.
the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. This wide range of parts based on one core makes the 8051 family an excellent choice as the base architecture for a company's entire line of products since it can perform many functions and developers will only have to learn this one platform. Second only to the Motorola 68HC11 in eight bit processors sales.4. timer/counters. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industrystandard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. Philips. serial port. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory.military equipment to automobiles to the keyboard.effective solution to many embedded control applications. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator. analog to digital converters. Variations of the 8051 with clock speeds up to 40MHz and voltage requirements down to 1. and Siemens. These manufacturers have added numerous features and peripherals to the 8051 such as I2C interfaces. In addition. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost.5V Operating Range • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz • 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines . and interrupt system to continue functioning.5 volts are available.0V to 5. watchdog timers. The AT89S52 is a low-power. and pulse width modulated outputs. 4.3 FEATURES: The basic architecture of AT89C51 consists of the following features: • Compatible with MCS-51 Products • 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory • 4. the 8051 family of microcontrollers is available in a wide array of variations from manufacturers such as Intel.
5 BLOCK DIAGRAM .• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters • Eight Interrupt Sources • Full Duplex UART Serial Channel • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes • Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode • Watchdog Timer • Fast Programming Time • Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode) 4.16 Pin diagram of AT89S52 4. 220.127.116.11 PIN CONFIGURATION Fig.
4.Fig.17 Block diagram of the microcontroller .
The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins.0 and P1. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull- . Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI).M 4. In this application. P0 has internal pull-ups. respectively. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. In this mode. • GND: Ground. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins. As an output port. As inputs.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory.ups when emitting 1s. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.4.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1. Port 2 uses strong internal pull. P1. • Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.6 PIN DESCRIPTION • VCC: Supply voltage. the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs.1/T2EX). • Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. As inputs. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. • Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. • Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. As inputs. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. In addition. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function register. as shown in the following table. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR).
ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming an verification. .
18 Power-on reset circuit M In order for the RESET input to be effective.4.2 Alternate functions of Port 3 • RST: Reset input. 4. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. it must have a minimum duration of two machine cycles. as shown in the following table.M Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52.1 Power-On Reset circuit Fig. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the watchdog times out. Alternate functions of Port 3: Table 4. . 4.6.
Note. If desired. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. • XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. EA will be internally latched on reset.• ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. • EA: External Access Enable. that if lock bit 1 is programmed. Otherwise. • PSEN: Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. We can observe the frequency on the XTAL2 pin. 4. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. • XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. With the bit set. Note. .2 The AT89S52 oscillator clock circuit • • It uses a quartz crystal oscillator.4.6. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. the pin is weakly pulled high. In normal operation. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory. however. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. however. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH.
7 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS The Special Function Registers (SFRs) contain memory locations that are used for special tasks. although seemingly an odd value. 9600.MONITOR AND CONTROL OF GREENHOUSE ENVIRONMENT C2 XTAL2 30pF C1 XTAL1 30pF GN D Fig 4. yields a crystal frequency of 921. • PSW (Program Status Word) is a bit addressable register • PC or program counter is a special 16-bit register. • Register B is used for multiplication & division and can also be used for general purpose storage. which can be divided evenly by the standard communication baud rates of 19200.They are 8-bits wide. An 11. Program instruction bytes are fetched from locations in memory that are addressed by the PC.6 kilohertz. 2400.4. 4. and 300 hertz.19 The AT89S52 oscillator clock circuit • • • The crystal frequency is the basic internal frequency of the microcontroller. 1200. 4800. • The A (accumulator) register or accumulator is used for most ALU operations and Boolean Bit manipulations.0592 megahertz crystal. . The internal counters must divide the basic clock rate to yield standard communication bit per second (baud) rates. It is not part of SFR. Each SFR occupies internal RAM from 0x80 to 0xFF.
