Pond ecosystem and productivity In a pond of any kind there exists a dynamic system of material/energy cycle, broadly between all the living organisms and the non-living environments which are, in nature, inseparably interrelated and interact upon each other. The non-living substances of pond ecosystem include the inorganic and organic compounds. These compounds remain in solution in pond water, in reserve in bottom deposits as well in the living organisms both plants and animals. The living organisms (biotic community) in a pond ecosystem, consisting of all sorts of plants and animals, are broadly categorized into two main groups: The autotrophic community viz. the producers include all the green plants which produce complex organic substances or cell materials from inorganic soluble nutrients in presence of sun light (photosynthesis). The producers are of two types -- phytoplankton and macrophytes. The minute floating algae or phytoplankton distributed in the pond water column mainly throughout the light-limited limnetic zone. Abundance of phytoplankton population in water gives greenish colour. Production of phytoplankton is thus dependent on sun light and available soluble nutrients in water. Tropical fish ponds are generally found rich in natural food organisms as the sun light duration is longer. The macrovegetation, though fall under producer group, in reality, their contribution is negligible in primary productivity of well managed fish pond. They are, however, found inhibitor in fish production system if not utilized properly as fish feed. The heterotrophic community in a fish pond ecosystem comprising of two major groups of organisms namely: The consumers - the organisms depending on other organisms living or dead for food such as zooplankton, insect larvae, fish etc. The consumers group (benthic invertebrates and bottom feeding fish) subsisting on organic detritus are called detritivores. The decomposers - the group of heterotrophic organisms such as bacteria and fungi break down the dead plants and animals and release partially decomposed materials and inorganic nutrients into pond water for utilization by the producers viz. phytoplankton and macrophytes. The decomposers are most abundant at the pond bottom where the dead plants and animal bodies are most abundant. The food chains or energy pathways in a pond ecosystem are of two types: the autotrophic food chain and the heterotrophic food chain.


Autotrophic food chain - It is the solar energy dependent food chain which begins with the plants, basically phytoplankton, at the pond surface and then sequentially pass through primary consumers (zooplankton and planktivours fishes) to secondary and tertiary consumers (carnivorous insects and fishes). The pathways in autotrophic food chain are: Phytoplankton ⇒ fish Phytoplankton ⇒ zooplankton ⇒ fish Phytoplankton ⇒ zooplankton ⇒ aquatic insects ⇒ fish ⇒ predator fish Heterotrophic food chain - This energy pathway starts from the decomposition of dead organic matters by the decomposing bacteria and fungi at the pond bottom and then pass through zooplankton - aquatic insects to fishes (secondary and tertiary consumers) as shown below : Bacteria ⇒ fish Bacteria ⇒ protozoa ⇒ fish Bacteria ⇒ Protozoa ⇒ zooplankton ⇒ Aquatic insect larvae ⇒ fish The productivity of a fish pond depends on the availability of dissolved nutrients in pond water which can be utilized for production of organic materials by the producers (mainly phytoplankton) using solar energy. The sources of pond nutrients may be of organic and/or inorganic origin. Organic manure mainly supports the heterotrophic food chain while the inorganic fertilizers supports the autotrophic food chain. Both the pathways are closely inter-linked to each other. However, in most fish ponds, production largely depends on the solar energy dependent autotrophic food chain, but the ponds receiving high quantity of organic manures on regular basis have significant heterotrophic use of wastes by bacteria and protozoa. Fish production not only depends on the rich food chains but also largely on the stocking density of fish as well as the species combination having different feeding and spatial niches - so that total fish food organisms of a pond originated from both the food chains are properly utilized by the fish.


The concept of polyculture of fish is based on the concept of total utilization of different trophic and spatial niches of a pond in order to obtain maximum fish production per unit area. Different compatible species of fish of different trophic and spatial niches are raised together in the same pond to utilize all sorts of natural food available in the pond. In general, undrainable pond is characterized by its diversified spatio-trophic environment comprising of various natural fish food organisms (Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Periphyton, Macrophytes, Benthos and detritus) at different strata of pond water column as well as in the bottom. Selection of species in polyculture is thus very important. There should be a compatible combination of species with diversified feeding habit that should include planktivorous surface/column feeders to benthic/detritivorous bottom feeders as well as omnivorous to macrovegetation feeding fish species. The possibilities of increasing fish production per unit area, through polyculture, is considerable, when compared with monoculture system of fish. Different species combination in polyculture system effectively contribute also to improve the pond environment. Algal blooming is common in most tropical manure fed ponds. By stocking phytoplanktophagus Silver carp in appropriate density certain algal blooming can be controlled. Grass carp on the other hand keeps the macrophyte abundance under control due to its macrovegetation feeding habit and it adds increased amount of partially digested excreta which becomes the feed for the bottom dweller coprofagous common carp. The bottom dwelling mrigal, common/mirror carp help re-suspension of bottom nutrients to water while stirring the bottom mud in search of food. Such an exercise of bottom dwellers also aerates the bottom sediment. All these facts suggest that polyculture is the most suitable proposition for fish culture in undrainable tropical ponds.

Considering the level of management in fish production, the following culture practices can be identified.

2.2.1 Extensive culture
Under this culture practice, no nutritional inputs (manure and feed) are applied to the pond. Fish solely depends on the natural feed available in a pond and hence the carrying capacity of a pond remain low, resulting in lower fish production. Salient features are :
• • • • •

no nutritional inputs given to the fish fish rely on natural food produced in the pond low stocking density low fish production low production cost 3

2.2.2 Semi-intensive culture
Semi-intensive culture is primarily a manure based culture practice where supplementary feeding is avoided or of very limited use. Carrying capacity of pond is higher than that of extensive culture and ensures higher production of fish. Salient features are :
• • • • •

manure based culture practice rely mainly on natural fish food produced in the pond limited use of supplementary feed moderate stocking density fish production higher than in extensive system moderate production cost

2.2.3 Intensive culture
Under intensive culture practice total nutritional requirements of fish are satisfied with the application of high quality formulated, pellet feed. In addition, replenishment, aeration and/or recirculation of pond water is carried out in order to maintain oxygen rich, good quality water capable of high production per unit area of culture. Salient features are :
• • • • •

use of formulated feed meeting total nutritional requirements replenishment, aeration or recirculation of pond water high stocking density highest fish production per unit area high production cost

Polyculture of three indigenous carps - catla, rui and mrigal is traditional in Bangladesh. However, the culture system depends primarily on natural productivity of the pond. Manuring and feeding are either irregular or not practiced at all. All these suggest that the practice of fish culture in Bangladesh is more or less extensive type or at best at semi-intensive level. As a result, the average yield is very low, around 1000 kg/ha/year. The farmers are keeping fish in ponds rather than doing fish culture in ponds. Though the inputs (manure, feed etc.) required for semi-intensive culture are locally available, the rural farmers are not trained to take advantage of the opportunities. On the other hand large scale introduction of intensive management of fish production at this moment does not seem to be a practical proposition. The intermediate technology of semi-intensive method of fish production using cheap and locally available manure and feed seems to be the appropriate technology for Bangladesh.

Management of fish culture in ponds include successive stages starting from pond preparation to final harvesting of fish. The total package of pond management practices can be divided into three phases viz. pre-stocking management, stocking management and post-stocking management.


2.3.1 Pre-stocking management
This is actually the pond preparation phase which includes renovation of pond, eradication of undesirable fishes and aquatic weeds, liming of pond bottom and base manuring of pond. Characteristics of ideal fish pond and renovation of existing ponds A pond of any size can be considered fit for fish culture. Although, a grow-out pond of 2–5 bigha that retains at least 2 m water round the year is found to be suitable for production of carps. The overall environmental conditions suitable for fish production are better in larger ponds than that of smaller ponds. The bottom soil of an ideal pond should be loamy to clay-loamy. Such soil is best for fish pond because of its good water retention capacity, rich fertility that supports production of natural food organisms and lower turbidity. The pond dyke should be free from large trees to facilitate maximum light fall and wind action. Sun light and wind action are very important factors for maintaining biological productivity of fish ponds. Ideally, the pond should have well built high dykes all around to protect the pond from flooding, to prevent entry of predators and weed fishes, and to prevent stocked fish from escaping. Improvement of pond environment Environment of a pond has direct impact on fish production. A pond with suitable environmental features would give higher fish production per unit area than that of a pond having adverse environmental conditions. All the aquatic vegetations (floating, submerged or emergent) should be removed from the pond. They hamper primary productivity by absorbing available nutrients from water and soil and hinder normal penetration of sun light and wind action. The large trees on the dykes and their overhanging branches also adversely affect the pond environment by casting shadow and falling leaves, fruits etc. into water. All such trees and their branches should be trimmed. The pond bottom should be made even to allow effective netting and harvesting of fish. The broken pond dyke must be repaired and well raised so that in and outward migration of fish can be avoided under normal flooding situation. Grass or other vegetables can be planted on the dykes which would help prevent erosion of dyke in monsoon months and alleviate turbidity problem as well. The Rodents are also one of the causes of dyke erosion as they make holes in the dyke. They are to be killed by traps and the holes are to be properly blocked. Eradication of undesirable fishes All the predatory and unwanted fishes must be eradicated from the pond prior to stocking the pond with the fingerlings of desirable species. This can be done either by complete dewatering the pond or by poisoning. Some commonly used efficient fish toxicants are mentioned here: Rotenone


Killed fish is not fit for human consumption. higher cost and unavailability are the negative points. (5 – 10 ppm Saponin content). Phostoxin This is a kind of fumigant poison found in tablet form specially prepared for control of storage pests. Toxicity lasts for about 10 – 12 days. This chemical has an excellent disinfecting effect besides oxidizing the decomposing matter on the pond bottom. Killed fish is fit for human consumption. Phostoxin has been found very effective in killing all sorts of fish @0. In Sylhet and Chittagong area tea seed cake is readily available. The killed fish is also suitable for consumption. Toxicity lasts for around 10–15 days. Bleaching Powder Bleaching powder. as fish toxicant has been found to kill fishes within 3–4 hours when applied @ 30 ppm. The toxicity lasts for about 10–12 days and the killed fish is fit for human consumption. For calculation of actual quantity of poison required for a pond from the above mentioned concentration the following formula can be used : Liming Liming of a fish pond is highly recommended because of its following advantages: 6 . Mahua oil cake Mahua (Basia latifolia) oil cake contains 4–6% Saponin and kill fishes when applied @ 250 ppm. It also serves as a base manure in the pond. However. Its toxicity lasts for about 7–8 days in the pond. The killed fish is also suitable for human consumption. The toxicity lasts for about 10–15 days under normal conditions. the tea seed cake should be soaked overnight and then broadcast over the pond surface. Repeated use may cause the reduction of pond productivity. Tea seed cake In tea seed cake the active ingredient responsible for killing the fish is the Saponin.2 ppm. It kills all sorts of biota in the pond. Before application. Active ingredient is Aluminum phosphide (57%).Rotenone kills all the fish species except shrimps when applied @ 2–3 ppm. Tea seed cake is effective at 75–100 ppm.

