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Connections of structural steel members are of critical importance. An inadequate connection, which can be the ³weak link´ in a structure, has been the cause of numerous failures.

Failure of structural members is rare; most structural failures are the result of poorly designed or detailed connections.

Modern steel structures are connected by welding or bolting (either high-strength or ³common´ bolts) or by combination of both.

Welding has several advantages over bolting. A welded connection is often simpler in concept and requires few, if any, holes. Connection that are extremely complex with fasteners can become very simple when welds are used.

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Welding can be done in the shop and bolting in the field. Example : in the single-plate beam-to-column connection below, the plate is shop welded to the column flange and field bolted to the beam web.

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Hanger connection. Beam end simple connection.` Tension member connection and splice. It subjects the bolts to forces that tend to shear the shank. It subjects the bolts to forces that tend to shear the shank. The hanger connection puts the bolts in tension ` ` .

Bolts can fail in shear or in tension. ` ` . then each bolt can be assumed to resist an equal share of the load. The strength of the simple connection will be equal to the sum of the strengths of the individual bolts in the connection.` ` ` The bolts are subjected to shear or tension loading. Simple connection: If the line of action of the force acting on the connection passes through the center of gravity of the connection. In most bolted connection. the bolts are subjected to shear.

3. . 4. 2.` Design Concept : JRn > Pu where : JRn = Factored design strength Pu = factored load. ` We need to examine the various possible failure modes and calculate the corresponding design strengths (JRn ) Possible failure modes are: Shear failure of the bolts Failure of connected member (failure mode of tension member) Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate (gusset plate) Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt hole (bearing failure of bolts) ` 1.

` . The bolt in double shear will have the twice the shear strength of a bolt in single shear.` ` Shearing stress in the bolt : fv = P/A = P/(T db2/4) Strength of the bolt : P = fv x (T db2/4) Where : P = load acting on an individual bolt A = area of the bolt and db is its diameter fv = shear yield stress = 0. two cross-sections are effective in resisting the load. When the bolt is in double shear.6Fy ` Bolts can be in single shear or double shear as shown below.

The bolt in double shear will have the twice the shear strength of a bolt in single shear.When the bolt is in double shear. two cross-sections are effective in resisting the load. .

but also in that we do not account for the clamping force from the tightening of the bolt.Common bolts. are designated as ASTM A307. Fv=24 ksi . The nominal shear strength: Rn ! Fv . which differ from high-strength bolts not only in material properties. Ab Where Fv = ultimate shearing stress Ab = cross-sectional area of the unthreaded part of the bolt The design strength: JRn ! 0 75( Fv Ab ) For ASTM A307. also known as unfinished bolts.

2. A325 Fy=81. a friction force will develop between the connected parts. A325 and A490 bolts are installed to such degree of tightness that the are subjected to extremely large tensile force. is given in AISC Table J3.908 MPa measured at 0. A list of minimum tension values. The purpose of such a large tensile force is to achieve the clamping force.1.2% offset. If an external load P is applied. In certain cases. The maximum possible value of this force is F Q . The total compressive force acting on the connected part is numerically equal to the tension in the bolt.Two type of grades: 1.2% offset. A490 Fy= 115 . for those connection in which a minimum tension is required.92 ksi or Fy= 566.130 ksi Fy = 803.N .643 MPa measured at 0.

Q = 0. even if the bolt shank does not bear on the connected part. As long as this frictional force does not exceeded. each bolt in the connection is capable of resisting a load of P=F.Q=mean slip coefficient Where : Q = coefficient of static friction between connected parts. there is no bearing or shear. Q = 0. If P is greater than F and slippage occurs. . N = the normal compressive force acting on the inner surfaces.33 (b) For Class B (unpainted blast-cleaned steel surface or surface with Class B coating on blast-cleaned steel). shear and bearing will then exist and will affect the capacity of the connection. Q = 0.50 (c) For Class C surface (hot-dip galvanized and roughened surface). Q : depend on the surface condition of the steel: Painted or Rusted (a) For Class A surface (unpainted clean mill scale steel surface or surface with Class A coating on blast-cleaned steel).40 Thus.