• Program Memory: If the EA pin is connected to GND. which are used to used to furnish memory addresses for internal and external code access and external data access. all program fetches are directed to external memory. the Timer/Counters. • Data Memory: The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. TL1) are the 16bit Counter registers for Timer/Counters 0 and 1.8 MEMORY ORGANIZATION MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. program fetches to addresses 0000H through 1FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 2000H through FFFFH are to external memory. TMOD.4. the Stack Pointer is initialized to 07H after a reset. While the stack may reside anywhere in on-chip RAM. and the serial port. respectively. IE. Instructions which use direct addressing access the SFR space. • Control Registers: Special Function Registers IP. The lower 128 . • DPTR or data pointer is a special 16-bit register that is accessible as two 8bit registers: DPL and DPH.M • Stack Pointer (SP) register is eight bits wide. The upper 128 bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function Registers. if EA is connected to VCC. • Timer Registers: Register pairs (TH0. When an instruction accesses an internal location above address 7FH. TL0) and (TH1. It is incremented before data is stored during PUSH and CALL executions. This causes the stack to begin at location 08H. On the AT89S52. and PCON contain control and status bits for the interrupt system. the address mode used in the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of RAM or the SFR space. SCON. 4. TCON. Up to 64K bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed. This means that the upper 128 bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR space.
enough bytes should be left aside to prevent SP data destruction.9 WATCHDOG TIMER (One-time Enabled with Reset-out) . Reset initializes the stack point to location 07H.4. Register Banks 0-3: locations 00H through 1FH (32 bytes). Bit Addressable Area: 16 bytes have been assigned for this segment 20H2FH.20 Internal memory block 4. The device after reset defaults to register bank 0. the user must select them in software. Each of the 16 bytes in this segment can also be addressed as a byte. Scratch Pad Area: 30H-7FH are available to the user as data RAM. which is the first register of the second register bank. Each one of the 128 bits of this segment can be directly addressed (0-7FH). 2. and is incremented once to start from 08H. However. Fig. To use the other register banks. if the data pointer has been initialized to this area.bytes of RAM can be divided into three egments: 1. 3. 4. Each register bank contains eight 1-byte registers R0-R7.
external interrupt flags. TMOD timer mode SFR comprises two four-bit registers (timer #1. 4. timer #0) used to specify the timer/counter mode and operation. it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running. Count internal . functions are not done.acting as counter All counter action is controlled by the TMOD (Timer Mode) and the TCON (Timer/Counter Control) registers. Both of these tasks can be accomplished using software techniques. The timer may operate in any one of four modes that are determined by modes bits M1 and M0 in the TMOD register: TIMER MODE-0: Setting timer mode bits to 00b in the TMOD register results in using the TH register as an 8-bit counter and TL as a 5-bit counter. When the WDT is enabled. The WDT timeout period is dependent on the external clock frequency. or the generation of precise internal time delays between computer actions. The microcontroller can programmed for either of the following: 1. Hence the better option is to use interrupts & the two 16. TCON Timer control SFR contains timer 1& 2 overflow flags. When WDT over-flows.The WDT is intended as a recovery method in situations where the CPU may be subjected to software upsets.up timers.acting as timer 2. The WDT consists of a 14-bit counter and the Watchdog Timer M Reset (WDTRST) SFR.10 TIMERS COUNTERS AND Many microcontroller applications require the counting of external events such as the frequency of a pulse train. There is no way to disable the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or WDT overflow reset).4. Count external . The WDT is defaulted to disable from exiting reset. it will drive an output RESET HIGH pulse at the RST pin. a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H).bit count. falling edge/low level selector bit etc. To enable the WDT. but software loops for counting or timing keep the processor occupied so that. timer control bits. Therefore mode0 is a . other perhaps more important.
and the serial port interrupt. The timer flag is also set when TL overflows. The AT89S52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1). RETI instruction at the end of ISR will restore the PC address. TIMER MODE-1: Mode-1 is similar to mode-0 except TL is configured as a full 8-bit counter when the mode bits are set to 01b in TMOD. timer-1 simply hold its count. One method uses software instructions that jump to subroutines on the states of flags and port pins. 4.4. Each interrupt forces the processor to jump at the interrupt location in the memory. called interrupts that force the program to call a subroutine. TH0 counts machine cycles and takes over the use of TR1 and TF1 from Timer-1. The interrupted program must resume operation at the instruction where the interrupt took place. TIMER MODE-2: Setting the mode bits to 10b in TMOD configures the timer to use only the TL counter as an 8-bit counter. IE also contains a global disable bit. three timer interrupts (Timers 0. TL0 uses the Timer-0 control bits.12 MICROCONTROLLER CONFIGURATION USED IN THE SETUP The microcontroller is interfaced with the ADC in polling mode. and 2). The second method responds to hardware signals.13-bit counter. 1. 4. INT0 is used for the . Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function Register IE. TH is used to hold a value that is loaded into TL every time TL overflows from FFh to 00h.4. where as timer 0 registers TL0 and TH0 are used as two separate 8-bit counters. which disables all interrupts at once. Program resumption is done by storing the interrupted PC address on to stack. EA. TIMER MODE-3: In mode-3.11 INTERRUPTS A computer has only two ways to determine the conditions that exist in internal and external circuits.