5 Soil type Highly acidic Moderately acidic Near neutral Mildly alkaline Highly alkaline Source : Kumar (Manuscript) For treating the pond bottom after dewatering. Table 2.2).9 5. the buffering action of calcium is the most important.5–9. Apart from other advantages. In semi-intensive fish culture.2 Amount of fertilizers required for ponds at high.5–7.1. medium and low levels of productivity Pond productivity levels / rate of application (kg/bigha/yr) Organic carbon (C) Cattle dung High Medium Low Quantity of lime (CaCO3)(kg/bigha) 270 140 70 30 No liming 700–1000 1100–1400 1400–3400 7 .• • • • • • • Lime neutralizes soil acidity and creates a buffer system to prevent marked diurnal fluctuations of the water from acidic to alkaline conditions.1 Quantity of lime to be applied in accordance with soil type Soil pH 4. Destroys fish pathogens and their intermediate life stages.0–6. Lime treatment for ponds should be done before initial manuring as given in Table-2. Manuring In undrainable ponds where the frequent change of water is a remote possibility the physio-chemical properties of pond water governing the biological production cycle are more or less a reflection of the bottom soil. Promotes mineralization of soil which is desirable in fish ponds. Converts unsuitable acidic condition of water to suitable alkaline condition. For water treatment only the slacked lime [Ca(OH)2] should be used instead of calcium oxide. Application of quick lime @30–40 kg per bigha also disinfects the pond to some extent.4 7.0–4. Neutralizes iron compounds which are undesirable in fish ponds. the fertilizer requirement vary depending on soil productivity levels (Table 2. the quick lime [CaO] is the best. Settle excess dissolved organic matters and thereby reduces incidences of oxygen depletion. Therefore. Acts as disinfectant and improves hygienic condition of pond.4 6.5–8. considerable quantities of nutrient elements are removed from the pond ecosystem through fish production. Lime serves both the prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Table 2.4 8.

A generalized schedule can be adopted in the absence of detailed soil and water analysis data (Table 2.1 0. Source : Kumar (Manuscript). Urea 3. dry without rice husk b. good oxygen content and adequate water 8 . besides being important as a means of adding the nutrients in water is also equally important for improving the soil texture.3). TSP 5–10 12–17 10–12 15–20 0.3 Generalized fertilization schedule Item Base manuring (Pre-stocking) 1. Chicken manure (dry) (or) Cow dung 2. dry with rice husk c.05 kg kg 400 10 5 250 Quantity (kg/bigha) The proper mode and timing of application of fertilizers are very important in order to get good results as well as avoid water quality problems. Organic manuring. If there is shortage of organic manures. fresh pure (or) Cow dung fresh 2. Table 2. the application of inorganic fertilizers is recommended. Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) Regular (Post stocking) Daily 1. Chicken manure a.Nitrogen(N) Phosphate (P2O5 *Nitrogen requirement Urea (43–45%) *Phosphate requirement Triple super phosphate (40–45%) 13–20 15–20 7–10 7–10 20–27 21–30 10–13 10–15 27–33 30–35 13–17 15–20 * It is expected that about half of the requirements of nitrogen and phosphate will come from organic manure application and hence the remaining half is to be compensated by application of inorganic fertilizers like urea and TSP. Urea 3. Manures/ fertilizers should be applied only when the other environmental conditions of water are suitable such as sunshine.

Species selection Judicious selection of compatible fast growing species is of vital importance in maximizing fish production. seepage. manuring has to be suspended. Grass carp is a macrovegetation feeder and Mrigal and Common carp are bottom feeders. In case of algal blooming the manuring/fertilization has also to be lessened or stopped. Some supplementary species may also be introduced. viz. Manure and fertilizers are best utilized when the desired total dose is given in small portions. depends on various factors like rainfall. and Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fulfills the species selection requirement and has proven to be ideal combination for freshwater carp culture in Bangladesh.4. The six species combinations have been found to yield maximum production and are generally preferable in the region.3.Phytoplanktophagous Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Surface feeder . water may be let in from nearby available sources during summer or drained out during monsoon to maintain desirable water depth in the pond. This. the best utilized manure is from the animals reared together with fish under the integrated livestock-cum-fish culture system. Application of manure/fertilizer in late afternoon or evening may cause oxygen depletion in the early hours of the following day because of faster decomposition at night. Water regulation The average water depth in a pond is an important factor in fish culture. Rui (Labeo rohita). 2.4. The best time for manuring is morning within 9–10 o'clock. Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). adversely affecting fish growth. generally. The best way of applying is to dissolve the fertilizers in water and spray throughout the pond surface. etc.Zooplankton form the major diet 9 . Compatible carp species for polyculture with their spatio-trophic habits. evaporation losses. For example. such problems generally not occur in seasonal ponds.level etc. Daily manuring with small quantity has been found best for keeping optimum level of fish food organisms in pond throughout the fish production period. Thai sarputi (Puntius gonionotus) is very popular and can be used in a polyculture system. A combination of six species. transportation and stocking of quality fingerlings of different compatible species of fish in ponds are the activities to be undertaken under stocking management phase. Rui is a column feeder. If necessary. Species Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Spatio-trophic habits Surface feeder . Table 2. Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). A list of compatible species with their spatio-trophic habits is given in Table-2. Of these.2 Stocking management Procurement. Heavy accumulation of metabolites at the bottom of ponds may deplete oxygen in the pond water during low water depths.Zooplankton feeder Catla (Catla catla) Surface feeder . Catla and Silver carp are surface feeders. However. use of water for irrigation. These species are the “back bone” of polyculture. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). During fully cloudy and rainy days. Catla (Catla catla).

Mrigal. market demand. In general. Species ratio Selection of species ratio generally depends on seed availability. stocking rate is determined in relation to water surface area of a pond. A pond having an average water depth of 2. 10–15%.Detritivore Bottom feeder .Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Rui (Labeo rohita) Thai Sarputi (Puntius gonionotus) Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) Common/Mirror carp (Cyprinus spp. and 10% in shallow ponds (below 2 m average water depth).Omnivore Rate of stocking generally depends on the biological productivity of a pond and the amount of supplementary feeding.5 m may be stocked at the rate of 700–900 fingerlings/bigha. nutrient status of a pond etc. The following general guidelines are found to be very useful : Six species culture system Under six species combination the system surface feeders should form about 40–50% (catla 10–15%. 10–15% and 15–20% respectively.plankton and organic debris form the major diet Column/bottom feeder . Catla. Under such condition four species combination may be followed consisting of Catla 30–40%. column feeder (rui) 20–25% in moderately deep ponds (above 2 m average water depth). Common and Mirror carp may form 20–30%. Three species culture system 10 .) Stocking density Surface/column feeder . Rui. Four species culture system Although silver carp grows faster and contribute significantly to the total production. Rui 20–30% in deeper ponds and 10–15% in shallower ponds. silver carp 30–35%).Plankton and soft aquatic weeds form the major diet Bottom feeder . bottom feeders 30–40% (mrigal 15–20% and common carp 15–20%) and macrovegetation feeder (grass carp) 5–10% depending upon the availability of a dependable source of weed supply. Mrigal 15–20% and common carp 15–20%. Five species culture system In the absence of dependable source of feed for grass carp five species combination may be adopted wherein Silver carp.Macrophyte feeder Predominantly column feeder . 15–20%. due to lower price and market demand in some areas it is not a preferred species.

it has been observed that due to some degree of inter-specific competition for food between catla and silver carp the growth of catla is affected.5 kg TSP per bigha per week have been found good for ponds with higher density of phytoplankton feeding silver carp.Depending upon the market demand.restocking and final harvesting. water quality monitoring. price and availability of quality seed. Recent experiments have. application of high dose of base manuring before stocking. However. rumen content. the prepared balanced fish feed are not yet. growth and health monitoring. Generally all the fish species should be stocked at a time. regular addition of manure in small quantity is required in semi-intensive culture system in order to ensure uninterrupted propagation of natural fish food organisms in the pond. indicated the possibility of high survival and production rates when stocked with early fingerlings (5–8 cm) in predator free ponds. hazard management. rice/wheat brans. It is advisable to stock the ponds with larger fingerlings of 10–15 cm size for better survival.35– 0. partial harvesting . it is recommended that silver carp should be stocked one or two months later than catla.2. viscera etc.5 Chemical composition of generally available ingredients for fish feed (As % of dry matter) Chemical components Rice bran Broken rice Wheat bran Mustard oil cake Fish meal Fresh blood Poultry viscera 11 . and Mrigal or Common carp 30%).7–1.5).) may be utilized as fish feed ingredients (Table 2. In Bangladesh. Oil cakes. The other advantage of using smaller size (5–8 cm) is the cheaper price. Poultry manure or cow dung is the cheapest available source of organic manure for fish pond in rural Bangladesh. it may be necessary to add some inorganic fertilizers along with the organic manure. It has been observed that daily application of 8– 12 kg manure (chicken/cow-dung) in an one bigha pond is sufficient for maintaining optimum level of biological productivity in a pond throughout the culture period. As such. However. the available natural food organisms in a pond are not sufficient to support further growth of fish. even a three species combination system consisting of 3 indigenous carp species may be followed (Catla 40%. Manuring Besides. grain fodders. The activities are . in some ponds.3.0 kg urea and 0. by the time catla generally picks up good growth rate. Table . Rui 30%. 2. other agricultural by-products and available slaughter house by-products (blood.manuring.3 Post stocking management This phase includes the activities to be undertaken from stocking of fingerlings up to the final harvesting of fish from the pond. however. After certain level of fish biomass increase. Addition of 0. Supplementary feeding The need for supplementary feeding in a polyculture pond depends on the intensity of fish culture. feeding. Silver carp with its faster growth rate is able to attain over 1 kg size in 9–10 months.