Ab ) where J = 0. threads not in plane of shear A490N.75 The nominal shear strength of HTB is given by ultimate shearing stress times the nominal bolt area. The shear strength of HTB depends on whether the threads are in plane of shear rather than use a reduced cross-sectional area.75 x unthreaded area. threads not in plane of shear Nominal Shear Strength Rn = FvAb 48Ab 60Ab 60Ab 75Ab . threads in plane of shear A325X. threads in plane of shear A490X.The design shear strength of HTB is: JRn ! J ( Fv . the threaded area = 0. Approximately. Fastener A325N.

` .` ` Hole is slightly larger than the fastener and the fastener is loosely placed in hole The stress will be highest at the radial contact point (A). The average stress can be calculated as : the applied force divided by the projected area of contact fp = P/(db t) where P = force applied to the fastener.

` ` ` ` The bearing stress state can be complicated at the nearby/edge bolt. . A possible failure mode resulting from excessive bearing close to the edge of the connected element is shear tearout. It can also occur between two holes in the direction of the bearing load. The bolt spacing and edge distance will have an effect on the bearing stress. Bearing stress effects are independent of the bolt type because the bearing stress acts on the connected plate not the bolt.

5 Lc t Fu 3. Fu .25in Rn = 1.` Upper limit : to prevent excessive deformation of the hole Rn = C x Fu x bearing area = C.db .25 in.2 Lc t Fu 2.t Where : C = 3 (If deformation is not a concern > 0. Rn = 1. J = 0.0 db t Fu ` Lc = the clear distance in the load direction.4 db t Fu If deformation is not a concern > 0. from the edge of the bolt hole to the edge of the adjacent hole or to the edge of the material Fu = specified tensile strength of the connected material t = thickness of connected material .75 THEN : ` If deformation is a concern < 0.25in) C = 2.25 in.4 (If deformation is a concern < 0.

2 Lc t Fu Rn = 1.4 db t Fu then Lc = 2 db If Lc < 2 db.` The upper limit will become effective when 1. Rn = 1.4 db t Fu .2 Lc t Fu = 2. If Lc > 2 db.

The shear strength of all bolts = shear strength of one bolt x number of bolts The bolts are subjected to shear and the connecting / connected plates are subjected to bearing stresses. The bearing resistance shall be taken as the sum of the bearing resistances of the individual bolts.` T/n T/n In a simple connection. all bolts share the load equally. T T/n T/n T ` T/n T/n T T ` Bearing stresses in plate T Bolt in shear T Bearing stresses in plate ` .

4 the center of the bolt to the edge of the connected part The maximum edge distance (Le) for bolt holes 12 times the thickness of the connected part (but not more than 6 in. The minimum edge distance (Le) from See AISC Table J3.). .).AISC Specification The minimum spacing (s) between the 2 db or 3db is preferred centers of bolt holes The maximum spacing for bolt holes is 24 times the thickness of the thinner part (but not more than 12 in.

L e s s L e (a) (b) .

) Short-slot (Width x Length) Long-slot (Width x Length) 9/16 11/16 13/16 15/16 1 1/16 d+1/16 5/8 13/16 15/16 1 1/16 1¼ d+5/16 9/16 x 11/16 11/16 x 7/8 13/16 x 1 15/16 x 1 1/8 1 1/16 x 1 5/16 (d+1/16)x(d+3/8) 9/16 x 1 ¼ 11/16 x 1 9/16 13/16 x 1 7/8 15/16 x 2 3/16 1 1/16 x 2 ½ (d+1/16)x(2.) Oversize (Dia.Hole Dimensions Bolt Diameter ½ 5/8 ¾ 7/8 1 u 1 1/8 Standard (Dia.5xd) .

