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Mode of Action of Insecticides and Related Pest Control Chemicals for Production Agriculture, Ornamentals, and Turf
Pesticide Information Leaflet No. 43 Amy E. Brown, Ph.D., Coordinator Pesticide Education and Assessment Programs Revised May 2006 (orig. pub. September 2005)
To understand how pesticides work (their mode of action), it is necessary to understand how the pests’ targeted systems normally function. It is also helpful to understand how human systems function in order to see similarities and differences between humans and the pests we try to control. Another reason it is important to understand the modes of action of the pesticides we use is to prevent development of pesticide resistance in the target pest(s). Using pesticides with the same modes of action contributes to this problem by killing the susceptible pests and leaving only those with resistance to the entire class of pesticides that work through similar mechanisms. Development of pest resistance can be avoided or delayed by rotating pest control chemicals that work through different modes of action Insecticides and miticides generally target the nervous system, growth and development, or energy production of the pest. A description of these processes is presented in this leaflet, followed by a table listing the mode of action of insecticides and miticides commonly used in the production of crops, ornamentals, and turf. Throughout the text, italics are used to indicate important physiological processes or terms, and bold text is used to identify pest control chemicals or classes of chemicals.
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which is an important mechanism through which some pesticides work. Some neurotransmitters are excitatory (they result in the signal being sent on through the synapse to a connecting neuron). The gap between neurons. or the odor of food. called a neurotransmitter.) the central nervous system (CNS) to interpret the signals and coordinate the body’s responses and movements. or nerve bundles. ACh can either excite or inhibit its target neurons – depending on the -2- . and chloride channels. Of the many neurotransmitters that both insects and humans have. in the insect) to be interpreted. or between a neuron and a muscle fiber. effectively telling them how to respond. This process repeats over and over until the signal has reached the CNS (the brain and spinal cord in humans and a series of ganglia. In this way. After transmitting its message across the synapse. and some are inhibitory (they result in the reaction being blocked from traveling to a connecting neuron).) the peripheral nervous system to receive and transmit incoming signals (taste. and the signal is transmitted along the length of that neuron. and touch) and to transmit outgoing signals to the muscles and other organs. Impulses from the CNS to the peripheral nervous system continue in the same way until the signal reaches the appropriate muscles or organs. It connects with other neurons and with muscle fibers (the basic units of muscles) through gaps at the end of each neuron. to be released from the end of the neuron. There are four main types of channels to allow different ions to move along the neuron: sodium channels. When an electrical charge reaches the end of the neuron. A neuron is a single nerve cell. This neurotransmitter crosses the synapse and binds to a receptor on the receiving end of the next neuron. smell. as explained later in this leaflet. calcium channels. sound. These charged particles (called ions) move through channels in the membrane of the neurons.) are transformed by the neuron into an electrical charge which then travels down the length of the neuron. and 2. Incoming signals (the pain from a sharp object. Binding to the receptor causes the signal to be converted back into an electrical charge in the second neuron. it stimulates a chemical messenger. the sight of a predator. sight. This system has two components: 1. since many different reactions are involved in even a simple movement. etc. the body ensures that the signal has the desired effect in each muscle or organ. is called a synapse. potassium channels. the neurotransmitter is resorbed back into its originating neuron. Both humans and insects have many different neurotransmitters that work at different sites throughout the nervous system.The Nervous System The nervous system functions as a fastacting means of transmitting important information throughout the body. and the nerve cell is then in a resting stage until the next signal is received. Many of the channels have gates that open or close in response to a certain stimulus. acetylcholine (ACh) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are important targets of some insecticides.
