You are on page 1of 11

Under Graduate Course

on

Machine Design-I
Design of Machine
Elements
Shibendu Shekhar Roy
Robotics & A.I Lab. (RAIL)
Department of Mechanical Engineering

6 April 2009 Machine Design 1

6 April 2009 Machine Design 2

1

6 April 2009 Machine Design 3 Key . Keys are used as temporary fastening of shaft and hub Functions of Keys ¾ The primary function of the key is to transmit the torque from the shaft to the hub of connecting element or vice-versa ¾ The another function of the key is to prevent relative rotational motion & axial movement (except in case of feather key or splines) between the shaft & the joined m/c elements like gear. . flywheel etc.A key is defined as a machine element that is used to connect the transmission shaft to rotating machine elements like pulley. Shaft Consisting of Keyed joint Hub Key Keyway is a slot or recess on a shaft and or hub to accommodate a key 6 April 2009 Machine Design 4 2 . sprocket. pulley etc. gear.

Key Drawback ¾ The keyway results in stress concentration in the shaft & the part becomes weak Assembly procedure ¾ For mounting a part at any intermediate location on the shaft. the key is then driven from the end. such that both the keyways are properly aligned. ¾ After mounting positioning the hub on the shaft.. first the key is firmly placed in the keyway of the shaft & then the hub to be mounted is slide from one end of the shaft till it is fully engaged with the key. 50C4 etc. 6 April 2009 Machine Design 5 Types of Keyways 6 April 2009 Machine Design 6 3 . resulting in a firm joint Manufacturing process for keyways ¾ Keyway is usually cut by vertical or horizontal milling cutter in case of shaft ¾ Keyway is usually cut by slotting machine in case of hub Materials Plain Carbon Steels like 45C8.

Key Rectangular sunk key or Flat key Parallel Key Sunk Keys Square sunk key Gib.Half the thickness of the key fits into the keyway on the shaft & the remaining half in the keyway on the hub .Power is transmitted due to shear resistance of the key. The relative motion between the shaft & the hub is also prevented by the shear resistance of key Square Rectangular 6 April 2009 Machine Design 8 4 .head key Taper key Hollow Saddle Key Saddle keys Flat Saddle Key Types of Keys Woodruff key Special Keys Feather or kennedy key Round key Splines Factors are considered for selecting of the type of key for a given application ¾ Power to be transmitted ¾ Tightness of fit ¾ Stability of connection ¾ Cost 6 April 2009 Machine Design 7 Sunk Key .

3 30 38 10 × 8 5 3.3 17 22 6×6 3.3 44 50 14 × 9 5.8 1. is also called Flat Key d=diameter of the shaft = diameter of the hole in the hub Usual proportions of dimensions of key b= width of key h=height or thickness of key b= d 2 h= b= d l ≥1.Sunk key with rectangular cross-section.4 10 12 4×4 2.5d 4 3 6 l=length of key Square Sunk Key .8 50 58 16 × 10 6 4.B: Flat key has more stability as compared with square key 6 April 2009 Machine Design 9 Dimensions of Square & Rectangular Sunk Keys (in mm) [IS : 2293] Shaft diameter Key size Keyway depth Above Upto & including Width × Height In shaft In hub 6 8 2×2 1.5d 4 Check: Check the dimensions considering mode of failure due to shear & crushing N.5 1.Width & thickness are equal Usual proportions of dimensions of key d b=h= l ≥1.5 3.3 6 April 2009 Machine Design 10 5 .8 22 30 8×7 4 3. Rectangular Sunk Key .5 2.8 12 17 5×5 3 2.3 38 44 12 × 8 5 3.2 1 8 10 3×3 1.

height 8 mm & a length 50 mm shall be designated as : Parallel key 10×8 ×50 [IS: 2048] 6 April 2009 Machine Design 11 Taper is provide for following two reasons ¾ When the key is inserted in the keyways of shaft and the hub & pressed. it becomes tight due to wedge action.is a sunk key which is uniform in width but tapered in height . b=d/4.b=d/6 6 April 2009 Machine Design 12 6 . This ensures tightness of the joint in operating condition ¾ Due to taper. h=(2/3).It is a rectangular sunk key with a head at one end & taper at top surface to facilitate removal At large end.Standard taper is 1 in 100 Designation of Parallel Sunk Keys Width × Height × Length Example: A parallel key of width 10mm.is a sunk key (with rectangular or square cross-section) which is uniform in width as well as height throughout the length of key Taper Key IS: 2292 . it is easy to remove the key & dismantle the joint As compared with parallel key. particularly with gib head Gib.Bottom surface of the key is straight & the top surface is given a taper .head Key IS: 2293 . Parallel Sunk Key IS: 2048 . taper key has following advantages ¾ The taper surface results in wedge action & increases frictional force & the tightness of the joint ¾ The taper surface facilitates easy removal of the key.