Nominal Rivet or Bolt Diameter (in) ½ 5/8 ¾ 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 Over 1 1/4 At Sheared Edges 7/8 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/2 [d] 1 3/4 [d] 2 2 1/4 1 3/4 x Diameter At Rolled of Plates. [c] All edge distance in this column are permitted to be reduced 1/8-in. [d] These are permitted to be 11/4-in. or Gas Cut Edges [c] ¾ 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 1/4 x Diameter [a] Lesser edge distance are permitted to be used provided Equation from J3. Shapes or Bars. . [b] For oversized or slotted holes. are satisfied.8.10. as appropriate. at the ends of beam connection angles and shear end plates. when the holes at a point where stress does not exceed 25 percent of the maximum design strength in the element. see Table J3.

bolts _ 1.0 db = 3.25 in.25 in. Check bolts spacing : minimum edge distance = 1 in. A 6 1.752/4 = 15. OK .25 2.9 = 63.0 x 0.25 in./8 in. preferred spacing = 3.0 in.9 kips per bolt Shear strength of connection = 4 x 15.50 1.75 = 2.25 I. given spacing (2.spacing = 2.67 x 0.50 1.67 db = 2.75 = 2.) > 1 in OK min.25 5 x 1/2 _ A 6 65 60 k A325N 3/4 in.3.75 x 48 x T x 0.4) edge distances (1. for rolled edges of plates (see Table J.25 2.) > 2. The design shear strength of bolt in shear : J Rn= J Fn Ab = 0.5 in.6 kips II.

75 x (1.50 1.844 in. JRn = 0.50 1.4 db t Fu) = 39.75(1.02 kips upper limit : 0.5 x 58) = 22.25 2.75 (2. Bearing strength at holes = 2 x 22.5 in./8 in. s = 2.25 2.34 kips .2 Lc t Fu) = 0.05 kips Upper limit : 0. JRn = 0.25 dh/2 = 1.5 x 58)= 39.4 x 0.4 db t Fu) = 0.5 dh = 1.75(2.75 x 0.844 x 0. Bearing strength at bolt holes (plate 1/2in thickness) edges : Lc = 1.75 (1. Lc = 2.2 x 0. bolts _ 1.25 hole diameter dh = 3/4 + 1/16 = 13/16 in A36 : Fu = 58 ksi III.688 x 0.2 Lc t Fu) = 0.25 5 x 1/2 _ A 6 65 60 k 3/4 in.5 x 58) = 44.2 x 1.688 in.15 kips.15 = 122.25 (13/16)/2 = 0.75 (2.15 kips other holes.02 + 2 x 39. A 6 1.75 x (1.

50 1.4 x 0.4 db t Fu) = 29.25 hole diameter dh = 3/4 + 1/16 = 13/16 in A36 : Fu = 58 ksi IV.844 x 0.688 in.75 (2.375 x 58)= 29.5 dh = 1.36 = 91.04 kips Upper limit : 0.36 kips.25 2.75(2.844 in./8 in. Bearing strength at gusset = 2 x 16.36 kips other holes.5 in. bolts _ 1.75 x (1.375 x 58) = 16.76 kips .688 x 0. Bearing strength at Gusset Plates (3/8 in) edges : Lc = 1.2 x 0. JRn = 0.375 x 58) = 33.2 Lc t Fu) = 0.75 x (1.52 + 2 x 29.4 db t Fu) = 0.25 dh/2 = 1. Lc = 2.75 (2. A 6 1. s = 2.25 2.76 kips Bearing strength of the connection is the smaller = 91.75 (1.25 (13/16)/2 = 0.2 Lc t Fu) = 0.75(1.52 kips upper limit : 0.50 1.25 5 x 1/2 _ A 6 65 60 k 3/4 in. JRn = 0.75 x 0.2 x 1.