the nerve impulse stops. organophosphate poisoning is not reversible. more cholinesterase becomes bound and is unavailable to do its job.particular neuron and the specific receptors at the site. but the end result is the same. A simple blood test performed in the preseason and at intervals throughout the application season predicts whether an applicator is being exposed to too much organophosphate or carbamate. Fortunately. and cholinesterase poisoning in humans can be very severe. and the insect dies. In contrast. or it can cause the nerve impulse to stop at that particular site. Spinosad is also an acetylcholine receptor agonist.” continuing the nerve impulse transmission. Acetylcholine Receptor Stimulation Neonicotinoid insecticides act as agonists of the acetylcholine receptor. The exact mechanism of spinosad is somewhat different than that of the neonicotinoid class. refer to Pesticide Information Leaflet No. and the neurotransmitter continues to cause the neuron to “fire. acetylcholine (ACh). the neonicotinoids are a closer mimic for the insect’s ACh than for human ACh. they mimic the action of the neurotransmitter. Like insects. 30: Cholinesterase Monitoring -. That is. When an insect has been poisoned by a cholinesterase inhibitor. They bind to the enzyme that is normally responsible for breaking down ACh after it has carried its message across the synapse. Fortunately. 7: Cholinesterase Testing and No. Other insecticides attacking the nervous system work by other means. the nerve is continually stimulated by the neonicotinoid itself. although it may take several weeks to again reach the desirable circulating level. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter – when GABA is the neurotransmitter activated at a synapse.” or send its electrical charge. This causes overstimulation of the nervous system. the cholinesterase is not available to help break down the ACh.A Guide for the Health Professional). For more information. giving this class of insecticides more specificity for insects and less ability to poison humans. The most common mechanisms are explained below. Although cholinesterase is not affected by these insecticides. This means the insecticide does not release the bound cholinesterase. and the end result is similar to that caused by cholinesterase inhibitors – overstimulation of the nervous system leads to poisoning and death. Applicators using cholinesteraseinhibiting pesticides regularly should consider having their cholinesterase level monitored. Cholinesterase Inhibition Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are known as cholinesterase inhibitors. humans also use ACh as a neurotransmitter and cholinesterase to break it down. the body continually produces cholinesterase. Some insecticides interfere with the normal action of these neurotransmitters. Although cholinesterase inhibition by carbamates is somewhat reversible. ACh can cause particular neurons to “fire. -3- . Upon each exposure to an organophosphate or carbamate insecticide.
resulting in continual nerve impulse transmission. Pyrethroids are synthetic versions of pyrethrins. insects must shed their skin in order to grow and to develop into their next life stage. specifically designed to be more stable in the environment (although still lasting only days or weeks). tremors. which closes the gate. preventing excessive stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). Avermectins bind to the chloride channel. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids are wellknown irritants of humans’ respiratory systems as well as of the skin and eyes. and others through blocking the production of a structural component of the exoskeleton. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids act on tiny channels through which sodium is pumped to cause excitation of neurons. -4- . Molting is necessary not only for the insect to grow. Avermectins activate the chloride channel. Bifenazate affects the GABA-gated chloride channel as an agonist. That is. and thus provide longer-lasting control. While they have a quick knock-down effect against insects. the GABA receptor has an inhibitory function at its site. Sodium Channel Modulators Pyrethrins are naturally-occurring compounds derived from members of the chrysanthemum family. so may not last long enough to kill the pest. They prevent the sodium channels from closing. Hormones play various roles in molting. Insects’ skin is a hard exoskeleton. Disruption of. The end result is overstimulation of the nervous system. death. which provides both protection and structure. or stop working with this class of insecticides. causing an inhibitory effect. Some insecticides target the insect’s growth and development processes through interfering with hormones. but also for the insect to reach the adult stage so that it can reproduce. Organochlorine insecticides of the cyclodiene type affect the chloride channel by inhibiting the GABA receptor. Thus there is nothing to stop the electrical charge from continuing down the neuron. and eventually. or interference with. when excessive.Chloride Channel Regulation Avermectins are derived from a soil microorganism and belong to a group called the macrolactones. results in the insect’s death. This channel normally blocks reactions in some nerves. As explained above. Growth and Development Unlike humans. also called the cuticle. When a cyclodiene insecticide binds to the GABA molecule. Applicators who have an allergic reaction to these insecticides must either increase the amount of personal protective equipment worn during handling. Nerve impulses are then unable to travel down the chloride channel. it causes the gate to have the same action as GABA would cause. which. the neurotransmitter can no longer close the chloride channel for which it acts as a gate. they are unstable in the environment. any of these hormones inactivates the molting process.
