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Knowledge Out sourcing
“ LET EVERY ONE
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Publi sher : DI NENDRAN S
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GSM Planning & Engineering.
GSM Reference Model
A
MS MS BTS
BSC
Um
Abis
MSC HLR
EI R
VLR
AuC
VLR
OMC
MSC PSTN I SDN
E
F
C
B
D
G
General Planning Process
Mobilit y and t raf fic models
for t he considered area
Equipment quant it y
(BTS, BSC, MSC, links, ...)
Sites positioning
(radio planning)
BTS layout and
charact erist ics
Frequency
plan
Frequency
allocation
Dimensioning
(Erlang, QoS)
BSS design
(sit e posit ions and
int erconnect ion net work)
NSS, I N, WAP design
( equipment posit ions and
int erconnect ion net work)
Global net work design
interconnection
BSCs and MSCs BTSs and BSCs
interconnection
Interconnection with
other networks
Planning Process
• Business Plan
• No. of Subscribers
• Traffic per subscribers
• Subs distribution
• GOS
• Spectrum availability
• Frequency Reuse
• Types of coverage
• RF parameters
• Field strength studies
• Available sites
• Site survey
• Business Plan
• No. of Subscribers
• Traffic per subscribers
• Subs distribution
• GOS
• Spectrum availability
• Frequency Reuse
• Types of coverage
• RF parameters
• Field strength studies
• Available sites
• Site survey
Capacity
Studies
Capacity
Studies
Coverage &
C/I study;
Search Areas
Coverage &
C/I study;
Search Areas
• Plan Verification
• Quality Check
• Update documentation
• Plan Verification
• Quality Check
• Update documentation
Initial Design
Plan
Implementation
Plan
Implementation
Monitor
Network
Monitor
Network
Network
Optimisation
Network
Optimisation
• Capacity Studies
• Coverage Plan and Coverage Studies
• Frequency plans and Interference Studies
• Antenna Systems& Orientation Studies
• BSS parameter planning
• Database and documentation of approved sites
• Expansion plans
• Capacity Studies
• Coverage Plan and Coverage Studies
• Frequency plans and Interference Studies
• Antenna Systems& Orientation Studies
• BSS parameter planning
• Database and documentation of approved sites
• Expansion plans
* * * *
* * * *
Acquisition of
Sites
Acquisition of
Sites
and re-design
GSM PLANNING: THE BASIC PROCESS
1. CAPACITY PLANNING
2. COVERAGE PLANNING
4. EQUIPMENT PLANNING
3. PARAMETER PLANNING
5. OPTIMIZATION.
CELLULAR MOBILE RADIO
SYSTEM DESIGN
• Concept of frequency reuse channels
• Co-channel interference reduction factor
• Desired carrier to interference ratio
• Hand off mechanism
• Cell splitting
Note:Limitation in the system is the frequency
resource
CELLULAR MOBILE RADIO
SYSTEM DESIGN
Challenge is to serve the greatest number of
customers
1.How many customers can we serve in a busy
hour ?
2.How many customers can we take into our
system?
3.How many frequency channels do we need?
GSM NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS - I
• Service Area
• Estimation of traffic demand
• Available frequency resources.
• Evolving an optimum coverage scheme
of placing the cells over the entire
service area so as to provide complete
mobility to the subscribers.
GSM NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS- II
• Traffic demand estimation
-Population distribution
-Car usage distribution
-Income level distribution
-Land usage distribution
-Telephone usage distribution.
GSM NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS-III
• Estimation of Cell Radius
– Service Area
• Terrain conditions
• Density of foilage
• Man made structures
– Signal level at an unit distance from base
station
– Signal strength decay per decade of distance.
GSM NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS-IV
• MOBILE RADIO NETWORK PLANNING
SOFTWARE TOOLS
– Propagation Predictions based upon various
propagation models e.g OKUMARA- HATA,
WALFISCH-IKEGAMI or special external models
written by the users
– Interference analysis
– Automatic frequency planning
– Coverage analysis by contour plots
– Comparison with actual radio field measurements
– Efficient tool to load,analyze and display system
performance evaluation
Traffic Model
Call Mix for other services
• FAX/DATA subscribers - 5% in 40mE cities
and 2% in other cities.
• IN subscribers - 70% of total subs
– Prepaid subscribers - 80% of IN subs
– Freephone (FPH) - 5%
– MVPN - 5%
– Premium Rate (PRM) - 5%
– Universal Access No. - 5%
Traffic Model
• Voice Mail - 100% of subscribers.
• SMSC should be dimensioned for 50% of the
total subscribers with:
– 2 messages per subscriber per day
– Max. length of SMS message 160 chars.
• WAP subscribers - 10% for high traffic cities
and 5% for others with:
– 50% on Circuit Switched Data (CSD)
– 50% on SMS
Design Parameters
• Grade of Service
– MSC-MSC/PSTN - 1%
– MSC-BSS - 0.5%
– Um interface - 2%
– BSC-BTS - 0%
• Handover
– Total HO - 50%
– Inter MSC - 5%
– Inter BSC - 10%
– Intra BSC - 85%
Design Parameters
• Location Update
– Normal
• Intra MSC (New LAI) - 0.3 nr/sub
• Intra MSC (new registration) - 0.18 nr/sub
– Periodic - 0.5 nr/sub
– Attach
• Subscribers registered earlier - 0.25 nr/sub
• New registration - 0.1 nr/sub
– Detach
GSM Cell Planning Requirement
• Provision of required Capacity
• Optimum use of the available frequency spectrum
• Minimum number of cell sites
• Provision of easy and smooth expansion of the network in future
• Provision of adequate Coverage of the given area,
for a minimum specified level of interference
Example : Basic Planning (1/3)
• Say the service provider wants to launch his network
with 20 sites or for 10,000 subscribers in a city
• The following assumptions are made in the planning process :
• 25 mE average traffic per subscriber
• Grade of Service 2%
• Mobile to Mobile traffic 10%
• Mobile to PSTN traffic 70%
• Land to Mobile traffic 20%
• Average call duration 90 seconds
Contd..
Example : Basic Planning (1/3) contd….
Traffic capacity of 1 carrier with 7 TCHs = 2.94E
(approximately 120 subscribers ); a 1/1/1 site will have
capacity of approximately 350 subscribers.
