# Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools

Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services
www.lib.ku.edu/instruction

Abstract: This workshop focuses on the functions and data analysis tools
of Microsoft Excel. Topics included are the functions such as AVERAGE and SUM, and data analysis tools such as pivot tables and conditional summations.

Contents
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 3 Objectives ....................................................................................................................... 3 Prerequisites ................................................................................................................... 3 Related Training Available from Instructional Services .................................................... 3 Definitions ....................................................................................................................... 4 Inserting Functions.......................................................................................................... 6 Sample Functions ....................................................................................................... 7 Add-In Commands and Functions ................................................................................. 10 Loading an Add-In ..................................................................................................... 10 Unloading an Add-In.................................................................................................. 11 Data Analysis Tools ...................................................................................................... 11 Histogram.................................................................................................................. 11

.............Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools Conditional Sum .................... 19 Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services -2- © 2006 The University of Kansas ......................................................................................................................... 15 Array Formulas.......................................................................... 18 Getting Additional Help ................................................................... 14 Analyzing Data with the PivotTable ........................................................................................

and approved affiliates. chart. faculty. visit www.edu/instruction/workshops. and track workshops you’ve registered for and have attended. Objectives The goal of this workshop is to introduce participants to the more complex features of Excel. and list management utilities. After today’s workshop participants will be able to: • • • • • • define terms related to using functions create and edit a function identify add-in functions perform data analysis using Data Analysis Tools create a formula with the Conditional Sum wizard learn to troubleshoot a formula Prerequisites It is assumed that the participants in this workshop have either taken the Excel: Data Management workshop or have equivalent skills. Related Training Available from Instructional Services All workshops offered by Instructional Services are free to KU students. please email training@ku.ku. receive automatic announcements of upcoming workshops. Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services -3- © 2006 The University of Kansas .Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools Introduction Microsoft Excel consists of three basic parts: its spreadsheet. This workshop concentrates on inserting and using functions and other data analysis tools. staff.edu. Using a single set of data. these separate utilities can work together or individually.lib. For further workshop related questions. To learn more about or register for workshops.

5. If you enter the formula = 7 + 7 * 5. >. labels. <. If a formula contains operators with the same order of precedence. click Formula Bar on the View menu. using order of precedence rules. Example: = 10+10*4 or = (10+10)*4 Excel performs operations in the order shown in the following table. unless the use of parentheses changes the order of calculation. <=. To display or hide the formula bar. Formulas are calculated left to right. All formulas begin with an equal sign (=) followed by operands (the data to be calculated) and operators. (comma) (single space) % ^ * and / + and & =. Operator : (colon). or built-in functions. if you enter the formula = 7 + 7 . Formulas calculate simple values such as addition or multiplication. the calculation is performed left to right since both + and . <> Description Reference operators Negation (as in -1) Percent Exponentiation Multiplication and division Addition and subtraction String Concatenation Comparison Formula syntax Formula bar Order of precedence Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services -4- © 2006 The University of Kansas . Formula syntax is the required structure or order of formula elements. or more complex values using Excel’s built-in functions. >=. Operands can be values that don’t change (constants). Excel evaluates the operators from left to right. names. or built-in functions. operators. In Excel. For example. Excel performs the multiplication first since * has a higher precedence than +. enclose the part of the formula to be calculated first in parentheses. all formulas begin with an equal sign (=) and are followed by any valid combination of data.have the same precedence.Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools Definitions Term Formula Definition A formula is an equation that performs a calculation on data in your worksheet. references. range references. To change the order of evaluation. The formula bar displays the constant value or formula in the active cell. The formula bar is the area located at the top of the worksheet window that is used to enter or edit values or formulas in cells.

a description of that argument appears at the bottom of the window. 2.e. To insert a function: 1. while others can have a variable number of arguments. or Selecting a function category from the drop-down menu. a reference to another cell or range. Some things to note about it include: • When you click in the blank field beside each argument name. A description of the function itself also appears. Click the Insert Function button on the Formula Bar ( ) or select Insert > Function in the menu. Each argument can be a constant value (i. Double-click the name of the function. The Insert Function dialog box 4. The Insert Function dialog box appears. Some functions have a predefined number of arguments. For those functions that can take a variable • • Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services -6- © 2006 The University of Kansas . Select the cell in which you want the results of the function to display. Choose the function you wish to use by either • • Typing a description of the function and clicking Go.Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools Inserting Functions The Insert Function dialog box is designed to help in the construction and use of the various built-in functions and their arguments.. a number). or click the function and click OK. 5. 3. The Function Arguments dialog box appears. or the result of another formula.

and a formula result.) Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services -7- © 2006 The University of Kansas . 6. The value of each argument is displayed to the right of its input field. Excel automatically provides you with a blank field for an additional argument after each argument you add. To return to the expanded Function Arguments window. Syntax CONCATENATE(text1. The “&” operator can be used instead of CONCATENATE to join text items. Fill in the arguments. The Function Arguments window for the AVERAGE function.. Note that the three arguments entered take the form of a number..text2.Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools number of arguments. 7. and the overall result of the function is displayed at the bottom next to Formula result =. To select ranges on your worksheet. a range reference. click beside the appropriate field. Click OK. The Function Arguments window closes and returns you to your worksheet with the results in the active cell. Excel collapses the Function Arguments window so that you can click and drag to select the correct range on your worksheet. Sample Functions CONCATENATE The CONCATENATE function joins several text strings into one text string. The formula appears in the Formula Bar.. • The value of each individual argument is calculated and displayed to the right of the argument’s input field. respectively. click or press Return.