An insect poisoned with a CSI cannot make chitin and so cannot molt. Another hormone important in metamorphosis is ecdysone. causing the insect to be unable to molt. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is another insect development hormone. block the production of chitin. Energy Production All organisms must generate energy from the food they take in. After a certain amount of time. CSIs are very toxic to any organism that has an exoskeleton. attack the insect’s endocrine system. as discussed later in this leaflet. they store the energy from those nutrients in molecules known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The energy stored in the ATP molecules can then be used to do -5- . or changes. Nonspecific Growth Regulators The exact mode of action of the mite growth regulator hexythiazox is not wellunderstood. Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) Insect Growth Regulators. in areas where they could contaminate the environment. or IGRs. Insects poisoned with IGRs cannot molt or reproduce. Humans do not make or use the hormones insects use in molting. Adult mites are not killed. called chitin synthesis inhibitors. In a normal insect. such as crustaceans (shellfish). although adults exposed to residues may lay eggs that are not viable. azadirachtin also acts as a feeding deterrent. CSIs are not considered toxic to humans. The insecticide tebufenozide interferes with the production of ecdysone. Because of this. and the insect metamorphoses. However. Besides its ability to kill through interfering with growth and development. and eventually they die. if at all. IGRs are considered to have little human toxicity. the IGR is still circulating throughout its body and sending the signal to stay in the current stage. Hexythiazox kills the eggs before the mites hatch and also some immature mites. Because humans do not make chitin. Many of the currently available IGRs mimic a special protein called juvenile hormone. Some insecticides. the insect dies. which is derived from neem oil. Because molting must take place for the insect to reach the adult stage. and should be used with great care. into its next life stage. interferes with synthesis of PTTH. even though the insect may have stopped producing juvenile hormone. juvenile hormone is circulated throughout the insect’s body and “tells” the insect to stay in its current stage. As organisms digest the nutrients in the food they consume. which produces the hormones needed for growth and for development into an adult form. When an insect is poisoned by an IGR that mimics juvenile hormone. the insect stops producing juvenile hormone.Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors (CSIs) Chitin is an important component of the insect’s cuticle. The insecticide azadirachtin. a CSIpoisoned insect also cannot reproduce. the insect doesn’t receive the signal to metamorphose because. Eventually.
Its exact mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Different strains. In this case. oxidative phosphorylation is inhibited. feeding is affected through azadirachtin’s interference with phagostimulants. it cannot produce more energy from the food. it attacks the lining of the insect’s midgut and causes it to stop feeding and ultimately to die. OrganoRevised January 2006 (Orig. which are normally linked together. Initially. Cryolite. Two main processes in energy production. Azadirachtin acts as both a feeding deterrent and a growth regulator. growing. When this process is disrupted. as described below.chlorine insecticides of the aliphatic type interfere with electron transport. The end result for both groups is that the cell is unable to produce ATP for energy. the insect “runs out of steam. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a microbe that produces a crystal with a toxic effect against some insects. effectively shutting down the target organism’s ability to produce energy from its food. Some insecticides inhibit or disrupt energy production. are described below. or varieties. -6- . or synthesizing chemicals and structures that the body needs.” stops eating and even moving. and dies. and energy (ATP) cannot be stored for later use. Electron Transport Inhibition Electron transport is an important process in the production of energy in plants and animals. Pub. electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.the body’s work such as thinking. moving. is a non-specific feeding blocker. of Bt produce slightly different crystals which have selective toxicity against various insects. Metabolism Some insecticides block feeding. while pyrroles work by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport. the insect can mobilize enough stored energy to continue its basic functions. which play a role in normal feeding behavior of insects and related arthropods. Oxidative Phosphorylation Disruption Oxidative phosphorylation is the process through which ATP is synthesized in plants and animals. While it can eat and digest food in the initial stages after being poisoned. an inorganic insecticide. When Bt is eaten by a larva. Different classes of insecticides work through different mechanisms. Eventually. Organotin miticides inhibit oxidative phosphorylation directly.