Traffic capacity of 2 carrier with 15 TCHs = 8.2E
(approximetly 330 subscribers). A 2/2/2 site will have
a capacity of about 990 subscribers.
Example - Basic Planning (2/3)
Case 1: For specified number of sites (20)
• 1/1/1 sites (350 subs per site) … 7000 subscribers.
• 2/2/2 sites (990 subs per site) … 19800 subscribers.
Case 2: For specified capacity requirement (10000)
• 1/1/1 sites….10000/350 …. 30 sites.
• 2/2/2 sites….10000/990 …. 11sites.
For 10000 capacity, at 25mE traffic, the total traffic
is 250E. We assume a hypothetical distribution of
traffic as shown below:
• We may choose 2/2/2 sites for first 3area types and 1/1/1 sites for the rest.
• This makes a total of 18 sites. After customer’s approval,site selection is done.
Example - Basic Planning (3/3)
Area Type % tfc tfc 1/1/1 2/2/2
Urban high density 20 50E 6 2
Urban 30 75E 10 3
Industrial 15 37.5E 5 2
Suburban 25 62.5E 7 3
Highways 5 12.5E 2 1
Quasi open 5 12.5E 2 1
Total 100 250E 32 12
Cell Planning (1/2)
• What is the area to be covered ?
• How many sites are required for this area ?
(cell radius of 1km means an approximate coverage
area of 3 Sq.kms).
• Do we need so many sites? Can some sites be bigger?
• Decide number of sites based on capacity and coverage
requirements.
• Divide city into clutter types such as:
> Urban
> Suburban
> Quasi Open
> Water.
• Identify “search areas” covering all clutter types.
• Customer selects a few sample sites.
Cell Planning (2/2)
• Survey sites with reference to
> Clutter heights
> Vegetation levels
> Obstructions
> Sector orientation
> Building strength and other Civil requirements
• Prepare Power budgets
• Conduct Propagation tests
• Calculate coverage probabilities
• Verify against predictions and modify planning tool
parameters
• Prepare final coverage map
Cell Planning and C/I issues
Assume all cell are of the same size
All cells transmit the same power.
The path loss is not free space and is governed by the
attenuation constant ¸ .
The reuse distance D and cell radius R are related to
the C/I as given below:
(D/R)
¸
= 6 (C/I)
The C/I is in absolute value.
SELECTING A PROPER CELLSITE
When a cell site is selected
• Determine whether an UHF TV station is
nearby and whether any new ongoing
construction would affect the coverage
• Check the local noise level and no spurious
signals fall in the freq.band
• Existing multi-antenna tower can be used with
proper earthing and shielding
RF LINK DESIGN
Radio link design is one of the most important problem
for design engineers
Fundamental parameters:
1.Transmitted power
2.Co-channel reuse design
In order to provide quality transmission ie.a specified
bit error rate (BER) and allowable outage is
decided.(outage is defined as the fraction of the
service area over which the required transmission
quality cannot be maintained within the service area)
CELLULAR CONCEPTS-
ESSENTIAL FEATURES
• Frequency reuse-refers to the use of radio channels on the same
carrier frequency to cover different areas,which are physically
separated from each other sufficiently to ensure that co-channel
interference is not objectionable.
• Cell splitting-when the demand for service exceeds the number
of channels allocated to a particular cell, cell splitting is used to
handle the additional growth in traffic in within the particular
cell.Cell splitting involves a revision of cell boundaries, so that
the local area formerly regarded as a single cell can now contain
a number of smaller cells.These cells are called micro cells.The
transmitted power and antenna height of these base stations are
correspondingly reduced and the same set of frequencies are
reused.
Freq Reuse & C/I Requirement
N
D/R= \3N
C/I= 10log(1/6(D/R)
3.5
3 3.00 8.917 dB
4 3.46 13.29 dB
7 4.58 21.80 dB
9 5.19 25.62 dB
12 6.00 29.99 dB
9
CO-CHL INTERFERENCE
D
R
A Multi Cell Environment
Frequency Planning Aspects
A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
A1
A2
A3 B1
B2
B3
D1
D2
D3
C1
C2
C3
Traffic Capacity of Cells
Cont rol CCH No. of TRX No. of TCH
1 1 7
2 2 14
2 3 22
25mE SUBS
SUPPORTED
TFC CAP I N
ERLANG*
40mE SUBS
SUPPORTED
118 2.94 74
328 8.20 205
596 14.9 373
3 4 29
3 5 37
3 6 45
840 21 525
1132 28.3 708
1424 35.6 890
* GOS AT 2%
Traffic Capacity of BTS
* GOS AT 2%
No. of TRX
BTS
CONFGN
No. of
CELLS
3 1-1-1 3
4 1-1-2 3
5 1-2-2 3
25mE SUBS
SUPPORTED
No. of A-bis
TS reqd.
40mE SUBS
SUPPORTED
354 9 221
564 11 353
774 13 484
6 2-2-2 3
7 2-2-3 3
8 2-3-3 3
984 15 615
1252 17 783
1520 19 950
9 3-3-3 3
10 3-3-4 3
1788 21 1118
2032 23 1270
Traffic Capacity of BTS..contd..
* GOS AT 2%
No. of TRX
BTS
CONFGN
No. of
CELLS
11 3-4-4 3
12 4-4-4 3
13 4-4-5 3
25mE SUBS
SUPPORTED
No. of A-bis
TS reqd.
40mE SUBS
SUPPORTED
2276 25 1423
2520 27 1575
2812 30 1758
14 4-5-5 3
15 5-5-5 3
16 5-5-6 3
3104 33 1940
3396 36 2123
3688 38 2305
17 5-6-6 3
18 6-6-6 3
3980 40 2488
4272 42 2670
Traffic Capacity of BTS..contd..
* GOS AT 2%
No. of TRX
BTS
CONFGN
No. of
CELLS
1 Omni 1 1
2 Omni 2 1
3 Omni 3 1
25mE SUBS
SUPPORTED
No. of A-bis
TS reqd.
40mE SUBS
SUPPORTED
118 3 74
328 5 205
596 7 373
4 Omni 4 1
5 Omni 5 1
6 Omni 6 1
840 9 525
1132 11 708
1424 13 890
2 2000/ 2C 1
2 HW 1-1 2
328 5 205
235 6 147
A-bis Connectivity Types
Multi-drop configuration
BSC
MSC
Star configuration
BSC
MSC
BSC
MSC
Ring configuration
BSC
MSC
Urban star configuration
Basic Planning
• For 30000 lines @40mE traffic, the total traffic would be 1200E.
Assuming the IMPCS specification for traffic distribution:
TYPE OF AREA
% OF
TFC
URBAN I NDOOR 40%
URBAN I NCAR 40%
URBAN OUTDOOR 20%
1/ 1/ 1
TFC I N
ERLANG*
2/ 2/ 2
54 480 E 20
54 480 E 20
27 240 E 10
TOTAL 100% 127 1200 E 50
6/ 6/ 6 5/ 5/ 5
5 7
5 7
3 3
13 17
• Decision on choice of BTS type and TRX configuration is very crucial to
provide the specified capacity and coverage
Coverage Model
• Indoor Coverage:
– Commercial areas, airports, etc
• In-car coverage
– Residential areas, industrial areas, roads, all
national/state highways, by-passes and
important rail routes, etc.
• Outdoor coverage
– Remaining areas of the coverage area.