76 kips ` JRn = 63.Connection Strength ` Shear strength = 63.3 kips > 60 kips (factored load) ` Connection strength (JRn) > applied factored loads (Pu).3 kips ` Bearing strength (plate) = 122. OK. .34 kips ` Bearing strength (gusset) = 91.

Check the bearing strength at bolt holes in angles Angle thickness = 3/8 in.0 db = 2.67 db = 2. A325 bolts in double shear . diameter bolts in rolled edges. Select Le = 1. BS at the edge holes (Le = 1.25 in.Step I. Minimum spacing = 2.8 x 4 =127 kips Step III.) JRn = 44.0 in. for 3/4 in. Select size and number of bolts The bolts are in double shear for this design (may not be so for other designs) Use four 3/4 in.5 k . (greater than preferred or minimum spacing) Step IV.25 in.0 in.25 in.. JRn = 31. Select 2L 3 x 2 x 3/8 with JPn = 112 kips (yielding) and 113 kips (fracture) Step II.0 x 3/8 = 16. Select spacing = 3. Design edge distance and bolt spacing Le min = 1 in. Preferred spacing = 3.

.5 x 0.76 in2 JRn = 0.4 kips Step V.7 kips Bearing strength of double angles = 2 x 104.85 x 3.09 in2 Assume t = ½ in . Design the gusset plate The plates must be designed for the limit states of yielding and rupture Limit state of yielding JRn = 0.75 x 2.5 x 0.5 = 2.5 + 3 x 29.9 Ag Fy > 100 kips .L > 6.5 (3/4 + 1/8) x 0.18 in.) = JRn = 78. Limit state for fracture An = Ag (db+1/8) x t An = 6.Ag = L x t > 3.5 x ½ in.5 in. An 0.85 Ag = 0.4 = 104.75 x An x Fu = 0. Check the fracture and block shear strength of the tension member Step VI.76 x 58 = 120 kips Design gusset plate = 6.81 in2 But.7 kips = 209.3 x 3/8 = 29.25 = 2.BS at non-edge holes (s = 3 in.4 k Bearing strength at bolt holes in each angle = 16. Design gusset plate = 6.

5 kips Summary of Member and Connection Strength Connection Shear strength = 127 kips BS = 209.25 in.4 kips (angles) BS = 139.3 x 1/2 = 39.3 kips Fracture = 120 kips .Step VII.15 k BS at bolt holes in gusset plate = 22. Bearing strength at bolt holes in gusset plates Assume Le = 1.0 x 1/2 = 22. (same as double angles) Plate thickness = 1/2 in.15 = 139. Design is acceptable Gusset Plate Yielding = 105.0 k BS at non-edge holes = JRn = 78.3 kips Gusset plate yielding controls Nominal Strength > Factored Load (100 kips).5 (gusset) Member Yielding = 113 kips Fracture = ? Block Shear = ? Overall Strength is the smallest = 105.0 + 3 x 39. BS at the edge holes = JRn = 44.

Bearing type connections: slip is acceptable Theoretically. Ab ) where J = 1.85 for long-slotted holes the long slot is parallel to the line of force Fv = nominal slip critical shear resistance. must not exceed: JRn ! J ( Fv . To prevent slip. the service load shear on the fastener. but they must have sufficient shear and bearing strength in the event of an overload that may cause slip to occur.The classification of a connection with high-strength bolts: 1. short-slotted. Slip-critical connections: no slippage is permitted 2. oversized. ksi .0 for standard. and long-slotted holes the long slot is perpendicular to the line of force J = 0. SCC are not subject the shear and bearing.

These large tensile forces in the bolt clamp the connected plates together. ` P P Tightened .` High strength (A325 and A490) bolts can be installed with such a degree of tightness that they are subject to large tensile forces. The shear force applied to such a tightened connection will be resisted by friction as shown in the Figure below.