Agri-Mek. Pylon) Organophosphate Microbial Cholinesterase inhibitor Insect midgut membrane disruptor Cholinesterase inhibitor GABA-gated chloride channel agonist (mimic) Sodium channel modulator Carbamate Hydrazine carboxylate Pyrethroid Nervous system Thiadiazine-type Growth and development Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Metabolic processes / Energy production Nervous system Nervous system Energy production Chitin synthesis inhibitor Carbamate Carbamate Carbamate Pyrrole Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Oxidative phosphorylation disruption – uncoupler chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) chlorpyrifos methyl (Reldan) cinnamaldehyde (Cinnacure. Chipco. Clinch. Affirm. Zephyr) acephate (Orthene) acetamiprid (Assail. Pirate. Dipel) bendiocarb (Garvox) bifenazate (Acramite. Courier) carbaryl (Sevin) carbofuran (Furadan) carbosulfan (Advantage) chlorfenapyr (Alert. Floramite) bifenthrin (Brigade.Common name and examples of trade names1 abamectin B1 (Advert. Empower. Neemex. possibly interference with glucose uptake or utilization -7- . Phagostimulant disruptor azinphos-methyl (Guthion) Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Trilogy) Class of pesticide Targeted system/process Nervous system Mode of action Avermectin Chloride channel activator Organophosphate Neonicotinoid Nervous system Nervous system Cholinesterase inhibitor Acetylcholine agonist (mimic) Carbamate Carbamate Botanical from neem oil Nervous system Nervous system Growth and development / Metabolic processes Nervous system Metabolic processes Nervous system Nervous system Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) inhibitor. Pristine) aldicarb (Temik) aldoxycarb (Standaz) azadirachtin (Azatin. Cinnamite) Organophosphate Organophosphate Botanical Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Exact mode of action not well understood. Vertimec. Avid. Talstar) buprofezin (Applaud. Capture.
Proclaim) endosulfan (Thiodan. Micromite) dimethoate (Rebelate) disulfoton (Di-Syston) emamectin benzoate (Denim. DeltaGard. Ripcord) cyromazine (Larvadex. Trigard) deltamethrin (Decis.Common name and examples of trade names1 clofentazine (Apollo. Cylense. Flythrin. Thionex. Cynoff. DeltaDust. Hallmark) Nervous system Sodium channel modulator -8- . Ovation) clothiamidin (Poncho) cryolite Class of pesticide Targeted system/process Growth and development Nervous system Metabolic processes Nervous system Mode of action Tetrazine mite growth inhibitor Neonicotinoid Inorganic – sodium aluminofluoride Pyrethroid Unknown or non-specific mode of action Acetylcholine agonist (mimic) Non-specific feeding blocker cyfluthrin (Baythroid. Suspend) diazinon dicofol (Kelthane) Pyrethroid Sodium channel modulator Substituted melamine (Triazine) Pyrethroid Growth and development Nervous system Chitin synthesis inhibitor Sodium channel modulator Organophosphate Organochlorine (Diphenyl aliphatic type) Benzoylurea Nervous system Energy production Cholinesterase inhibitor ) Electron transport inhibitor – Site II Chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Chloride channel activator diflubenzuron (Adept. Dimilin. Cymbush. Tempo) cyhexatin (Plictran) Sodium channel modulator Organotin Metabolic processes / Energy production Nervous system Oxidative phosphorylation disruptor – inhibitor cypermethrin (Ammo. Phaser) Growth and development Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Organophosphate Organophosphate Avermectin Chlorinated hydrocarbon – cyclodiene organochlorine Pyrethroid Nervous system GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist esfenvalerate (Asana. Barricade. Laser. Countdown.