0 39.0 11.7 5.2 0. The grass carp should therefore be fed about half an hour before the application of supplementary feed to other carp species. It is more aggressive than other species.5 0.8 20.7 13. 1987.2 95. Besides natural aquatic weeds in ponds.0 12.3 13.5 3077 90.6 2995 90.1 Application of grass inside floating bamboo frame For other species.0 12.3 60.2 4.1 4.1 13.0 10.4 48.0 8. 12 .9 8. the grass carp can be fed with cut bits of soft fodder grass like napier grass and tender leaves (Fig. if fresh green feed is supplied @ 30–50% of the estimated body weight per day.7 0.0 28.1 36562 26.Dry matter Crude protein Crude lipid Nitrogen free extract Crude fiber Others Digestible energy Kcal/kg 91.1).9 42.0 3108 86.1 2416 88.7 5508 Source: New.6 8.4 4.6 12.3 3569 20. The green feed should be applied inside floating frame tied to a bamboo pole so that the consumption by the fish could easily be monitored. The grass carp also eat other supplementary feed.0 55. suggested supplementary daily feeding rate can be 3–5% of estimated body weight of column and bottom feeders.2.2.2 2. The best growth rate can be achieved.6 90. Fig.2 0.9 21.3 52.

m. the sinks hit the surface of pond bottom and help emit toxic gases from the pond. the nutrient value can deteriorate rapidly. Horra is made up of a rope fixed with several sinks. However. Therefore it is better to buy a larger quantity when the prevalent price is low. Storage of feed The price of feedstuff show seasonal variation.Feed should be prepared daily. The calculated amount of mustard oil cake should be water soaked overnight then the wheat bran or rice polish should be well mixed with soaked mustard oil cake and shape the feed into balls or pie form. 2.2). without proper storage. Horra should be pulled 2–3 times a week. The feed balls are then apply in one or two selected corners of the pond preferably in the morning around 10 a.3). When it is pulled. Fig.2 Proper storage of feed stuffs Pond bottom raking In order to remove toxic gasses from the pond bottom and overall improvement of pond environment. fungal infected feed must not be given to the fish! Feed ingredients should be stored in places which are dry and well ventilated. bottom raking should be done with ‘horra’ (Fig 2. Of the total amount of feed for the day. Feed should be stored always 10–15 cm above the floor level (Fig 2. A decomposed. 13 . 50% should be mustard oil cake and 50% should be wheat bran or rice polish.

complete netting of pond by seine net is better. However. periodic sampling at regular interval is very important with a view to • • • • checking the health condition of the fish. For sampling. Under prevailing agroclimatic 14 . 2. However. must be removed if found in the sample netting.3 Local made Horra for pond bottom raking Regular sampling of fish In a proper fish production management system. partial netting of pond also serves the purpose of sampling. calculating the quantity of supplementary feed to be applied in accordance with the increasing biomass of fish. During each sampling. estimating/survival mortality of fish in the pond Periodic sampling of fish should be done at least once in a month.Fig. prophylactic treatment measure such as giving the fish a dip in potassium permanganate @ 250– 500 ppm/minute should be strictly followed before releasing the fish back in the pond. suitable curative measures should be taken immediately. Any undesirable fish. monitoring the growth rate of fish. the technique of partial harvesting and restocking is now being practiced in Bangladesh and has been found to yield better results in terms of fish production per unit area. The feed attract most of the fish resulting in better catch and sample size. Harvesting of fish Harvesting of fish means the complete removal of fish from the pond at the end of production cycle. In case some fish exhibit the symptoms of any disease. like other countries. In each sampling 10–20 fish of every species should be taken for growth measurement. if some how get into the pond. However. data relating to fish health and growth rate has to be properly recorded (Format 3). A single stocking and a single harvesting are the common practice in existence in Bangladesh. Effective partial netting can be done by applying feed at one corner of the pond.

some species such as Silver carp. When the pond is over crowded and the productivity of pond can not support further growth of fish biomass in manure fed pond. relatively bigger sized fishes must be harvested in order to leave available space and food for smaller fish to grow further. then catla. Harvesting and marketing of fish in rural areas has to be adjusted in accordance with the market days and demand. 15 . Scoop net should also be used in selecting/handling fish. What to do and what not to do are listed below : Improper Landing the total catch with net on the bank of the pond to select the fish to be removed Fishes are kept over crowded during the sorting process Surface feeders are retained in the net while other species are selected Proper Carefully collect the fish from the net keeping the fish in water Allow more space and do not concentrate too many fish in a small area First remove silver carp. partial or total harvesting of fish can be done at any time when the carrying capacity of a pond is saturated. Bigger size fishes of such species should be harvested and sold in batches and the pond should immediately be restocked with the same number of fishes of such species. Nets presently used are not designed for pond harvesting. grass carp and sarputi. and end with bottom feeder.2. The total operation should be done as quickly as possible so that the fishes returned back to pond are not stressed. the fish that are to be returned to the pond must be handled carefully. Harvesting and marketing of small quantity of fishes by batches would ensure better price in local markets. However. For effective and efficient harvesting of fish from cultured pond. one will also have to consider the cost of harvesting. During harvesting. Thus. Grass carp. Harvesting should be done by seine net preferably in the morning when pond environmental conditions remain good and also ensures better market price of fish. attain marketable size (about 500 g) in 4–5 months of stocking. marketable fish should be sorted out first and then small size fish should be returned to the pond.5). Handling of fish During partial harvesting. proper nets should be used. Sketch of a scoop net and seine net with some modifications are suggested through the following illustrations which will help improve harvesting efficiency (Fig.conditions and proper production management system. Benefits of partial harvesting and stocking are: • • • • allow smaller fish to grow faster increase carrying capacity of a pond and thus the total production become higher per unit area farmers get some cash return from the pond within a short period of 4–5 months. This encourages them to reinvest the money in improving his production capacity all the trophic and spatial niches of the pond are fully utilized throughout the culture period maximizing production Harvesting of fish is related to biological productivity and carrying capacity of the pond. and as a result they are not very efficient.4 and 2. Mirror carp etc.

2.4 Scoop net for easy handling of fish 16 . pond Fig.The fishes which are not selected for marketing are Allow them to swim out from the net of badly handled by throughing one by one in the their own.

5 Appropriate seine net and netting for pond harvesting The 1–1.4 RECORD KEEPING AND ECONOMICS Fish farmers should be encouraged to maintain proper records of their fish culture operations.5 inches mesh netting (2) is attached on each side at regular intervals to (1) 5–7 feet wooden poles to form a bag shape. Such record will provide them with a means of evaluating their performance.2. The seine net is slowly pulled vertically along the pond bottom through two long ropes (5 and top) Dewatering of pond is the best way of final harvesting though it is not possible regularly as most of the ponds in Bangladesh are undrainable type. The rest of the stock should be killed by applying suitable fish toxicant.Fig. Such ponds should be repeatedly netted until the maximum number of fish are harvested. All harvesting results should be recorded (Record keeping format-4). 17 . The main benefit of a farm record keeping are that -a. After the final harvest the total production can be calculated easily from a properly kept recording system. 2. The top of the net is mounted with floats (3) while its bottom part is mounted on a rope with fixed sinkers (not bricks) (6). Two corners are reinforced with steel tubing (4).

semi-intensive. 2. 6. 5. etc. monoculture.1 BASIC DATA ABOUT THE POND NAME OF FARMER : ADDRESS OF : FARMER TENURE STATUS : FISH POND Area (in bigha): Depth (in meter): Maximum: (with seasonal changes) Minimum: TYPE OF FISH CULTURE : (Extensive. Essential components of the fish farm record keeping book 1. Basic data about the pond Monthly Fish Production Management Record Sampling records Harvesting and marketing record Economic evaluation of production Performance indices. (Format: 1–6 enclosed) FISH FARMERS RECORD KEEPING FORMAT . polyculture. c. 3. Such information will provide them with a more reliable basis to make decision affecting their farm operations in the future. Properly kept records will pinpoint the farmers the causes or factors responsible for their high profit levels or losses in each crop or year. 4.) POND MANAGEMENT Pond preparation: Method of cleaning Date of cleaning Lime Basic manuring Urea TSP Organic Stocking record of fish : : : : : : 18 . integrated. These records can be shared with government agencies for formulating policies and development programmes for the development of fish culture in the country.b.