Coverage Model
HI GH TRAFFI C CI TI ES COVERAGE OTHER CI TI ES
40% I NDOOR 25%
40% I NCAR 40%
20% OUTDOOR 35%
TRAFFI C DENSI TY
SI GNAL LEVEL MEASURED AT STREET COVERAGE
SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -75 dBm I NDOOR
SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -85 dBm I NCAR
SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -95 dBm I N 90% OF
TOTAL COVERAGE AREA
OUTDOOR
SI GNAL LEVEL FOR 95% OF THE TI ME FOR THE COVERAGE
Coverage Planning
• Involves designing two aspects of Radio:
– Link Budget
– Power Balance
• LINK BUDGET brings out whether the uplink
or the downlink is the limiting factor for
coverage.
• POWER BALANCE ensures that the coverage
of DL is equal to that of UL
RADIO LINK ANALYSIS
• ‘Link budget’ or ‘link power budget’ is the totalling
of all the gains and losses incurred in operating a
communication link.It provides a detailed accounting
of three broadly defined items:
1.Apportionment of the resources available to the
transmitter and the receiver
2.Sources responsible for the loss of signal power
3.Sources of noise
RF LINK BUDGET UL DL
TRANSMITTING END MS BTS
Tx RF Output 33 dBm 43 dBm
Body Loss -2.0dB 0dB
Combiner Loss 0dB 0dB
Feeder Loss (@2dB/100m) 0dB 1.5dB
Connector Losses 0dB 2dB
Tx Antenna Gain 0dB 17.5dB
EIRP 31dBm (A) 57dBm ( C)
RECEIVING END BTS MS
Rx sensitivity -107 dBm -102 dBm
Rx. Antenna gain 17.5dB 0dB
Diversity Gain 3dB 0dB
Connector Loss 2dB 0dB
Feeder Loss 1.5dB 0dB
Interference Degradation Margin 3dB 3dB
Body Loss 0dB 3dB
Duplexer Loss 0dB 0dB
Rx Power -121dBm -96dBm
Fade Margin 4dB 4dB
Required Isotropic Rx .Power -117dBm (B) -92dBm ( D)
Maximum Permissible Path 148dB 149dB
RF LINK BUDGET
Propagation Loss
• L
FS
= 10 log | ( 4 t d / ì)
2
|
• L
FS
= 32.44 +20 log (f )+ 20 log (d)
Where f = frequency in MHz
d = distance in Kms
• L
FS
= Lo + 10 ¸ log ( d)
Where ¸ is the SLOPE of the attenuation
characteristic
B
T
S
Multipath Environment
Classical Propagation Models
• Basically curve fitting exercises
• Okumara
• Basically curve fitting exercisesCosat 231 - Hata
(similar to Hata:for 1500-2000Mhz)
• Walfisch - Ikegami Cost 231
• Walfisch - Xia JTC
• XLOS
Okumara Model
The Okumara tests are valid for :
• 150-2000 Mhz
• 1-100 Kms
• BTS heights of 30 -100 meters
• MS antenna height , typically 1.5 m (1-10m)
• The results of Okumara tests were graphically represented
PROPAGATION MODELS
• Hata Model
• The basic equation for the 150-1000 MHz band is given by
• Lp=69.55+ 26.16 log(f) -13.82 log (hbts)-a (hm)
+ {44.9- 6.55log(hbts)} log(d)
Where f=frequency in MHz
Hbts =BTS antenna height in meters (30-100m)
d=distance in Kms (1 to 20 Kms)
hm=mobile antenna height in meters (1-10m)
a(hm)=correction for mobile height if hmis >1.5 meters
=3.2 [log(11.75hm)-4.97 for Dense urban and
={1.1 log(f)-0.7} hm-{1.56 log (f)-0.8} for Urban areas
Okumara-Hata Model
The path loss equation can be rewritten as :
•Lp=Lo + {44.9-6.55 log (hbts)} log(d)
• Where Lo=[69.55+26.16 log(f)-13.82 log (hbts)-a(hm)].
OR more conveniently
•Lp=Lo +10 ¸ log (d)
¸ is the SLOPE and is ={44.9-6.55log (hbts)} /10
¸ typically varies from 3.5 to 4 for urban environments.
Calculate the path loss in a BTS site in an Urban environment,
given the following parameters
• Frequency : 900 MHz
• Cell radius : 5Kms
• BTS antenna height 30 m
• Mobile antenna height 3m.
• Also calculate the Attenuation slope for this site.
• Lp =[69.55+26.16 log(f)- 13.82 log (hBTS) -a (hm)]+ [44.9 -6.55 log (hBTS)] log(d).
• a(hm) = { 1.1 log (f) -0.7 } hm-{1.56 log (f) -0.8}
26.16 log (f) = 77.28 dB
13.82 log (hBTS) = 20.41dB
[44.9-6.55log (hBTS)]log (d) = 24.62 dB
a(hm) = 3.81 dB
Path Loss Lp =69.55+77.28 -20.41 +24.62 -3.81 = 147.23dB.
Attenuation Slope ¸ = [44.9-6.55 log (hBTS )]/10
=35.225/10 =3.5225.
Propagation…Okumara-Hata Model
The receive signal strength RSS is given by :
RSS = ERP- {Lo +10 ¸ log(d)}.
The distance d can be calculated from :
d= 10
[ERP -Lo-RSS]/10 ¸
Or, from the equation for RSS,
Log (d) =[ERP-RSS-Lo]/10 ¸
ie.., d=antilog [ERP-RSS-Lo)/10 ¸ ]
Lo=69.55+26.16 log (f)-13.82 log(hbts)-a(hm).
Example- To Calculate cell radius (d)
Calculate the cell radius for a site that has:
Frequency : 900 MHz BTS height: 30meters
Mobile height: 3 meters BTS ERP: 55dBm
Expected RSS at the cell boundary (d=R) = -75dBm.
Lo= 122.61 dB; ¸ = 3.5 (calculated in the previous example).
122.61 -75+35 log (d) =55 dBm.
log (d) = 7.39/35 =0.2111
Therefore d= antilog (0.2111) =1.62 Kms.
Calculating the Signal Strength
• After the terrain has been acquired in the database for the entire
site signal strength calculations can be made on the individual
stations
• The propagation model calculates the path loss using the
following components.
– Basic Path Loss - Okumura’s Model
– Diffraction Effects - Picquenard’s Multiple Knife Edge Diffraction
model
– Water Enhancement
– Antenna Patterns, Tilt amount, Tilt type
– Curvature of the Earth
– Morphology
Morphological Categories
Water
Bushes
Wet Farm land
Dense Residential Area
Heavy Urban Trees
Dry Farm Land
Light Residential Area
Light Urban
Heavy Urban
Location Area Planning
HLR
MSC/VLR
MSC/VLR
1 location area = several cells
Drive Test Analysis
• Drive test gathers accurate propagation data for candidate
site for evaluation and approval.
– Uses both Omni-directional and sector antenna.
– Radiation center and ERP modeling.
– Measurement integration performed to improve modeling
efficiency.
• Based on drive data and prediction, the optimum antenna
radiation center, ERP and sector orientation determined.
BSS Parameters setting
• GSM base station parameters setting achieves the
following functions
• MS measurement of serving and neighbouring stations
• Call set up - Call Processing, Paging, System Access, & Short Message
Service.
• Radio functions: DTX, DRX, Frequency Hopping
• BTS Radio Resource Management
• Mobiles’ uplink Power Control
• Timing Advance
• Handover - Based on PWRBGT (Power budget), RXLEV, RXQUAL,
distance and intra-cell
Signal Variations
F
a
s
t