Dynamite) Sodium channel modulator Electron transport inhibitor – Site I fenthion (Baycid. or by disruption of cellular membranes Electron transport inhibitor – Site II hexythiazox (Hexygon. Payoff) fluvalinate (Mavrik) gamma-cyhalothrin (Proaxis) halofenazide (Mach 2) Organophosphate Phenylpyrazole Pyrethroid Pyrethroid Pyrethroid Diacylhydrazine Cholinesterase inhibitor Chloride channel modulator Sodium channel modulator Sodium channel modulator Sodium channel modulator Ecdysone agonist/disruptor hexaflumuron (Conhex) Benzoylurea Chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) Unknown or non-specific mode of action Mechanical suffocation by blocking the breathing apparatus. Savey) horticultural oils Carboxamide mite growth inhibitor Petroleum-based products hydramethylnon (Amdro.Common name and examples of trade names1 ethyl parathion (Parathion) fenamiphos (Nemacur) Class of pesticide Targeted system/process Nervous system Nervous system Mode of action Organophosphate Organophosphate nematicide Organotin Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) Metabolic processes / Energy production Nervous system Growth and development Nervous system Metabolic processes / Energy production Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Growth and development Growth and development Growth and development Metabolic processes Oxidative phosphorylation disruptor – inhibitor fenitrothion (Sumithion) fenoxycarb (Comply) Organophosphate Insect growth regulator (IGR) Pyrethroid Pyrazole Cholinesterase inhibitor Juvenile hormone mimic fenpropathrin (Danitol) fenpyroximate (Akari. Siege) Amidinohydrazone Metabolic processes / Energy production Growth and development hydroprene (GenTrol) Insect growth regulator (IGR) Juvenile hormone mimic -9- . Baytex) fipronil (Regent) flucythrinate (Cybolt. Onager.
Premier. Marathon. Confidor. Merit.Common name and examples of trade names1 imidacloprid (Admire. Pryfon) kaolin (Surround) Class of pesticide Targeted system/process Nervous system Mode of action Neonicotinoid Acetylcholine agonist (mimic) Oxadiazine Nervous system Voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker Membrane disruption Fatty Acids Metabolic processes Nervous system General Organophosphate Repellent / protectant Pyrethroid Cholinesterase inhibitor Nontoxic attack/feeding barrier Sodium channel modulator lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand. Provado) indoxacarb (Avaunt. Advantage. Steward) insecticidal soap (M-Pede. Scimitar. W arrior) lindane Nervous system Benzenehexachloride isomer Benzoylurea Nervous system Sodium channel modulator lufenuron (Zyrox) Growth and development Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Growth and development Nervous system Chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Juvenile hormone mimic malathion methamidophos (Monitor) methidathion (Supracide) methiocarb (Mesurol) methomyl (Lannate) methoprene (Apex) Organophosphate Organophosphate Organophosphate Carbamate Carbamate Insect growth regulator (IGR) Organochlorine (Cyclodiene type) Diacylhydrazine insect growth regulator (IGR) Organophosphate methoxychlor GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist Ecdysone agonist/disruptor methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) Growth and development Nervous system methyl parathion (Penncap-M) mevinphos (Phosdrin) monocrotophos (Azodrin) Cholinesterase inhibitor Organophosphate Organophosphate Nervous system Nervous system Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor -10- . Gaucho. Safer’s Insecticidal Soap) isofenphos (Oftanol. Matador. Karate.
Pramex. Talcord) phorate (Thimet) phosmet (Imidan) prallethrin (Etoc) promecarb (Carbamult) propathrin (Danitol) propoxur (Baygon) pymetrozine (Chess. NaturaLyte. Neemix. Endeavor. Pedestal. Nylar. Success.Common name and examples of trade names1 naled (Dibrom) neem oil extract (Azatin. Metabolic processes / Energy production Nervous system Metabolic processes / Energy production Growth and development Metabolic processes / Energy production Nervous system Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Sodium channel modulator Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Selective feeding blocker pyrethrins pyridaben (Nexter. Astro. Fulfill. Rimon) oxamyl (Vydate) oxydemeton methyl (Metasystox-R) permethrin (Ambush. Coopex. Pounce. Outflank. Pyramite. Knack) rotenone Insect growth regulator (IGR) Botanical insecticide Juvenile hormone mimic Electron transport inhibitor – Site I spinosad (Entrust. Esteem. Distance. SpinTor. Sanmite) Pyrethrins Pyridazinone Sodium channel modulators Electron transport inhibitor – Site I pyriproxyfen (Archer. Trilogy) – see azadirachtin novaluron (Diamond. Tracer) Spinosyn Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist (mimic) -11- . Plenum) Class of pesticide Targeted system/process Nervous system Mode of action Organophosphate Cholinesterase inhibitor Benzoylurea insect growth regulator (IGR) Carbamate Organophosphate Growth and development Nervous system Nervous system Chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) Cholinesterase inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor Pyrethroid Nervous system Sodium channel modulator Organophosphate Organophosphate Pyrethroid Carbamate Carbamate Carbamate Pyridine azomethine Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system Nervous system.