Wh Rice Blo TSP Oil eat bran od cake bran Fish Ani.Date Species 1.2 MONTHLY FISH PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT RECORD MONTH: D LABO A URES T E FIS H FEE D YEAR: CHE F U MIC E L AL/ MEDI CINE OT HE RS DA IL Y TO TA L FERTILIZER FEED T H T N T ORG LIM Y R K O K ANI E PE S C O F W K T K T O G K G K R K 1 2 3 4 5 6 UR EA M.) 1000 Total Total FISH FARMERS RECORD KEEPING FORMAT . 2. 4. mea Visce l ra Q Q K T K T K T K T K T K T T K T K T T T T TK TK G K G K G K G K G K G K K G K G K K Y Y 19 . Number Average weight (g) Total weight(kg) Price (Tk. 7. 6. 5. 3.

CARP SARPUTI MRIGAL M.3 SAMPLING RECORD Date Fish Species S.CARP Average weight (g) Estimated Estimated Biomass Culture Survival Number Kg/pond Kg/bigha period (day) (%) Growth rate (g/day) 20 .CARP CATLA RUI G.7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 … … 31 FISH FARMERS RECORD KEEPING FORMAT .


Date Species Number Average weight (g) Total weight (kg) Price Tk/kg Total Tk Remarks FISH FARMERS RECORD KEEPING FORMAT .5 22 .

Operating Cost YEAR PRODUCTION PERIOD Tk. Sale Income 1. Net income = Total sale income . 4. 6. 2. 3. 10. Net income per bigha of fishpond = 23 . 8. 1.6 PERFORMANCE INDICES 1.) C.Total operating cost 4. 5.) B. 7. 6.ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A. 5. 4. Revenue from the sale of fish Value of fish consumed at home Value of fish pond in kind Other revenues incidental to production Total Sale Income (Tk. Production per bigha/year: 3. Production costs of fish per kg : 2.Total Expenses (Tk. Net Income = Total Sale Income . Dewatering/Poisoning Lime Organic manure Inorganic fertilizer Fish seed Fish feed Labour (cash/kind) Pond rental Miscellaneous Interest on operating capital Total Expenses (Tk.) FISH FARMERS RECORD KEEPING FORMAT . 9.

In a proper fish. eggs. fuel wood and fodder which are the basic need of a farm family. the possible inter sub-system interactions are . fruits. The farming sub-systems e.5. manure for the fish pond and as feed for livestock. meat. Net income per kg of product = 6. Nutrient rich bottom silt and water of pond can be a good source of fertilizers for the crop land. Percentage return on operating cost = Topic 3 INTEGRATED FISH FARMING SYSTEM IN BANGLADESH 3. crop and livestock are linked to each other in such a way that the byproducts/wastes from one sub-system become the valuable inputs to another sub-system and thus ensures total utilization of land and water resources of the farm resulting in maximum and diversified farm output with minimum financial and labour costs. crop and livestock integrated farming system. It thus appears that the different sub-systems in an integrated system are beneficially inter-linked to each other in a limited area.g. minimizing the production costs but resulting in a diversified outputs viz. 24 . fish. fish. vegetables. By-product/wastes of crop can be used as feed.1 CONCEPT AND POTENTIAL OF INTEGRATED FISH FARMING Integrated fish farming is a system of producing fish in combination with other agricultural/livestock farming operations centered around the fish pond.excreta and waste feed from livestock sub-system act as manure and feed for fish as well as can be used as manure for crop land.

If these livestock wastes could be applied in fish ponds through integrated fish farming system. There are about 47–48 million cattle.Fig.the crops and plants provide food for animals.the nutrient rich pond humus can provide fertilizer to the crop land. In Bangladesh. 3. fish and man . sheep.3. the possibilities exist for integrated fish culture with livestock production. buffaloes. The inter-linking is easy: the farm animal produce organic manure for fertilization of agricultural land and fish pond . fish production could be increased substantially (in optimal case 4–5t/ha/yr) without using any other fertilizer or supplementary feed for fish. thus increasing household income of small farmers. Currently. goats and more than 90 million chickens and ducks in the country.1 Interlinking in an integrated fish-crop-livestock farming system. Integrated fish farming on the other hand offers opportunity for taking up diversified farming activities with optimum utilization of available land space for food production. In Bangladesh 60 % of the farmers have less than 0.8 ha farm size which also limits space for taking up additional and diversified farming activities. the farmers mainly practice mixed farming system. where crop/fishery/ livestock sub-systems are independent of each other. Fish-livestock production in combination with planted crops on pond dykes could be a workable pattern of an integrated system. Most of the excreta of these animals is not properly utilized and become wastes which may cause environmental pollution to some extent.2 FISH FARMING INTEGRATED WITH LIVESTOCK Animal wastes in integrated fish farming 25 .

Animal wastes and waste feed particles which enter the food web of a pond ecosystem are utilized in several ways: • • • As a source of nutrients required for primary production. As nutrients and organic substrates for heterotrophic micro-organisms which in turn may be consumed directly by fish or by invertebrate fish food organisms. 26 . Directly consumed by the fish.

Chicken manure is also being used as fertilizer in crop land. In integrated fish farming the poultry can provide the most valuable manure because of high concentration of nitrogen. Cu. covered with polyethylene or mud. it has to be calculated carefully whether the use of manure in integrated fish culture would be able to produce more benefit for the farmer over its other uses. Ca. The loss of nitrogen is substantial. 61–87% of the phosphorus and 82–92% of potassium are recovered from the feeds fed to animals which could be utilized for fish production and hence their role in fish culture is highly appreciated. Waste output in the form of urine and faeces varies considerably in quantity and quality (Urine comprising about 40% by weight of the total waste excretion per day). Zn. nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) do simply volatilize into the air.2 A diagrammatic representation of the breakdown of animal manure in fish pond (after Delmendo. Out of the available nutrients in fresh animal manure about 72–79% of nitrogen. It is always better to use animal wastes when they are fresh.3. Storage of animal waste Nutrient value of animal manure usually deteriorates during storage. If the animal wastes are stored before using in the fish pond. Fe.Fig. The deterioration is faster under aerobic conditions with high temperature. Prejudices to Fish/Livestock Integration in Bangladesh a. Urine contains higher levels of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) than in faeces. 1980) values of animal wastes Animal manures contain major inorganic nutrients (N. Multipurpose use of wastes Cattle and buffalo manure is widely used as fuel in the rural area. try to store animal wastes in a cool place to avoid high temperature. Under the prevailing climatic conditions expected loss might be more than 90%. The distribution of nutrients in faeces and urine also vary. Under local conditions the quality of manure is determined by the following factors: • • • the time and method of storage soil or bedding material content of the manure whether the manure contains urine or not. Dislike using animal wastes in fish ponds 27 . The ammonia (NH3). store in a container or a pit. and Mg. A higher level of phosphorous (P) is found in the faeces of animals except pigs which have high phosphorous in urine (Delmendo. 1980). phosphorus and potassium. The changes occur in all aspects of the quality (physical.K) as well other trace elements viz. b. following points are to be considered: • • • make storage time as short as possible.P. In such cases. chemical and biological).

extensive fish culture and extensive poultry raising is practiced. 3. particularly in homestead ponds. Researchers have made comparative studies of natural fish populations and those grown using cattle manure or second consumer level . Public health risks The dangers of fish acting as vectors for human pathogens are still not clear. Considering consumer's preference and local price structure. Large numbers of bacteria. This suggests that the consumption of fish cultured in waters containing animal manure would not cause a health risk greater than that of fish caught from natural waters. Although fish production is the more profitable component. only three types of poultry farming is economically viable. bathing. Chicken egg production b. gill and intestine of the fish cultured using manure or efficient. cooking and even for drinking. Duck egg production c.A large number of farmers in rural Bangladesh are reluctant to handle and apply animal excreta in fish ponds. the poultry sub-system must pay for itself. Multipurpose use of pond Most of the ponds in Bangladesh are built for serving various social functions such as raising foundations for houses. or. d. It may be easier for a proven poultry farmer to integrated fish culture with his poultry rearing rather than a fish farmer integrating poultry raising in his fish farming system.1 Fish cum Poultry System General Consideration In most of the agricultural farms. Chicken meat (broiler) production in selected places 28 . is not possible in many ponds. Adoption of integrated fish-livestock farming. but tissues and blood appeared sterile on both groups. including potential pathogens were found in skin. but the two systems are not interlinked. the first thing a farmer has to reorganize is the poultry raising and the stocking structure of fish.2. Some of them also hesitate to eat fishes raised out of integrated fish-poultry farming where fish consume fresh poultry manure directly. at least. washing.seem to be easier. To develop an integrated system of poultry production and fish culture. in a integrated system the profitability of poultry sub-system (even if it is minimal) must also required to be a self sustaining activity be ensured. The modern methods of poultry raising require sophisticated management which seems to be beyond the capacity of most of the rural fish farmers. Public health aspects of fish produced in human wastes might be expected to be more serious than those of animal/fish integration. as it is mainly “served” by the poultry sub-system. a. c. The Management of fish sub-system . because of the use of water for domestic purposes.

a.3. the determining factor is the water depth in dry season. However.2. However.1.1 Fish sub-system in integrated farming While designing the fish sub-system.2. The species combination and stocking ratio may vary according to the local requirements and possibilities. Pond preparation. b.5m of water depths is essential even during the summer season. both fish production conditions as well as the type of wastes/byproducts expected from other sub-systems that are to be recycled in fish pond are to be evaluated. In low water depth the danger of organic over-loading is high from the poultry sub-system and that may cause fish kills in the summer months. fish species combination has to be adjusted according to the type of the livestock sub-system to be integrated.5 bigha size is easily manageable by small farmers. Fish pond management The basic management practices in integrated fish pond are more or less similar to that of simple polyculture system. A general guideline on the fish stocking density and species ratio in an integrated fish-cum-poultry farming system is given in Table 3. the rest remains more or less similar to normal polyculture system. 29 . Generally 0. harvesting.5–1. Size of pond Considering rural conditions. Depth of pond Any pond that retain 2–3 m water can be considered as suitable. Minimum of 1. There should be very little or no supplementary feeding and fertilization of the pond water. daily routines. sampling. Except for modifications in the design to accommodate the poultry/crop sub-system. Majority of the homestead ponds are suitable for this purpose. Selection and stocking rate of fish species Considerations for selection: • • • • • The selected species should be compatible with each other The species and their combination ratio should be adjusted according to the amount of feed stuff and manure that are expected to be made available by the other sub-system As far as possible the species should fast growing Selected fish should be hardy and resistant to common diseases and parasites The species should be able to tolerate low oxygen levels and high organic content in the water. mainly the smaller ponds can be used for integrated fish culture. and health care are same as for polyculture system and have already been discussed under Topic 2.

