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1 Six pendulums of various masses are released from various heights above a tabletop, as shown in the figures below. All the pendulums have the same length and are mounted such that at the vertical position their lowest points are the height of the tabletop and just do not strike the tabletop when released. Assume that the size of each bob is negligible.

Rank each pendulum on the basis of its initial gravitational potential energy (before being released). (L~7-L)+ t-o s iNlt'\ll-e5+)

_"2. V\.c.f 1_~ :3 v-J \ S + 3~ z_ VLd

m=4kg

,

: 11= 60cm

m=2kg

,

: 1I=60cm

,

: 1I=4Scm

11= 30cm

m=2kg

U: I.L/ 1.1 I . b I (,,:)5" / .. ' f. L

Rank each pendulum on the basis of the maximum kinetic energy it attains after release.

~ VLJ LvVA 3vuA. 7_ VlcJ )~

U . t:r:s I ~ :) . 1 t-!") I ll. t 1- j / S. ~ 1"J / l ~ . 1-1- J(

Rank each pendulum on the basis of its maximum speed.

l..Vlj I)f I Sf- '3vJ ~I'J

L

m

: m

-.------- --

I

11= 30cm

m=2kg

11= IS em

Lit

m=8kg

f<-: \3.Z.LI"1, S.~9jl \\::fiJ/ \l.1rJ/ S.8f3 11.17-1

y_ ~ L.f+v1/S/ 3.~\Jvv1ls/ 3.YJIM/S/ 1....~3~15/ 1.L.13'M~1 1.1-L.M/>

m=8 kg

m= I kg

m=3 kg

+~l

, , ,

_~_~l

, , ,

: 1I=60cm

: 11= 60cm

m=8 kg

,

: 1I=4Scm

m=3kg

m=4kg

m= I kg

m=2kg

: 1I=60cm

: II = 60 em

: 1I=4Scm

11= 30 em

m=2kg

m=4kg I' m=2kg

~ .......... """"".....il

m=3kg

m= I kg

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1-, S A baseball is thrown from the roof of20Am-tall building with an initial

-

velocity of magnitude llAmls and directed at an angle of 50.9° above the

horizontal. -

0..) What is the speed of the ball just before it strikes the ground? Use energy

methods and ignore air resistance.

I( - 'f \ I L V, -:. II, 4 f'" I S I ,I I ' _ _ J' U 0 1<, /1 IJ 2

.- LV"\V / - VV,,{-1 ba.11 St-r",j~J Jf'ovVlQl' t: / t= - /1 ... W1

Ie. o :: bLj ,9 g."",} [J'b ,'-t 7lf:: 0 + h_ vJ\ V(_ No 0..,'''' re rS"fc.V\ c.JL/ 50

U 0 -=- LN\ j ~ W\ eo f) e.v) y " 5 C" VI ~ f lJ-e.oA •

Ug :: too,IL""'\ 5 ... \~+ 50 +It,q_",,/

TEo :. b u .q o • '"'I .J- 7..... r,o ,II' VV\ 1... b S·,_.( =- ~2 M V 1.. V =-/7 /' r I

-I 0 L/ L Y' ~ "":-7.3 OL .... /

.; Z (; S ""'" 5 '/(__~ 12. ""'\ YL' ~

f. I (

~) What is the speed of the ball just before it strikes the ground? Use energy methods and ignore air resistance.

lu(vd out f.-lu. U\~ \~ doe)Vj'+ 1M..,+kr, ~~ lH~ I(}c,'+y " 5 ~k )o.~,

c") If the effects of air resistance are included, will part (A) or (B) give the higher speed?

~ l0:\\ +c...5-/-f"• (~eL~VV- ;\- spe.vJ> le55 ~:ML ,'y\ f-.ltL o..l·rr r~~.J~)

You are testing a new amusement park roller coaster with an empty car with a ,mass of 1l0k_& One part of the track is a vertical loop with a ~2.Om. At the bottom of the loop (point A) the car has a speed of25.OmIs and at the top of the loop (point B) it has ~d ofS.OOmls.

CDV\5~l'vc-.+I·VI'1 eJt ~Y1eI'Jy. ["""ftl-Ie. i~l ~C) Q-G+uo._l.

~ As the car rolls from point to point, how much work is done by friction?

17.. II"\. VOL:::" V~tr'\ V.{: z, 1- MJ k ; Yz. \ I}, ) l LS)'-= Y'l.Lr3J) V_[7...f(pd)( 'f.Ji) (z..4)

401 ,,1..S.::. c.s V p"L t S:J, 00-=t V::: -, I ,Llo/ b L5 - 30, 607- = I L • lit M/S

~ V Cs

~ik'_l;: YLll~o) (rz_, LII) :.. 10/016.J ; I~L-N",I =- Y-z_ (130) CJY..: Y I ) GO.:3

W f-r: c.-/-,'6,/) = k. & (J."""I - \<-iJ-e"1 ::: - Sr'6 So J /'k I:: r,.c.~ IOVI da-rJ

,'f nejo-.l-;Ve wo-r/(,f/

1.11

K -=-cc,t\~k V\ + i.. __ J; ') tt. v'\ (,e_

1(:: ~7~Yl+ X-:: ~ ,'f +

C k c-rt-rl 1- .. ?Ott'V\ +I'",l i C ov1 5€vv~ +,'0 V'\

A spring of negligible mass has force constant, k = 1800 N/m.