F
a
d
i
n
g
Slow Fades
Long term
average
Distance
RSS
Standard Deviation
Example
The RSS values obtained from a drive test in a BTS area in a city
- 80 dBm , - 79 dBm , - 77 dBm , -82.5 dBm , - 84.35 dB - 78.65 dBm
• Mean RSS “M” = -79.97 dBm
• Standard deviation o = 6.068
Confidence Interval
M- 3o M- 2o M- o M M+o M+2o M+3o
99.72 %
95.44 %
68 %
Probability
• Probability (P) that a random sample of RSS will have
a value of - 92dBm or better (ASSUME M=-79 & o= 8)
• Compute z =( x-M)/ o = -92 -( - 79 )/8 = - 1.625
• Refer the standard table for normal distribution curve
we get P=94.74%
• Probability that RSS value would be better than -92 dBmis
P (RSS
< -92 dBm
) = 94.74%
Typical values for building penetration loss
• If the minimum RF signal strength for 90 % coverage on
the street is ,say - 92 dBm , then for 75 % in building
coverage in a central business area ,we should have a
signal level of - 72 dBm on the road;
This shall provide - 92 dBm inside the building.
Area 75%
Coverage
50 %
Coverage
Central Business area
 20 dB  15 dB
Residential area
 15 dB  12 dB
Industrial area
 12 dB  10 dB
In Car 6 to 8 dB