• Port 1: Interfaced with the ADC data lines • Port 2: Interfaced with the LCD Control lines and AC Interface control • Port 3: Interfaced with the ADC control lines .LCD mode selection switch in order to switch between two modes of display: 1) Sensor output display 2) Actuator status display Port details: • Port 0: Interfaced with the LCD data lines.
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. Each pixel consists of a column of liquid crystal molecules suspended between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters, the axes of polarity of which are perpendicular to each other. Without the liquid crystals between them, light passing through one would be blocked by the other. The liquid crystal twists the polarization of light entering one filter to allow it to pass through the other. Many microcontroller devices use 'smart LCD' displays to output visual information. LCD displays designed around Hitachi's LCD HD44780 module, are inexpensive, easy to use, and it is even possible to produce a readout using the 8x80 pixels of the display. They have a standard ASCII set of characters and mathematical symbols. For an 8-bit data bus, the display requires a +5V supply plus 11 I/O lines. For a 4bit data bus it only requires the supply lines plus seven extra lines. When the LCD display is not enabled, data lines are tri-state and they do not interfere with the operation of the microcontroller. Data can be placed at any location on the LCD. For 16×2 LCD, the address locations are: First line 80 81 82 83 84 C4 85 C5 86 through 8F
Second line C0 C1
C6 through CF
Fig 4.22 Address locations for a 2x16 line LCD 4.5.1 SIGNALS TO THE LCD The LCD also requires 3 control lines from the microcontroller: 1) Enable (E) This line allows access to the display through R/W and RS lines. When this line is low, the LCD is disabled and ignores signals from R/W and RS. When (E) line is high, the LCD checks the state of the two control lines and responds accordingly. 2) Read/Write (R/W) This line determines the direction of data between the LCD and microcontroller.
4.7 RELAYS A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it can be considered to be, in a broad sense, a form of an electrical amplifier.
Fig. 4.26 Sugar cube relay Despite the speed of technological developments, some products prove so popular that their key parameters and design features remain virtually unchanged for years. One such product is the ‘sugar cube’ relay, shown in the figure above, which has proved useful to many designers who needed to switch up to 10A, whilst using relatively little PCB area Since relays are switches, the terminology applied to switches is also applied to relays. A relay will switch one or more poles, each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing the coil in one of three ways: 1.Normally - open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activate d; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a FORM A contact or “make” contact. 2.Normally - closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated ; the circuit is connected when relay is inactive. It is also called FORM B contact or” break” contact 3.Change-over or double-throw contacts control two circuits ; one Form C “transfer “contact. The following types of relays are commonly encountered: normally open
contact and one normally –closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called a
Including two for the coil. .Double Pole Single Throw: These have two pairs of terminals. including the coil. such a relay has six terminals in total. In total. • QPDT . or 4PDT. normally closed. It is ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or normally closed.Double Pole Double Throw: These have two rows of change-over terminals. These have four rows of change-over terminals."C" denotes the common terminal in SPDT and DPDT types Fig. fourteen terminals including the coil. It is ambiguous whether the poles are normally open. • SPDT . or two DPDT relays. • DPDT .Single Pole Double Throw: A common terminal connects to either of two others. or one of each. such a relay has five terminals in total. Including two for the coil. such a relay has four terminals in total. Including two for the coil. Equivalent to four SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. • DPST .Quadruple Pole Double Throw: Often referred to as Quad Pole Double Throw. 4. Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Such a relay has eight terminals.27 Different types of Relays • SPST . Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. The terminology "SPNO" and "SPNC" is sometimes used to resolve the ambiguity.Single Pole Single Throw: These have two terminals which can be connected or disconnected.