There are currently four authorized procedure for installation of high-strength bolts: 1. The turn-of-the-nut method 2. Alternate design bolts 4. Direct tension indicator . Calibrated wrench tightening 3.

then no slip will occur between them. ` .N =Tb N =Tb P N =Tb F=QN F=QN N =Tb Tb Tb P N = Tb N = Tb ` Slip-critical bolted connections can be designed to resist the applied shear forces using friction. If the applied shear force is less than the friction that develops between the two surfaces.

the connection must also be checked for shear strength and bearing strength. High strength bolts in slip-critical connections can be designed to prevent slip either as a serviceability limit state or at the required strength limit state. After slip occurs.` Slip will occur when the friction force is less than the applied shear force. the connection will behave similar to the bearing-type bolted connections designed earlier. However. ` ` ` . Table J3.1 summarizes the minimum bolt tension that must be applied to develop a slip-critical connection.

75. the total shear on the bolt due to combined load effects. Fv Type of Bolt A325 A490 Standard Size Holes 17 21 Oversized and Short-slotted Holes 15 18 Long-slotted Holes 12 15 (a) For each shear plane (b) Based on Class A (slip coefficient 0. may be multiplied by 0.Nominal Resistance to Shear. at service load. .33) (c) When the loading combination includes wind loads in addition to dead and live load.

00 for STD.13 reflects the ratio of the mean installed bolt pretension to the specified minimum bolt pretension. m = mean slip coefficient for Class A or B surfaces = 0.1 Ns = number of slip planes . hsc = hole factor = 1.70 for LSLT) Tb = minimum bolt tension given in Table J3. J = 1.85 for OVS and SSLT.0 for connections at serviceability limit J! 0.50 for Class B surfaces (unpainted blast cleaned surfaces Du = 1. 0. 0.` Slip resistance = Rn = m Du hsc Tb Ns where.85 for connections at the required strength level.35 for Class A surfaces (upainted clean mill scale) = 0.

in. as specified in ASTM specifications for A325 and A490 bolts with UNC threads.70 of minimum tensile strength of bolts. ½ 5/8 ¾ 7/8 1 11/8 11/4 13/8 11/2 A325 Bolts 12 19 28 39 51 56 71 85 103 A490 Bolts 15 24 35 49 64 80 102 121 148 *Equal to 0. rounded off to nearest kip.Bolt Size. .

L. Step II. Standard holes (STD) JRn of one fully-tensioned slip-critical bolt = J 0. Service loads = D + L = 200 kips.35x1.35 x 1.3.13x 1 x Tb Ns If db = 7/8 in.13 x 1. kips JRn of n bolts = 15. A325 bolts on each side of the splice .1 -Tb=39kips 15.00 x 39 x 1 =C. n > 13 Choose 16 fully tensioned 7/8 in. Slip-critical splice connection.Splice plate W8 8 W8 8 Splice plate Step I. assume class A surface.4 x n > 200 kips (splice must be slip-critical at service) Therefore.0 x 0.4 JRn of one bolt = 1. From Table J.

Step III. . thickness Bearing strength = 4 x 40.3) ` Design spacing = 3 inch Step IV.0 ) = 91. J3.0 x 7/8 = 2.25 in.25 in. Connection strength at factored loads =300kips ` The splice connection should be designed as a normal shear/bearing connection Beam flange thickness : tf = 0. J3.8 kips/in. (Spec.6 kips Bearing strength at edge holes (Le = 1.) = 40.67 x 7/8 = 2.625 in.3 x 0. Layout of splice connection ` Minimum edge distance (Le) = 1-1/8in.L.3 3 3 1.465 = 673 kips ` ` ` .336 in.8 x 0.465 in and flange width bf = 6.3) ` Preferred spacing = s = 3.0 db = 3. from Table J3. ` Minimum spacing = s = 2-2/3 db = 2. (Spec.535 in.75x48xAb) /bolt x 16 = 345. ` The shear strength of bolts = (0.465 +12 x 91.4 ` Design edge distance Le = 1. thickness Bearing strength at non-edge holes (s = 3.4 kips/in.