Table 3. In small scale integrated system supplementary feeding is not usually required. larger size fingerlings 10–15 cm should be stocked. The larger the fish. These guidelines are suitable for a semi-intensive production level. In a well prepared pond. otherwise supplementary feeding and manuring would be necessary. While during the initial phase of fish rearing the biomass of fish is not big enough for full utilization of available nutrients. Managing proper growth rate in integrated pond In most cases of integrated culture system the waste output from livestock component remain constant during the production cycle. initially the growth rate of fish is high. If the organic waste requirement falls short of supply from the integrated livestock sub-system. the biomass should be decreased by periodical partial harvesting. As soon as the sampling results show the pattern of decreasing growth. fingerling of the size of 5–10 cm may be stocked. based on a poultry sub-system. the more absolute amounts of food is required in order to sustain its potential growth and maintain its body weight. 30 . the stocking number can be increased with the species which can utilize best the added by-products/feed. However. If the fish sub-system is supported by other by-products. As a result.2 Recommended fish species combinations and stocking in a typical integrated fish-cumpoultry farming system Trophic niche Fish species Silver carp Catla Rui Grass carp Thai sarputi Mirror/common carp/ Mrigal Stocking ratio (%) 35 10 10 5 20 20 100 Number of birds/bigha 20 50 100 140 Number of fish/bigha 94 210 280 385 27 60 80 110 27 14 54 54 270 200 60 30 120 120 600 330 80 40 160 160 *800 500 110 55 220 220 *1100 700 Surface feeder Mid-water feeders Bottom feeders Total stocking Fish yield to be expected (kg/bigha/year) * Partial harvesting and possible re-stocking is recommended. Recommended size of stocking material Size of the stocking material also depends upon the level of management. or supplementary feeding. if the pond is not poisoned or dewatered. As soon as the biomass reaches the critical standing crop (the point when the food requirements of fish and the natural supply of feed are in balance) the growth rate starts decreasing and even may reach zero mark. stocking density of fish should be decreased.

1989. Benefits of fish cum chicken integration Following are some of the additional advantages when fish culture is integrated with chicken raising on/or near the pond dykes: • • • The direct discharge of fresh chicken manure to the fish ponds produces enough natural fish feed organisms without the use of any additional manure/fertilizer. The total protein content of dry chicken excrement can be as high as 30 percent.3 21.9 Dry grass bedding 15.7 30.1 Constituent Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Non nitrogenous extracts Crude cellulose Minerals (Ca. The transportation cost of the manure is not involved. some of the eaten foodstuff are excreted by the chicken before being fully digested.2 Chicken sub-system Background Intensive production of broiler meat and egg is now common in many parts of the world. good chicken feed stuffs have a protein content over 18 percent (Table 3.7 14.0 16.7 30. P.) Source: NACA. The nutritive value of applied fresh manure is much higher than dry and mixed with bedding materials e.6 13.1 18. Usually.2. Raising above the pond/in cage 11. leaving 20 percent for use by the fish in the integrated fish culture system. Therefore. In integrated fishcum-poultry farming system the birds are typically fed complete diets in pelleted or mash form and the manure is used fresh or as dried poultry waste. 31 . saw dust or rice husk. scatter about 10% of their food over the ground. The waste recycling is the key feature of the system.4 26.3 2. etc. and integration of fish culture with poultry raising is one of the best ways of poultry waste management.1.9 1.3 Composition (%) of chicken manure from different chicken-raising methods.3 27. Table 3.5 22. only 6 times its body length.3). This wasted feed is utilized directly by fish. Research has shown that about 80 percent (by dry weight) of feed stuff is utilized and digested by the poultry.3.0 17.5 Ground raising Sawdust bedding 12.2 16. Chickens while peaking.g. The digestive tract of a chicken is very short.7 1.

Where the market chain is good for broiler it is preferred over layers because the shorter broiler production period can easily be programmed with pond culture period. To extend the life of bamboo structure water proof painting is recommended.4). The size depends on the number of chicken and type of chicken. Chicken sheds can be constructed over the pond water or on the dyke.5 kg feed to 1kg chicken Shaver broiler (BPC. nests. No supplementary feed is needed for the fish. Otherwise. Feed conversion rate 2. both broiler and layer chicken are recommended for the sub-system. frequent repair and maintenance will cost more. Savar) ISA Brown (Silver Carp Ltd. The overall farm production and income will increase. Location: 32 . In the country side. temperature regulating device. For the purpose of integrating with fish culture the following varieties of poultry are recommended (Table 3. etc. Selection of species First of all the farmer should decide whether he wants to take up egg or meat production. However. it should be strong enough to last at least for 3 years. Layer hybrid Laying capacity: 240–250 eggs/yr Feed: 115–120 g/day Colour is white.6 kg under 7–8 weeks. egg production of layer chickens can start only after six months of rearing. Poultry varieties recommended for integration with fish culture Name Shaver (Biman Poultry Complex.4. Size of the house depends on the number of birds to be kept . wood. ft for a broiler.• • • • • Some parts of the manure is consumed directly by the fish.5 sq. On the other hand. dryness. growth:1. No extra space is required for chicken farming. Faridpur) Type Main Characteristics Layer hybrid (white Laying capacity: 240–250 eggs/yr sussex X Rhode Island colour of eggs is brown Red) Feed: 115–120 g/day. area is required for a layer chicken and 1–1. Floor space.4–1.normally 2–3 sq. In Dhaka and Chittagong areas where there are good markets. Broiler hybrid Savar) Housing of birds Chicken sheds can be constructed out of locally available materials such as bamboo. ventilation. ft.. One of the main point is to make the pen as cheap as possible and simple in design. light and sanitation are the main features to be considered during shed construction. only layer chicken is suggested because of consumer preference. Useful considerations while constructing a chicken pen: • • Rectangular house has been found to be suitable from overall management point of view.3–2. tin. Table 3. More production of animal protein will be ensured from the same area of minimum land.

it has to be carefully considered that the gap between the house floor and the pond water surface should be at least 1 foot at highest water level in monsoon period.3. 33 . The gap between the bamboo splits should be wide enough (1. 3. Wall: Wall material can be bamboo mat. One drinker should be provided for every 25 chicken. Storms can cause serious damages to the structure. If the house is constructed above the pond.a). It is more hygienic and practical than open jar. Facilities in a chicken house: • Feeders can be prepared out of tin or wood. care should be taken so that the hole in the can should be lower than the top of the plate. Floor: The floor of a chicken house over the pond should be constructed with bamboo splits. the upper 1/3 of the walls should be left free and fitted with wire mesh for light and ventilation (Fig. 3.5 – 3 cm) to let the chicken faeces drop into the pond water below. Ready made drinkers from tin are available in bigger towns and cities. If bamboo mat is used. If the height is too low (2 – 3 cm) the chicken will peck out too much feed.The house should be built at the most wind protected side of the pond. At roof design first have to calculate with the available length of tin sheets on the market. If the walls are built with wire mesh and supporting bamboo stick. but home made self drinkers can be prepared easily from ordinary tin plate and empty milk powder cans.b). Simple self drinkers are suggested for use. Simple bamboo cane should be kept on top to avoid being overturned by the birds. the lower one third of the walls should be covered with bamboo mat to give protection for the chicken and nests against bad weather (Fig.3. Optimal height of the wall should be 120–160 cm. • Structure: Roof: Tin is the long lasting and perfect roof material. Three or four linked bamboo sticks serve well as a movable bridge for the caretaker and the chickens. The tin roof should rest over a bamboo mat rice or rice straw mat to cut down heat inside the chicken house during the summer months. bamboo sticks or wire mesh. but should not be too wide so as to cause injury to the legs of the birds. While preparing. The numbers should be sufficient to allow all the chicken to eat at the same time. Bridge: Should be movable in order to avoid pouching and predation.

3. One laying box can be used for every 6–7 chickens.b Fig. the use of laying nests is necessary from the time the layers are 150 – 160 days old.3.a 3.3. 3. (Fig.3.5).b Chicken houses on fish pond • Laying boxes If layer chicken are integrated with fish farming. Use of some rice straw on the nest is useful. Size of laying box should be 30 × 30 × 30 cm. 34 .3 a.

should be fed to the birds. In Bangladesh. In other places Harican (Kerosine lantern) lamps can be used. suitable feed mixtures had been worked out which are used successfully by large scale chicken farms (Table 3.g Til oil cake with mustard oil cake) but the vitamin complex should not be changed or omitted.5. • Lighting Artificial lighting is recommended for both layers and broilers. Calculating the number of chicken for fish culture A stocking density of 80–100 chicken per bigha of water surface has been found satisfactory enough to ensure good fish yield. one 60 watt bulb can be used for 100 chicken (detailed lighting program at page 42). Mainly in winter when cold air streams though the gaps in between the bamboo splits on the floor. FEED INGREDIENTS LAYER BROILER 35 . If electricity is available. The chicken sitting on the bars can protect itself from the cold by closing around its feathers. kitchen waste etc.Fig. crushed snail. Chicken feed and feeding To achieve good production of eggs or meat the chicken should be fed with balanced diet. For small-scale egg production operations (50–200 birds). it is recommended that additional feedstuff which are easily found around the farm such as grass.5). 3. Some of the ingredients can be replaced with other (e. Table: 3. The birds are also separated from their night excreta. The ingredients are available locally and can be mixed by the farmer.4 Design of laying boxes • Sitting bars Fixing some sitting bars for night sleeping is recommended. Recommended feed formula for layer and broiler chicken.