1 Access to LCD enabled • R/W . the LCD interprets the type of data on data lines. When it is high. data is written to the LCD.1 Reading data from LCD • RS .1. data is read from the LCD.2 PIN DESCRIPTION Most LCDs with 1 controller has 14 Pins and LCDs with 2 controller has 16 Pins (two pins are extra in both for back-light LED connections). 3) Register select (RS) With the help of this line.2 Writing and reading the data from the LCD: Writing data to the LCD is done in several steps: 1) Set R/W bit to low 2) Set RS bit to logic 0 or 1 (instruction or character) 3) Set data to data lines (if it is writing) 4) Set E line to high 5) Set E line to low Read data from data lines (if it is reading): 1) Set R/W bit to high 2) Set RS bit to logic 0 or 1 (instruction or character) 3) Set data to data lines (if it is writing) 4) Set E line to high 5) Set E line to low 4. a character is being written to the LCD.MONITOR AND CONTROL OF GREENHOUSE ENVIRONMENT When it is low. .1 Character 4. When it is high. an instruction is being written to the LCD.5.1.1 Logic status on control lines: • E . 4. When it is low.5.0 Access to LCD disabled .5.0 Writing data to LCD .0 Instruction .
23 Pin diagram of 2x16 line LCD Table 4. typically used in automobiles.24 Electrical symbol of a buzzer . Fig.6 ALARM CIRCUITRY BUZZER: A buzzer or beeper is a signaling device. 4.Fig 4. usually electronic.23 Pin description of the LCD 4. household appliances such as a microwave oven.
It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. 4. the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. In our system. in a broad sense. it sounds a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping sound.It is connected to the control unit through the transistor that acts as an electronic switch for it. Department of AE & I Page 47 2009-2010 . a protection resistor of 10k ohm is used in order to protect the transistor from being damaged in case of excessive current flow. If the positive voltage is less than 0.7 RELAYS A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. In the original form. the transistor switches OFF. The transistor acts as a normal controlled by the base connection. When the switch forms a closed path to the buzzer. No current flows through the buzzer in this case and it will not buzz. it can be considered to be.6V. a form of an electrical amplifier. As can be seen in the buzzer circuitry given below. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit. Fig. It switches ON when a positive voltage from the control unit is applied to the base.25 Buzzer circuitry 4. the buzzer is designed to give a small beep whenever one of the devices such as a cooler or a bulb turns on in order to alert the user.
A relay will switch one or more poles. the terminology applied to switches is also applied to relays.open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activate d. shown in the figure above. 2. each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing the coil in one of three ways: 1.Normally .Fig. which has proved useful to many designers who needed to switch up to 10A. one Form C “transfer “contact. whilst using relatively little PCB area Since relays are switches.Normally . One such product is the ‘sugar cube’ relay. the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. the circuit is connected when relay is inactive. The following types of relays are commonly encountered: normally open contact and one normally –closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called a FORM A contact or “make” contact.Change-over or double-throw contacts control two circuits . 4.closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated . some products prove so popular that their key parameters and design features remain virtually unchanged for years.26 Sugar cube relay Despite the speed of technological developments. It is also called FORM B contact or” break” contact 3. It is also called a .
• QPDT . Including two for the coil. Such a relay has eight terminals. Equivalent to four SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. 4. such a relay has four terminals in total. • DPST . normally closed. or two DPDT relays."C" denotes the common terminal in SPDT and DPDT types Fig. such a relay has six terminals in total. Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil.Single Pole Double Throw: A common terminal connects to either of two others. It is ambiguous whether the poles are normally open. or 4PDT. or one of each. • SPDT .Double Pole Single Throw: These have two pairs of terminals. • DPDT . fourteen terminals including the coil. These have four rows of change-over terminals. In total.27 Different types of Relays • SPST . It is ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or normally closed.Single Pole Single Throw: These have two terminals which can be connected or disconnected. such a relay has five terminals in total. including the coil. The Relay interfacing circuitry used in the application is: . Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil.Quadruple Pole Double Throw: Often referred to as Quad Pole Double Throw. Including two for the coil. The terminology "SPNO" and "SPNC" is sometimes used to resolve the ambiguity.Double Pole Double Throw: These have two rows of change-over terminals. Including two for the coil.