Assume 6.` Step V.66 in2 Tension yielding: 0. Beam flange width = 6.75 in. The strength of the splice plate Yielding = 438. Tension fracture: 0. wide splice plates with thickness = 0.15 in.9 Ag Fy > 300 kips.75 kips Fracture = 329 kips Check Block shear (Homework) ` Step VI.535 in.5 in.4 x (7/8 +1/8) x t > 6. Design the splice plate Ag > 6. Check member strength (yield. fracture and block shear) .75 An Fu > 300 kips An =Ag .

4 db t Fu Fu = Tegangan tarik ultimate (putus) terkecil antara baut dan pelat .75 2.5 db Rn = 0.` Kekuatan Geser : Rn = 0.5 untuk baut tanpa ulir pada bidang geser = 0.75 rt Fu Ab dimana : Fu = Tegangan tarik ultimate (putus) dari baut rt = 0.4 untuk baut dengan ulir pada bidang geser Ab = luas area baut ` Kekuatan Tumpu dan s > 3db Untuk Le > 1.

with supplementary molten metal added to the joint () () .Structural welding is a process wherein the parts to be connected are heated and fused together.

an automatic or semi automatic process is usually used. Foremost among these is the submerged arc welding (SAW). (SMAW) is usually done manually and is the process universally used for field welds. For shop welding. and electro-slag welding . flux cored arc. gas shielded metal arc.

between two parts to be connected. (2) Groove weld. and corner joints. In most cases.(1) Fillet weld. are those deposited in a gap. They are most frequently used for butt. although relatively thin materials can be groove welded with no edge preparation. called prepared edges. one or both of the connected parts will have beveled edges. which are defined as those placed in a corner formed by two parts in contact. Type: Complete penetration groove welds Partial penetration groove welds. (3) Plug or slot weld . or groove. tee. Example a lap joint & a tee joint.

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` ` ` Fillet welds are most common and used in all structures. Fillet weld Fillet Fill t weld . increments A fillet weld can be loaded in any direction in shear. it always fails in shear. compression. or tension. Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in. However.

Assumption the cross section (A) = Effective throat thickness 0.707 a x length L a a Throat = a x cos45 o = 0.707 a L The shear failure of the fillet weld occurs along a plane through the throat of the weld Fail re Plane .

75 .707 a Lw The nominal load capacity: The nominal Design Strength: n f w v 0.707 v a v Lw R n ! 0 75 v f w v 0 707 v a v Lw where Fw= the weld ultimate shear strength J = 0.Critical Shear Strength: fv ! P 0.

80.60 (70)] = 31.75 [0. 70. E60XX / E60 = an electrode with an ultimate tensile strength of 60 ksi. 90.60 times the tensile strength of the weld metal.75. E70XX is the most popular electrode used for fillet welds made by the SMAW method. The design stress: JFw = J 0.60 (80)] = 36 ksi . E70XX: JFw = 0. This is the standard terminology for weld electrodes Electrodes should be selected to match the base metal: E70xx electrodes : for steels with Fy < 60 . and 110ksi. it is a function of the type Ultimate tensile strength of Electrode: 60.65 ksi E80xx electrodes : for steels with Fy > 60 .60 FEXX ---.75 [0.J = 0.Fw depends on the weld metal used electrode. that is.65 ksi. Fw in a fillet weld = 0. denoted by FEXX.5 ksi E80XX: JFw = 0.

6FExx (1. the strength is 50% higher ` ` .50 sin 1.axis of weld ` Fillet weld strength that account for load direction : Fw = 0.6 FExx is valid only if = 0 For weld with load perpendicular ( = 90o ).0 + 0.5 ) Fw = 0.

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