I. Title The name of this lab is Population Genetics and Evolution.

Our primary focus in this lab to learn about populations and effects that can change the frequency. II. Introduction In this lab we use the Hardy-Weinberg equation, that was named after G.Hardy and W.Weinberg, who came up with the idea that evolution is simply a change in frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population. We use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to find out the probable genotype frequencies in a population and track their changes from one generation to another. You can use the HardyWeinberg equation to determine genetic equilibrium which occurs when the gene pool of a population does not change over time. There are five conditions that must be met for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium to occur in a population. They are: large population, random mating (Non-random mating will result in changes in allele frequency), no mutations (no alteration in the DNA sequence of alleles), no gene flow (no immigration or emmigration), and no selection (all genotypes have equal chance of surviving). When the five conditions are met Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium occurs. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium means there is no change in either allele or genotype frequencies (no evolution). To figure out if equilibrium occurs you need to use the Hardy-Weinberg equation, which is p2+2pq+q2=1.0. Our objectives in this lab are to understand how natural selection can alter allelic frequencies in a population, the Hardy-Weinberg equation and its use in determining the frequency of alleles in a population, and the effects on allelic frequencies of selection and other causes of microevolution as deviations from the conditions required to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. My own personal objective for this lab is to be able to understand the bigger picture and realize what’s going on and why it happens in our sample population.

Hypothesis (exercise 8A) If we use the class as a sample population, we can test to see if they can taste the PTC paper then we can use that count to plug into the Hardy-Weinberg equation to figure out the allele frequencies. Hypothesis (Case I) If the p and q frequencies come out as predicted then we know that it’s at equilibrium, meaning there is no evolution. Hypothesis (Case II) If the homozygous recessive trait has no chance of survival then the frequency for q will be super low and close to zero. Hypothesis (Case III) If the homozygous recessive trait has no chance of survival and the homozygous dominant trait has only a 50/50 chance of living then you will end up with a lot of heterozygous in replace of the homozygous recessive and dominant. Hypothesis (Case IV) If you divide the lab into smaller populations then you will end up with the p and q frequencies farther away from the predicted amount. http://anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/synth_2.htm Copyright © 1997-2008 by Dennis O'Neil Lab #8 Population Genetics and Evolution (College Board 2001) III. Materials and Procedures Exercise 8A materials: PTC test paper, paper, and pencil Exercise 8A procedures: 1. Using the PTC taste test papers provided, tear off a short strip and press it to your tounge tip. PTC tasters will sense a bitter taste. For the purposes of this exercise these individuals are considered to be tasters. 2. A decimal number representing the frequency of tasters (p2 + 2pq) should be calculated by dividing the number of tasters in the class by the total number of students in the class. A decimal number representing the frequency of nontasters (q2) can be obtained by

dividing the number of nontasters by the total number of students. You should then record these numbers in Table 8.1. 3. Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to determine the frequencies (p and q) of the two alleles. The frequency q can be calculated by taking the square root of q2. Once q has been determined, p can be determined because 1 - q = p. Record these values in Table 8.1. Exercise 8B materials: Four cards for each student (two cards with A and two cards with a), paper, and pencil Exercise 8B procedures: Case I: 1. Turn the four cards over so the letters are not showing, shuffle them, and take the card on top to contribute to the production of the first offspring. Your partner should do the same. Put the two cards together. You are now the proud parents of the first offspring. One of you should record the genotype of this offspring in the Generation 1 row of Table 8.2. Each student pair must produce two offspring, so all four cards must be reshuffled and the process repeated to produce a second offspring. 2. Your partner should then record the genotype of the second offspring in his or her Table 8.2. The very short reproductive career of this generation is over. You and your partner now become the next generation by assuming the genotypes of the two offspring. That is, student 1 assumes the genotype of the first offspring and student 2 asumes the genotype of the second offspring. 3. Each student Each student should obtain, if necessary, new cards representing the alleles in his or her respective gametes after the process of meiosis. Each student should randomly seek out another person with whom to mate inorder to produce the offspring of the next generation. The sex of your mate does not matter,nor does the genotype. You should follow the same mating process as for the first generation, being sure to record your new genotype after each generation in the table. Class data should be collected after each generation for five generations. At the end of each generation, remember to record the genotype that you have assumed. Your teacher will collect class data after each generation by asking you to raise your hand to report your genotype.