With adequate heat sinking the regulator can deliver 1A output current. IC 7805 is used for regulated supply of +5 volts and IC 7812 is used to provide a regulated supply of +12 volts in order to prevent the circuit ahead from any fluctuations. the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating. . and once the capacitor charges there is no resistor for capacitor to discharge. the rectified voltage from the 4 diodes is given to pin 1 of the respective regulators. If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided.1N4148 Fig.8 POWER SUPPLY CONNECTION The power supply section consists of step down transformers of 230V primary to 9V and 12V secondary voltages for the +5V and +12V power supplies respectively. This gives a constant value of DC. Pin 2 of the regulators is connected to ground and pin 3 to Vcc. The stepped down voltage is then rectified by 4 1N4007 diodes. The filter capacitors connected after this IC filters the high frequency spikes. These capacitors are connected in parallel with supply and common so that spikes filter to the common. These give stability to the power supply circuit. As can be seen from the above circuit diagrams.28 Relay circuitry 4. 4. The high value of capacitor 1000 µF charges at a slow rate as the time constant is low.
1 Vin 7805 Vout GND 2 230V. 50Hz 1000 uf 10 uf 1uf .
This in turn helps in calculating the salary that they have to get for the last month.Fig. 4.30 +12V Power supply Circuit APPLICATIONS The RF Identification is finding its application in many fields and some of them are described briefly below: Access Control and Security The cards can also be used for many of the work carried out inside the company such as: Pay-roll calculation: The employees’ in time and out time can be noted and their attendance can be maintained. 4. .29 +5V Power supply circuit Fig.
In any company. . The others are incompetent either on the ground of their cadre or their knowledge about the components and equipments or objects. and are considered very secure.Human checking: When somebody has to be traced inside a building. RF ID provides a good solution to this application. the employees are given access only into certain places inside the building and are restricted from entering into certain other places demanding security. where permission is given only to employees of certain cadre or skill level. in case of closing the gate for the day. IMPLEMENTED APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT Selective Access control This is the application that our project is mainly focused on. Vice President of sales and marketing for Control Module Inc. But they can still be used for buddy punching. Also. there are some restricted locations. it can be done with the information about the location he/she had recently checked-in inside the building. In this." says Jimmy Bianco. accidental or deliberate presence of a person can be found by noting the employees’ checkout information. "Proximity cards are one of the highest forms of ID. present in the location.
The application provides an excellent example of how the technology can provide a secure foundation upon which additional applications can be built.. Industrial Monitoring In the plant environment.g. and free conveyor trolleys. towline carts. Animal Identification Valuable breeding stock. CONCLUSION . and automatic guided vehicles. meat and dairy animals. zoo. containers. bathed. painted and baked). and other places. tool carriers. This avoids the necessity of human beings having a watch over the products entering various places. apart from the card. This helps in maintaining record of the vehicles that have entered and left. This can also be used for ships entering the harbor. So. and even prized companion animals present unique identification problems that can be solved by innovative applications of RFID technology. laboratory animals involved in lengthy and expensive research projects. automobile or agricultural equipment production where the product is cleaned. wildlife. RF systems are ideally suited for the identification of highunit-value products moving through a tough assembly process (e. especially those having risk. barrels.So. tubs. RF systems also offer the durability essential for permanent identification of captive product carriers such as: Tote boxes. pallets. a keypad is provided for entering the password. which is checked for authenticity. They can be monitored for their position in the breeding place. lift trucks. this second level of security provides a complementary solution to the access control inside the building. OTHER APPLICATIONS Vehicle Identification Commercial trucks are fitted with RFID systems to monitor access and egress from terminal facilities by fixing the RF ID tags in the vehicles.
The advantages. The system achieves a two level security making the incorporating firm more secure.The implementation of RFID based system in access control and security operations are bound to increase in the future. With the introduction of more smart RFID devices in the near future the system is going to rule the field of access control and security. efficiency and reliability of the system have made it manifest itself over the existing systems. retina scanner. etc. monitoring camera. Further this system is compatible for the future upgradations like a Finger print scanner. making it more versatile. CHAPTER 4 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT FORMAT OF TAGS .