edu/pips/ghindex. No assurance is made that the list is inclusive of all trade names for a given active ingredient. Ministry of Environment. Pollution Prevention and Pesticide Management Branch. Gilkeson. http://extoxnet. :Insecticide resistance management and quality cotton. Raze) thiacloprid (Calypso) thiamethoxam (Actara. References EXTOXNET Pesticide Information Profiles. accessed 01/25/2005. -12- . Mustang) Pyrethroid Sodium channel modulator Neonicotinoid Neonicotinoid Nervous system Nervous system Acetylcholine agonist (mimic) Acetylcholine agonist (mimic) Pyrethroid Nervous system Sodium channel modulator Pyrethroid Nervous system Sodium channel modulator 1 Trade names are provided solely as an aid to the reader. Pyranica) Electron transport inhibitor – Site I tefluthrin (Evict.html. Platinum) tralomethrin (Scout X-TRA. (Undated.” UC Statewide IPM Project.Common name and examples of trade names1 sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane) Class of pesticide Targeted system/process Metabolic processes / Energy production Nervous system Nervous system Growth and development Metabolic processes / Energy production Nervous system Mode of action Fumigant Disruption of the glycolysis and fatty acid cycles sulprofos (Bolstar) tau-fluvalinate (Mavrik) tebufenozide (Confirm) Organophosphate Pyrethroid Diacylhydrazine insect growth regulator (IGR) Pyrazole Cholinesterase inhibitor Sodium channel modulator Ecdysone agonist/disruptor tebufenpyrad (M asai. Tralex) zeta-cypermethrin (Fury. National Pesticide Telecommunication Network Fact Sheets.orst. 3 pp. Lands and Parks. Various. 2004.ca/epd/ipm/docs/tablcont.gov.bc. Fireban. http://wlapwww. British Columbia. LA and RW Adams.) Integrated Pest Management Manual for Structural Pests in British Columbia. Cruiser. Force. Goodell. PB. Canada.html accessed 01/24/2005.
ifas. Technical information – Pesticides.htm. accessed 04/06/2005.html.asp. regulation. 2001. accessed 04/06/2005. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). “Mergers.2. Resistance Management groups . “Pyridaben. Ware. http://schoolipm. CO.Insecticides. Sclar.” US EPA. accessed 04/06/2005. W. LL. 2 pp.” Proc. 76th Ann.epa. N.org/Index.colostate. G Cook.html.” Fed. Conf. Univ. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). “Neem: Mode of action of compounds present in extracts and formulations of Azadirachta indica seeds and their efficacy to pests of ornamental plants and to non-target species. Gainesville.Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. 65(136):43704-43713. resistance management. Orchard Pest & Disease Mgt. “Pymetrozine pesticide tolerance filing. Kingston. Appendix 6.html. FL. CA. http://www. S Kijima. accessed 04/06/2005.1. (Undated. Pesticide Action Network (PAN).edu/index.org/Protected/AMT/AMT27/Text/Other/ConferenceReport.edu/Depts/Entomology/courses/en570/papers_1994/sclar. 2000. Ag Labelling Code. 2002. Willoughby. SM and PG Koehler.” University of Florida. GW and DM Whitacre.entsoc. 04/06/2005. “Avaunt (indoxacarb): A new mode of action insecticide for control of several key orchard pests. San Diego.ufl. MeisterPro Information Resources. Australia. Larson. Washington. 2004. Pesticide Database. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). OR. 1994.org/resources/moa. 2000. accessed 01/24/2005. http://www. 4th Ed. 2001. and D Sherrod. 2005.” http://www. 63(194):53902-53911. 09/12/2005. December 10. Portland. DS. and new product approaches: the odyssey continues for industry.pesticideinfo.” Informal Conference during the Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/ingredients/tech_docs/red_100104. http://www. McKinley. Valles.) “School IPM.” Fed. Ft. 2001. OH. “Mode of action classification v 4. Reg. An Introduction to Insecticides. 1998. Reg. Collins. pesticide tolerance related material.” Colorado ST. -13- . http://www. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. DC. accessed 01/24/2005. “Kaolin (100104) Registration Eligibility Document.html.irac-online..
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