Case II: 1. Start again with your initial genotype and produce your “offspring” as you did for Case I. This time, however, there is one important difference. Every time your “offspring” is aa, it does not reproduce. Since we want to maintain a constant population size, the same two parents must try again until they produce two surviving offspring. You may need to get new “allele” cards from the pool, allowing each individual to complete the activity. 2. Proceed through five generations, selecting against the homozygous offspring 100% of the time. Then add up the genotype frequencies that exist in the population and calculate the new p and q frequencies in the same way as it was done in Case I. Case III: 1. In this round keep everything the same as it was in Case II, except that if your offspring is AA, flip a coin. If the coin lands heads up, the individual does not survive; if tails, the individual does survive. 2. Simulate five generations, starting again with the initial genotype from Case I. the genotype aa never survives, and homozygous dominant individuals only survive if the coin toss comes up tails. Since we want to maintain a constant population size, the same two parents must try again until they produce two surviving offspring. You may need to get new “allele” cards from the pool as needed. Total the class genotypes and calculate the frequencies of p and q. 3. Starting with the F5 genotype, go through five more generations, and again total the genotypes and calculate the frequencies of p and q 4. If time permits, the results from another five generations would be extremely informative Case IV: 1. Divide the lab into several smaller “populations” so that individuals from one isolated “population” do not interact with individuals from another population. 2. Now go through five generations as you did for Case I. record the new genotypic frequencies and calculate the new frequencies of p and q for each population.

In the first part of this experiment (part A) the dependent variables is the frequencies because they depend on the number of tasters and non-tasters, which is your independent variable.The control of the next part of the experiment (part B) is Case I. The data you collect from the other cases can be analyzed by comparing it with Case I (the control). The dependent variables is the frequencies of p and q because they depend on the offspring’s genotype, which is the independent variable. The frequencies are subject to change if your genotype changes. IV.Results/Data Collection/Analysis PHENOTYPE ALLELE FREQUENCY BASEDON THE H-W EQUATION NONTASTER S (Q2) # % 7 0.26 P Q




*DATA PAGE ON SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER V.Discussion/Conclusion In this lab, we tested and observed the relationship between evolution and changes in allele frequencies. Using the Hardy-Weinberg equation, we learned how to calculate the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in the gene pool of a population. For this lab we were the sample population and we tested the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by mating with index cards with the allele on the front. We did four different cases each with a different scenario. In Case I we aimed to reach equilibrium by meeting the five conditions. We made sure to

have large population size, random mating, no mutation, no gene flow and no selection. When we calculated our results, it was a little off. I think we made a mistake when we were counting uptotal class frequencies because the class total is changing from 22 to 23. Next time I think we should tripple check our count. In Case II none of the homozygous recessive lived causing our frequencies to be off the charts. Since the homozygous recessive trait died we were left with a large amount of homozygous dominant. For Case III the recessive trait had no chance of survival so it dies and the homozygous dominant only lives if the coin toss lands tails up, making the chance of survival 50/50. So there was a heterozygote advantage, which basically means there is more heterozygous due to the fact that the recessive dies and the homozygous dominant chance of survivng is 50/50. In Case IV we are working with a smaller population size which causes genetic drift, and changes the frequencies slightly. Some errors we ran into were miss counting the totals, not having enough index cards for the experiment, not randomly mating. Next time we should be fully prepared with all the materials before starting, and moving around the classroom to create more random mating. Mating with people outside our group. If we make these corrections chances are our results will come out more accurate. In conclusion, my hypothesis’ on exercise A and Cases I-IV were correct.