In this case.."at ". Cells with formulas that return "" (empty text) are also counted (thus cells with empty text are counted by both COUNTA and COUNTBLANK). (Excel treats dates and times as numbers. (Note the extra space after “Instructional Services” and “at”... numbers. value2.. COUNT Counts the number of its arguments that contain numbers."KU Libraries") is equivalent to " Instructional Services at KU Libraries". … are 1 to 30 arguments representing the values you want to count.value2. Syntax COUNTA(value1.B2.. The text items can be text strings.value2. text2.Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools Arguments Text1.) COUNTA Counts the number of cells that are not empty. or single-cell references. including empty text ("") but not including empty cells."KU Libraries") is equivalent to "Instructional Services at KU Libraries". Syntax COUNT(value1. It is important to note that CONCATENATE does not insert spaces for you.) Arguments Value1. a value is any type of information. Use COUNTA to count the number of cells that contain data in a range or array. COUNTBLANK Counts empty cells in a specified range of cells. value2.. but only numbers are counted. so they will be counted.) If cell A2 contains "Instructional Services " and B2 contains "at " then CONCATENATE(A2. Cells that evaluate to zero are not counted. … are 1 to 30 arguments that can contain or refer to a variety of different types of data. … are 1 to 30 text items that are joined into a single item. Notes CONCATENATE("Instructional Services ".) Arguments Value1. Syntax COUNTBLANK(range) Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services -8- © 2006 The University of Kansas .

col_index_num. a reference. VLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. If col_index_num is less than 1. The lookup_value can be a value.Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools Arguments Range is the range of cells in which you want to identify blank cells. but since data is generally organized in columns. or logical values. if col_index_num is greater than the number of columns in table_array. Criteria is a string that must be satisfied for the cell to be counted. The values in the first column of table_array can be text. VLOOKUP In general. "enrolled" counts a cell only if it contains exactly the text enrolled. criteria) Arguments • • Range is the range of cells in which you want to count cells.range_lookup) Arguments • • Lookup_value is the value to be found in the first column of the table array. VLOOKUP is used frequently. Range_lookup is a logical value that specifies whether you want VLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match.table_array. an approximate match is • • Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services -9- © 2006 The University of Kansas . If you create a range name like List or Sales_Table. it is easy to copy the function without losing your reference to the table range. Syntax VLOOKUP(lookup_value. Some examples: o o o 123456 or "123456" counts a cell only if it contains exactly 123456. For example. lookup functions are used to look up data in a list and return a corresponding value. a col_index_num of 2 returns the value in the second column in table_array. VLOOKUP (vertical lookup) is one of several lookup functions. VLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value. Otherwise you will need to use absolute addressing in specifying the table. ">123456" counts a cell only if its contents are greater than 123456. If the range_lookup argument is omitted (and thus treated as TRUE). Col_index_num is the column number in the table_array from which the matching value must be returned. COUNTIF Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria Syntax COUNTIF(range. numbers. or a text string. Table_array is the table of information in which data is looked up.

Select Histogram from the Analysis Tools list in the Data Analysis dialog box. Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services . 3. above. Choose Data Analysis from the Tools menu 2. Creating the Histogram Before accessing the Histogram tool. make sure the intervals for the bin range are specified in ascending order. Output Location The results of the distribution can be placed in an area on the current worksheet.12 - © 2006 The University of Kansas . Click OK to display the Histogram dialog box. or in another workbook. make sure your worksheet is set up properly. the bin range contains the age intervals. When setting up a histogram.Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools Bin Range In the example above. on another worksheet within the same workbook. See Setting Up the Data. To create a histogram: 1.

Instructional Services Excel: Functions and Data Analysis Tools The Histogram dialog box 4. New Worksheet Ply Click to insert a new worksheet in the current workbook and paste the results starting at cell A1 of the new worksheet. Output Options Output Range Enter the reference for the upper-left cell of the output table. See Output Options. Excel creates a set of evenly distributed bins between the data’s minimum and maximum values. Instructional Services at KU Libraries A Division of Information Services . You can name the worksheet by typing a name in the input area after selecting New Worksheet Ply. Specify the output location. Enter the range of cells to analyze in the Input Range box.13 - © 2006 The University of Kansas . 6. below. New Workbook Click to create a new workbook and paste the results on a new worksheet in the new workbook. Excel generates appropriate data labels for the output table. Enter the bin range in the Bin Range box. Clear this checkbox if your input range has no labels. Other Histogram Options Labels Select Labels if the first row or column of your input range contains labels. If you omit the bin range. 5. The size of the output area is automatically determined and Excel displays a message if the output table might overwrite existing data.