0 0.5 (B)0.00 10.25 43. Oyster shell 6.0 80. Broken Wheat 2.0 58. besides quickly affecting egg production.25 25 11 15 0.0 17.0 7.0 32.25 48. Salt 7.0 20. can cause dehydration.0 44. Appropriate feeding guidelines are suggested for both layer and broiler chicken in Table 3.25 22.0 90.0 10.0 110.0 100. Rice polish 3.25 25.1. The daily required feed should be given in two installments. Clean drinking water must always be made available to the birds.6 Daily ration guidelines for layer and broiler chicken Layer Chicken Age (weeks) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9–10 11–12 13–14 15–16 17–18 19–20 21–76 14 22 31 34 37 40 45 50 54 60 67 74 80 88 115–120 Daily Feed (g/bird) 1–5 6–10 11–15 16–20 21–25 26–30 31–35 36–40 41–45 46–50 51–55 56–60 Broiler Chicken Age (days) Daily Feed (g/bird) 10.0 Simple home made feeders and self-drinkers are suggested for use. 10–12 cm feeder length can be allowed for one chicken. Embavit 50.0 70. one in the morning 8–9 am and another in the afternoon at 4–5 pm.25 * Should be “A” quality.5 (B)0.0 11.5 0.5 (L)0.3.5 (GS)0.25 24 11 17 0.0 1.75 25. Fish meal 5.25 52.0 12.0 120.0 0.0 11. Til oil cake * 4. kidney damage and death.25 47.6.5 (GS)0. Table . 36 .0 115. Lack of water.

Feeders and drinkers must be kept clean. Important points of management In integrated fish farming system usually smaller number of birds are used. Food and feeding • • • • Prepared feed. For broiler raising. However. Lighting program In the laying period. Correct storage of food stuff is very important (Fig.2. Egg production period is about one year. Intensity and continuity of laying Laying of eggs should start when the chicken reach 150–160 days.Polluted water will cause various disease problems. Starting with 30 minutes a day it should be increased by 30 minutes per week. always in clean feeders and drinkers. provision for additional ventilation in the chicken house should be made. The chicken should be allowed to graze for one hour a day in the afternoon. As a result. the hens start laying eggs within a few days if they are kept locked in a small wire case. 24 hours lighting is suggested. After that the flock should be changed. in the summer/rainy season. Decomposed or fungus infected feed must be avoided. Ventilation Climate in the rainy season remains too hot and humid causing discomfort to the birds. laying often goes down to 50–55 %. Food and fresh water should be kept in front of the layer. This optimal duration should be maintained till the end of the laying period. can be stored for 2 weeks in the dry season but not more than 1 week in rainy season. the following important points should always be considered. Brood stage After laying certain number of eggs. a hen may start to brood and stop laying eggs. Water from the tube-well is better than the water from the fish pond. Health Control 37 . With proper management a 62–65 % laying rate could be achieved with the recommended species. This can be reversed by keeping the hen under light and by not allowing it to settle on the nest. addition of some artificial light after sunset can increase the egg laying capacity by 15– 20%.2). In such cases. Therefore. Practically on farm level nothing can be done except maximizing the natural ventilation. and it is not very difficult to manage the chicken sub-system. until reaching 16 hours of continuous illumination. The use of artificial light should be started from the time the birds are 150 days old. Later the intensity will decrease. Layer hybrids can increase the production up to 85–90 % laying rate at the beginning.

1 (Baby Chicks Ranikhet Disease Vaccine) Eye drop . Spilled over duck feed are also good food for fish. injection Foul pox-2. eye drop BCRDV . over-crowding. In Bangladesh. The birds should be protected from stresses caused by changes in temperature. In addition to vaccination programme periodic deworming of chicken should be done. Rearing ducks in fish pond has several advantages. injection Foul cholera-2. Advantages to duck rearing sub-system • Fish pond provide an excellent environment for duck.2.2 30th day Foul pox . wing webbing R.Every effort should be made to ensure good health of the birds. For this quality of feed and the feeding programme must be maintained.V-2. As a preventive measure strict programme of vaccination against common disease must be followed.D.Wing webbing Layer Chicken Age 5th day 20th day 30th day 60th day 70th day 85th day 95th day 120th day Vaccine BCRDV . drop in each eye 20th day BCRDV . injection Foul cholera-1. distributed all over the pond surface. the following vaccination programme is recommended. The droppings of ducks. Broiler Chicken Age Vaccine 5th day BCRDV . Both the farming sub-system mutually reinforce each other.1 (Ranikhet Disease Vaccine). excessive noise etc. has high nutrient value and which act as manure and fish feed. Advantages to fish culture sub-system • • • Ducks are the “volunteer aerators” while swimming and chasing each other in the pond. eye drop Foul pox-1.D. 38 . 3.3 Duck sub-system Fish-cum-duck rearing is another potential farming system for Bangladesh.V.2.1. wing webbing R.

In this case duck sub-system hardly supports the fish sub-system. in which the ducks are kept at a high density in closed conditions. However. the viability of fish-cum-duck integrated system depends on the success of the duck subsystem. c. Now the question arises: Is the fish-cum-duck integrated culture profitable in rural Bangladesh? The answer is yes. unlike chicken. Intensive raising. need for high level of hygienic conditions etc. insects. Ducks apparently do not like wire floors. They are simple shelters which provide shade from the sun and protection from heavy rain while allowing ample circulation of fresh air. Extensive raising. The wastes regularly go into the fish pond. in which the egg laying ducks are fed at the same rate as on land and kept at a relatively high density per unit of pond area. rule out the possibility of intensive duck culture in Bangladesh presently. The living area is thus not limited to the fish pond. There are three duck culture methods generally used for integrated fish farming: a. Side curtains may be required to prevent wind driven rain. higher amounts of manure and uneaten duck feed (estimated to be 10 %) usually fall into the fish pond and consequently higher fish yields can be obtained. has not been found profitable in Bangladesh. Duck houses should be built on the dyke. b. However. The price of balanced feed is high. low productive local variety of duck is used just for family consumption. They cannot grasp the slats with their feet and their feet 39 . the large scale intensive or even semi-intensive duck culture based on balanced feed. Duck can collect considerable part of their nutrient requirements from the pond by means of eating tadpoles. In most cases. The egg price is low in rural areas where the duck egg is mainly consumed. Therefore. and for this the following method is recommended : Duck rearing facilities Most duck houses in the tropics are built on the pond dyke rather than over the pond surface since construction costs are less and management is easy.• • No additional land is required for housing ducks. unavailability of balanced feed on commercial scale. some miscellaneous fish. in which the simple. Therefore. high cost of infrastructure. Duck houses should be built with local materials such as bamboo for the frame and bamboo matting for the roof. The ducks are given free range to search their own food from the surroundings. However. some technical points are detailed which are important for keeping the duck raising profitable. snails etc. high priced balanced feed is required to maintain the egg production resulting in relatively higher cost of production which is difficult to be compensated by the sale of eggs in rural areas. The reasons are: • • • Ducklings of good egg laying species (pure Khaki-Campbell) are in limited supply. Semi-intensive raising.

3.5). 40 . and increased turbidity and siltation of the pond which reduces light penetration and thus the amount of photosynthesis taking place in the water column. If the duck house is located on the dike. Ducks cause severe erosion of fish pond dykes by climbing into and out of the water which has two adverse effects: destruction of the dike. The house should be well protected from predators. and transporting manure are eliminated and the potential problem of environmental pollution by the manure are solved. Cement floor may also lead to cracked eggs. In both cases the faecal material and uneaten food fall directly into the pond. The height of the house should be 4–5 ft. a ramp is required for easy access.are very sensitive to damage. Meat ducks may be raised on an earth floor but egg layers need dry grass or hay to keep the eggs clean and prevent from cracking.5 Duck house on the dyke and feeding platform on the pond water If the farmer want to keep the birds on the pond they should be prevented from climbing on to the dikes by providing fence all around. Fig. By housing the ducks over the pond the costs of collecting. Normally 4 sft. storing. It may be worthwhile to construct floating resting and feeding places on the pond surface if ducks are housed on the dyke to increase the efficiency of recycling the manure and the spilled feed.3. of space is required for each bird. It has been estimated that 30–35% of the dry feed consumed by the ducks is voided as manure and that only 50–60% of the manure goes into the pond water if the ducks are housed on the dyke. Ducks can be fed and sheltered either on floating rafts or shift structures built over the pond surface (Fig. The area of house will depend on the number of ducks to be kept. The fish would also be able to consume the estimated 15% of granulated feed spilled by the ducks during feeding which would otherwise not be utilized if the ducks were fed on the dyke.