Fits in a keyway in the hub & the bottom of the key is concave shaped to match the circular/curve surface of the shaft Flat Saddle Key .There is no such keyway on the shaft Hollow Saddle Key .Is a key that fits in the keyways of the hub only .Fits in a keyway in the hub & the bottom of the key sits on the flat surface machined on Hollow Saddle Flat Saddle Key the shaft Key 6 April 2009 Machine Design 14 7 .Gib Head Key 6 April 2009 Machine Design 13 Saddle Key .

.It transmits torque & permits some axial movements of hub N. Therefore power is transmitted by means of friction ¾ Saddle keys are suitable for light duty & low power transmission as compared with sunk keys ¾ The resistance to slip in case of flat saddle key is slightly more than that of hollow saddle key. there is no relative rotational movement between the shaft & the hub .The hub is free to slide over the key. key & hub prevents relative motion between the shaft & the hub.It is necessary to cut keyways both on the -Requires keyway only on the hub shaft & the hub. at the same time.There is a clearance fit between the key & the keyway in the hub.Is a parallel sunk key that is fixed either to the shaft or to the hub & that permits relative axial movement between them . Saddle Key ¾ Friction between shaft. subjected to heavy torque -It can be used in medium & heavy duty -It can not be used in medium & heavy duty applications applications .B: It is an alternative to splined connection 6 April 2009 Machine Design 16 8 . Cost is less Cost is more 6 April 2009 Machine Design 15 Feather Key . Therefore flat saddle key is slightly superior to hollow saddle key as far as power transmitting capacity is concerned Sunk Key Saddle Key -There is no possibility of the key to slip -Is liable to slip around the shaft when around the shaft.

Woodruff Key . .Once placed in position. The bottom portion of the key fits into circular keyway in the shaft. the woodruff key tilts & aligns itself on the shaft The key is largely used on tapered shafts in Automobile & machine tool construction 6 April 2009 Machine Design 17 Woodruff Key Advantages ¾ Can be used on tapered shaft because it can be aligned by slight rotation in the seat ¾ The extra depth of key in the shaft prevents its tendency to turn over the shaft Disadvantages ¾ The extra depth of keyway in the shaft increase stress concentration & reduces its strength ¾ The key does not permit axial movement between the shaft & the hub 6 April 2009 Machine Design 18 9 .is a piece from cylindrical disc having segmental cross-section (in the form of an almost semi-circular disk of uniform thickness) .The projecting part fits in the keyway in the hub .Keyway in the shaft is in the form of a semi-circular recess with the same curvature as that of the key.

These types of shafts usually have 4.Splines are keys that are made integral with the shaft.These types of shafts usually have 4. . 6. 6. 10 or 16 splines . 10 or 16 splines .Round Key .They are used when there is a relative axial motion between the shaft & the hub and are also used when the force to be transmitted is large in proportion to the size of the shaft as in Automobile transmission & sliding gear transmission.Sometimes the tapered pin is held in tapered holes It has the advantage that their keyways may be drilled after the mating parts have been assembled 6 April 2009 Machine Design 19 Splines .are circular in section & fit into holes drilled partly in the shaft & partly in the hub .Manufacturing Method: Splines are cut on the shaft by Milling the hub by Broaching 6 April 2009 Machine Design 20 10 . Such shafts are known as Splined Shaft .

.Are used in applications where it is important to keep Serrations overall size of assembly as small as possible .Stub teeth with pressure angle 30° Types of Splines .Greater strength .Used as interferance 6 April 2009 Machine Design joint 21 Forces acting on Key P’ D A P P B C P’ Key tightly fitted at top & bottom Shear failure of a tightly fitted key 6 April 2009 Machine Design 22 11 .Used in gear shifting Straight Sided Splines mechanism in Automobile gear boxes & machine tool gear boxes .Are specified by Involute Splines module .