• • • • • • • • Credit card size flexible labels with adhesive backs Tokens and coins Embedded tags – injection molded into plastic products such as cases Wrist band tags Hard tags with epoxy case Key fobs Tags designed specially for Palettes and cases Paper tags VIEW OF THE 125 kHz CARD EMPLOYED IN OUR PROJECT .
5mm 6.MTP-125K4 Series Low Cost Proximity Reader 技术性能参数： Size：26.54 mm Pin 1---9 ASCII（ RS232） : RS232/TTL (ASCII) Output： ※Pin3 Strap to +5 Pin1 Antenna 1 Pin2 Antenna 2 To External Antenna To External Antenna (L:680uH) .5 x 16. Photo： 26.9mm 16.5mm K4 123456789 2.9 mm Power：5V@44mA nominal Frequence：125KHz Read Card：EM4001/4102 或兼容卡 Coding：Manchester 64bit，modulus 64 I/O output ： 25mA sink/source Annte： 150Volt PKPK Read Range：max.5 x 6. 25cm Read time：100ms 工作温度：-15℃~75℃ 储存温度：-25℃~85℃ 储存湿度：5-95﹪RH Output Format：Weigen26/RS232 TTL （ASCII） ※Pin Def.
44H (6 2 H E3H 08H 6CH E D H) CHECKSUM：(62H) XOR (E3H) XOR (08H) XOR (6CH) XOR (EDH)=08H Checksum 为二进制格式数据 So MTP-K4 Output AS：02 36 32 45 33 30 38 36 43 45 44 08 03 (e) Every Byte output as: PIN5 Start Bit Bit0 Bit1 Bit7 StopBit 104us 104us 208us PIN6 .43H 45H.33H 30H.6 through +5.38H 36H.32H 45H.Pin3 Strap to +5V Pin4 BEEP/LED Pin5 DATA1(TTL) 2.5V Output Format-Serial Output 02 10ASCII Data Characters Checksum 03 The checksum is the result of the ‘exclusive or’ of the 5 Binary Data bytes(the 10 ASCII data characters) ※RS232 Output(Pin3 to High) (a) 9600 bps，N，8，1 (b) PIN5：TX Output (c) PIN6：TX 反相输出。 (d) For example：Card ID Number 62E3086CED，Send HEX as: 10ASCII DATA：36H.7KHz Logic Serial Output (ASCII) Pin6 DATAO(TTL) Serial Output inverted (ASCII inverted) Pin7 /Reset Pin8 Ground Pin9 VCC Low Active 0V +4.
Start Bit Bit0 Bit1 Bit7 StopBit 104us 104us 208us .
6 through +5.D1=1 (c) 输出波形 50us 1ms DATA1 .Wiegand 26: Weigen26 Output AS： ※ Wiegand Output (Pin3 To Low) Pin1 Antenna 1 Pin2 Antenna 2 Pin3 Strap to +0V Pin4 BEEP/LED Pin5 One Output Pin6 Zero Output Pin7 /Reset Pin8 Ground Pin9 VCC To External Antenna To External Antenna (L:680uH) 2.7KHz Logic Low Active 0V +4.5V ※Pin3 Strap to +0V Data Structure Wiegand 26 Bit 1 2 P(1) E 3 E 4 E 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 E E E E E E E E E O O O O O O O O O O O O P(2) EVEN Parity(E) ODD Parity(O) P(1)=Parity Start Bit，第 1 位为 2—13 位的偶校验位。 P(2)=Parity Stop Bit，第 26 位为 14-25 位的奇校验位。 ※ Wiegand 输出(Pin3 接 Low) (a) Output Result is the last 3 bytes of the ID Number(62E3086CED)：08H，6CH，EDH。 注：Wiegand26 输出时，将去除原卡片号码的高 16Bit 的数据， Bit0 =1: D0=1.D1=0 Bit23=0: D0=0.
20mm.φ0.DATA0 P(1) 1 Bit23 1 MSB Bit22 1 Bit1……Bit0 0 LSB P(2) 0 註：Motorola 26 bit wiegand format (50us/1ms) K4 Annte： 680uH Size:65mm×55mm×3mm. for 67rings .
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