C-..) How far must the spring be compressed for an amount 3.10 of potential

energy to be stored in it?

U I=: 11-2__ 1< )( /._ 3 . 1 = YL / I ~oo) '1('2 X = -r;;;s. ( - - as Q 'l_

e ~S ~{ c, ~ l ( d) _. 0 T W\

1/z_'I/ooo -

b] You place the spring vertically with one end on the floor. You then drop a book of mass 1.50~ onto it from a height ofO.600m above the top of the spring. Find the maximum distance the spring will be compressed. 1(::(I.SIJ)(q·~lrl(')(,~"",)~ ~. g)~ It-rf ~"':) .s £_Jl'tMj uSa.

-¥ (/ sooNj VI. ~or k. ~ .

X z: 8. SJ j _ ~ 01/ ( 1'1 Jk JlA P '> e rr«: ... ~ If/

('/~)(II ~Oo II! I~) ._

You are asked to design a spring that will give a 1, 11 O~ satellite a speed of 3.0Om/s relative to an orbiting space shuttle. Your spring is to give the satellite a maximum acceleration of 5.00g. The spring's mass, the recoil kinetic energy of the shuttle, and changes in gravitational potential energy__ will all be

negligiQl_e. .

CA.) What must the force constant of the spring be? (

y-z_ I<X~ =- 112M VL Y7. lcX" ~:: 'Ic( (,II OIC_Y) 3}L

V-z.. Ic...X 1- -:;.. L{ I '1 q 5 ~

r= z: k. X M (S.3 ) c I(x .s L-I; 3 ION :: x-

1<.

_l_ . 1(. (~)L_ L/; qqS

1- l- 1<

Z; '1 S ?J I 'L 1- z I I 0 0 ~ L( q q S

i _ (

z.«

b,) What distance must the spring be compressed?

~ SL-(/J"'lo!\J

l10/ /7_j. ")S-1l/V1 -=- .11?.3}v/\

'k ~1 s 2,. 1... j l . I uo l/ a a 5

y- . T Ic.., ~ r - r' (

/( -=- t. ~ ~ I II 3 - J J N I tNt

C k c-rt-rl 1- .. ?Ott'V\ +I'",l i C ov1 5€vv~ +,'0 V'\

1-, ") ':) A force parallel to the x -axis acts on a particle moving along the x -axis. This force produces a potential energy, U(x), given by U(x) = ax4, where

4

a= 1.20J/m.

1-. ~ T

0-) What is the force when the particle is at position x = -0.930 m?

t-=, ()<)=_ - J Y ;1<) i=x ex) = - ~ ( I. L)(- .'!3Y c=_ 3 _ 'Ii' 0 I AJ

The potential energy of two atoms in a diatomic molecule is approximated by U(r) = a/r" - b/r", where r is the spacing between atoms and a and b are positive constants.

~) Find the force 0) one atom as a function ofr. ~

Fx ( r-) -:::_ -I L (!!::.. - f:~) (l_) ==- - \ LO'-- + ~ ':- \;;1

r'J r? vl3 '('+

b) Find the equilibrium distance between the two atoms.

C.co/ l.J~A ~(r)-=-o) 12(A._Q:::0 X::_/ZCA.! Y::. rob;

r'> rt-

~ _ _j_, c!:_~ X_ _ 'i!!:- ::. X i_r (, ~ I L~ ~ ro b rb

r 13 r 7- f''' r I) f 0 t: IJ - r 1 3

\. \ )

iO(z_q-br'\_ jo_. 2.",-br' ~~~rr= H~ t "

rl3 ('I) ~ .I ~ ,," IJ 1: . 0

(_) Is this equilibrium stable?

Ye5. (Becc:~_J~ C9vt +~ 3{'~pk It's c._ VV!,'niMVM :_.)

C k c-rt-rl 1- .. ?Ott'V\ +I'",l i C ov1 5€vv~ +,'0 V'\

-:;-. :_) T The potential energy of two atoms in a diatomic molecule is approximated by U(r) = a/r" - b/r", where r is the spacing between atoms and a and b are positive constants.

de) Suppose the distance between the two atoms is equal to the equilibrium distance found in part A. What minimum energy must be added to the molecule to dissociate it-that is, to separate the two atoms to an infmite distance apart? This is called the dissociation energy of the molecule.

E = ~ a ~ • (i 0 vJ L (

lJ Lf 0\. • •

e: ) For the molecule CO, the equilibrium distance between the carbon and oxygen atoms is 1.13 x 10 -10 m and the dissociation energy is

1.54 x 10-18J per molecule. Find the value of the constant.

r - ~ ~

"\IV'I- 0

•• ' ~ I ~ 3 X /0 - I")g ") ~ MIL- .. _ -/' fLO:1 -4l b 1. 5~t~,\y

V b l( o; IA r'{JIAj ...

f) Find the value of the constant b.

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