GSM Planning & Engineering.

GSM Reference Model
G

A
Um
MS

OMC B

VLR D

VLR

Abis
BTS BSC

MSC C E MSC PSTN

HLR F

AuC

ISDN

EIR

.. BSC. MSC. QoS) Equipment quantity (BTS. links. WAP design (equipment positions and interconnection network) Interconnection with other networks Global network design .. IN.) Sites positioning (radio planning) BTSs and BSCs interconnection BTS layout and characteristics Frequency allocation Frequency plan BSS design (site positions and interconnection network) BSCs and MSCs interconnection NSS.General Planning Process Mobility and traffic models for the considered area Dimensioning (Erlang.

of Subscribers •• Traffic per subscribers Traffic per subscribers •• Subs distribution Subs distribution •• GOS GOS •• Spectrum availability Spectrum availability •• Frequency Reuse Frequency Reuse •• Types of coverage Types of coverage •• RF parameters RF parameters •• Field strength studies Field strength studies •• Available sites Available sites •• Site survey Site survey Acquisition of Acquisition of Sites Sites Capacity Capacity Studies Studies ** Initial Design and re-design •• Plan Verification Plan Verification •• Quality Check Quality Check •• Update documentation Update documentation Plan Plan Implementation Implementation Monitor Monitor Network Network Coverage & Coverage & C/I study. Search Areas Search Areas Network Network Optimisation Optimisation ** •• Capacity Studies Capacity Studies •• Coverage Plan and Coverage Studies Coverage Plan and Coverage Studies •• Frequency plans and Interference Studies Frequency plans and Interference Studies •• Antenna Systems& Orientation Studies Antenna Systems& Orientation Studies •• BSS parameter planning BSS parameter planning •• Database and documentation of approved sites Database and documentation of approved sites •• Expansion plans Expansion plans . of Subscribers No. C/I study.Planning Process •• Business Plan Business Plan •• No.

OPTIMIZATION. PARAMETER PLANNING 4. CAPACITY PLANNING 2. COVERAGE PLANNING 3.GSM PLANNING: THE BASIC PROCESS 1. . EQUIPMENT PLANNING 5.

CELLULAR MOBILE RADIO SYSTEM DESIGN • Concept of frequency reuse channels • Co-channel interference reduction factor • Desired carrier to interference ratio • Hand off mechanism • Cell splitting Note:Limitation in the system is the frequency resource .

How many customers can we take into our system? 3.How many customers can we serve in a busy hour ? 2.CELLULAR MOBILE RADIO SYSTEM DESIGN Challenge is to serve the greatest number of customers 1.How many frequency channels do we need? .

I • • • • Service Area Estimation of traffic demand Available frequency resources. Evolving an optimum coverage scheme of placing the cells over the entire service area so as to provide complete mobility to the subscribers.GSM NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS . .

GSM NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS.II • Traffic demand estimation -Population distribution -Car usage distribution -Income level distribution -Land usage distribution -Telephone usage distribution. .

GSM NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS-III • Estimation of Cell Radius – Service Area • Terrain conditions • Density of foilage • Man made structures – Signal level at an unit distance from base station – Signal strength decay per decade of distance. .

GSM NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS-IV • MOBILE RADIO NETWORK PLANNING SOFTWARE TOOLS – Propagation Predictions based upon various propagation models e.HATA. WALFISCH-IKEGAMI or special external models written by the users – Interference analysis – Automatic frequency planning – Coverage analysis by contour plots – Comparison with actual radio field measurements – Efficient tool to load.analyze and display system performance evaluation .g OKUMARA.

5% Premium Rate (PRM) .5% in 40mE cities and 2% in other cities.5% .Traffic Model Call Mix for other services • FAX/DATA subscribers .70% of total subs – – – – – Prepaid subscribers . .5% Universal Access No.80% of IN subs Freephone (FPH) . • IN subscribers .5% MVPN .

10% for high traffic cities and 5% for others with: – 50% on Circuit Switched Data (CSD) – 50% on SMS . • SMSC should be dimensioned for 50% of the total subscribers with: – 2 messages per subscriber per day – Max.100% of subscribers. length of SMS message 160 chars.Traffic Model • Voice Mail . • WAP subscribers .

85% • Handover .50% .5% .5% .10% .2% .1% .Design Parameters • Grade of Service – – – – – – – – MSC-MSC/PSTN MSC-BSS Um interface BSC-BTS Total HO Inter MSC Inter BSC Intra BSC .0.0% .