While for commercial egg production the ratio of 1 male to 10–15 female would be better. Nursing of young ducklings Day-old ducklings require controlled environment (temperature.5 kg. Generally 70–80 duck/bigha is optimal for integrated duck-cum-fish production system. 50–55 ducklings can be reared per m2 within a heated room. Pelleted starter feed is provided in demand feeders. feed. drinking water and space) up to 2–3 weeks. With simplified semi-intensive rearing of ducks in ponds at relatively low densities. Duck feeds Besides the limited amount of supplementary feed. preventing the ducks from getting wet. Weight of the eggs vary between 60 and 70g. This good layer has already been introduced and adopted in Bangladesh. The female start to lay at the age of 23–26 weeks and able to continue laying until 360–380 days old. The recently introduced KhakiCampbell . the eggs production rate is not that good. after which they can be housed near the pond. Pond water also helps to reduce heat stress which enables the ducks to keep up their feed intake. But at the farmer level.2–2. The most potential egg layer species of duck is the Khaki-Campbell (Anas platyrhchos) duck. With experience gained. After the third or fourth day. tadpole. In Bangladesh only the egg layer type ducks should be selected for the purpose. Since ducks may not be able to swim at first. It has two colour variety: the white and the brown. average water depth and fish sub-system. water for swimming is not absolutely essential at any stage of duck rearing. Laying capacity is about 230–250 eggs/year (unpublished information from Central Duck Breeding Farm. and aquatic weeds which are generally not eaten by commonly stocked fish. Although the duck is a waterfowl. Under intensive rearing system they are able to lay above 300 eggs/year. they should be allowed in shallow water for a few hours for the first few days to stimulate the development of the preen gland and allow the duckling to water proof its feathers. Air temperature should be maintained around 30–32°c. Special care should be taken to prevent feed sticking to the heads and backs of the ducklings. During the first week. 41 . number of ducks could be increased. Narayanganj).8–2 kg while male is 2. with a screen floor (1–5cm mesh. To start with a farmer should use only 25–30 ducks. 2mm gauge) to allow manure and uneaten food to fall through. The adult female is 1.Bengali runner hybrid is also a good species. ducklings are released into a small enclosed pen during good weather and provided with shallow splashing pools to acclimatize them. mosquito and dragon fly larvae.Recommended duck species The selection of species of duck is also very important. with clean taped water in troughs which are designed to allow access to the beak only. For fertilized egg production. Stocking density and ratio Stocking density of duck in fish pond for optimum manuring depends on the soil fertility. the protein content of supplementary feed can be lowered from the 18–19% digestible protein (required if raised in crowded pens) to about 11–13%. 1 male: 5 female ratio is normal. The laying capacity of local variety is limited to 70–80 eggs per year. the duck will consume frog.

simpler and cheaper duck feed can be used. as follows Wheat bran Rice polish (not rice bran) Til oil cake 1 kg feed price (year around) 60 % 30 % 10 % 3. Duck weed (Lemna minor) is also preferred by ducks.0–8. Feeders and drinkers should be cleaned every day and dried to prevent from contamination.0 8.For semi-intensive duck farming systems. Daily 125–130 g supplementary feed per duck seems sufficient for the adult layers when they have enough natural feed in the pond.0 0.0 25. Ingredients Crushed wheat Wheat bran Rice polish Til oil cake Fish meal Oyster shell Embavit Price of 1 kg feed (1991) Feed/day/duck 125–130 g Grower feed (%) 35. Ducks prefer wet mash due to the difficulties in swallowing dry mash.5 – 4 TK Giving 50–100 g crushed fresh snail daily is highly recommended.25 (L) 8. If feeding on the pond is not possible then drinkers should be placed next to the feeders.25 (GS) 8.0 13. Other useful information 42 . Later it can be decreased until twice a day.75 0.0 4.0 25. For adults 10cm feeder length can be used for each duck.5 TK However. In daily feeding. Initially the duckling should be fed 4–5 times a day.0 25. in fish-cum-duck rearing system where the ducks gather some of their food from the pond. it is better to feed the ducks by the same person.75 16.0 TK Layer feed (%) 25. the following mixed feed for grower and layer ducks are found suitable.0 12.0 8.5–9.0 2.

Since all breeds of ducks lay either at night or early in the morning. Duck prices vary from place to place. 43 . vaccination against some of the common epizootics should be done. Diets containing a large proportion of paddy/rice were found to be unsuitable for high yielding KhakiCampbell type ducks which had access to little extra food from the pond. However. Duck pleague: Only one vaccine at the age of 7 weeks 3. usually before 9:30 AM. However. Fowl cholera: First vaccination at the age of 6 weeks followed by once in every 6 months. ducks should be confined in the duck house until the sun is well up and laying is completed.3 RECORD KEEPING AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF INTEGRATED FISH-CUM-POULTRY/DUCK FARMING Record keeping on poultry and fish production sub-systems need different type of formats (Page 22–26) but the final economic evaluation should be prepared together in one format (Format-4). Ducks only in exceptional cases. prices of different sizes of ducks of two preferred varieties are given below : Age (day) Day old 2–28 29–41 42–70 71–90 91–100 101–126 127Price (Tk. lay eggs during the day time when they are in and around the pond.) Khaki-Campbell 8 20 25 40 50 60 80 100 Peking Duck 10 30 40 50 60 75 90 125 Source: Central Duck Breeding Farm Narayangonj Diseases Duck diseases are similar to chicken but ducks are more resistant to most common diseases.

Tk. Tk. No. Tk. 44 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 … … … 31 Monthly total POULTRY MANAGEMENT RECORD KEEPING FORMAT 2 YEAR: ---------------------------------------- Poultry Daily Feeders/drinkers Chicken/duck Feed Medicine Electricity Others house total Tk.For poultry sub-system. Tk. Qty Tk. Qty. kg. Daily Egg Laying Record 3. Monthly Poultry Management Expenditure Record 2. Tk. three separate formats are required: 1. Tk. Tk. Income from poultry sub-system POULTRY MANAGEMENT RECORD KEEPING FORMAT 1 MONTH: ------------------------------------Labourers Date Hrs.

DAILY EGG LAYING RECORD DAY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 45 .

Broilers sold No. Chicken/duck sold No. Tk. Total Tk. Kg Tk. Kg Tk. 46 .29 30 31 TOTAL LAYING % POULTRY MANAGEMENT RECORD KEEPING FORMAT 3 INCOME FROM POULTRY SUB-SYSTEM Date 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Eggs sold No.

) 80 100 50 30 50 50 20 380 500 200 200 30 20 500 47 .24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Monthly total To help calculate the net profit of the system a sample (format-8) is shown as an example.5m water depth . Operating Costs Fish sub-system Species Silver carp Catla Grass carp Rui Common carp Sarputi Mrigal Total fingerling Poison Lime Fertilizer:Cow dung Urea TSP Netting charges Number 400 100 50 150 100 100 100 1000 % 40 10 5 15 10 10 10 Cost (Tk. Production conditions: .1 bigha pond area with 2–2.100 commercial layer hybrid on pond fed with locally mixed balanced feed .no manuring and supplementary feeding for fish FORMAT-4 : ECONOMICS OF FISH-CHICKEN FARMING/BIGHA A.

Sale of 100 hen Total sale income C. Sale of eggs (65% laying rate) (23.000 53. Sale Income 1.700 × 2.250 6. Sale of fish (550 kg × 35 TK) 2.5 Tk/kg) Labour Contingencies Chicken total Interest on working capital (12%) Total Operating cost B.250 59.500 20.885 64.5% * Year around price in Dhaka and Chittagong. 48 .Pond rental cost Fish total Chicken sub-system Chicken cost (105 bird) Annual depreciation of chicken house Feed (8.230 3.210 1.000 84.255 19. In rural area 20% less.830 10. Net profit (B-A) Return on total operating cost (%) 2.245 31.500 1.540 6.000 3.5* TK) 3.600 37.

1 OXYGEN DEPLETION Dissolved oxygen level is one of the most important production factor in fish culture.1 Table 4.Topic 4 HAZARD MANAGEMENT In Bangladesh. Some common hazards of fish culture are described here with possible means of prevention and remedy. Influence of dissolved oxygen levels at different concentrations on warm water fishes are given in Table-4. there are also some common problems and constraints that often hinder fish production. Some common hazards of fish culture and their possible solutions are considered below. 49 . However. Influence of dissolved oxygen at different concentration Dissolved Oxygen <1 ppm 1–5 ppm Effect on fishes Lethal when exposed longer than few hours Fish survive but poor reproduction and slow growth under continuous exposure > 5 ppm Normal growth and reproduction Lethal concentration of dissolved oxygen for some common culturable species of pond fish in Bangladesh is given in Table 4.2. 4. Repeated exposure to low dissolved oxygen make the fish susceptible to diseases. Long summer and monsoon in association with lengthy and bright sunshine accelerate good growth of fish under semi-intensive culture system. the overall conditions are in favour of pond fish culture. like other tropical countries.1. Low level of dissolved oxygen decrease appetite and growth rate of fish. Loss of fish due to reduction in dissolved oxygen content of water is not uncommon in fish ponds of bangladesh. Oxygen deficiency appears as frequent hazard factor when the intensity of fish production increased.