VI.Literature Citation Lab #8 Population Genetics and Evolution (College Board 2001) AP Biology Lab Mannual for Students (2001) New Jersey: College Board. p. 90-97 http://anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/synth_2.htm Copyright © 1997-2008 by Dennis O'Neil http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab8/intro.h tml Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates http://students.discoveryeducation.com/ Copyright © 2011 Discovery Education

VII. Questions 1. What does the Hardy-Weinberg equation predict for the new p and q? The Hardy-Weinberg equation predicts that p and q each equals 0.5. If you plug this number into the equation it come out to 1, the hardyWeinberg equation is p2+2pq+q2=1 so when you substitute for p and q it is: [(0.5)2+2(0.5)(0.5)+(0.5)2]=1. 2. Do the results you obtained in this simulation agree? If not, why? No, because we kept to our group which limited us from getting that random mating and the large population size. In our simulation p came out to be 0.48 while q came out to be 0.52. So it didn’t come out like the equation predicted but it came out pretty close. 3. What major assumption(s) were not strictly followed in this simmulation? Some major assumptions that wasn’t strictly followed was the large population and the random mating. I think next time you should make the class move around to mate with other people besides the people in their group. That way we could meet equilibrium. 4. How do the new frequencies of p and q compare to the initial frequencies in Case I? The new frequencies of p and q in Case II changed dramatically from the frequencies of Case I. In Case I the p and q were pretty much equal just a few off. In Case II there is no homozygous recessive instead there is a lot of homozygous dominant and heterozygous. So the p frequency nearly doubles while the q frequency decreases hugely. 5. What major assumption(s) were not strictly followed in this simulation? Some major assumptions not strictly followed were random mating and no gene flow. In Case II homozygous recessive never survived

(100% selection against). 6. Predict what would happen to the frequencies of p and q if you simulated another five generations. If we did another five generations I would expect to see the frequency of q continue to decrease, and if q decreases that would mean p would increase.

7. In a large population would it be possible to completely eliminate a deleterious recessive allele? Explain. No, it is impossible to completely eliminate a deleterious (harmful or damaging) recessive allele. Even though some people that express the trait because they are heterozygous recessive may die before they can pass the trait on to offspring, the gene pool will always have this allele because carriers are able to live normal lives and pass these alleles on to there offspring. 8. Explain how the changes in p and q frequencies in Case II compare with Case I and Case III. In Case II the frequency of p was 0.93 and the frequency for q was 0.07. Knowing that you can tell there was a lot of homozygous dominant. In Case III the frequencies was all heterozygous after five generations making p and q 0.5. After five more generations p was 0.59 and q was 0.41. In Case I p was 0.48 and q was 0.52. So compared to Case I and Case III Case II has a greater p. Which means there is more homozygous dominant than homozygous recessive. 9. Do you think the recessive allele will be completely eliminated in either Case II or Case III? No, the recessive allele will not be eliminated because there will always be heterozygotes. As you do Case II homozygous recessive doesn’t survive and when you get to Case III homozygous dominant only survives if the coin toss lands up heads (only 50% of the time). The trait that does survive is the heterozygous which is Aa and it doesn’t show the recessive trait but it still carries it.

10. What is the importance of heterozygotes (the heterozygote advantage) in maintaining genetic variation in populations? Heterozygotes are important because they have the dominant allele and they also carry the recessive. So when you mate, the recessive and dominant allele is still there, giving you more variation. 11. Explain how the initial genotypic frequencies of the populations compare. In Case I p and q is close to the predicted amount but not exact. In Case IV the amounts are not as close to the predicted amounts like Case I due to genetic drift. In Case IV we see more heterozygous and less recessive traits. In Case I we see more heterozygous, but the homozygous recessive and dominant traits are still close in number. 12. What do your results indicate about the importance of population size as an evolutionary force? Our results indicate that smaller populations are more likely to experience genetic drift, which is change in allele frequency by chance. In other words there is more change in the allele frequencies.


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