18 nr/sub – Periodic – Attach .5 nr/sub • Subscribers registered earlier .25 nr/sub • New registration .0.0.1 nr/sub – Detach .0.0.Design Parameters • Location Update – Normal • Intra MSC (New LAI) • Intra MSC (new registration) .3 nr/sub .0.

GSM Cell Planning Requirement
• • • • Provision of required Capacity Optimum use of the available frequency spectrum Minimum number of cell sites Provision of adequate Coverage of the given area, for a minimum specified level of interference Provision of easy and smooth expansion of the network in future

Example : Basic Planning (1/3)
• Say the service provider wants to launch his network with 20 sites or for 10,000 subscribers in a city • The following assumptions are made in the planning process : • 25 mE average traffic per subscriber • Grade of Service • Mobile to Mobile traffic • Mobile to PSTN traffic • Land to Mobile traffic • Average call duration 2% 10% 70% 20% 90 seconds Contd..

Example : Basic Planning (1/3)

contd….

Traffic capacity of 1 carrier with 7 TCHs = 2.94E (approximately 120 subscribers ); a 1/1/1 site will have capacity of approximately 350 subscribers. Traffic capacity of 2 carrier with 15 TCHs = 8.2E (approximetly 330 subscribers). A 2/2/2 site will have a capacity of about 990 subscribers.

Basic Planning (2/3) Case 1: For specified number of sites (20) • 1/1/1 sites (350 subs per site) … 7000 subscribers. • 2/2/2 sites….10000/350 …. • 2/2/2 sites (990 subs per site) … 19800 subscribers. 30 sites. . Case 2: For specified capacity requirement (10000) • 1/1/1 sites…. 11sites.Example .10000/990 ….

5E 62.5E 250E 1/1/1 2/2/2 6 10 5 7 2 2 32 2 3 2 3 1 1 12 • We may choose 2/2/2 sites for first 3area types and 1/1/1 sites for the rest.site selection is done. We assume a hypothetical distribution of traffic as shown below: Area Type Urban high density Urban Industrial Suburban Highways Quasi open Total % tfc 20 30 15 25 5 5 100 tfc 50E 75E 37.Basic Planning (3/3) For 10000 capacity. at 25mE traffic.Example .5E 12. . the total traffic is 250E. After customer’s approval.5E 12. • This makes a total of 18 sites.

Cell Planning (1/2) • What is the area to be covered ? • How many sites are required for this area ? (cell radius of 1km means an approximate coverage area of 3 Sq. • Divide city into clutter types such as: > Urban > Suburban > Quasi Open > Water. • Identify “search areas” covering all clutter types.kms). • Customer selects a few sample sites. • Do we need so many sites? Can some sites be bigger? • Decide number of sites based on capacity and coverage requirements. .

Cell Planning (2/2) • Survey sites with reference to > Clutter heights > Vegetation levels > Obstructions > Sector orientation > Building strength and other Civil requirements • Prepare Power budgets • Conduct Propagation tests • Calculate coverage probabilities • Verify against predictions and modify planning tool parameters • Prepare final coverage map .

Cell Planning and C/I issues Assume all cell are of the same size All cells transmit the same power. The path loss is not free space and is governed by the attenuation constant  . The reuse distance D and cell radius R are related to the C/I as given below: (D/R)  = 6 (C/I) The C/I is in absolute value. .

band • Existing multi-antenna tower can be used with proper earthing and shielding .SELECTING A PROPER CELLSITE When a cell site is selected • Determine whether an UHF TV station is nearby and whether any new ongoing construction would affect the coverage • Check the local noise level and no spurious signals fall in the freq.

(outage is defined as the fraction of the service area over which the required transmission quality cannot be maintained within the service area) .Transmitted power 2.a specified bit error rate (BER) and allowable outage is decided.Co-channel reuse design In order to provide quality transmission ie.RF LINK DESIGN Radio link design is one of the most important problem for design engineers Fundamental parameters: 1.

which are physically separated from each other sufficiently to ensure that co-channel interference is not objectionable. cell splitting is used to handle the additional growth in traffic in within the particular cell.These cells are called micro cells. • Cell splitting-when the demand for service exceeds the number of channels allocated to a particular cell. so that the local area formerly regarded as a single cell can now contain a number of smaller cells. .Cell splitting involves a revision of cell boundaries.CELLULAR CONCEPTSESSENTIAL FEATURES • Frequency reuse-refers to the use of radio channels on the same carrier frequency to cover different areas.The transmitted power and antenna height of these base stations are correspondingly reduced and the same set of frequencies are reused.

62 dB 29.46 4.19 6.29 dB 21.58 5.5 3 4 7 9 12 9 3.99 dB .00 8.917 dB 13.Freq Reuse & C/I Requirement N D/R= 3N C/I= 10log(1/6(D/R)3.00 3.80 dB 25.

CO-CHL INTERFERENCE D R A Multi Cell Environment .

Frequency Planning Aspects A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 A1 A2 D1 D2 D3 C1 C2 C3 B3 A3 B1 B2 .

9 21 28.3 35. of TCH 7 14 22 29 37 45 TFC CAP IN ERLANG* 2.94 8.Traffic Capacity of Cells No.6 25mE SUBS SUPPORTED 118 328 596 840 1132 1424 40mE SUBS SUPPORTED 74 205 373 525 708 890 . of TRX 1 2 3 4 5 6 * GOS AT 2% Control CCH 1 2 2 3 3 3 No.20 14.