In windy days. In all cases. By daily monitoring of water colour and use of fertilizer. But if the night is warm and calm oxygen deficiency will often occur before sunrise.7 0. direct inflow of community waste water etc. Algal bloom Because of intensive manuring and excessive use of chemical fertilizers planktonic algae are often over produced.2–0. Usually during day time enough oxygen is produced by photosynthesis to balance the demand but during the night the oxygen reserves in the water are depleted and fish die before sunrise. Cloudiness: 50 . In this “deep green” water the light penetration is limited to a thin surface level. the oxygen from the upper level is mixed with the oxygen poor water of deeper levels. Prevention • • By using higher number of silver carp in the fish stock the danger of phytoplankton bloom can be considerably decreased.7 0. continuous use of bottom rakers (horra) throughout production cycle in ponds with high detritus level. c. dissolved oxygen level in the surface water is very high (above 100% saturation).3–1.6 0.7 0.2 Lethal concentration of dissolved oxygen for some common culturable fishes (Doudoroff and Shumway.1 0. When the day is calm. Thus making enough provision of oxygen for night time respiration. Accumulation of organic matters In some ponds high concentration in detritus can accumulate because of reasons such as over manuring. Prevention • • mg/l 0. 1970) Fish species Catla catla Labeo rohita Cirrhinus mrigala Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Ctenopharyngodon idella Cyprinus carpio a. the increase in organic detritus is followed by an increase in heterotrophic bacteria which also is an oxygen consumer.8 by using proper combination of fish species under polyculture system. b.2–0. When the symptom of algal bloom appears.Table 4. while the oxygen balance is negative in deeper layers. fertilization should be stopped for some days.

closely blocking the use of nets. Decomposing roots of dead or cut trees also create holes in the dike which can cause erosion. 4. Protection 51 . As a result the production of dissolved oxygen through photosynthesis is also considerably reduced.4 PREDATORS Snakes and birds can cause problems in fish ponds by feeding on fingerlings. These holes should be closed with soil. Chicken/ducks are often attacked by wolves and jackals. The slope should be at least 1:2. calm evening etc. Old construction should be strengthened at the weak points from time to time. 4. The sides and 1–2 feet on the brink of embankment should be kept for grass to stop soil erosion. Fencing the farm/fish pond properly. Cultivation (horticulture) on embankments should be limited to the top. As soon as possible plant grass on this part to avoid erosion. Add fresh water by pump from neighboring water body or circulate the pond water. Stop or minimize manuring on cloudy days. The best solution is to make a fence by bamboo poles on the original embankment and fill the collapsed part with compressed dry soil. Leakages and possible connections with other water bodies must be stopped.Cloudiness over a period of 2–3 days reduces light irradiation considerably. b. When the symptoms of oxygen deficiency start (gulping of fish). 4.2 EMBANKMENT PROBLEMS a.) the pond should be checked during the second half of the night. Let the water splash as it enters the pond. Fixing barbed wire under the pond surface in criss-cross manner is fairly effective. This factor can cause problems during monsoon months. Steps to prevent fish mortality by anoxia With the appearance of the signs of potential causative factors (algal bloom.3 POUCHING OF FISH In some places this problem causes more damage than other. hazards. Some suggestions which may give some protection beside proper guarding: • • • Putting bamboo twigs or branches of trees in the water along the dike sides. The following actions should be taken immediately. • • • Splashing the water surface with bamboo poles. The above mentioned method can be used with some soil filled bag also. Traditionally the slopes of fish ponds are prepared too steep.

-Oct. should be raised high above the flood level or some changes have to be made in stocking and harvesting schedule viz. 4.5 AQUATIC VEGETATION Aquatic vegetations in ponds whether floating. 4. shelter fish pathogens and make harvesting difficult. most of the stocked fish get away from the pond and at the same time predator and weed fishes enter into the pond and thus the farmers are discouraged to take up pond fish culture in many areas of the country. prevent penetration of sunlight to pond water. Keep guard dogs to protect chicken/ducks at night time. Pumping water from shallow tube well or nearby water source could be a solution. These vegetations. They absorb nutrients from pond soil and water and hinder production of fish food organisms in ponds.8 FISH DISEASES AND DISEASE CONTROL Outbreak of fish diseases in most cases originate from management mistakes such as -• • • over fertilization overstocking giving substandard/contaminated feed (mouldy.7 WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATION Many ponds completely dry up in summer season (seasonal pond). a considerable number of ponds get inundated with flood water. the water level should be maintained above four feet. If there is any such possibility. During inundation. absorb oxygen at night causing anoxia. hinder easily movement of fish in ponds. Put poison injected eggs on the embankment to kill predatory birds.6 FLOOD One of the major hazard to pond fish culture in Bangladesh is the recurrent flood. pond dykes if possible. the production can be maintained with proper management especially by stocking the ponds with fish as soon as water level increases and harvest them before the water level goes down too low to become risky for fish production. Collect the eggs from the poultry house several times a day. can be used favourably in fish culture as valuable manure. sub-merged or emergent inhibit fish production when they are in excess. Every ear. however. Repairing and strengthening of dikes are necessary before the monsoon starts. In these ponds. ponds in flood-prone areas are to be stocked with large fingerlings immediately after possible flood period (Sept. To protect the pond from flood. rotten) or in insufficient quantity 52 . Some grass carp can be stocked to keep control of excessive growth of aquatic vegetation. All aquatic vegetations are to be removed manually from the pond at the time of pre-stocking management. But most of the rural ponds do not have this facility. Destroy the nests of fish-eating birds near the pond site.• • • • • • Chase away predatory birds from pond. 4. The bridge should be removed from the poultry house at night. 4.) and harvested before the next possible flood (June-July).

Internally the weight/day for 10–12 days. Diseased fish can be detected by their unusual behavior and appearance of some clinical and sub-clinical symptoms. soft belly puffed. Adding chloromycetin @5–10 ppm to pond water. back and gills. soft belly + discharge from anus exophthalmia (pop eye) lesions and deep ulcerations excessive mucus secretion and appearance of discoloured patches over the body Some common diseases of fish and their symptoms and treatment measures DISEASE Bacterial disease: Over crowding. and kg body weight/ day for 2–3 sometimes haemorrhages weeks. contributing conditions that haemorrhages and in must be avoided. rough handling at netting etc. Pond treatment @3–5 over swim bladder. Terramycin with feed @75 CAUSATIVE AGENT COMMON SYMPTOMS TREATMENT MEASURES Bacteriemia (Haemorrhagic septicaemia) Aeromonas hydrophila. body cavity is filled with Furazolidone @5–7.5 g/100 kg body protrude. Lesions on the head. Warning symptoms in pond are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • the fish staying at the surface of the pond water gulping at the surface of the water irregular swimming loss of appetite mortality of several fish of the same species with similar symptoms erosion of skin and fins damaged or puffed scales haemorrhagic spots on skin haemorrhage or discolouration of gill puffed. Terramycin severe cases the abdomen (oxytetracycline) with feed is swollen and the scales @7. ppm of potassium permanganate is also a practical approach.• stress. and oxygen depletion are some of the Shallow ulcerations. The lesions start as small raised whitish plagues with a reddish peripheral zone and Dipping in 500 ppm copper sulphate for 1–2 minutes.5 g/100 opaque fluid. Pseudomonas fluorescens and possibly others Columnaris disease Flexibacter columnaris 53 .

mg/kg fish/day. Bath or pond treatment with some soft organophosphorus insecticide (Malathion and @ 0. gills. fin erosion. Improvement in water Quality. Fungal diseases: Saprolegniosis Saprolegnia spp. Draining and liming the pond or treatment with bleaching powder is essential before initiating the next culture operation.develop into large haemorrhagic ulcers. production of mucous. opercula etc. skin ulcers and damaged gills. avoidance of over feeding and manuring. Characterized by necrosis in the gill due to intravascular growth of this fungus. Infected fish should be immediately removed from the pond. Swabbing with 10. Dip treatment in 3% common salt solution or in 500 ppm copper sulphate solution or in 500–1000 ppm of potassium permanganate solution. Pond treatment @2–4 ppm potassium permanganate. frayed fins. Before initiating the next culture operation the pond should be dried if possible and/or thoroughly disinfected with bleaching powder @50 ppm. Myxosporodiasis Myxobolus sp. Histologically hyperplasia. Presence of white cysts of varying diameters on the body. and addition of freshwater are quite effective. is very effective. emaciation.25 ppm in Branchiomycosis Branchiomyces spp. Provision of settling tank before the water intake in the pond also reduces the risk of infection. Microscopic observation of the skin temporary mount of a portion of gill show the presence of the 54 . In some cases. dark colouration together with presence of cysts and spores in kidney tissues without showing external cysts. Bath in 100–250 ppm of formalin ranging from 1 to 3 hours. Metazoan diseases: Monogenetic Trematode infection Gyrodactylus sp. exposure of muscles and jaw bones and in some cases tufts of minute white hair like outgrowths may occur in the affected regions. fins. Heavily infected fish and show increased Dactylogyrus sp.000 ppm of potassium dichromate is also recommended. Dip in 2–5% salt solution till the first sign of distress is equally beneficial. Ulceration of the skin. fusion of gill lamellae and areas of acute necrosis are seen.

Hard objects such as stones. Juveniles are embedded in the skin and hence remain unaffected. Baths in concentrated solution of salt and potassium permanganate is reported to be effective. Area of attachment 55 . Fish exhibiting black spots may be given an hour bath in 10 ppm picric acid solution. Development of small black or brown spots on several parts of the body and fins. They affect the fish by their attachment and feeding. Bromex completely cures the infection when applied @0. Infection does not spread from fish to fish and hence it is not worth treating infected stock. Sometimes causes mass mortality in carp nursery and rearing ponds. Removal of aquatic vegetation and maintenance of pond hygiene is the most important preventive measure. Leech infection Piscicola sp. logs Lernaeasis Lernaea sp. Malathion also requires a second treatment after a week interval. Microscopic examination and Diplostomum sp. dissection helps in locating rolled up and slowly moving worms embedded in the connective tissues.parasites. Removal of aquatic snails and preventing the entry of birds are some of the preventive measures. However. Affected fish should also be Development of given dip in 500–1000 ppm haemorrhagic patches potassium permanganate over the body and solution which helps in presence of the parasite in avoiding secondary infection large number in and as well as accelerate the around the lesion. healing process. They are not very dangerous. Benzene hexachloride application in pond @0. pond) lesion/smear is also equally effective. Black spot disease Argulosis Argulus sp.15 ppm. Anaemia. the author has found very little improvement by potassium permanganate treatment. Malathion @ 0.02 ppm with a second subsequent treatment after a week.25 ppm in pond also effectively controls the infection. severe ulcerations and presence of attached cylindrical parasite of 1 to 2 cm length hanging outside.

normally exhibit excessive mucus production. Short bath in 3–5% salt solution is very effective treatment. and some signs of haemorrhages. Disinfection of pond with unslaked lime @ 250–300 kg/ha should be done prior to next rearing operation. should also be removed. etc. Attacked fish show attached parasite. irritation and restlessness. 56 . Open wounds are often infected by bacteria and fungi.

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