9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25mE SUBS SUPPORTED 354 564 774 984 1252 1520 1788 2032 40mE SUBS SUPPORTED 221 353 484 615 783 950 1118 1270 . of TRX 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No.Traffic Capacity of BTS BTS CONFGN 1-1-1 1-1-2 1-2-2 2-2-2 2-2-3 2-3-3 3-3-3 3-3-4 * GOS AT 2% No. of A-bis TS reqd. of CELLS 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 No.

of TRX 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 No.. of A-bis TS reqd.. BTS CONFGN 3-4-4 4-4-4 4-4-5 4-5-5 5-5-5 5-5-6 5-6-6 6-6-6 * GOS AT 2% No.Traffic Capacity of BTS .contd. 25 27 30 33 36 38 40 42 25mE SUBS SUPPORTED 2276 2520 2812 3104 3396 3688 3980 4272 40mE SUBS SUPPORTED 1423 1575 1758 1940 2123 2305 2488 2670 . of CELLS 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 No.

of A-bis TS reqd. 3 5 7 9 11 13 5 6 25mE SUBS SUPPORTED 118 328 596 840 1132 1424 328 235 40mE SUBS SUPPORTED 74 205 373 525 708 890 205 147 .Traffic Capacity of BTS . BTS CONFGN Omni 1 Omni 2 Omni 3 Omni 4 Omni 5 Omni 6 2000/2C HW 1-1 * GOS AT 2% No.contd.. of CELLS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 No.. of TRX 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 2 No.

A-bis Connectivity Types BSC BSC MSC Multi-drop configuration MSC Star configuration Ring configuration BSC MSC MSC BSC Urban star configuration .

Assuming the IMPCS specification for traffic distribution: TYPE OF AREA URBAN INDOOR URBAN INCAR URBAN OUTDOOR TOTAL % OF TFC 40% 40% 20% 100% TFC IN ERLANG* 480 E 480 E 240 E 1200 E 1/1/1 54 54 27 127 2/2/2 20 20 10 50 5/5/5 7 7 3 17 6/6/6 5 5 3 13 • Decision on choice of BTS type and TRX configuration is very crucial to provide the specified capacity and coverage . the total traffic would be 1200E.Basic Planning • For 30000 lines @40mE traffic.

etc.Coverage Model • Indoor Coverage: – Commercial areas. by-passes and important rail routes. roads. • Outdoor coverage – Remaining areas of the coverage area. industrial areas. . etc • In-car coverage – Residential areas. airports. all national/state highways.

Coverage Model TRAFFIC DENSITY COVERAGE INDOOR INCAR OUTDOOR HIGH TRAFFIC CITIES 40% 40% 20% OTHER CITIES 25% 40% 35% SIGNAL LEVEL FOR 95% OF THE TIME FOR THE COVERAGE COVERAGE INDOOR INCAR OUTDOOR SIGNAL LEVEL MEASURED AT STREET SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -75 dBm SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -85 dBm SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -95 dBm IN 90% OF TOTAL COVERAGE AREA .

Coverage Planning • Involves designing two aspects of Radio: – Link Budget – Power Balance • LINK BUDGET brings out whether the uplink or the downlink is the limiting factor for coverage. • POWER BALANCE ensures that the coverage of DL is equal to that of UL .

It provides a detailed accounting of three broadly defined items: 1.Sources of noise .RADIO LINK ANALYSIS • ‘Link budget’ or ‘link power budget’ is the totalling of all the gains and losses incurred in operating a communication link.Sources responsible for the loss of signal power 3.Apportionment of the resources available to the transmitter and the receiver 2.

Power UL MS 33 dBm -2.5dB 57dBm ( C) MS -102 dBm 0dB 0dB 0dB 0dB 3dB 3dB 0dB -96dBm 4dB -92dBm ( D) Maximum Permissible Path 148dB 149dB . Antenna gain Diversity Gain Connector Loss Feeder Loss Interference Degradation Margin Body Loss Duplexer Loss Rx Power Fade Margin Required Isotropic Rx .5dB 2dB 17.5dB 3dB 0dB 0dB -121dBm 4dB -117dBm (B) DL BTS 43 dBm 0dB 0dB 1.0dB 0dB 0dB 0dB 0dB 31dBm (A) BTS -107 dBm 17.5dB 3dB 2dB 1.RF LINK BUDGET RF LINK BUDGET TRANSMITTING END Tx RF Output Body Loss Combiner Loss Feeder Loss (@2dB/100m) Connector Losses Tx Antenna Gain EIRP RECEIVING END Rx sensitivity Rx.

44 +20 log (f )+ 20 log (d) Where f = frequency in MHz d = distance in Kms • LFS = Lo + 10  log ( d) Where  is the SLOPE of the attenuation characteristic .Propagation Loss • LFS = 10 log  ( 4  d / )2  • LFS = 32.

Multipath Environment B T S .

Ikegami Cost 231 • Walfisch .Hata (similar to Hata:for 1500-2000Mhz) • Walfisch .Classical Propagation Models • Basically curve fitting exercises • Okumara • Basically curve fitting exercisesCosat 231 .Xia JTC • XLOS .

typically 1.5 m (1-10m) • The results of Okumara tests were graphically represented .Okumara Model The Okumara tests are valid for : • 150-2000 Mhz • 1-100 Kms • BTS heights of 30 -100 meters • MS antenna height .

9.6.1 log(f)-0.PROPAGATION MODELS • • • Hata Model The basic equation for the 150-1000 MHz band is given by Lp=69.16 log(f) -13.75hm)-4.56 log (f)-0.5 meters =3.97 for Dense urban and ={1.7} hm-{1.8} for Urban areas .55+ 26.82 log (hbts)-a (hm) + {44.2 [log(11.55log(hbts)} log(d) Where f=frequency in MHz Hbts =BTS antenna height in meters (30-100m) d=distance in Kms (1 to 20 Kms) hm=mobile antenna height in meters (1-10m) a(hm)=correction for mobile height if hm is >1.

5 to 4 for urban environments.55 log (hbts)} log(d) • Where Lo=[69. OR more conveniently •Lp=Lo +10  log (d)  is the SLOPE and is ={44.Okumara-Hata Model The path loss equation can be rewritten as : •Lp=Lo + {44.55+26.9-6.55log (hbts)} /10  typically varies from 3. .16 log(f)-13.9-6.82 log (hbts)-a(hm)].

81 = 147.55 log (hBTS)] log(d).28 dB = 20.13.9-6. Attenuation Slope  = [44.41dB [44.41 +24.62 dB a(hm) = 3. .82 log (hBTS) -a (hm)]+ [44. • a(hm) = { 1.9-6.225/10 =3.81 dB  Path Loss Lp =69.8} 26.56 log (f) -0.5225.23dB. • Cell radius : 5Kms • Also calculate the Attenuation slope for this site.16 log (f) 13.62 -3. • Lp =[69.55 log (hBTS )]/10 =35.9 -6. given the following parameters • Frequency : • BTS antenna height • Mobile antenna height 900 MHz 30 m 3m.55+26.55+77.55log (hBTS)]log (d) = 24.1 log (f) -0.Calculate the path loss in a BTS site in an Urban environment.7 } hm -{1.82 log (hBTS) = 77.16 log(f).28 -20.

. The distance d can be calculated from : d= 10 [ERP -Lo-RSS]/10  Or..Propagation…Okumara-Hata Model The receive signal strength RSS is given by : RSS = ERP.55+26. from the equation for RSS. .{Lo +10  log(d)}. Log (d) =[ERP-RSS-Lo]/10  ie.16 log (f)-13.82 log(hbts)-a(hm). d=antilog [ERP-RSS-Lo)/10  ] Lo=69.

log (d) = 7.  = 3.2111 Therefore d= antilog (0.61 -75+35 log (d) =55 dBm.2111) =1.To Calculate cell radius (d) Calculate the cell radius for a site that has: Frequency : 900 MHz BTS height: 30meters Mobile height: 3 meters BTS ERP: 55dBm Expected RSS at the cell boundary (d=R) = -75dBm.5 (calculated in the previous example).39/35 =0. 122.61 dB. Lo= 122.Example.62 Kms. .

– – – – – – Basic Path Loss .Calculating the Signal Strength • After the terrain has been acquired in the database for the entire site signal strength calculations can be made on the individual stations • The propagation model calculates the path loss using the following components.Picquenard’s Multiple Knife Edge Diffraction model Water Enhancement Antenna Patterns. Tilt amount.Okumura’s Model Diffraction Effects . Tilt type Curvature of the Earth Morphology .

Morphological Categories  Water  Bushes  Wet Farm land  Dense Residential Area  Heavy Urban Trees Dry Farm Land Light Residential Area Light Urban Heavy Urban .

Location Area Planning HLR MSC/VLR MSC/VLR 1 location area = several cells .

Drive Test Analysis • Drive test gathers accurate propagation data for candidate site for evaluation and approval. – Uses both Omni-directional and sector antenna. ERP and sector orientation determined. – Radiation center and ERP modeling. . the optimum antenna radiation center. • Based on drive data and prediction. – Measurement integration performed to improve modeling efficiency.

DRX.BSS Parameters setting • GSM base station parameters setting achieves the following functions • • • • • • • MS measurement of serving and neighbouring stations Call set up . Radio functions: DTX.Based on PWRBGT (Power budget). Frequency Hopping BTS Radio Resource Management Mobiles’ uplink Power Control Timing Advance Handover . RXQUAL. distance and intra-cell .Call Processing. System Access. Paging. & Short Message Service. RXLEV.

Signal Variations RSS Long term average Fa st Fa d in g Slow Fades Distance .

84. -82. .79 dBm .65 dBm • Mean RSS “M” = -79.Standard Deviation Example The RSS values obtained from a drive test in a BTS area in a city .80 dBm .77 dBm . .35 dB .068 .97 dBm • Standard deviation  = 6.5 dBm .78. .

2 M.72 % .3 M. M 68 % M+ M+2 M+3 95.44 % 99.Confidence Interval M.

Probability • Probability (P) that a random sample of RSS will have a value of .92dBm or better (ASSUME M=-79 & = 8) • Compute z =( x-M)/  = -92 -( .1.74% • Probability that RSS value would be better than -92 dBm is P (RSS  -92 dBm ) = 94.79 )/8 = .74% .625 • Refer the standard table for normal distribution curve we get P=94.

then for 75 % in building coverage in a central business area .92 dBm inside the building.92 dBm . This shall provide .we should have a signal level of .Typical values for building penetration loss Area Central Business area Residential area Industrial area In Car • 75% Coverage  20 dB  15 dB  12 dB 50 % Coverage  15 dB  12 dB  10 dB 6 to 8 dB If the minimum RF signal strength for 90 % coverage on the street is . .72 dBm on the road.say .

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